Genome analysis of Endomicrobium proavitum suggests loss and gain of relevant functions during the evolution of intracellular symbionts.   
Related Articles

Genome analysis of Endomicrobium proavitum suggests loss and gain of relevant functions during the evolution of intracellular symbionts.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Jun 23;:

Authors: Zheng H, Dietrich C, Brune A

Abstract
Bacterial endosymbionts of eukaryotes show progressive genome erosion, but detailed investigations of the evolutionary processes involved in the transition to an intracellular lifestyle are generally hampered by the lack of extant free-living lineages. Here, we characterize the genome of the recently isolated, free-living Endomicrobium proavitum, the second member of the Elusimicrobia phylum brought into pure culture, and compare it to the closely related "Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae" strain Rs-D17, a previously described but uncultured endosymbiont of termite gut flagellates. A reconstruction of the metabolic pathways of E. proavitum matched the fermentation products formed in pure culture and underscored its restriction to glucose as substrate. However, several pathways present in the free-living strain, e.g., for uptake and activation of glucose and its subsequent fermentation, ammonium assimilation, and outer-membrane biogenesis, were absent or disrupted in the endosymbiont, probably lost during the massive genome rearrangements that occurred during symbiogenesis. While the majority of the genes in strain Rs-D17 have orthologs in E. proavitum, the endosymbiont also possesses a number of functions that are absent from the free-living strain and may represent adaptations to the intracellular lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genes encoding glucose 6-phosphate and amino acid transporters, acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and the pathways of glucuronic acid catabolism and thiamine pyrophosphate biosynthesis were either acquired by horizontal gene transfer or may represent ancestral traits that were lost in the free-living strain. The polyphyletic origin of Endomicrobia in different flagellate hosts makes them excellent models for future studies of convergent and parallel evolution during symbiogenesis.Importance The isolation of a free-living relative of intracellular symbionts provides the rare opportunity to identify the evolutionary processes that occur in the course of symbiogenesis. Our study documents that the genome of "Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae", which represents a clade of endosymbionts that have coevolved with termite gut flagellates for more than 40 million years, is not simply a subset of the genes present in Endomicrobium proavitum, a member of the ancestral, free-living lineage. Rather, comparative genomics revealed that the endosymbionts possess several relevant functions that were either prerequisites for colonization of the intracellular habitat or might have served to compensate for genes losses that occurred during genome erosion. Some gene sets found only in the endosymbiont were apparently acquired by horizontal transfer from other gut bacteria, which suggests that the intracellular bacteria of flagellates are not entirely cut off from gene flow.

PMID: 28646115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Aerosolization of mycotoxins after growth of toxinogenic fungi on wallpaper.   
Related Articles

Aerosolization of mycotoxins after growth of toxinogenic fungi on wallpaper.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Jun 23;:

Authors: Aleksic B, Draghi M, Ritoux S, Bailly S, Lacroix M, Oswald IP, Bailly JD, Robine E

Abstract
Many fungi can develop on building material in indoor environments if moisture is high enough. Among species that are frequently observed, some are known to be potent mycotoxin producers. This presence of toxinogenic fungi in indoor environments raises the question of the possible exposure of occupants to these toxic compounds by inhalation after aerosolization.This study investigated the mycotoxin production by Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum during their growth on wallpaper and the possible subsequent aerosolization of produced mycotoxins from contaminated substrates.We demonstrated that mycophenolic acid, sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecenes (sum of 4 major compounds) could be produced at levels of 1.8, 112.1 and 27.8 mg/m(2), respectively on wallpaper. Moreover, part of the produced toxins could be aerosolized from substrate. The propensity to aerosolization differed according to the fungal species. Thus, particles were aerosolized from wallpaper contaminated with P. brevicompactum when air velocity of just 0.3 m/s was applied, where S. chartarum required air velocity of 5.9 m/s. A versicolor was intermediate since aerosolization occurred under air velocity of 2 m/s.Quantification of the toxic content revealed that toxic load was mostly associated with particles of size equal or higher of 3 μm, which may correspond to spores. However, some macrocyclic trichothecenes (especially satratoxin H and verrucarin J) can also be found on smaller particles that can penetrate deeply in the respiratory tract upon inhalation. These elements are important for risk assessment related to mouldy environments.IMPORTANCE The possible colonisation of building material by toxinogenic fungi in case of moistening raises the question of the subsequent exposure of occupants to aerosolized mycotoxins. In this study, we demonstrated that three different toxinogenic species produce mycotoxins during their development on wallpaper. These toxins can subsequently be aerosolized, at least partly, from mouldy material. This transfer to air requires air velocities that can be encountered in « real life conditions » in buildings. The most part of the aerosolized toxic load is found in particles whose size corresponds to spores or mycelium fragments. However, some toxins were also found on particles smaller than spores that are easily respirable and can deeply penetrate into human respiratory tract. All these data are important for risk assessment related to fungal contamination of indoor environments.

PMID: 28646113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Cortical Thickness of Functionally Defined Visual Areas in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder   
<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Patients with schizophrenia show specific abnormalities in visual perception, and patients with bipolar disorder may have related perceptual deficits. During tasks that highlight perceptual dysfunction, patients with schizophrenia show abnormal activity in visual brain areas, including the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and early retinotopic cortex. It is unclear whether the anatomical structure of those visual areas is atypical in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In members of those two patient groups and healthy controls, we localized LOC and early retinotopic cortex individually for each participant using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), then measured the thickness of those regions of interest using structural MRI scans. In both regions, patients with schizophrenia had the thinnest cortex, controls had the thickest cortex, and bipolar patients had intermediate cortical thickness. A control region, motor cortex, did not show this pattern of group differences. The thickness of each visual region of interest was significantly correlated with performance on a visual object masking task, but only in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest an anatomical substrate for visual processing abnormalities that have been found with both neural and behavioral measures in schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses.</span>
          Methods of manufacture of bottom port multi-part surface mount MEMS microphones   
Methods for manufacturing multiple bottom port, surface mount microphones, each containing a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) microphone die, are disclosed. Each surface mount microphone features a substrate with metal pads for surface mounting the package to a device's printed circuit board and for making electrical connections between the microphone package and the device's circuit board. The surface mount microphones are manufactured from panels of substrates, sidewall spacers, and lids. Each MEMS microphone die is substrate-mounted and acoustically coupled to the acoustic port disposed in the substrate. The panels are joined together, and each individual substrate, sidewall spacer, and lid cooperate to form an acoustic chamber for its respective MEMS microphone die. The joined panels are then singulated to form individual MEMS microphones.
          Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries   
Methods for making composite anodes, such as macroporous composite anodes, are disclosed. Embodiments of the methods may include forming a tape from a slurry including a substrate metal precursor, an anode active material, a pore-forming agent, a binder, and a solvent. A laminated structure may be prepared from the tape and sintered to produce a porous structure, such as a macroporous structure. The macroporous structure may be heated to reduce a substrate metal precursor and/or anode active material. Macroporous composite anodes formed by some embodiments of the disclosed methods comprise a porous metal and an anode active material, wherein the anode active material is both externally and internally incorporated throughout and on the surface of the macroporous structure.
          Inkjet printing head manufacture method, printing element substrate, and inkjet printing head   
A manufacture method can form an inkjet printing head by which a plurality of ejection openings have a uniform shape. Heaters adjacent to one another have thereamong a common conductive line commonly connected to these heaters or a dummy conductive line not involved in the energization of the heaters.
          Circuit protective device and method for manufacturing the same   
A circuit protecting element includes insulating substrate (11), a pair of surface electrodes (12) provided to both ends of a top face of insulating substrate (11), element (13) bridging the pair of surface electrodes (12) and electrically connected to the pair of surface electrodes (12), base layer (14) formed between element (13) and insulating substrate (11), and insulating layer (15) covering element (13). Base layer (14) is formed of a mixture of diatom earth and silicone resin. The structure discussed above allows stabilizing the blowout characteristics of the circuit protecting element.
          Oral infections and performance of athletes   

In the case of athletes undergoing physical performance programs, conditions become more important for wear experienced by the musculoskeletal system in training or sports games.

One of the possible causes of lower physical performance by athletes may be due to inflammatory processes in muscles and joints that are caused by the occurrence of infections in the mouth. Infectious processes, whether dental or periodontal origin, can slow the contraction-relaxation of the muscle and cause a loss of tone and feeling of fatigue strain on the athlete.

Improper mastication causes aches

An estimated 30% of sore neck and back muscle due to an incorrect chewing, especially caused by cross bite.

According to Dr. White Longás Dentistry, Health and Quality Manager and member of Sanitas Dental Care Management, dental malpositions and absence of teeth chewing difficult undermining the effectiveness nutritious foods can not normally crush, which in turn alter the functioning of the digestive system to do more spending power with slower digestion and thus decreases the energy to the athlete at a disadvantage in competitive sport.

Dental Injuries in extreme sports

The practice of sports such as rugby, martial arts, boxing, handball, skiing, surfing and volleyball, among other disciplines, which are considered by the American Dental Association (ADA) and extreme sports can promote tooth breakage by strong impact in training or competitions.

As noted by Dr. Longás, after a blow may be affected TMJ, microtrauma to the jaws appear even mandibular fracture and / or jaw, head injury or concussion. It is also common for such impacts on extreme sports cause breakage and bleeding lips.

To prevent this type of injury interrupted the sport of athletes, experts recommend the use of mouth guards that cover individual teeth and gingiva, protecting the entire dentition.

Habits and power in athletes

To maintain good oral health is recommended that athletes do not abuse your diet of carbohydrates, as they are the energy substrate of bacterial plaque microorganisms. The frequent meals to increase energy intake and help stabilize blood glucose elite athletes can be caries risk factor.

Periodic oral revisions by the athletes in the preseason and throughout the racing season are essential to prevent dental ailments. Dr. White Longás recommended to go to a review performed oral at least twice a year. The tooth brushing and flossing after every meal, especially at night, when the pH decreases the mouth, are some of the health habits that help reduce the risk of cavities.


Photo By U.S. Navy photo by Photographer’s Mate Airman Kyle L. O'Neill. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


          Development of a habitat preference curve for the mayfly Baetis alpinus (Pictet 1843)   

Habitat modelling provides a quantitative tool to predict scenarios in order to implement conservation measures and is therefore recognised as an effective method for managing running waters. Combining abiotic characteristics (e.g. substrate) and the results of hydraulic models (most commonly water depth and depth-averaged velocity), habitat models can be applied. Different models are available (e.g. CASiMiR, PHABSIM), all of which require preference (or suitability) curves for the species of interest. Choosing a species for habitat modelling requires sound knowledge of its ecology and distribution. The mayfly Baetis alpinus is a widespread and abundant alpine species and therefore a useful indicator species in the context of habitat modelling. Based on abiotic factors and abundance of the species, preference curves were established using polynomial regression. We present the sampling design and data processing for the establishment of a preference curve for the mayfly Baetis alpinus, including a review of its ecology. The application in habitat modelling is exemplified and discussed. Especially for high alpine environments, where fish are absent, the use of macroinvertebrates in habitat modelling enables to make comparable analyses of different flow rates.


          A simple, inexpensive artificial stream for rearing Ephemeroptera from sandy substrates   

We describe a simple, inexpensive artificial stream to rear mayflies from sandy bottom streams. It consisted of a 151 L tub containing sand and water from a local stream. A small submersible pump circulated the water and netting was placed over the tub to collect adults. The stream was operated in a heated greenhouse. This artificial stream was remarkably productive. We collected over 2100 adult mayflies representing 6 genera along with several Trichoptera and Diptera adults. This stream was productive for 55 weeks with minimal maintenance.


          Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration   
Gresnigt, Marco / Magne, Michel / Magne, Pascal
Page 156 - 170
Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically pleasing result in the long term. Bonded indirect partial restorations are highly dependent on their adhesive interface, as these thin restorations have a relatively low cohesive strength. Therefore, preservation of sound enamel, conditioning of the restorations and of the substrate, and luting procedures are of paramount importance for a successful outcome. Even when utmost care is taken during every step of the procedure, failures such as fractures, chipping, or marginal discoloration and defects sometimes occur. Only very few of these cases of failure are presented or are a subject of interest. In this case presentation, a fracture repair is performed using an infiltration technique with a resin composite material.
          Updated Wiki: Home   

Project Description

DKAL (Distributed Knowledge Authorization Language) is a distributed authorization policy language. This project contains an engine for running DKAL policies. It is implemented primarly in F#.

Try DKAL online in your browser: http://www.rise4fun.com/dkal

News

Documentation

For a quick start on how to use DKAL, please refer to our documentation on:
Otherwise, if you plan to extend or modify the DKAL engine, please visit our developer documentation section.

DKAL Challenges

We have collected a list of interesting theoretical and practical challenges related to DKAL and its underlying infon logic.

Underlying Theory

More information about DKAL, and its underlying theory, please visit our section on suggested reading, or go directly to Yuri Gurevich's web page on the topic.

          Closed Feature: Reflection Substrate [8]   
Reflection substrate allows DKAL to call specific methods in external libraries via reflection.
This can be used to integrate DKAL into some complex systems.

Substrate declaration:
```
datasource reflection("Class, Assembly") namespaces "ns"
```
where _"Class, Assembly"_ is full name of a class (with assembly if needed).
See [System.Type.GetClass(string)](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/w3f99sx1.aspx) for format.

Usage:
```
{|ns| OutputVars = method(InputVars) |}
```
_method_ is static method name in the class specified above. DKAL will call the _method_ with values of _InputVars_ as arguments and bind method return values to _OutputVars_
_OutputVars_ - comma separated list of output variables
_InputVars_ - comma separated list of input variables

_method_ type signature (C#), general case:
```
public class Class {
public static IEnumerable<IEnumerable<Object>> method(T1 I1, ..., Tn In)
```
Each element of return value is treated as output variables bindings.
if _method_ return type is not IEnumerable then returned value treated as IEnumerable with single element.
if _method_ returns null then result will be empty IEnumerable.
if _OutputVars_ is empty then _method_ should return boolean. In this case _method_ is just a filter of substitutions.

valid method signatures:
```
public static string getParent(string o)
public static bool notOwned(string o)
public static string[] owns(string o)
```
usage:
```
{|r| G = owns(O) |}
{|r| notOwned(O) |} && {|r| O1 = getParent(O) |}
```

          Updated Wiki: Home   

Project Description

DKAL (Distributed Knowledge Authorization Language) is a distributed authorization policy language. This project contains an engine for running DKAL policies. It is implemented primarly in F#.

Try DKAL online in your browser: http://www.rise4fun.com/dkal

News

Documentation

For a quick start on how to use DKAL, please refer to our documentation on:
Otherwise, if you plan to extend or modify the DKAL engine, please visit our developer documentation section.

DKAL Challenges

We have collected a list of interesting theoretical and practical challenges related to DKAL and its underlying infon logic.

Underlying Theory

More information about DKAL, and its underlying theory, please visit our section on suggested reading, or go directly to Yuri Gurevich's web page on the topic.

          Updated Wiki: Home   

Project Description

DKAL (Distributed Knowledge Authorization Language) is a distributed authorization policy language. This project contains an engine for running DKAL policies. It is implemented primarly in F#.

Try DKAL online in your browser: http://www.rise4fun.com/dkal

News

  • 2014/05/04:
    • SPIL Logic Engine now is based on new randomized algorithm with O(N) average complexity for all inputs.
    • Previous SPIL Logic Engines implementations are available on names "SPILsufarr" and "SPILhash"
    • http://www.rise4fun.com/dkal updated.
  • 2013/9/1:
    • New Logic Engines!
      • UFOL engine allows for expressing rules and actions in the universal fragment of First Order Logic; most noticeable is the ability to use negation and disjunction operators.
      • Datalog engine takes advantage of translating PIL to Datalog using Z3 as a backend (and in the future, XSB as well)
  • 2012/10/21:
  • 2012/8/29:
  • 2011/6/9: We added lots of developer documentation.
  • 2011/6/6: DKAL v1.0.0.364 released
  • 2011/6/6: Try out DKAL live on rise4fun

Documentation

For a quick start on how to use DKAL, please refer to our documentation on:
Otherwise, if you plan to extend or modify the DKAL engine, please visit our developer documentation section.

DKAL Challenges

We have collected a list of interesting theoretical and practical challenges related to DKAL and its underlying infon logic.

Underlying Theory

More information about DKAL, and its underlying theory, please visit our section on suggested reading, or go directly to Yuri Gurevich's web page on the topic.

          Mixed-signal and Low-power Demo -- Cadence Booth at DAC   

DAC is right around the corner! On the demo floor at Cadence® Booth #2214, we will demonstrate how to use the Cadence mixed-signal and low-power solution to design, verify, and implement a microcontroller-based mixed-signal design. The demo design architecture is very similar to practical designs of many applications like power management ICs, automotive controllers, and the Internet of Things (IoT). Cadene tools demonstrated in this design include Virtuoso® Schematic Editor, Virtuoso Analog Design Environment, Virtuoso AMS Designer, Virtuoso Schematic Model Generator, Virtuoso Power Intent Assistant, Incisive® Enterprise Simulator with DMS option, Virtuoso Digital Implementation, Virtuoso Layout Suite, Encounter® RTL Compiler, Encounter Test, and Conformal Low Power. An extended version of this demo will also be shown at the ARM® Connected Community Pavilion Booth #921.

For additional highlights on Cadence mixed-signal and low-power solutions, stop by our booth for:

  • The popular book, Mixed-signal Methodology Guide, which will be on sale during DAC week!
  • A sneak preview of the eBook version of the Mixed-signal Methodology Guide
  • Customer presentations at the Cadence DAC Theater
    • 9am, Tuesday, June 4  ARM  Low-Power Verification of A15 Hard Macro Using CLP 
    • 10:30am, Tuesday, June 4  Silicon Labs  Power Mode Verification in Mixed-Signal Chip
    • 12:00pm, Tuesday, June 4  IBM  An Interoperable Flow with Unified OA and QRC Technology Files
    • 9am, Wednesday, June 5  Marvell  Low-Power Verification Using CLP
    • 4pm, Wednesday, June 5  Texas Instruments  An Inter-Operable Flow with Unified OA and QRC Technology Files
  • Partner presentations at the Cadence DAC Theater
    • 10am, Monday, June 3  X-Fab  Rapid Adoption of Advanced Cadence Design Flows Using X-FAB's AMS Reference Kit
    • 3:30pm, Monday, June 3  TSMC TSMC Custom Reference Flow for 20nm -  Cadence Track
    • 9:30am,Tuesday, June 4  TowerJazz   Substrate Noise Isolation Extraction/Model Using Cadence Analog Flow
    • 12:30pm, Wednesday, June 5  GLOBALFOUNDRIES  20nm/14nm Analog/Mixed-signal Flow
    • 2:30pm, Wednesday, June 5  ARM  Cortex®-M0 and Cortex-M0+: Tiny, Easy, and Energy-efficient Processors for Mixed-signal Applications
  • Technology sessions at suites
    • 10am, Monday, June 3    Low-power Verification of Mixed-signal Designs
    • 2pm, Monday, June 3      Advanced Implementation Techniques for Mixed-signal Designs
    • 2pm, Monday, June 3      LP Simulation: Are You Really Done?
    • 4pm, Monday, June 3      Power Format Update: Latest on CPF and IEEE 1801  
    • 11am, Wednesday, June 5   Mixed-signal Verification
    • 11am, Wednesday, June 5   LP Simulation: Are You Really Done?
    • 4pm, Wednesday, June 5   Successful RTL-to-GDSII Low-Power Design (FULL)
    • 5pm, Wednesday, June 5   Custom/AMS Design at Advanced Nodes

We will also have three presentations at the Si2 booth (#1427):

  • 10:30am, Monday, June 3   An Interoperable Implementation Solution for Mixed-signal Design
  • 11:30am, Tuesday, June 4   Low-power Verification for Mixed-signal Designs Using CPF
  • 10:30am, Wednesday, June 5   System-level Low-power Verification Using Palladium

 

We have a great program at DAC. Click the link for complete Cadence DAC Theater and Technology Sessions. Look forward to seeing you at DAC!     


          Cultivation of Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Epidermal Keratinocytes on Keratin‐Coated Silica Bead Substrates   
Abstract Human hair keratin is promising as a bioactive material platform for various biomedical applications. To explore its versatility further, human hair keratin was coated onto monolayers of silica beads to produce film‐like substrates. This combination was hypothesized to provide a synergi...
          When The Earth Rolls Over   

Whether by chance, or design, you are the progeny of the potato – of the stem that swells underground.
     How many mornings of his long, rich life did your grandfather, a potato farmer, bend before the cut of his plow, his horses steaming from their nostrils, the ashen trees clotting against a watery English dawn?
     You can only wonder how he might have responded if presented with a can of Pringles, the potato snack that is only 43% potato, a billion-dollar product of space-age design, manufactured with a machine invented by a science-fiction writer – a chip notorious for its tendency to cause loose and bloody stools, the severe bouts of diarrhea that have destroyed many a toilet’s inherent composure.

You’re sure he would have just shrugged, sucking at one of his perennial mints, pulling at his suspenders, heading into the kitchen to fetch a piece of string.
     For, you see, your mother’s father – bless his departed soul – was a man who could fix anything with a piece of string – especially a broken toilet.
     He was a demon when it came to mending things in unconventional ways, with whatever was handy.
     The man was a regular nineteenth century-born MacGyver.
     He’d mend his broken privy with a piece of greasy twine that had been used to string a rabbit over the kitchen sink – an unlucky visitor to his well-tended field.
     Conversely, you’re sure he could have mended a piece of string with the toilet.
     Hell, he probably caught his rabbits with bits of each.
     The man was industrious.
     And rooty.
     As rooty as a rutabaga.

You came from this relationship with the soil and cannot ignore it, as paltry as your acquaintance with the planting row might be.

What is it that is so intoxicating about the scent of a turned field?
     What are we smelling when the earth rolls over?
     Is it root and spore and mineral and rain?
     Is it the saliva of the worm, the viscous trail of the slug, the dank perfume of the grub?

You can only suppose it is all of this, and more – so much more – the taxonomy of worlds unknown, of civilizations caught between stones, of societies clutched by molecules, of invisible eternities – portholes to the center of the planet – a center that can never be reached.
     The substrate we expose is largely the excrement of the smallest farmers, the substances channeled through their tubular bodies, the filtered, liquefied essence we call dirt – the residue of a mad, endless shitting, the flatulent rearranging of the planet’s face – of which the Olestra-stricken chip cruncher is no equal.

To the furtive fauna that tend this planetary covering do we owe the vegetable, the fruit, the tree, the grass, the mushroom, the flower, the fern – the heather on the drowsy hill where a boy comes alive, his pale limbs entwined with those of a pretty girl, rolling absent-mindedly onto his can of Chile Cheese Dog Pringles, the wind whispering “Once you pop, you can’t stop”.

In the name of the potato, the French fry, the chip, the hash brown, do we scalp the planet and gouge at its flesh, forcing its renewal, defining biological maturity at the seed, germinating to satisfy the stockholder, growing to feed the beast that bleeds at the press of our knife.
     We place our very survival in the dirt-laced fingers of those who understand the land, giving them our hunger, entrusting their expertise – wholly ignorant of its basic tenants, the factors that make the field essential or destitute – the things your grandfather knew as well as the back of his hand.

And, you’re quite sure, the back of his toilet.
          ORM Expression Alters Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Differentially Affects Ceramide Synthase Activity   

Sphingolipid synthesis is tightly regulated in eukaryotes. This regulation in plants ensures sufficient sphingolipids to support growth while limiting the accumulation of sphingolipid metabolites that induce programmed cell death. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is considered the primary sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory point. In this report, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative SPT regulatory proteins, orosomucoidlike proteins AtORM1 and AtORM2, were found to interact physically with Arabidopsis SPT and to suppress SPT activity when coexpressed with Arabidopsis SPT subunits long-chain base1 (LCB1) and LCB2 and the small subunit of SPT in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SPT-deficient mutant. Consistent with a role in SPT suppression, AtORM1 and AtORM2 overexpression lines displayed increased resistance to the programmed cell death-inducing mycotoxin fumonisin B1, with an accompanying reduced accumulation of LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) suppression lines of AtORM1 and AtORM2 displayed increased sensitivity to fumonisin B1 and an accompanying strong increase in LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Overexpression lines also were found to have reduced activity of the class I ceramide synthase that uses C16 fatty acid acyl-coenzyme A and dihydroxy LCB substrates but increased activity of class II ceramide synthases that use very-long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A and trihydroxy LCB substrates. RNAi suppression lines, in contrast, displayed increased class I ceramide synthase activity but reduced class II ceramide synthase activity. These findings indicate that ORM mediation of SPT activity differentially regulates functionally distinct ceramide synthase activities as part of a broader sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory network.


          A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds   

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions.

Includes supplementary information.


          Pseudomonas syringae Type III Chaperones ShcO1, ShcS1, and ShcS2 Facilitate Translocation of Their Cognate Effectors and Can Substitute for Each Other in the Secretion of HopO1-1   

The Pseudomonas syringae type III secretion system (TTSS) translocates effector proteins into plant cells. Several P. syringae effectors require accessory proteins called type III chaperones (TTCs) to be secreted via the TTSS. We characterized the hopO1-1, hopS1, and hopS2 operons in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000; these operons encode three homologous TTCs, ShcO1, ShcS1, and ShcS2. ShcO1, ShcS1, and ShcS2 facilitated the type III secretion and/or translocation of their cognate effectors HopO1-1, HopS1, and HopS2, respectively. ShcO1 and HopO1-1 interacted with each other in yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Interestingly, ShcS1 and ShcS2 were capable of substituting for ShcO1 in facilitating HopO1-1 secretion and translocation and each TTC was able to bind the other’s cognate effectors in yeast two-hybrid assays. Moreover, ShcO1, ShcS1, and ShcS2 all bound to the middle-third region of HopO1-1. The HopS2 effector possessed atypical P. syringae TTSS N-terminal characteristics and was translocated in low amounts. A site-directed HopS2 mutation that introduced a common N-terminal characteristic from other P. syringae type III secreted substrates increased HopS2 translocation, supporting the idea that this characteristic functions as a secretion signal. Additionally, hopO1-2 and hopT1-2 were shown to encode effectors secreted via the DC3000 TTSS. Finally, a DC3000 hopO1-1 operon deletion mutant produced disease symptoms similar to those seen with wild-type DC3000 but was reduced in its ability to multiply in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existence of TTCs that can bind to dissimilar effectors and that can substitute for each other in effector secretion provides insights into the nature of how TTCs function.


          Oleander Hawk Moth   
Daphnis nerii is a large hawk-moth found in wide areas of Africa and Asia. It is a migratory species, flying to parts of eastern and southern Europe during the summer. It is one of the most beautiful butterfly-like patterned moths on Earth. Because its caterpillar feeds upon the leaves of the poisonous oleander, the range of the species now includes Hawaii because the climate is conducive to survival and the food plant is cultivated.


Deilephila nerii or Daphnis nerii



DISTRIBUTION:

The Oleander Hawk Moth, Deilephila nerii or Daphnis nerii (Wing span: 90--110mm) is primarily associated with "the southern Mediterranean region, North Africa and the Middle East to Afghanistan (Ebert, 1969). Along the Mediterranean, there is no clear distinction between resident and migrant populations. Permanent populations exist in suitable locations in Sicily, Crete and Cyprus; however, over a number of favorable years further colonies may be established in those islands and also in southern Italy and southern Greece, all of which die out during a hard winter."

Wing span: 90--110mm

In 1974, this species was recorded as having established itself in Hawaii (Beardsley, 1979).

Deilephila nerii "rests by day, either on a solid surface or suspended among foliage with which it blends; the head is tucked in, with the thorax and abdomen raised off the underlying substrate.

Most emerge late in the evening but do not take flight until just before dawn, to feed avidly from such flowers as Nicotiana, Petunia, Lonicera, Saponaria and Mirabilis. Thereafter, flight periods are mainly just after dusk and before dawn. Under warm conditions, adults are extremely wary and, if disturbed, will take flight even during daylight hours."


FLIGHT TIMES AND FOOD PLANTS:

 The Oleander Hawk Moth probably flies from May to September to December (NS)in four or five generations.

The major host are the flowers and young leaves of Nerium oleander.

Minor hostplants are Vinca, Vitis, Gardenia, Asclepias, Jasminum, Trachelospermum, Amsonia, Carissa, Tabernaemontana, Mangifera, Rhazya, Adenium, Catharanthus, Ipomoea and Thevetia.

Larvae will also feed on Ligustrum ovalifolium in captivity.



          Glass ceramic body, substrate for mounting light-emitting element, and light emitting device   
To provide a glass ceramic body wherein the deterioration of the reflectance due to black coloration is suppressed, and the unevenness of the firing shrinkage is suppressed. A glass ceramic body comprising a glass matrix and alumina particles dispersed therein, wherein the glass matrix is not crystallized, a ceramic part composed of the dispersed alumina particles has an α-alumina crystal structure and a crystal structure other than the α-alumina crystal structure.
          Photovoltaic cell having a substrate glass made of aluminosilicate glass   
A photovoltaic cell, for example a thin-film photovoltaic cell, having a substrate glass made of aluminosilicate glass, has a glass composition which has SiO2 and Al2O3 as well as the alkali metal oxide Na2O and the alkaline earth oxides CaO, MgO, and BaO, and optionally further components. The glass composition includes 10 to 16 wt.-% Na2O, >0 to 1 to 10 wt.-% BaO, and the ratio of CaO:MgO is in the range of 0.5 to 1.7. The aluminosilicate glass used is crystallization stable because of the selected quotient of CaO/MgO and has a transformation temperature >580° C. and a processing temperature
          Nucleated cements and related methods   
Methods and a kit. A cement forming method includes nucleating an acidic metallophosphate reaction mixture with first particles, resulting in forming a settable metallophosphate cement from the acidic metallophosphate reaction mixture. The first particles include a first metal oxide. Each particle of the first particles independently have a particle size in a range from about 15 microns to about 450 microns. A method for applying cement includes seeding a solution with particles, resulting in forming a settable cement from the solution. The particles have a size in a range from about 15 microns to about 450 microns. The solution includes a first metal oxide reacting with phosphate. The settable cement is applied to a substrate. A cement application kit is also described.
          Substrate for magnetic disk and magnetic disk   
The shape and number of surface defects are controlled so that the occurrence of failure is suppressed in an HDD device in which a magnetic head with a very small flying height, such as a DFH head, is mounted. A magnetic disk substrate is characterized in that when laser light with a wavelength of 405 nm and a laser power of 25 mW is irradiated with a spot size of 5 μm and scattered light from the substrate is detected, the number of defects detected to have a size of 0.1 μm to not more than 0.3 μm is less than 50 per 24 cm2 and, with respect to the defects, there is no defect in which, in a bearing curve obtained by a bearing curve plot method using an atomic force microscope, a portion from an apex of the defect to 45% thereof is located in an area of defect height higher than a virtual line connecting from the apex of the defect to 45% thereof.
          Table for receiving a workpiece and method for processing a workpiece on such table   
The present invention relates to a device for the treatment of a workpiece, in particular of a substantially flat substrate, comprising a table (2) for supporting the workpiece (5), a flow generation apparatus (6, 11) producing a gas flow (22) on a top face (17.1, 17.2) of the table (2) in a region between the workpiece (5) and the top face (17.1, 17.2) of the table (2), on which gas flow the workpiece (5) is supported during the treatment.
          Kicad howto   

Kicad howto

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          Machine to make printed circuit boards   

Machine to make printed circuit boards

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          Identification of a printed circuit board   

Identification of a printed circuit board

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          Circuit board design   

Circuit board design

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          Hydroponic aquaponic aquaculture cheap tank, tray   
Recycling is always at its best when it represents a free alternative to a commercial product. Reclaimed industrial plastic containers are usually free or cheap. However, it's important to know a little about what was in them to know how to clean them. If they're even worth cleaning. Some plastic items are too dirty or hazardous. I get my plastic drums from the water treatment plant. Pallet tanks are more of a here and there item. Landscape companies often get water-color shipped in them for wood mulch. It pays to ask around your local industries.

If you're going to build an aquaculture or aquaponics system, I've found that pallet tanks work great for fish. Hydroponics are easier and usually require only drums. Cut them with a handsaw, a power saw is not needed or recommended.  Fill the half-barrel trays with pea gravel as substrate for your plants, it costs around $20 a ton. Coco coir works well for some plant types and is a recycled product.


New tanks and trays for a recirculating system are very costly and many of them require drilling and installation of  fittings; just like re-purposing pallet tanks and drums. In addition, you're preventing more plastic from going to the land fill.
          Dissertation Defense: Spray-Deposited Titanium-Oxide Films for Infrared Optics, Photonics and Solar Cell Applications   
Announcing the Final Examination of Sarmad Alhasan for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Self-assembled TiO2 foam-like films, were grown by the water based Streaming Process for Electrodeless Electrochemical Deposition (SPEED). The morphology of the 1 m thick films consists of a tangled ropy structure with individual strands of 200 nm diameter and open pores of 0.1 to 3 micron dimensions. Such films are advantageous for proposed perovskite solar cell comprising CH3NH3PbI3 absorber with additional inorganic films as contact and conduction layers, all deposited by SPEED. Lateral film resistivity is in the range 20 - 200 k -cm, increasing with growth temperature, while sheet resistance is in the range 2 �� 20 108 /Sq. Xray diffraction confirms presence of TiO2 crystals of orthorhombic class (Brookite). UV-vis spectroscopy shows high transmission below the expected 3.2 eV TiO2 bandgap. Transmittance increases with growth temperature. This is a Ropy TiO2 thin film. We prepared Smooth TiO2 and Evaporated TiO2 thin film. Self-assembled TiO2 film deposited by aqueous-spray deposition was investigated to evaluate morphology, crystalline phase, and infrared optical constants. The 130 nm thick film has Anatase nano-crystalline structure with 10 nm characteristic surface roughness sparsely punctuated by defects of not more than 200 nm amplitude. The film is highly transparent throughout the visible to wavelengths of 12 m. The optical band gap was determined to be 4.18 eV. Important for long-wave infrared applications is that dispersion is weak compared with the more commonly used dielectic in planer structures SiO2. The low-cost, large-area, atmospheric-pressure, chemical spray deposition method would allow conformal fabrication on flexible substrates for long-wave infrared (LWIR) photonics.

Committee in Charge: Robert Peale (Chair), Kalpathy Sundaram (Co-Chair), Wasfy Mikhaell, Reza Abdolvand, Aravinda Kar

          Dissertation Defense: Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) Process Optimization and Recovery of Impeded Energy Using Biodiesel By-Product   
Announcing the Final Examination of Sultan Salamah for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), as well as biological nitrogen removal efficiency, is dependent on the availability of a carbon source. Volatile fatty acid (VFAs) (mainly acetic and propionic acids) are the major driving force for EBPR. Unfortunately, many domestic wastewaters have an insufficient amount of VFAs. Production of acetic and propionic acids for full-scale treatment plants is expensive. VFAs can be produced using the fermentation of primary solids. Due to the cost of VFAs production, scientists thought of adding an external carbon source to the biological nutrient removal (BNR) system that can be fermented to VFAs. Glycerol (biodiesel by-product) can be fermented to acetic and propionic acid or can be used directly as an external carbon substrate for EBPR and denitrification. Since the need for biodiesel energy is increasing, glycerol cost is diminishing. Using glycerol in wastewater treatment can also offset the biodiesel plant disposal cost and reduce the BNR chemical cost. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to optimize the prefermentation process using glycerol. Optimization of the EBPR performance of the A2O-BNR system was evaluated using the glycerol adding location as the variable (co-fermentation with primary solids versus a direct addition to the anaerobic zone). Also, optimization of the nitrogen removal (especially denitrification) efficiency of the 5-stage bardenphoTM BNR system using the glycerol adding location (co-fermentation with primary solids versus a direct addition to the second anoxic zone) was evaluated. It was found in this study that glycerol was a suitable external carbon substrate for EBPR as well as biological nitrogen removal. The prefermentation experiment showed that glycerol co-fermentation with primary solids produced significantly higher VFAs than primary solids fermentation alone, even more than the possible value from the added glycerol, implying that the glycerol addition stimulated additional fermentation of primary solids. Lowering the prefermenter mixing energy (50 to 7 rpm) resulted in a significant increase in VFAs production (80%). Also, purging hydrogen gas to the headspace of the prefermenter did not lead to more VFAs, but significantly increased the propionic acid to acetic acid ratio by 41%. In the A2O-BNR pilot plant experiment, it was found that glycerol is a suitable renewable external substrate to drive enhanced EBPR as well as denitrification. The results from both locations of glycerol addition (direct vs. fermented) were beneficial to the BNR system. Both systems had similar effluent quality and achieved total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals up to 86% and 92% respectively. The 5-stage bardenphoTM BNR experiment investigated the location of glycerol addition (direct vs. fermented) on the performance of denitrification in the second anoxic zone and overall. The results from both systems were beneficial to the BNR system and had virtually similar effluent quality. Both systems achieve complete denitrification and excellent removal of TN and TP up to 95% and 89% respectively. Also, the pilot that received fermented glycerol had significantly higher VFAs loading and lower observed yield. The side-stream prefermenter effluent flowing to the second anoxic reactor did not cause high effluent ammonia concentration.

Committee in Charge: Andrew Randall (Chair), Jose Jimenez, Anwar Sadmani, Woo Hyoung Lee, Steven Duranceau

          Dissertation Defense: The Effect of Morphology and Reflectance in Silicon Nanowires Grown by Electroless Etching   
Announcing the Final Examination of Victor Velez for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

The strong light trapping properties of Silicon Nanowires have attracted much interest in the past few years for the conversion of sun energy into conventional electricity. Studies have been completed for many researchers to reduce the cost of fabrication and reflectance of solar light in these nanostructures to make a cheaper and more efficient solar cell technology by using less equipment for fabrication and employing different materials and solution concentrations. Silver, a conducting and stable metal is used these days as a precursor to react with silicon and then form the nanowires. Its adequate selection of solution concentration for a size of silicon substrate and the treatment for post-cleaning of silver dendrites make it a viable method among the others. It is an aim of this research to obtain significant low reflectance across the visible solar light range. Detailed concentration, fabrication and reflectance studies is carried out on silicon wafer in order to expand knowledge and understanding.

In this study, electroless etching technique has been used as the growth mechanism of SiNWs at room temperature. Optimum ratios of solution concentration and duration for different sizes of exposed area to grow tall silicon nanowires derived from experimentation are presented. Surface imaging of the structures and dimension of length and diameter have been determined by Scanner Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the reflectance in the optical range in silicon nanowires has been make using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer.

Committee in Charge: Kalpathy Sundaram (Chair), Jiann S. Yuan, Vikram Kapoor, Reza Abdolvand, Aravinda Kar

          Double tool pouch with retractor pockets   
A tool holder has a first tool pouch connected to the front surface of a substrate and defining a first tool compartment between the first tool pouch and the substrate. A second tool pouch is connected to the front surface of the substrate and defines a second tool compartment between the second tool pouch and the substrate, where the first tool pouch is at least partially disposed within the second tool pouch. A first retractor pocket is attached to the back surface of the substrate and defines a first retractor compartment that communicates through an opening in the substrate to the first tool compartment. A second retractor pocket attached to the first tool pouch front surface and defines a second retractor compartment between the second retractor pocket and the first tool pouch. The second retractor compartment communicates through a second retractor opening to the second tool compartment.
          Sensemaking of Complex Systems   
Sensemaking seems very much related to to pattern recognition - which obviously assumes you are congnizant of having seen that pattern before. Note that this is not saying, "I have seen this exact phenomonon before." For example, one might have seen collective swarming behavior in fish, in birds, in ants, even in people - there is a pattern to which we have given the name "swarm" characterized by some combination of synchrony, orientation (direction), attraction, bifurcation, (n-furcation) and dispersion.

How people go about the business of sensemaking is often quite different that the way artificial intelligence goes about sensemaking. By this I mean, humans often have much more sensual and contextual information upon which they make classifications. This is different than raw information, such as that stored in computer memory, in that human contextual information is encoded in highly coupled networks - the real neural network. Computer memory is discrete, rank and file - the substrate being independently and identically distributed (iid).

How would an artificial neural network go about sensemaking regarding the swarming behavioral pattern? The "sense" would have to be made in some of many other contextual patterns. One such contextual pattern is the "shape" of a connective, Compositional Pattern Producing Network, as found in HyperNEAT. However, that is just one context, and we need a network of contexts for sensemaking. Moreover, these contexts exist at various timescales, from nearly instantaneous to universally constant.

Some equate thought with computation. I'm not sure I agree. There is a composition between networked computation and linear computation (serial and/or parallel) that seems necessary for categorical sensemaking. And, of course, because something makes sense doesn't mean it is true or the right thing to do. That takes some interstitial experimentation - or meta-computing - with comparison to some real-world data.

So, I will go back to my Chinese Room and continue working on that categorical composition.
          Habitat: Found in the littoral and sublittoral zon... for taxon Anoplodactylus lentus Wilson, 1878   
Note "Habitat: Found in the littoral and sublittoral zones, over hard and algal covered substrate." for taxon Anoplodactylus lentus Wilson, 1878 has been added by Mary Kennedy via the MS Access interface on 2009-02-16T09:43:45+00:00
          Your Brain on Jazz: Neural Substrates of Spontaneous Improvisation.   
Johns Hopkins otolaryngolost and jazz musician Charles Limb talks about "The Brain on Jazz"--Neural Substrates of Spontaneous Improvisation."
          Superconducting thin film material and method of manufacturing same   
A superconducting thin film material exhibiting excellent superconducting properties and a method of manufacturing the same are provided. A superconducting thin film material includes a substrate, and a superconducting film formed on the substrate. The superconducting film includes an MOD layer formed by an MOD process, and a gas-phase-formed layer formed on the MOD layer by a gas-phase process. Since the MOD layer is formed first and then the gas-phase-formed layer is formed in this manner, degradation of the properties of the gas-phase-formed layer due to heat treatment in the step of forming the MOD layer (heat treatment in the MOD process) can be prevented.
          Method of producing superconducting conductor, superconducting conductor, and substrate for superconducting conductor   
A method for producing a superconductive conductor includes: a base material preparation process of preparing a base material having a groove formed on at least one face thereof; a superconducting layer formation process of forming a superconducting layer on a surface of the base material at a side at which the groove is formed; and a cutting process of cutting completely through the base material along the groove.
          Superconducting structure comprising coated conductor tapes, in particular stapled perpendicularly to their substrate planes   
A superconducting structure (1) has a plurality of coated conductor tapes (2; 2a-2o), each with a substrate (3) which is one-sided coated with a superconducting film (4), in particular an YBCO film, wherein the superconducting structure (1) provides a superconducting current path along an extension direction (z) of the superconducting structure (1), wherein the coated conductor tapes (2; 2a-2o) provide electrically parallel partial superconducting current paths in the extension direction (z) of the superconducting structure (1), is characterized in that the coated conductor tapes (2; 2a-2o) are superconductively connected among themselves along the extension direction (z) continuously or intermittently. A more stable superconducting structure with which high electric current strengths may be transported is thereby provided.
          Ceramic substrate and process for producing same   
A ceramic substrate includes a substrate body formed of ceramic and having a pair of surfaces each assuming a rectangular shape as viewed in plane, and a metallization layer formed on the surface of the substrate body and adapted to braze a metal frame thereon. A composite material layer is disposed between the surface of the substrate body and the metallization layer and is formed such that a ceramic portion, a metal portion 10m formed of a metal similar to a metal component of the metallization layer or a metal which, together with a metal component of the metallization layer, forms an all proportional solid solution, and a glass portion exist together. The thickness of the composite material layer is thinner than that of the metallization layer. A plating layer is deposited on the surface of the metallization layer.
          Superconducting film-forming substrate, superconducting wire, and superconducting wire manufacturing method   
A tape-shaped superconducting film-forming substrate is disclosed, which includes a film-forming face for forming a laminate including a superconducting layer thereon, a rear face that is a face at a side opposite to the film-forming face, a pair of end faces connected to the film-forming face and the rear face, and a pair of side faces connected to the film-forming face, the rear face, and the pair of end faces, in which each of the pair of side faces includes a spreading face that spreads toward an outer side in an in-plane direction of the film-forming face from an edge part of the film-forming face toward the rear face side. A superconducting wire and a superconducting wire manufacturing method are also disclosed.
          Substrate for superconducting compound and method for manufacturing the substrate   
Provided are a substrate for a superconducting compound and a method for manufacturing the substrate which can realize the excellent adhesive strength simultaneously with high orientation of copper. An absorbed material on a surface of a copper foil to which rolling is applied at a draft of 90% or more is removed by applying sputter etching to the surface of the copper foil, sputter etching is applied to a nonmagnetic metal sheet, the copper foil and the metal sheet are bonded to each other by applying a pressure to the copper foil and the metal sheet using reduction rolls, crystals of the copper in the copper foil are oriented by heating a laminated body formed by such bonding, copper is diffused into the metal sheet by heating with a copper diffusion distance of 10 nm or more, and a protective layer is laminated to a surface of the copper foil of the laminated body.
          High temperature superconducting tape conductor having high critical ampacity   
The invention relates to a high temperature superconducting tape conductor having a flexible metal substrate that comprises at least one intermediate layer disposed on the flexible metal substrate and comprising terraces on the side opposite the flexible metal substrate, wherein a mean width of the terraces is less than 1 μm and a mean height of the terraces is more than 20 nm, and that comprises at least one high temperature superconducting layer disposed on the intermediate layer, which is disposed on the at least one intermediate layer and comprises a layer thickness of more than 3 μm. The ampacity of the high temperature superconducting tape conductor relative to the conductor width is more than 600 A/cm at 77 K.
          Method of manufacturing base material for superconducting conductor, method of manufacturing superconducting conductor, base material for superconducting conductor, and superconducting conductor   
A method for manufacturing a base material 2 for a superconductive conductor which includes: a conductive bed layer forming process of forming a non-oriented bed layer 24 having conductivity on a substrate 10; and a biaxially oriented layer forming process of forming a biaxially oriented layer 26 on the bed layer 24.
          Oxide superconductor cabling and method of manufacturing oxide superconductor cabling   
Disclosed are an oxide superconductor tape and a method of manufacturing the oxide superconductor tape capable of improving the length and characteristics of superconductor tape and obtaining stabilized characteristics across the entire length thereof. A Y-class superconductor tape (10), as an oxide superconductor tape, comprises a tape (13) further comprising a tape-shaped non-oriented metallic substrate (11), and a first buffer layer (sheet layer) (12) that is formed by IBAD upon the tape-shaped non-oriented metallic substrate (11); and a second buffer layer (gap layer) (14), further comprising a lateral face portion (14a) that is extended to the lateral faces of the first buffer layer (sheet layer) (12) upon the tape (13) by RTR RF-magnetron sputtering.
          Low-loss superconducting devices   
Low-loss superconducting devices and methods for fabricating low loss superconducting devices. For example, superconducting devices, such as superconducting resonator devices, are formed with a (200)-oriented texture titanium nitride (TiN) layer to provide high Q, low loss resonator structures particularly suitable for application to radio-frequency (RF) and/or microwave superconducting resonators, such as coplanar waveguide superconducting resonators. In one aspect, a method of forming a superconducting device includes forming a silicon nitride (SiN) seed layer on a substrate, and forming a (200)-oriented texture titanium nitride (TiN) layer on the SiN seed layer.
           Lifetime prediction for power electronics module substrate mount-down solder interconnect    
Lu, Hua, Tilford, Tim, Bailey, Christopher and Newcombe, David (2007) Lifetime prediction for power electronics module substrate mount-down solder interconnect. HDP'07: Proceedings Of The 2007 International Symposium On High Density Packaging And Microsystem Integration. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, pp. 40-45. ISBN 9781424412525 (doi:10.1109/HDP.2007.4283558 )
          Artificial grammar learning in tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in varying stimulus contexts.   
The human ability to detect regularities in sound sequences is a fundamental substrate of our language faculty. However, is this an ability exclusive to human language processing, or have we usurped a more general learning mechanism for this purpose, one shared with other species? The current study is an attempt to replicate and extend Hauser, Weiss, and Marcus’s (2002) retracted study (2010) of artificial grammar learning in tamarins to determine if tamarins can detect an underlying grammatical structure in a pattern of sounds. Human language consonant–vowel (CV) combinations from Hauser et al.’s original study, newly created tone sequences, and newly created monkey vocalizations made into sequences were used to familiarize tamarins to an AAB or ABB pattern. Tests of novel sounds in each condition were presented that either were consistent with the familiarized pattern or were different from it. Longer looking times toward the sound source (an audio speaker with a specific location in the auditory field) indicated recognition of novelty. Tamarins looked toward the speaker significantly longer with inconsistent human language CV sequences and with inconsistent tone sequences but not when an inconsistent monkey vocalization was presented. Moreover, tamarins showed differential rates of habituation to the different types of sound patterns, with more robust habituation to CV sequences and tone sequences than to monkey call sequences. The implications of these findings for the generality of learning mechanisms for linguistic and nonlinguistic input across species and the importance of testing across various stimuli are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
           A single amino acid substitution affects substrate specificity in cysteine proteinases from Fasciola hepatica    
Smooker, PM; Whisstock, JC; Irving, JA; Siyaguna, S; Spithill, TW; Pike, RN; (2000) A single amino acid substitution affects substrate specificity in cysteine proteinases from Fasciola hepatica. PROTEIN SCIENCE , 9 (12) pp. 2567-2572.
           Mechanical loading regulates protease production by fibroblasts in three-dimensional collagen substrates    
Prajapati, RT; Chavally-Mis, B; Herbage, D; Eastwood, M; Brown, RA; (2000) Mechanical loading regulates protease production by fibroblasts in three-dimensional collagen substrates. WOUND REPAIR REGEN , 8 (3) 226 - 237.
          Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data   
The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (Csurf). Csurf accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of Csurf to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land–atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid–humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and Csurf can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle.
          Primary Dystonia: Conceptualizing the Disorder Through a Structural Brain Imaging Lens   
Background: Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder of involuntary, twisting repetitive movements. The anatomical structures and pathways implicated in its pathogenesis as well as their relationship to the neurophysiological paradigm of abnormal surround inhibition, maladaptive plasticity and impaired sensorimotor integration remain not well delineated. Objective: We review the use of high-resolution structural brain imaging using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques for evaluation of brain changes in primary torsion dystonia and their relationships to the pathophysiology of this disorder. Methods: A search in PubMed was conducted to identify the relevant literature. Discussion: Structural imaging has enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia. In particular, VBM and DTI data have revealed microstructural disturbances in the basal ganglia, sensorimotor cortices and cerebellum along with aberrations in the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic and cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways. When combined with functional brain imaging and neurophysiological modalities, a structure-function relationship can be established in the dystonia brain network at the sensorimotor, plasticity, cortical disinhibition and cerebellar outflow connectivity levels. Structural imaging highlighted new anatomical substrates and, with a combined structural-functional approach, has offered new opportunities for investigation of the neurodevelopmental, environmental and/or genetic interplay in the brain networks of dystonia patients.
          Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Blood Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Concentrations in Bangladeshi Adults   
Background: In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment). Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: & 10 (n = 76), 10–100 (n = 104), 101–200 (n = 86), 201–300 (n = 67), and < 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, –25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: –45.3, –5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, –3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: –4.61, –1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys. Conclusions: The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine.
          Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees   
The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality. We used the radiocarbon (14C) ‘bomb spike’ as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree ring cellulose and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting in mature red maple trees. We addressed the following questions: which factors influence the age of stemwood NSC?; to what extent is stored vs new NSC used for metabolism and growth?; and, is older, stored NSC available for use? The mean age of extracted stemwood NSC was 10 yr. More vigorous trees had both larger and younger stemwood NSC pools. NSC used to support metabolism (stem CO2) was 1–2 yr old in spring before leaves emerged, but reflected current-year photosynthetic products in late summer. The tree ring cellulose 14C age was 0.9 yr older than direct ring counts. Stump sprouts were formed from NSC up to 17 yr old. Thus, younger NSC is preferentially used for growth and day-to-day metabolic demands. More recently stored NSC contributes to annual ring growth and metabolism in the dormant season, yet decade-old and older NSC is accessible for regrowth.
          Tourette Syndrome and Consciousness of Action   
Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics and at least one vocal/phonic tic since childhood. Tics typically change and vary in both intensity and severity over time, with remission and exacerbation common. In the vast majority of patients, tic expression is characteristically accompanied by discomforting bodily sensations, known as sensory phenomena or premonitory urges. Methods: We reviewed the existing literature on premonitory urges associated with the sense of voluntariness of action in TS. Results: Although the wish to move is perceived by the patient as involuntary, the decision to release the tic is often perceived by the patient as a voluntary capitulation to the subjective urge. Most patients with TS can exert a degree of control over the urge and constantly try to inhibit the movement. Based on these features, it has been suggested that tics performed in response to an urge to move should be classified as ‘unvoluntary’, as opposed to voluntary or involuntary acts. However, recent experimental data suggest that the brain areas involved in the generation of the wish to act show considerable overlap between healthy subjects and patients with TS. Discussion: The simultaneous presence of both voluntary and involuntary aspects in the expression of tic symptoms by patients with TS is consistent with the hypothesis that tics can have the same neurophysiologic substrate as voluntary acts, even though they are misperceived as being involuntary. This reinforces the view of TS as a hyperkinetic movement disorder primarily affecting the conscious experience of action.
          Lorna Dee Cervantes Hosts New Open Mic w/ Jim Powell 3/7   

Lorna Dee Cervantes to Host New Poetry Open Mic Series, "ALLEY CAT POETS IN THE MISSION" with Jim Powell & Special Surprise Guest, 3/7, 6-8 pm


Internationally acclaimed Mission poet, Lorna Dee Cervantes hosts new open mic series, "Alley Cat Poets In The Mission" showcasing exceptional poets & their books along with some surprise special guests! This event is the 1st Wednesday of every month. Come and join us with a poem for the seasonal theme.

The Alley Cat Poets In The Mission Series begins Wednesday, March 7, 6-8PM, featuring Lorna Dee Cervantes, MacArthur Grant awardee Jim Powell, Special Surprise Guest and maybe YOU/TÚ speaking poems of LA HISTORIA at Alley Cat Books, 3036 24th St. near Balmy Alley, San Francisco. FREE. Hat passed for poets.

Scheduled readers to be announced and could include (*confirmed):

W, 3/7 - LA HISTORIA: Lorna Dee Cervantes *, Jim Powell *

W, 4/4 - LA MUJER: Cherríe Moraga * & Sharon Doubiago *

W, 5/2 - EL FLORICANTO (For Alfred Arteaga): Norma Cole & Javier Huerta *

W, 6/6 - LA PRIMAVERA: Adrian Arías & Miguel Robles *

W, 7/ 4 - LA INDEPENDENCIA: Diana Di Prima & Jack Hirschman (date TBA)

W, 8/1 - EL SOL: Francisco Alárcon * & Lucha Corpi *

W, 9/5 - EL TRABAJO: Robert Hass & Al Young *

W, 10/3 - LA COSECHA: Devorah Major * & Mamacoatl *

W, 11/7 - LA MUERTE (Victor Martinez, John Ross & Luis Cervantes ¡presente!): Genny Lim & C. S. Giscombe

W, 12/5 - EL FÍN: JuanFelipe Herrera & Leticia Hernández *

W, 1/2 - El NUEVO COMIENZO: Naomi Quiñonez * & Alejandro Murguía



Open Mic every 1st Wednesday, 6-8 with Lorna Dee Cervantes and featured poets.

Alley Cat Books
3036 24th St
San Francisco, CA 94110

Alley Cat Books offers rare, remaindered & used books along with one-of-a-kind recycled hardbound journals. They also carry unique gifts such as t-shirts, clothing and artwork by silkscreen artist Michael Roman whose work was recently featured on "Two Broke Girls" and various other TV shows. If you can't find it at Alley Cat, visit their other great bookstores—Dog-Eared Books (zines!!), Red Hill Books, and Phoenix Books. Make it a good walk day. Buy books and visit murals, then sit down, listen to great poetry, and be heard.

BUY BOOKS! BUY BOOKS! MAKE ART! BE SMART! DO HISTORY! BUY BOOKS! BUY BOOKS! ¡CÓMPRALOS LIBROS! BUY BOOKS!


CONTACT: (415) 824-1021 alleycatbookssf@gmail.com

BIO:

Lorna Dee Cervantes is a recipient of the Lila Wallace/Readers Digest Writers Award, 2 NEA Fellowship Grants, 2 Pushcart Prizes (another nominated this year) & "Best Book" awards for EMPLUMADA, FROM THE CABLES OF GENOCIDE: POEMS ON LOVE AND HUNGER, DRIVE: THE FIRST QUARTET, CIENTO: 100 100-WORD LOVE POEMS, STUNNED INTO BEING: Essays On The Poetry of Lorna Dee Cervantes, and the forthcoming SUEÑO: 30-SOMETHING OF THE CRUELEST.

A California native (Chicana-Chumash) born in The Mission, Lorna Dee Cervantes was the former Director of Creative Writing at CU-Boulder where she was a Professor of English for 19 years. This year's UC Regents Lecturer at Berkeley, she is home again writing fiction, essays, poetry & screenplays. Visit her on her blog: http://lornadice.blogspot.com.


Jim Powell is a MacArthur Fellow, the 2005 Sherry Poet at the University of Chicago, the author of IT WAS FEVER THAT MADE THE WORLD (University of Chicago Press, 1989) and SUBSTRATE (Pantheon, 2009), and the translator of THE POETRY OF SAPPHO (Oxford, 2006) and CATULLAN REVENANTS (Booklyn, 2001), a Berkeley native & lifelong inhabitant of the SF Bay region.
          Candlestick With Beads   


Decorate ordinary glass with tiny glass beads and instantly you will get a small candle for a romantic dinner for two. In addition to glass and beads, you will need a two-sided adhesive tape which you will create a place where you want to beads.

First Punch it 
Second Peel a protection
Third Coat the beads

                                  
First.
 Two-sided adhesive tape cut in shapes that you want to fill beads. If you want to facilitate the formation of "Punch It" cutters, on both sides of the tape put plain paper. Two-sided adhesive tape can be bought in all well-stocked shops with tools and electrical material.

Second.
 When you cut the tape into desired shapes, peel her protection on the one hand and the glass paste. Then remove the top protective nylon.

Third.
 On a shallow plate Pour red and tiny translucent beads. A glass of "roll" the beads and they will be accepted at the point where the tape. Sticky fingers press the little beads and fill the place where you are not satisfied with the density.

We're sure you'll like this technique because it is extremely fast and simple, and effective results. In the same way, with beads and plastic substrate for Window Color, you can create a mobile that will be nice because of the beads sparkle.

          ARRAY SUBSTRATE AND FABRICATING METHOD THEREOF, AND METHOD AND DEVICE FOR TESTING ELIGIBILITY OF DATA LINE   
The present disclosure provides for a method for fabricating an array substrate. The method includes forming a continuous and complete annular common electrode pattern surrounding a pixel.
          Device for analyzing biological Substances in a Test Solution and Production Method   
The invention relates to a device (100; 200; 300; 400) for analysing biological substances in a test solution, comprising a test substrate (101; 203; 303; 401) which is transparent at least in part, having a test region (107a, 108a, 109a, 110a; 211; 411) for receiving the test solution, a plurality of electrodes (111, 106; 201, 202; 301, 302; 402, 403) which are arranged on the test substrate (101; 203; 303; 401) and extend into the test region (107a, 108a, 109a, 110a; 211; 411), wherein in each case, at least one portion of the electrodes (111, 106; 201, 202; 301, 302; 402, 403) is made of a transparent material.
          Heading home   
On 22 July the Canterbury Employers’ Chamber of Commerce (the Chamber) arrives home at last. We move back to 57 Kilmore Street where the Chamber was based for close to 30 years before the devastating earthquakes of 2010 and 2011.

For the first time in 157 years the Chamber will be based in a purpose built and dedicated new building which has been designed specifically to meet its needs with a range of meeting rooms, high quality open plan office space and supporting facilities. From its beginnings in Lyttelton in 1859, through a variety of locations in Lyttelton and Christchurch city the Chamber now has a real home of its own and paradoxically this is because of the tragedy and destruction of the earthquakes.

It is a story worth telling because it is a story that will be common to so many people who are transitioning back into the central city five tumultuous years after approximately 1,100 commercial buildings were destroyed or irreparably damaged. The Chamber building survived the September 2010 earthquake but was rendered un-occupiable in February 2011. Ironically there was a health and safety seminar being conducted at the time. No-one was hurt but the building was damaged beyond repair. The Chamber then relocated to my residence for six months before relocating to the Westpac Business Hub at Addington and then to Colombo Street. After a five year journey we return home.

The journey was not without its difficulties. We had a prolonged negotiation with our insurance company (as did many other businesses) and we had significant disruption with regards to our temporary relocations. But we always remained “a safe pair of hands” for the business community. As a part of that we worked very closely with the Canterbury Development Corporation (who also lost their building) in the delivery of business support services through Recover Canterbury. Recover Canterbury was a very positive and constructive joint venture that assisted thousands of businesses post-earthquake.

We eventually cash settled with our insurance company and about a year ago set about finalising plans for the rebuild at Kilmore Street. We were confronted with rigorous consenting processes. We had issues with poor substrate and some contamination on our site (which for many years hosted a dry-cleaning company) but we moved through the difficulties. Through the good support of project managers, architects, builders and a plethora of tradespeople we have ended up with an elegant statement in the central city.

Our new building is designed to be accessible, it is energy efficient and has been specifically built to operate as a functional base for the Chamber now and into the future. It will be a well-used facility with a core staff of 30 who on a good day can process in excess of 100 sets of export documentation and host several membership training programmes and events concurrently. The Chamber conducts over 200 training and development programmes and events each year and many of those will now be delivered from the home base. The Chamber building will be host to thousands of visitors annually who we know will enjoy our new offering.

Returning to a permanent base will allow us the luxury of thinking more strategically about the role we will play in supporting employers across Canterbury in a volatile and rapidly changing environment. It is now all about making the most of the opportunities that are ahead of us.
After a long and torturous pathway, like so many other businesses coming into the central city, it is
great to be heading home.
petert@cecc.org.nz
cecc.org.nz

          Solid state imaging device, portable information terminal device and method for manufacturing solid state imaging device   
According to one embodiment, a solid state imaging device includes a sensor substrate having a plurality of pixels formed on an upper face, a microlens array substrate having a plurality of microlenses formed and a connection post with one end bonded to a region between the microlenses on the microlens array substrate and with the other end bonded to the upper face.
          Detection apparatus configured to detect soft X-ray radiation and detection system configured to detect soft X-ray radiation   
A detection apparatus configured to detect soft X-ray radiation, includes a conversion unit and a circuit unit disposed on a semiconductor substrate. The conversion unit has a plurality of conversion elements that convert the soft X-ray radiation incident on the semiconductor substrate into electric charge. The circuit unit has an amplifier transistor that amplifies and outputs a signal supplied from the conversion unit. A shielding unit is disposed above the circuit unit. The shielding unit blocks the soft X-ray radiation incident on the circuit unit. Preferably, the soft X-ray shielding coefficient of a material that forms the shielding unit is higher than the soft X-ray shielding coefficient of each of aluminum and copper. Alternatively, a material that forms the shielding unit has an atomic number higher than or equal to 70.
          Capturing and processing of high dynamic range images using camera arrays   
A camera array, an imaging device and/or a method for capturing image that employ a plurality of imagers fabricated on a substrate is provided. Each imager includes a plurality of pixels. The plurality of imagers include a first imager having a first imaging characteristics and a second imager having a second imaging characteristics. The images generated by the plurality of imagers are processed to obtain an enhanced image compared to images captured by the imagers. Each imager may be associated with an optical element fabricated using a wafer level optics (WLO) technology.
          Electron beam lithography with linear column array and rotary stage   
One embodiment relates to an apparatus for electron beam lithography which includes a linear array of reflection electron beam lithography columns and a rotary stage. Each column is separately controllable to write a portion of a lithographic pattern onto a substrate. The rotary stage is configured to hold multiple substrates and to be rotated under the linear array of reflection electron beam lithography columns. Another embodiment relates to a method of electron beam lithography which includes simultaneously rotating and linearly translating a stage holding a plurality of wafers, and writing a lithography pattern using a linear array of reflection electron beam lithography columns over the stage. Each said column traverses a spiral path over the stage as the stage is rotated and linearly translated. Other embodiments, aspects and feature are also disclosed.
          Charge sensors using inverted lateral bipolar junction transistors   
A sensor includes a collector, an emitter and a base-region barrier formed as an inverted bipolar junction transistor having a base substrate forming a base electrode to activate the inverted bipolar junction transistor. A level surface is formed by the collector, the emitter and the base-region barrier opposite the base substrate such that when the level surface is exposed to charge, the charge is measured during operation of the bipolar junction transistor.
          By: daedalus2u   
PM, I have my own hypothesis of the physiology behind the placebo effect (which I distinguish from non-physiological effects such as reporting bias by patients to help the "nice" doctor). I see it as the normal allocation of resources between different tasks, primarily ATP, but no doubt there is allocation of all cellular resources. http://daedalus2u.blogspot.com/2007/04/placebo-and-nocebo-effects.html Under "stress", resources are mobilized and kept at the ready to be able to be used at a moments notice, for things such as running from a bear. The only high capacity sources of ATP are mitochondria, and it takes a while for them to "rev up" to produce ATP at maximum rates. That delay is intolerable under some circumstances (as when a bear is eying you and you may need to reach maximum running speed as fast as possible). The optimum ATP allocation strategy in those circumstances would be to rev the mitochondria up to produce maximum ATP, and then dissipate that ATP as heat until the precise moment that it is needed. Essentially all of the degenerative diseases do show increased basal metabolic rate (including obesity, ALS, dilative cardiomyopathy, cirrhosis, kidney failure). That increased basal metabolic rate declines when the degenerative condition is improved. I would not expect that actual ATP demand to be increased, rather ATP generation is less efficient because mitochondria are operating at a higher potential where there is more slip and it takes more substrates to produce the same ATP. ATP used for healing is not available for "running from a bear". It takes some time to efficiently shut down those processes. I see this as very much akin to the state of ischemic preconditioning. Where brief periods of ischemia induce a physiological state where ATP demand is lower and so longer periods of ischemia can be survived with less damage. Some amount of stress would be expected to turn off long term ATP consuming pathways. Stress reduction would allow those pathways to be turned back on. Pathways for healing are extremely complicated and so are necessarily under complicated physiologic control. No doubt there are many ways to disrupt them. The only way to improve them is to allow them to function properly. No amount of external control can possibly be as effective as the normal regulatory pathways that evolved. With this view of the placebo effect, all placebos are essentially "the same", they are "something" that causes physiology to "stand down" from the state induced by high stress so that the normal allocation of resources to healing during low stress can resume. Once that maximal allocation of resources to healing has occurred, there is nothing more that any placebo can do. The healing produced by the placebo effect then reaches the physiological limit.
          Bergamonte is a Breakthrough Product for Healthy Cholesterol and Blood Sugar Support   
HP LifeScience announces a natural product based on the Italian Fruit, Citrus Bergamot - Bergamonte™. A placebo controlled human clinical study involving 238 patients resulted in a 40% increase in HDL, a 36% decrease in LDL, a 39% decrease in Triglycerides and a 22% decrease in Blood Glucose.†

The health benefits shown are dramatically improved over phytosterols, policosanol, red yeast rice and other natural products..†  Bergamonte™ does all of this without the harmful side effects of potentially harmful, but effective, medications.†

Citrus Bergamot comes from the lime family and is not to be confused with Citrus Aurantium from China.   Citrus Bergamot does not contain Synepherine. N-methyltyramine, and Octopamine. These compounds found in Citrus Aurantium have been shown in research to constrict arteries, increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, cause heart-rhythm disorders, heart attack, and stroke.

Citrus Bergamot contains novel compounds, Melitidine and Brutelidine that have been shown in research to significantly reduce total cholesterol, LDL, Triglycerides, Blood Glucose level, while increasing HDL.

 “4 flavonoids in Citrus Bergamot are linked to 3-metil-3–hydroxy glutarile portion, which is exactly the substrate of HMG-CoA reductase, suggesting that these compounds mimic endogenous HMG-CoA substrate and interfere with the synthesis of mevalonate, a critical compound at the top of the cholesterol synthesis pathway”, explained Dr. Vincenzo Mollace MD, the lead research scientist in the citrus bergamot human clinical research.

“Clinical trial participants include patients with hypercholesterolemia, patients with both hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.  The trials were double blind, placebo and we now have over 500 patients in clinical studies”, said Mollace.

Bergamonte™ will be available through HP LifeScience which specializes in products for re-sale by Practitioners.  Our products are based on Premier Ingredients which target the issues of Metabolic Syndrome”, said Carlos Escalante.  “These products include LJ100™, Maqui Superberry, Paractin™, Mucuna Pruriens and Bergamonte™ for Practitioners to support their patients whole health.

           Analysis of free fatty acids in food substrates and in the dust and frass of stored-product pests: Potential for species discrimination?    
Stewart-Jones, A., Stirrup, T.J., Hodges, R.J., Farman, D.I. and Hall, D.R. (2009) Analysis of free fatty acids in food substrates and in the dust and frass of stored-product pests: Potential for species discrimination? Journal of Stored Products Research, 45 (2). pp. 119-124. ISSN 0022-474X (doi:10.1016/j.jspr.2008.10.003 )
           Priming of first- and second-order motion: Mechanisms and neural substrates    
Campana, Gianluca and Pavan, Andrea and Casco, Clara (2008) Priming of first- and second-order motion: Mechanisms and neural substrates. Neuropsychologia, 46 (2). pp. 393-398. ISSN 0028-3932
           Understanding the structural basis for substrate and inhibitor recognition in eukaryotic GH11 xylanases    
Vardakou, Maria and Dumon, Claire and Murray, James W. and Christakopoulos, Paul and Weiner, David P. and Juge, Nathalie and Lewis, Richard J. and Gilbert, Harry J. and Flint, James E. (2008) Understanding the structural basis for substrate and inhibitor recognition in eukaryotic GH11 xylanases. Journal of Molecular Biology, 375 (5). pp. 1293-1305. ISSN 0022-2836
           Crystal structure of a cellulosomal family 3 carbohydrate esterase from Clostridium thermocellum provides Insights into the mechanism of substrate recognition    
Correia, Marcia A. S. and Prates, Jose A. M. and Bras, Joana and Fontes, Carlos M. G. A. and Newman, Joseph A. and Lewis, Richard J. and Gilbert, Harry J. and Flint, James E. (2008) Crystal structure of a cellulosomal family 3 carbohydrate esterase from Clostridium thermocellum provides Insights into the mechanism of substrate recognition. Journal of Molecular Biology, 379 (1). pp. 64-72. ISSN 0022-2836
          (DEU-CELLE) Electronic Assembler (m/f)   
TITLE Electronic Assembler LOCATION Celle, Germany EMPLOYMENT STATUS Full time Regular /rotating shifts ABOUT THIS JOB Baker Hughes currently has an opportunity for an Electronic Assembler, for the production of multi-chip modules (MCMs), working in clean room condition. KEY RESPONSIBILITIES/ACCOUNTABILITIES + Production of multi-chip modules (MCM) + Preparation of electronic components for manual processing + Manual mounting of the smallest components (<1mm), using valid procedural instructions. + Control of conductive adhesive bonds to e.g. short circuits. + Optical control of wire bonds on substrates (microscopic control) + Documentation of results. ESSENTIAL QUALIFICATIONS/REQUIREMENTS + Knowledge of electronic components + Experience in ​​wire-bond bonding and soldering technology. + Microsoft Office knowledge. + Knowledge of the handling of electronic assemblies would be an advantage. + Excellent teamwork skills. **COMPANY OVERVIEW** Baker Hughes is a leading supplier of oilfield services, products, technology and systems to the worldwide oil and natural gas industry. By being the service company that best anticipates, understands and exceeds our customers' expectations, Baker Hughes Advances Reservoir Performance. The company's 39,000-plus employees work in more than 80 countries in geomarket teams that help customers find, evaluate, drill, produce, transport and process hydrocarbon resources. Baker Hughes' technology centers in the world's leading energy markets are pushing the boundaries to overcome progressively more complex challenges. Baker Hughes develops solutions designed to help manage operating expenses, maximize reserve recovery and boost overall return on investment through the entire life cycle of an oil or gas asset. Collaboration is the foundation upon which Baker Hughes builds our business and develops next-generation products and services for drilling and evaluation, completions and production and fluids and chemicals. For more information on Baker Hughes' century-long history, visit our website. _Baker Hughes is an Equal Employment Affirmative Action Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to age, gender, gender identity, marital status, pregnancy, race, national origin, ethnic origin, color, disability status, veteran status, religion, sexual orientation or any other protection guaranteed by local law._ _If you are applying to a position in the US and you are an individual with disability or a disabled veteran status, religion, sexual orientation or any other protection guaranteed by local lawran and would like any type of assistance to submit an application or to attend any recruitment or selection event, we would like to help you to ensure that your experience is as smooth as possible. If you need assistance, information, or answers to your questions, feel free to contact us or have any of your representatives contact us at Baker Hughes Application Assistance Toll Free at 1-866-324-4562. This method of contact has been put in place ONLY to be used by those internal and external applicants who have a disability and are requesting accommodation._ _For all other inquiries on your application, log in to your profile and click on the My Jobpage tab. General application status inquiries will not be handled by the call center._ **Job:** _Manufacturing_ **Title:** _Electronic Assembler (m/f)_ **Location:** _EUROPE-GERMANY-Lower Saxony-CELLE_ **Requisition ID:** _1708094_
          Reticle chuck cleaner   
According to one embodiment, a reticle chuck cleaner for cleaning a reticle chuck of an EUV exposure apparatus includes a substrate having a shape to be carried to the reticle chuck of the EUV exposure apparatus, and an adhesive formed on one of the main surfaces of the substrate.
          Substrate cleaning method and substrate cleaning device   
A substrate rotates, and a liquid nozzle of a gas/liquid supply nozzle moves to a position above the center of the rotating substrate. In this state, a rinse liquid is discharged from the liquid nozzle onto the rotating substrate. The gas/liquid supply nozzle moves toward a position outside the substrate. A gas nozzle reaches the position above the center of the rotating substrate, so that the gas/liquid supply nozzle temporarily stops. With the gas/liquid supply nozzle stopping, an inert gas is discharged onto the center of the rotating substrate for a given period of time. After that, the gas/liquid supply nozzle again moves toward the position outside the substrate.
          Substrate clean solution for copper contamination removal   
Embodiments of the invention generally relate to a method for selectively etching or otherwise removing copper or other metallic contaminants from a substrate, such as a gallium arsenide wafer. In one embodiment, a method for selectively removing metallic contaminants from a substrate surface is provided which includes exposing a substrate to a peroxide clean solution, exposing the substrate to a hydroxide clean solution, and exposing the substrate to a selective etch solution containing potassium iodide, iodine, sulfuric acid, and water during a selective etch process. The substrate generally contains gallium arsenide material, such as crystalline gallium arsenide, and is usually a growth substrate for an epitaxial lift off (ELO) process. The copper or other metallic contaminants disposed on the substrate may be selectively etched at a rate of about 500 times, about 1,000 times, about 2,000 times, or about 4,000 times or greater than the gallium arsenide material.
          Nozzle and a substrate processing apparatus including the same   
A nozzle of a nozzle device includes an arm pipe that extends in a horizontal direction and a downstream pipe formed so as to curve downward from one end of the arm pipe. In the nozzle, a metallic pipe is provided inside a second resin pipe. Moreover, a first resin pipe is provided inside the metallic pipe. A boss is attached to the tip of the metallic pipe between the first resin pipe and the second resin pipe. At the tip of the nozzle, an outer peripheral surface of the first resin pipe, an end surface of the second resin pipe and an end surface of the boss are welded by welding resin. In this way, the metallic pipe is reliably coated with the first resin pipe, the second resin pipe, the boss and the welding resin.
          Substrate treatment systems using supercritical fluid   
Substrate treatment systems are provided. The substrate treatment systems may include a treating device configured to treat a substrate with a supercritical fluid, and a supplying device configured to supply the supercritical fluid to the treating device. The treating device may include a supercritical process zone in which the substrate is treated with the supercritical fluid, and a pre-supercritical process zone in which the supercritical fluid is expanded and then provided into the supercritical process zone to create a supercritical state in the supercritical process zone.
          Substrate processing apparatus for maintaining a more uniform temperature during substrate processing   
A substrate processing apparatus that includes a process tank having a pair of opposed sidewalls for storing a chemical liquid, and processing a plurality of substrates by the chemical liquid; a substrate holding mechanism including a holding part for holding the plurality of substrates, and a back part connected to the holding part and interposed between the substrates held by the holding part and one sidewall of the pair of opposed sidewalls when the substrate holding mechanism is loaded into the process tank. A heating device is disposed on the process tank for heating the stored chemical liquid. The heating device includes at least a first heater disposed on the one sidewall, and a second heater disposed on the other sidewall of the pair of opposed sidewalls. Energy outputs of the first heater and the second heater are independently controlled.
          Side edge cleaning methods and apparatus for thin film photovoltaic devices   
Methods for cleaning a side edge of a thin film photovoltaic substrate utilizing a laser are provided. The method can include transporting the substrate in a machine direction to move the substrate past a first laser source, and focusing a first laser beam generated by the first laser source onto the side edge of the substrate such that the laser beam removes the thin film present on the side edge of the substrate. An apparatus is also generally provided for cleaning a first side edge and a second side edge of a thin film photovoltaic substrate.
          Base material for artificial leather and grained artificial leather   
A method of producing a substrate suitable for artificial leathers. The substrate is composed of an entangled nonwoven fabric made of microfine fibers and a binder resin. At least one surface of the substrate is a densified layer which is made of the microfine fibers and which is substantially free from the binder resin. The binder resin is impregnated into a portion of the substrate other than the densified layer. The densified layer prevents the binder resin impregnated into the entangled nonwoven fabric from migrating into the surface of the entangled nonwoven fabric, thereby providing the substrate having the surface substantially free from the binder resin. The peeling strength between the substrate and a grain layer formed on the surface thereof is drastically improved because the surface of the substrate is substantially free from the binder resin.
          Display apparatus including a shutter   
A display apparatus includes a first substrate, a second substrate facing the first substrate, and a plurality of pixels including a first pixel. The first substrate includes first openings through which a light is transmitted. The pixels are disposed on at least one of the first substrate and the second substrate. The first pixel includes a first flexible electrode, a second flexible electrode, and a shutter including second openings and disposed between the first and second flexible electrodes. The first flexible electrode receives a first voltage. The second flexible electrode receives a second voltage different from the first voltage. The shutter receives a third voltage. The shutter moves to the first flexible electrode or the second flexible electrode according to a level of the third voltage, thereby controlling the position of the second openings relative to the first openings to control the transmission of the light.
           Empathizing with basic emotions: common and discrete neural substrates    
Chakrabarti, B. , Bullmore, E. and Baron-Cohen, S. (2006) Empathizing with basic emotions: common and discrete neural substrates. Social neuroscience, 1 (3-4). pp. 364-384. ISSN 1747-0927 doi: 10.1080/17470910601041317 (special issue 'Theory of Mind')
          Motion (physics)   

In physics, motion is change of location or position of an object with respect to time. Change in motion is the result of an applied force. Motion is typically described in terms of velocity also seen as speed, acceleration, displacement, and time.[1] An object's velocity cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described by Newton's first law also known as Inertia. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in a closed system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum.

A body which does not move is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have

Motion involves change in position, such as in this perspective of rapidly leaving Yongsan Station

constant (time-invariant) position.

Motion is always observed and measured relative to a frame of reference. As there is no absolute reference frame, absolute motion cannot be determined; this is emphasised by the term relative motion.[2] A body which is motionless relative to a given reference frame, moves relative to infinitely many other frames. Thus, everything in the universe is moving.[3]

More generally, the term motion signifies any spatial and/or temporal change in a physical system. For example, one can talk about motion of a wave or a quantum particle (or any other field) where the concept location does not apply.

Laws of Motion

In physics, motion in the universe is described through two sets of apparently contradictory laws of mechanics. Motions of all large scale and familiar objects in the universe (such as projectiles, planets, cells, and humans) are described by classical mechanics. Whereas the motion of very small atomic and sub-atomic sized objects is described by quantum mechanics.

Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics
\mathbf{F} = \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}(m \mathbf{v})
Newton's Second Law
History of ...
Fundamental concepts
Space · Time · Velocity · Speed · Mass · Acceleration · Gravity · Force · Torque / Moment / Couple · Momentum · Angular momentum · Inertia · Moment of inertia · Reference frame · Energy · Kinetic energy · Potential energy · Mechanical work · Virtual work · D'Alembert's principle

Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. It produces very accurate results within these domains, and is one of the oldest and largest subjects in science, engineering and technology.

Classical mechanics is fundamentally based on Newton's Laws of Motion. These laws describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and the motion of that body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published on July 5, 1687. His three laws are:

  1. In the absence of a net external force, a body either is at rest or moves with constant velocity.
  2. The net external force on a body is equal to the mass of that body times its acceleration; F = ma. Alternatively, force is proportional to the time derivative of momentum.
  3. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body, the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.[4]

Newton's three laws of motion, along with his law of universal gravitation, explain Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which were the first to accurately provide a mathematical model or understanding orbiting bodies in outer space. This explanation unified the motion of celestial bodies and motion of objects on earth.

Classical mechanics was later further enhanced by Albert Einstein's special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity explains the motion of objects with a high velocity, approaching the speed of light; general relativity is employed to handle gravitation motion at a deeper level.

Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics is a set of principles describing physical reality at the atomic level of matter (molecules and atoms) and the subatomic (electrons, protons, and even smaller particles). These descriptions include the simultaneous wave-like and particle-like behavior of both matter and radiation energy, this described in the wave–particle duality.

In contrast to classical mechanics, where accurate measurements and predictions can be calculated about location and velocity, in the quantum mechanics of a subatomic particle, one can never specify its state, such as its simultaneous location and velocity, with complete certainty (this is called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle).

In addition to describing the motion of atomic level phenomenon, quantum mechanics is useful in understanding some large scale phenomenon such as superfluidity, superconductivity, and biological systems, including the function of smell receptors and the structures of proteins.

List of "imperceptible" human motions

Humans, like all things in the universe are in constant motion,[5] however, aside from obvious movements of the various external body parts and locomotion, humans are in motion in a variety of ways which are more difficult to perceive. Many of these "imperceptible motions" are only perceivable with the help of special tools and careful observation. The larger scales of "imperceptible motions" are difficult for humans to perceive for two reasons: 1) Newton's laws of motion (particularly Inertia) which prevent humans from feeling motions of a mass to which they are connected, and 2) the lack of an obvious frame of reference which would allow individuals to easily see that they are moving.[6] The smaller scales of these motions are too small for humans to sense.

Universe

  • Spacetime (the fabric of the universe) is actually expanding. Essentially, everything in the universe is stretching like a rubber band. This motion is the most obscure as it is not physical motion as such, but rather a change in the very nature of the universe. The primary source of verification of this expansion was provided by Edwin Hubble who demonstrated that all galaxies and distant astronomical objects were moving away from us ("Hubble's law") as predicted by a universal expansion.[7]

Galaxy

  • The Milky Way Galaxy, is hurtling through space at an incredible speed. It is powered by the force left over from the Big Bang. Many astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 600 km/s relative to the observed locations of other nearby galaxies. Another reference frame is provided by the Cosmic microwave background. This frame of reference indicates that The Milky Way is moving at around 552 km/s.[8]

Solar System

  • The Milky Way is rotating around its dense galactic center, thus the solar system is moving in a circle within the galaxy's gravity. Away from the central bulge or outer rim, the typical stellar velocity is between 210 and 240 km/s (or about a half-million mi/h).[9]

Earth

  • The Earth is rotating or spinning around its axis, this is evidenced by day and night, at the equator the earth has an eastward velocity of 0.4651 km/s (or 1040 mi/h).[10]
  • The Earth is orbiting around the Sun in an orbital revolution. A complete orbit around the sun takes one year or about 365 days; it averages a speed of about 30 km/s (or 67,000 mi/h).[11]

Continents

  • The Theory of Plate tectonics tells us that the continents are drifting on convection currents within the mantle causing them to move across the surface of the planet at the slow speed of approximately 1 inch (2.54 cm) per year.[12][13] However, the velocities of plates range widely. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/yr[14] (3.0 in/yr) and the Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/yr (2.1–2.7 in/yr). At the other extreme, the slowest-moving plate is the Eurasian Plate, progressing at a typical rate of about 21 mm/yr (0.8 in/yr).

Internal body

  • The human heart is constantly contracting to move blood throughout the body. Through larger veins and arteries in the body blood has been found to travel at approximately 0.33 m/s.[15] Though considerable variation exists, and peak flows in the venae cavae have been found to range between 0.1 m/s and 0.45 m/s.[16]
  • The smooth muscles of hollow internal organs are moving. The most familiar would be peristalsis which is where digested food is forced throughout the digestive tract. Though different foods travel through the body at rates, an average speed through the human small intestine is 2.16 m/h or 0.036 m/s.[17]
  • Typically some sound is audible at any given moment, when the vibration of these sound waves reaches the ear drum it moves in response and allows the sense of hearing.
  • The human lymphatic system is constantly moving excess fluids, lipids, and immune system related products around the body. The lymph fluid has been found to move through a lymph capillary of the skin at approximately 0.0000097 m/s.[18]

Cells

The cells of the human body have many structures which move throughout them.

  • Cytoplasmic streaming is a way which cells move molecular substances throughout the cytoplasm.[19]
  • Various motor proteins work as molecular motors within a cell and move along the surface of various cellular substrates such as microtubules. Motor proteins are typically powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate, (ATP), and convert chemical energy into mechanical work.[20] Vesicles propelled by motor proteins have been found to have a velocity of approximately 0.00000152 m/s.[21]

Particles

  • According to the laws of thermodynamics all particles of matter are in constant random motion as long as the temperature is above absolute zero. Thus the molecules and atoms which make up the human body are vibrating, colliding, and moving. This motion can be detected as temperature; high temperatures (which represent greater kinetic energy in the particles) feel warmer to humans, whereas lower temperatures feel colder.[22]

Subatomic particles

  • Within each atom the electrons are speeding around the nucleus so fast that they are not actually in one location, but rather smeared across a region of the electron cloud. Electrons have a high velocity, and the larger the nucleus they are orbiting the faster they move. In a hydrogen atom, electrons have been calculated to be orbiting at a speed of approximately 2,420,000 m/s[23]
  • Inside the atomic nucleus the protons and neutrons are also probably moving around due the electrical repulsion of the protons and the presence of angular momentum of both particles

          Self-propelled construction machine   
A self-propelled construction machine has a machine frame and an operating drum for processing the ground surface, wherein the operating drum is positioned in a downwards open drum housing, that is closed on both sides by an edge protector, which is adjustable in height by an actuator for raising and/or lowering the edge protector. A control unit comprises a sensor for registering the distance a between a reference point on the edge protector and the ground surface. Furthermore, the control unit is configured so that when the distance between reference point and ground surface falls below a predetermined minimum distance, the actuator is switched from a floating setting, so that the edge protector is raised. As a result, the edge protector tightly closes the drum housing at the sides without there being a risk that the edge protector can be entrenched in loose substrate.
          Adhesion Promoter Market Is Expected To Fuel The Demand For Better Adhesion To Polypropylene-Based Substrates In The Plastics & Composites Sector Till 2024: Grand View Research, Inc.   
none
          Hiring for GM Packaging Development in Delhi/NCR(National Capital Region), Bengaluru/Bangalore for E (Job in Kolkata)   
Job Description:To manage Packaging Development, Technical, Substrates, Printing, production operations, Client handling,Techno Commercial, NPD, handling Customer Complaints etc. tags: 14 To apply for this job Click here [URL]http://spanjobs.com/india/j...
          Hiring for GM Packaging Development in Delhi/NCR(National Capital Region), Bengaluru/Bangalore for E (Job in Kolkata)   
Job Description:To manage Packaging Development, Technical, Substrates, Printing, production operations, Client handling,Techno Commercial, NPD, handling Customer Complaints etc. tags: 14 To apply for this job Click here [URL]http://spanjobs.com/india/j...
          

CATTLE    

CATTLE AS A POSSIBLE DISPERSAL MECHANISM FOR PSYCHOACTIVE DUNG FUNGI

One may ask the question, "how did these mushrooms arrive in Australia and New Zealand?" Well some species may be endemic,
that is, they were already there naturally. Other species such as the above described dung-inhabiting mushrooms most likely
appeared after the introduction of cattle on the subcontinent.
The first livestock to arrive in Australia were brought from the Cape of Good Hope in
1788, and included 2 bulls and 5 cows, along with other domesticated farm animals. By
l803, the government owned approximately 1800 cattle, most of which were imported
from the Cape, Calcutta, and the west coast of America. It was during this period that
some of the visionary mushrooms mentioned in this field guide probably first appeared in
Australia (Unsigned, 1973). According to Australian mycologist John Burton Cleland
(1934), "fungi growing in cow or horse-dung and confined to such habitats, must in the
case of Australia, all belong to introduced species". It is believed to have been the South
African dung beetle which may have actually spread the spores. According to English
mycologist Roy Watling of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Glasgow, Scotland, "it must be
remembered that fungi can change substrate preferences and there are coprophilous
fungi on kangaroo droppings etc." Some mycologists who have studied the "magic
mushrooms" in Australia and NZ claim that the "use of P. cubensis as a recreational drug
tends to confirm the belief that [some] farmers in early times [may have] added one or two basidiomes [gilled mushrooms] to a meal
to liven it up [and still do] Margot & Watling, 1981)."


          DISK DRIVE SUSPENSION ASSEMBLY HAVING A PARTIALLY FLANGELESS LOAD POINT DIMPLE   
Various embodiments concern a suspension assembly of a disk drive. The suspension assembly includes a load beam comprising a major planar area formed from a substrate. The load beam further comprises a window in the substrate, a dimple formed from the substrate, and a flange. The flange is a region of the major planar area that extends partially around the dimple but does not extend along an edge of the dimple. The edge of the dimple is adjacent to the window. The dimple is in contact with the flexure. A HAMR block or other element can extend through the window. The lack of a full flange can minimize the necessary clearance between the dimple and the HAMR block or other element and thereby allow the window to be enlarged to accommodate the HAMR block or other element.
          Sika Corp Releases New Mirror Grip Adhesive for Vertical Mirror Installation   

Sika Corporation has added a new product to its Flat Glass product range. The adhesive has been designed specifically for bonding mirrors to vertical surfaces and is effective across a wide range of interior substrates. The company says that its new product allows for instant grip and reduces the amount of material needed to fix mirrors to surfaces. Vertical beads can be spaced eight inches apart, whereas older products required a five-inch spacing between beads.

 

Sikaflex®-124 Mirror Grip will not cause any discoloration or staining of the mirror, is low in solvents and adheres well to Category II safety film. Although the company says that its product grips instantly, it nevertheless recommends using mechanical support during and after installation to ensure absolute safety. However, it notes that Sikaflex®-124 Mirror Grip will eliminate the need to use several products for different types of mirror installations.

 


          Neurotensin Broadly Recruits Inhibition via White Matter Neurons in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex: Synaptic Mechanisms for Decorrelation   
Abstract
The neuropeptide, neurotensin (NT), inhibits UP state generation in the cerebral cortex and temporally restricts the response to thalamic input, likely by a generalized increase in inhibition. To investigate the cellular and circuit substrate(s) for how a neuropeptide can shift the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition, we performed whole-cell recordings on slice preparations from mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under control of the promoter for the homeobox gene, lhx6 (lhx6-EGFP mice). These mice identify the 2 largest classes of cortical interneurons; FS and low-threshold-spiking inhibitory neurons. In the presence of NT, both types of lhx6-EGFP neurons were excited through a direct, Na+-dependent depolarization, and through an increase in synaptic excitation. Paired recordings identified cortical white matter (WM) neurons as a source of this excitatory input, which was strengthened in the presence of NT. NT-driven increased synaptic input caused a functional decorrelation of gap junction transmission between lhx6-EGFP neuron pairs. Finally, the synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and lhx6-EGFP neurons was modulated by addition of NT in favor of stronger inhibition and weaker excitation. These findings demonstrate the existence and functional consequences of an intracortical WM neuron projection, and suggest mechanisms underlying NT-induced promotion of wakefulness.

          Mobile Substrate y Preference Loader se actualizan con compatibilidad para iOS 7 y los 64 bits del chip A7   
Finalmente la espera ha terminado, Saurik ha actualizado dos tweaks principales en Cydia, Mobile Substrate y Preference Loader. Estos dos paquetes son muy importantes ya que muchos de los demás tweaks de Cydia dependen de ellos para su correcto funcionamiento … Continuar leyendo
          Alpha/beta‐Hydrolases: A unique structural motif coordinates catalytic acid residue in 40 protein fold families   
Abstract The alpha/beta‐hydrolases (ABH) are a family of acid‐base‐nucleophile catalytic triad enzymes with a common fold, but using a wide variety of substrates, having different pH optima, catalyzing unique catalytic reactions and often showing improved chemical and thermo stability. The ABH e...
          AbbVie Presents Late-Breaking, Preliminary Phase 3b Data with VIEKIRAX® + EXVIERA® in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients with Renal Impairment at The International Liver Congress™ 2015   

logo_abbvie

- RUBY-I evaluates treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic, genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients with severe renal impairment
- In preliminary data from RUBY-I, patients receiving VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA with or without ribavirin who reached post-treatment week four (n=10 of 20 enrolled) achieved 100 percent sustained virologic response at four weeks post-treatment (SVR4)1
- AbbVie's Phase 3b studies explore VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA in additional patient populations seen in clinical practice and across multiple countries around the world

VIENNA, April 25, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- AbbVie (NYSE: ABBV) today announced new, preliminary safety and efficacy data from the first cohort of its ongoing, Phase 3b RUBY-I study. RUBY-I is evaluating VIEKIRAX® (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir tablets) + EXVIERA® (dasabuvir tablets) with or without ribavirin (RBV) in treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic, genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C patients with severe renal impairment (stage 4 or 5), including those on hemodialysis. The primary endpoint of the study is the percentage of patients achieving sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). Patients who reached post-treatment week four to date (n=10 of 20 enrolled) achieved 100 percent SVR4 (n=10/10).1 RUBY-I was presented as a late-breaker today at The International Liver Congress™ (ILC) 2015, the 50th annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) in Vienna, Austria.

"Treating hepatitis C patients with severe renal impairment may be a concern, particularly in those patients on hemodialysis," said Paul J. Pockros, M.D., director of Liver Disease Center Scripps Clinic and director of clinical research at Scripps Translational Science Institute in La Jolla, California. "With limited data currently available on the safety and efficacy of interferon-free treatments for patients with renal impairment, the preliminary results seen in RUBY-I show promising initial SVR rates with the VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA regimen in a dedicated study for this often difficult-to-treat patient population."

Additionally, RUBY-I data showed no virologic failures to date.1 Preliminary safety analyses reported that patients experienced mainly mild or moderate adverse events when receiving VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA with or without RBV, most commonly (>20 percent) anemia, fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, dizziness and headache.1 To date, eight of 13 genotype 1a (GT1a) patients had a RBV dose interruption.1

"RUBY-I is part of AbbVie's broader Phase 3b program and demonstrates our continued focus on people living with hepatitis C that have specific needs," said Scott Brun, M.D., vice president, pharmaceutical development, AbbVie. "Studies in our Phase 3b program will help to further expand our knowledge of the utility of VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA in special populations encountered in clinical practice."

Additional Phase 3b studies from AbbVie presented at ILC 2015 included MALACHITE-I and MALACHITE-II data, and the TOPAZ-I and TOPAZ-II study design. The MALACHITE studies evaluate adult patients with GT1 chronic HCV infection without cirrhosis receiving VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA with or without RBV compared to treatment with telaprevir with pegylated-interferon and RBV, which remains the standard of care in many regions of the world.2,3 The TOPAZ studies will evaluate the effect of SVR12 on long-term outcomes, five years following treatment with VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA with or without RBV in adults with GT1 chronic HCV infection.4

About RUBY-I Study
RUBY-I is an ongoing, multi-center, open-label Phase 3b study with two cohorts that evaluates the safety and efficacy of 12 or 24 weeks of treatment with VIEKIRAX® + EXVIERA® with or without ribavirin, based on sub-genotype in treatment-naïve, adult patients with genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C virus infection who have severe renal impairment (pre-dialysis; stage 4 chronic kidney disease) or end-stage renal disease (on hemodialysis; stage 5 chronic kidney disease) with or without compensated cirrhosis.1 Cohort 1 consists of 20 patients without cirrhosis and cohort 2 will evaluate approximately 20 patients with or without compensated cirrhosis. Ribavirin was started at 200mg once daily for all genotype 1a (GT1a)- infected patients and dosed four hours prior to the start of GT1a patients on hemodialysis. Additional study results, including cohort 2, will be disclosed at future scientific congresses.

About VIEKIRAX® + EXVIERA®
VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA is approved in the European Union for the treatment of genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including patients with compensated cirrhosis. VIEKIRAX is approved in the European Union for the treatment of genotype 4 (GT4) chronic HCV infection.

VIEKIRAX consists of the fixed-dose combination of paritaprevir 150mg (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and ritonavir 100mg with ombitasvir 25mg (NS5A inhibitor), dosed once daily, and EXVIERA consists of dasabuvir 250mg (non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor) dosed twice daily taken with or without ribavirin (RBV), dosed twice daily based on patient type. VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA is taken for 12 weeks with or without RBV, except in GT1a and GT4 patients with compensated cirrhosis, who should take it for 24 weeks with RBV.

Paritaprevir was discovered during the ongoing collaboration between AbbVie and Enanta Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: ENTA) for hepatitis C protease inhibitors and regimens that include protease inhibitors. Paritaprevir has been developed by AbbVie for use in combination with AbbVie's other investigational medicines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

Additional information about AbbVie's hepatitis C development program can be found on www.clinicaltrials.gov.

About AbbVie's HCV Clinical Development Program
The AbbVie HCV clinical development program is intended to advance scientific knowledge and clinical care by investigating interferon-free, all-oral treatments with or without ribavirin with the goal of achieving high sustained virologic response rates in as many patients as possible. AbbVie's global Phase 3b program plans to include more than 2,800 genotype 1 patients in over 200 study centers worldwide, including the U.S., Canada, Europe, Russia and Brazil. Data in patients with severe renal impairment, including patients on hemodialysis, will be presented at ILC. Additionally, AbbVie's Phase 3b HCV program includes studies in patients with decompensated and compensated cirrhosis. Data from these studies will be presented at future scientific congresses.

Additional information about AbbVie's hepatitis C development program can be found on www.clinicaltrials.gov.

VIEKIRAX® + EXVIERA® EU Indication
VIEKIRAX is indicated in combination with other medicinal products for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in adults. EXVIERA is indicated in combination with other medicinal products for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in adults.

Important EU Safety Information
Contraindications
:
VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA are contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C). Patients taking ethinyl estradiol-containing medicinal products must discontinue them and switch to an alternative method of contraception prior to initiating VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA. Do not give VIEKIRAX with certain drugs that are sensitive CYP3A substrates or strong inhibitors of CYP3A. Do not give VIEKIRAX and EXVIERA with strong or moderate enzyme inducers. Do not give EXVIERA with certain drugs that are strong inhibitors of CYP2C8.

Special warnings and precautions for use:
VIEKIRAX and EXVIERA are not recommended as monotherapy and should be used in combination with other medicinal products for the treatment of hepatitis C infection.

Pregnancy and concomitant use with ribavirin
When VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA are used in combination with ribavirin, women of childbearing potential or their male partners must use an effective form of contraception during the treatment and 6 months after the treatment. Refer to the Summary of Product Characteristics for ribavirin for additional information.

ALT elevations
Transient elevations of ALT to >5x ULN without concomitant elevations of bilirubin occurred in clinical trials with VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA and were more frequent in a subgroup who were using ethinyl estradiol-containing contraceptives.

Use with concomitant medicinal products
Use caution when administering VIEKIRAX with fluticasone or other glucocorticoids that are metabolized by CYP3A4. A reduction in colchicine dosage or interruption in colchicine is recommended in patients with normal renal or hepatic function. VIEKIRAX with or without EXVIERA is expected to increase exposure of statins so certain statins need to be discontinued or dosages reduced. Low dose ritonavir, which is part of VIEKIRAX, may select for PI resistance in HIV co-infected patients without ongoing antiretroviral therapy. HIV co-infected patients without suppressive antiretroviral therapy should not be treated with VIEKIRAX.

Adverse Reactions
Most common (>20 percent) adverse reactions for VIEKIRAX + EXVIERA with RBV were fatigue and nausea.

Full summary of product characteristics is available at www.ema.europa.eu

Globally, prescribing information varies; refer to the individual country product label for complete information.

About AbbVie
AbbVie is a global, research-based biopharmaceutical company formed in 2013 following separation from Abbott Laboratories. The company's mission is to use its expertise, dedicated people and unique approach to innovation to develop and market advanced therapies that address some of the world's most complex and serious diseases. AbbVie employs more than 26,000 people worldwide and markets medicines in more than 170 countries. For further information on the company and its people, portfolio and commitments, please visit www.abbvie.com. Follow @abbvie on Twitter or view careers on our Facebook or LinkedIn page.

Forward-Looking Statements
Some statements in this news release may be forward-looking statements for purposes of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "project" and similar expressions, among others, generally identify forward-looking statements. AbbVie cautions that these forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, challenges to intellectual property, competition from other products, difficulties inherent in the research and development process, adverse litigation or government action, and changes to laws and regulations applicable to our industry.

Additional information about the economic, competitive, governmental, technological and other factors that may affect AbbVie's operations is set forth in Item 1A, "Risk Factors," in AbbVie's 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K, which has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. AbbVie undertakes no obligation to release publicly any revisions to forward-looking statements as a result of subsequent events or developments, except as required by law.

References:
1 Pockros P, et al. Safety Of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir Plus Dasabuvir For Treating HCV GT1 Infection In Patients With Severe Renal Impairment Or End-stage Renal Disease: The RUBY-I Study. Presented at the 50th International Liver Congress (ILC); April 22-26; Vienna, Austria 
2 Conway B, et al. MALACHITE-I: Phase 3b Trial Of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/R And Dasabuvir +/-Ribavirin Or Telaprevir + Peginterferon/Ribavirin In Treatment-naïve Adults With HCV Genotype 1. Abstract presented at the 50th International Liver Congress (ILC); April 22-26; Vienna, Austria
3 Dore G, et al. MALACHITE-II: Phase 3b Trial Of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/R And Dasabuvir + Ribavirin Or Telaprevir + Peginterferon/Ribavirin In Peginterferon/Ribavirin Treatment-experienced Adults With HCV Genotype 1. Abstract presented at the 50th International Liver Congress (ILC); April 22-26; Vienna, Austria 
4 Dumas E, et al. Phase 3b Studies To Assess Long-term Clinical Outcomes In HCV GT1-infected Patients Treated With Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir And Dasabuvir With Or Without Ribavirin. Abstract presented at the 50th International Liver Congress (ILC); April 22-26; Vienna, Austria.

SOURCE AbbVie

RELATED LINKS
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Source


           Atrial arrhythmia in ageing spontaneously hypertensive rats: unraveling the substrate in hypertension and ageing    
Lau, Dennis H. and Shipp, Nicholas J. and Kelly, Darren J. and Thanigaimani, Shivshankar and Neo, Melissa and Kuklik, Pawel and Lim, Han S. and Zhang, Yuan and Drury, Karen and Wong, Christopher X. and Chia, Nicholas H. and Brooks, Anthony G. and Dimitri, Hany and Saint, David A. and Brown, Lindsay and Sanders, Prashanthan (2013) Atrial arrhythmia in ageing spontaneously hypertensive rats: unraveling the substrate in hypertension and ageing. PLoS One, 8 (8). pp. 1-9. ISSN 1544-9173
          Brittle Stars that Steal Food From Jellyfish!    
Ophiuroids on Jelly in Mozambique. Photo by Andrea Marshall, Daily Mail, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/~/article-3990782/index.html#i-570251ad33a88841
And a HAPPY NEW 2017 to everyone! Yes. Obviously everyone has noticed the Echinoblog has gone to an "irregular" publication schedule. This is one of those "be careful what you wish for" issues- a lot of museum travel = a lot of new discoveries and thus papers and more work!  And so, like a lot of artisan comic books.. I'll be publishing when good topics and/or when the inspiration strikes me.

Today, is a NEW paper (published just last year) by Brooke Ingram, Kylie Pitt from Griffith University and Peter Barnes from the Australian Dept of Parks and Wildlife in the Journal of Plankton Research!  

Their work presents NEW data on the relationship between the "jellyfish hitchiking" brittle star Ophiocnemis marmorata (on the moon jelly Aurelia aurita)! The species occurs widely throughout the Indo-Pacific from Japan to India. I previously wrote about this phenomena back in 2009! here.

1. How many different types of Jellyfish species does Ophiocnemis marmorata occur ON??
The paper reports at least five or six, including at least 3 species of Rhopilema, Cephea cephea (the cauliflower jellyfish), Netrostoma and Aurelia aurita. But other internet records  and social media show further hosts.. such as this hydrozoan, Aequorea from Thailand..
From Chaloklum Diving in Singapore, http://www.chaloklum-diving.com/marine-life-koh-phangan/corals-more-cnidaria/true-jellyfish-scythozoa/scythozoa-other-jellyfish/

And here's a blog that documents this brittle stars on the "hairy" jellyfish. Lobocnema

2. Where/How many are present on a jellyfish host? 
Based on their sample of 92 Aurelia aurita, the authors, found that 79% of them (n=73) hosted brittle stars! quite a large number. Most of them were present under the bell or on the "oral arms" (the lobes hanging down from the bell)
Image by Thomas Peschak, https://www.thomaspeschak.com/
The authors observed that brittle stars ranged widely in size (1.0 to 6.0 mm) but MOST had a disk diameter of greater than 3.0 mm.  Medusae with MORE brittle stars were LARGER than those medusae without brittle stars. 
The largest number of brittle stars recorded (n=14) occurred on a medusae with 155.0 mm bell diameter. 








Its also worth noting that the brittle stars stay on the medusae ONLY within their home range. Many of these jellies, such as Aurelia (i.e. moon jellies) actually go beyond tropical settings and they really aren't seen on jellies in cold to temperate waters.. 

3. So, what are the brittle stars EATING??
The authors used a novel new method which basically breaks down the organic components of specific isotopes (Carbon and Nitrogen) and looks for how much of those isotopes is present in the subjects versus that which is provided by the environment.

Long story short: The data indcates that most of the food sources in Ophiocnemis seems to come from PLANKTONIC SOURCES! (i.e. the mesozooplankton) and NOT from the medusae itself and there were not any observations of Ophiocnemis filter feeding (i.e. arms up in the water).

And so the authors suggest that they are what's called KLEPTOPARASITES (a great word-really!). In other words, they take food directly away from the jellyfish out of the mouth or the oral arms, stealing or scavenging food from the jellyfish which are known as big pelagic predators.. What would be called "indirect food sources"...

There are several reports of other brittle stars that practice "kleptoparasitc" behavior.. i.e. moving down into the feeding arms or near the mouth and stealing food directly from the host. Some of it might not be a big deal to the host.. scraps and etc.. but meaningful to the ophiuroids..
Image by Ron Yeo at Tidechaser, http://tidechaser.blogspot.com/2012/03/brittle-stars-ophiuroidea-of-singapore.html

4. Growth and Settlement..aka Living on a Changing Jellyfish World
Although its not entirely clear HOW these brittle stars get up onto the jellies, one reasonable hypothesis is that they settle there as swimming larvae. Many of the brittle stars observed were tiny (smallest =1.0 mm disk).

Larger medusae seemed to carry a higher "brittle star load" than smaller ones. Its not clear exactly how/WHY certain species are chosen. Whether it is simply the physical dynamic of having a larger  medusae that facilitates more larvae to settle or if perhaps there are other cues??

It also turns out, based on further obsevations by others,  that this species DOES occur on the sea bottom on its own. So, its possible that as they get larger.. the brittle stars fall/jump/ or otherwise "settle" away from their floating substrate.

Or perhaps the jellies themselves die, as we see here on this unfortunate jelly in Singapore! 
Image by Ron Yeo at Tidechaser http://tidechaser.blogspot.com/2012/03/brittle-stars-ophiuroidea-of-singapore.html

5. Why go to all the hassle?? 
Well, one must ask, WHAT does a brittle star get OUT of basically jumping onto a jellyfish as a freshly settled larvae and living on it until it gets too big and falls off??

Obviously, they are getting FOOD. So that's one thing. And to a certain extent they are being PROTECTED..because what better thing to live on that a giant stinging gelatinous mass that eats fish! 

but perhaps the most important benefit is DISPERSAL.. that is the species is carried wide and far.. 
It was suggested that some medusae could carry these brittle stars up to 1000 kilometers from their point of colonization! 
Jellyfish

The apparent range of possible hosts adds further questions about the life mode and just HOW many different types of Ophiocnemis are present? And how do the different jellies affect how the brittle stars diversify and spread?  



          Sea Urchin Biomimicry! Echinoids Inspiring Applications from knives to glue!    
Tiny teeth
Its been awhile since i've done a "What have we learned from Echinoderms?" type post.. So, this week a news round up about the utility of sea urchins and their inspired applications!

Although I talk about several different inspriations, two of the stories below focus is the elaborate jaw mechanism in sea urchins known as Aristotle's Lantern! A nice basic definition can be found at the Echinoid page on The Natural History Museum in London (here). 

Aristotle's Lantern is this weird yellow piece in the picture below. These sit over the mouth opening and the "teeth" or jaws of the sea urchin emerge through the bottom..

This illustration gives you an idea of the orientation

Image from page 201 of "Elementary text-book of zoology" (1902)

And here's a video that allows you to see the teeth emerging through the oral opening and back again. 
Urchins use these teeth to rasp algae and other food off the substrate. They are quite effective when one considers just how much algae a sea urchin eats!

ALL of the stories below are part of a field known as biomimicry!

Basically, taking the idea/engineering from ACTUAL biological structures that have demonstrated effectiveness and reverse-engineering them so that they can be used in industrial or other applications!! Urchins have been quite the inspriation of late! Here's a round up of some of the recent and more interesting ones!

1. Self Sharpening Blades/Knives! 
Based on this account in Advanced Functional Materials and a summary in National Geographic (here) sea urchin teeth were studied with x-rays and determined to occur in separate layers with different structural textures which are interlaced between softer organic layers.                                       
One of the textural layers breaks very easily but is also replaced very easily. These areas get "torn away" whenever the teeth on sea urchin jaws are used.. but are also replaced quite quickly! 

Thus, functionally, the teeth grow continuously and are thus CONSTANTLY being rejuvenated and are essentially always sharp! 










2. Sea Urchin Jaws Inspire Space Exploration??

You can also just watch this video account of the whole thing...

Here's an Italian "bionic model" of how the Aristotle's Lantern jaw might work.. Kind of similar to the way a claw in one of those arcade "grab claw" games works! 



3. Architecture: Urchin Test Shape distributes Stress! 
Its been commented upon at sites such as these that the "oblate" shape of sea urchin skeletons (i.e., the test) is very effective at distributing stress evenly over the surface. Thus, the shape of urchin skeletons might actually be useful for inspiring better shapes in building! 
urchin test
...and then of course, there's the TARDIS in Doctor Who! 


4. Sea Urchin Spines Inspire Idea for Concrete! 
A paper by Seto et al in PNAS from 2012 studied the physical structure of sea urchin spines and discovered that they were composed of crystals that were bound together with a second type of calcium carbonate, acting as sort of a mortar, but with no crystal structure. These give the spines a highly resistant texture that suggest a better way to make fracture resistant materials.  A summary of this was in this BBC story.  and yet even more can be found on this blog about Mesocrystals and concrete! 
Sea Urchin spines
5. Adhesives!
Amazing sea urchin tube feet

Instead of "suction" as had been believed for decades, it turns out that urchin tube feet work on a chemical adhesive basis! In other words,, they STICK instead of SUCK!  You can go through a brief summary of these details here. 

These provide a lot of potential for marine adhesives if the means of adhesion can be understood and "reverse-engineered"!

Other posts in the "What good are echinoderms" series to be found HERE   
and here

          Capturing and processing of images using non-monolithic camera arrays   
A camera array, an imaging device and/or a method for capturing image that employ a plurality of imagers fabricated on a substrate is provided. Each imager includes a plurality of pixels. The plurality of imagers include a first imager having a first imaging characteristics and a second imager having a second imaging characteristics. The images generated by the plurality of imagers are processed to obtain an enhanced image compared to images captured by the imagers. Each imager may be associated with an optical element fabricated using a wafer level optics (WLO) technology.
          Systems and methods for generating depth maps using images captured by camera arrays   
A camera array, an imaging device and/or a method for capturing image that employ a plurality of imagers fabricated on a substrate is provided. Each imager includes a plurality of pixels. The plurality of imagers include a first imager having a first imaging characteristics and a second imager having a second imaging characteristics. The images generated by the plurality of imagers are processed to obtain an enhanced image compared to images captured by the imagers. Each imager may be associated with an optical element fabricated using a wafer level optics (WLO) technology.
          Systems and methods for synthesizing higher resolution images using images captured by camera arrays   
A camera array, an imaging device and/or a method for capturing image that employ a plurality of imagers fabricated on a substrate is provided. Each imager includes a plurality of pixels. The plurality of imagers include a first imager having a first imaging characteristics and a second imager having a second imaging characteristics. The images generated by the plurality of imagers are processed to obtain an enhanced image compared to images captured by the imagers. Each imager may be associated with an optical element fabricated using a wafer level optics (WLO) technology.
          [Glenn Petersen] Kodak smells success in odor-free fabrics Matthew Daneman, USA TODAY 6...   
Kodak smells success in odor-free fabrics

Matthew Daneman, USA TODAY
6:59 a.m. EDT April 1, 2014



Kodak scientist Valerie Turner works in a particle technology lab on a process to be used in a partnership with PurThread Technologies Inc. (Photo: Jamie Germano , Staff Photographer )
_______________

Science put a man on the moon.

Science eradicated smallpox.

And when Eastman Kodak Co. scientist Gary Slater wore the same T-shirt for two weeks straight, it was science that prevented it from turning funky.

"It feels good," Slater said as he pulled the collar of the silver-infused and since-laundered shirt out for inspection. "I love it."

Kodak — long a photography company, now a printing technology company — has always been a silver company. The compound silver halide is a key ingredient in photographic film due to its reactivity to light. And the company traditionally has been among the largest consumers of silver in the world for its film products.

Now Kodak is hoping to turn another property of silver — its ability to kill germs and bacteria — into stink-free socks.

Rochester-based Kodak in November announced it had signed an agreement to exclusively provide a silver sulfate compound to PurThread Technologies Inc., with that company in turn using the material in the manufacture of synthetic fibers that then get woven into yarn. The two companies in February said they were expanding that relationship with a joint development agreement that would see them working on other possible products.

The Kodak additive, AgAM 100, specifically is aimed at preventing the discoloration and odor caused by sweat-eating microbes.

Garments incorporating PurThread products can be worn "for days and days and days and it won't smell," Kodak Chief Technology Officer Terry Taber said.



Fabric magnified 2,000 times shows some of the threads that could be treated with a anti-microbial process by Kodak's silver salt technology.(Photo: Jamie Germano, The Rochester, N.Y., Democrat and Chronicle)
_______________

North Carolina textile firm PurThread started in 2009 with the idea of making antimicrobial fabrics for health-care settings. While that market and application remains an eventual goal, said President Lisa T. Grimes, PurThread first is targeting the athletic gear world with its Kodak-infused products. On its own online company store, PurThread sells a $75 lab coat, $35 medical scrub top and $65 golf shirt, all promising to inhibit the growth of any odor-causing bacteria or fungus.

PurThread-made yarn — made with Kodak's silver sulfate powder mixed into each strand like chocolate chips in cookie dough — first hit the market in fall 2013. PurThread contracts out the manufacturing of its yarn to various U.S. companies, Grimes said.

"There's a lot of interest in embedded technology that doesn't wash off and run down the drain," Grimes said. "We're getting good reception in the marketplace."

Taber said Kodak expects "modest revenues" this year from the PurThread work, but hopes to see those numbers ramp up in 2015 and 2016 as the two companies roll out a variety of other products.

Silver has long been known for its antimicrobial properties. "There are stories of people centuries ago taking silver coins and putting them on cuts," Taber said. "I don't know if they're true."

However, silver's use as an antimicrobial agent has been limited. Merely making silver sulfate is one thing, Taber said: "You have to get it in a form you can deliver it in and it maintains its effectiveness. The real inventiveness Kodak brings to this is creating the right silver salt that is stable through all these processes."

Kodak has tried this line of business years ago with a liquid silver sulfate solution that would work as a coating, Taber said. That approach never panned out, though products coated with the solution did pass the 50-wash test, Taber said. The embedded silver sulfate particles are "something we knew would have longer term application," he said. "And it has a wider range of applications."

Being entwined with PurThread is part of a business goal of Kodak to team up with other companies. Kodak last fall announced an agreement with Swiss machinery maker BOBST that would see Kodak technology used in BOBST box-making equipment. And it is working with a pair of touchscreen film manufacturers, supplying raw materials and some technical expertise.

"We're always looking for new business relationships," Taber said. "One of the hallmarks of the new Kodak is that in a lot of the businesses — in digital printing and functional printing, whether it be the materials or substrates or components — we'd be working with partners."

Daneman also reports for The (Rochester, N.Y.) Democrat and Chronicle.

usatoday.com

          Offer - Truth About Surviving A Wetblasting - USA   
Wetblast is also much more versatile. It works as well removing oily scale and corrosion.Count on fine, consistent and repeatable finishes with no abrasive embedment in the substrate.Wetblasting, also referred to as vapor blasting or vapor blast, will save you money when refinishing your car. Instead of ordering new parts from the factory, our machines will provide the same result for a fraction of the price. Overall, it’s cleaner faster, more effective, more efficient and more accurate than other systems you would use.
          ZrO2 thin films on Si substrate   
Wong, Y.H.; Cheong, K.Y. (2010) ZrO2 thin films on Si substrate. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , 21 (10). pp. 980-993. ISSN 0957-4522
          Flaky particle and cosmetic   
The present invention has an object to provide a flaky particulate material giving skin an excellent smoothness, which is free from whitening problem upon use thereof owing to its high transparency. The present invention also has another object to provide a cosmetic composition containing the flaky particulate material. The present invention relates to flaky particulate material, which has an average coefficient of friction is not more than 0.50, and a total light transmittance is not less than 85%. A particle in the flaky particulate material comprises a substrate particle made of one material selected from the group consisting of mica, a synthetic mica, sericite, talc, barium sulfate and aluminum oxide. The present invention provides a flaky particulate material that gives skin excellent smoothness, a natural tone, and a matt appearance. The flaky particulate material of the present invention gives a cosmetic composition which provides great comfort of use, and an excellent appearance.
          Frozen compositions and methods for piercing a substrate   
Certain embodiments disclosed herein relate to compositions, methods, devices, systems, and products regarding frozen particles. In certain embodiments, the frozen particles include materials at low temperatures. In certain embodiments, the frozen particles provide vehicles for delivery of particular agents. In certain embodiments, the frozen particles are administered to at least one biological tissue.
           The effects of substrate stiffness on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation    
Colley, Helen Elizabeth (2007) The effects of substrate stiffness on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
           Development of Functionalised Carbon Based Substrates for Neuronal Cell Culture and Production of Carbon Nanoparticles for Bioimaging Applications    
Hopper, Andrew (2015) Development of Functionalised Carbon Based Substrates for Neuronal Cell Culture and Production of Carbon Nanoparticles for Bioimaging Applications. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
          Electronics Engineering Mastery Test 10: ECE Pre-Board   

Electronics Engineering Exam 10

This is 100 items set of Practice Examination 10 in Electronics Engineering composed of previous Board Exams Questions. Read each questions and choices carefully! Choose the best answer. In the actual board, you have to answer 100 items in Electronics Engineering within 5 hours. You have to get at least 70% to pass the subject. Electronics Engineering is 30% of the total 100% Board Rating along with Mathematics (20%), General Engineering and Applied Sciences (20%) and Electronics Systems and Technology (30%).

Start the Test Yourself Exam 10

Choose the letter of the best answer in each questions.

1. What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 40 to 100 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 160 to 300 mA, DC?

  • A. Respiratory failure
  • B. Perception
  • C. Reflex action
  • D. Mascular inhibition

2. What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of over 100 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 300 mA, DC?

  • A. Respiratory failure
  • B. Fatal
  • C. Reflex action
  • D. Mascular inhibition

3. What refers to the jarring, shaking sensation you receive from contact with electricity?

  • A. Respiratory failure
  • B. Electric shock
  • C. Fatal
  • D. Mascular inhibition

4. Mechanical rotation frequency is measured using a device called ______.

  • A. frequency counter
  • B. frequency meter
  • C. accelerometer
  • D. tachometer

5. Electrical-output frequencies of ac generators can be measured by ______.

  • A. vibrating-reed devices or tuned circuits
  • B. accelerometer
  • C. frequency meter
  • D. tachometer

6. Audio frequencies can be measured by a process known as ______.

  • A. frequency counting
  • B. zero beating
  • C. beating
  • D. mixing

7. What is another term for zero beating?

  • A. Frequency counting
  • B. Heterodyning
  • C. Beating
  • D. Mixing

8. What wavemeter is used for measuring frequencies in the microwave range?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Bolometer
  • C. Cavity wavemeter.
  • D. Absorption wavemeter

9. What is the process of matching an unknown signal with a locally generated signal of the same frequency obtained from a calibrated high-precision oscillator?

  • A. Frequency counting
  • B. Zero beating
  • C. Beating
  • D. Mixing

10. What device that sweeps over a band of frequencies to determine what frequencies are being produced by a specific circuit under test and the amplitude of each frequency component?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Bolometer
  • C. Cavity wavemeter
  • D. Spectrum analyzer

11. What is commonly used for the analysis of waveforms generated by electronic equipment?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Cavity wavemeter
  • C. Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope (CRO or O-SCOPE)
  • D. Bolometer

12. What is device used to measure frequencies above the audio range?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Cavity wavemeter
  • C. Bolometer
  • D. Electronic Frequency Counter

13. What are calibrated resonant circuits used to measure frequency?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Wavemeters
  • C. Cavity wavemeter
  • D. Spectrum analyzer

14. What is the difference in frequency between the oscillator frequency and the unknown frequency?

  • A. Beat frequency
  • B. lF
  • C. Image frequency
  • D. Signal frequency

15. The rotation frequency of recording devices and teletypewriter motors can be measured by the use of a ______.

  • A. Tachometer
  • B. Oscilloscope
  • C. Frequency counter
  • D. Stroboscope

16. What is an instrument that allows you to view rotating or reciprocating objects intermittently and produces the optical effect of a slowing down or stopping motion?

  • A. Tachometer
  • B. Oscilloscope
  • C. Frequency counter
  • D. Stroboscope

17. What is an electronic flash device in which the flash duration is very short, a few millionths of a second and can measure very rapid motion?

  • A. Tachometer
  • B. Strobotac
  • C. Frequency counter
  • D. Stroboscope

18. What is a combination of watch and revolution counter?

  • A. Chronometric tachometer
  • B. Frequency counter
  • C. Strobotac
  • D. Stroboscope

19. What type of bolometer is characterized by an increase in resistance as the dissipated power rises?

  • A. Chronometric tachometer
  • B. Strobotac
  • C. Barretter
  • D. Stroboscope

20. What type of bolometer is characterized by decrease in resistance as the power increases?

  • A. Chronometrictachometer
  • B. Strobotac
  • C. Barretter
  • D. Thermistor

21. What instrument is used for measuring radio frequency (rf) power?

  • A. Thermocouple ammeter
  • B. Strobotac
  • C. Barretter
  • D. Thermistor

22. When using strobotac, at what speed is "flicker" becomes a problem because the human eye can retain successive images long enough to create the illusion of continuous motion?

  • A. 600 rpm
  • B. 500 rpm
  • C. 1200 rpm
  • D. 300 rpm

23. What is the approximate life of the strobotron lamp if used at flashing speeds of less than 5,000 rpm?

  • A. 250 hours
  • B. 500 hours
  • C. 1200 hours
  • D. 300 hours

24. What is the approximate life of the strobotron lamp if used at flashing speeds of more than 5,000 rpm?

  • A. 250 hours
  • B. 500 hours
  • C. 100 hours
  • D. 300 hours

25. What are used as filters for the passage or rejection of specific frequencies?

  • A. Tuned circuits
  • B. Filter circuits
  • C. Band pass filter
  • D. High pass filter

26. An elementary, single coil, dc generator will have an output voltage with how many pulsations per revolution?

  • A. One
  • B. Two
  • C. Three
  • D. Four

27. How many commutator segments are required in a two-coil generator?

  • A. One
  • B. Two
  • C. Three
  • D. Four

28. How can field strength be varied in a practical dc generator?

  • A. By varying the input voltage to the field coils
  • B. By varying the output voltage to the field coils
  • C. By increasing the number of field windings
  • D. By decreasing the number of field windings

29. Are dc generators that are designed to act as high-gain amplifier?

  • A. Amplidynes
  • C. Dynamos
  • B. Synchros
  • D. Servos

30. The power output of the amplidynes may be up to _______ times larger than the power input to its control windings.

  • A. 100,000
  • B. 10,000
  • C. 1,000
  • D. 100

31 .What generators have both series field windings and shunt field windings?

  • A. Universal generator
  • B. Series-wound dc generator
  • C. Parallel-wound dc generator
  • D. Compound-wound dc generators

32. The substrate of an N-channel MOSFET is made of what material?

  • A. P-type material
  • B. N-type material
  • C. Intrinsic material
  • D. Extrinsic material

33. In a MOSFET, which element is insulated from the channel material?

  • A. The source terminal
  • B. The gate terminal.
  • C. The substrate terminal.
  • D. The drain terminal.

34. What type of MOSFET can be independently controlled by two separate signals?

  • A. The single-gate MOSFET.
  • B. The four-gate MOSFET.
  • C. The dual-gate MOSFET.
  • D. The dual-drain MOSFET.

35. What is the purpose of the spring or wire around the leads of a new MOSFET?

  • A. To prevent damage from static electricity.
  • B. To prevent damage from dynamic electricity.
  • C. To prevent damage from intense pressure. W
  • D. To prevent damage from intense temperature.

36. What is a typical light-to-dark resistance ratio for a photocell?

  • A. 1:1000
  • B. 1:10000
  • C. 1:2000
  • D. 1:20000

37. What semiconductor device produces electrical energy when exposed to light?

  • A. Photoelectronic cell
  • B. Photovoltaic cell
  • C. Photoelectric cell
  • D. Optoelectronic device

38. The UJT has how many PN junctions?

  • A. One
  • B. Two
  • C. Three
  • D. Four

39. The area between base 1 and base 2 in a UJT acts as what type of common circuit component?

  • A. Variable inductor
  • B. Variable capacitor
  • C. Variable resistor
  • D. Fixed resistor

40. The sequential rise in voltage between the two bases of the UJT is called what?

  • A. A voltage spike
  • B. A voltage gradient
  • C. A voltage peak
  • D. A voltage surge

41 .What is the normal current path for a UJT?

  • A. From base 1 to the emitter.
  • B. From base 1 to base 2.
  • C. From base 2 to the emitter.
  • D. From input to output.

42. What is one of the primary advantages of the FET when compared to the bipolar transistor?

  • A. Low input impedance.
  • B. High input impedance.
  • C. Low output impedance.
  • D. High output impedance.

43. The SCR is primarily used for what function?

  • A. The SCR is primarily used for amplifying.
  • B. The SCR is for both switching and amplifying.
  • C. The SCR is primarily used for switching power on or off.
  • D. The SCR is for any electronic application.

44. When an SCR is forward biased, what is needed to cause it to conduct?

  • A. A drain signal.
  • B. A source signal.
  • C. A anode signal.
  • D. A gate signal.

45. What is the only way to cause an SCR to stop conducting?

  • A. The forward bias must be reduced below the minimum conduction level.
  • B. The forward bias must be increased above the minimum conduction level.
  • C. The forward bias must be equal to the minimum conduction level.
  • D. The reverse bias must be reduced below the minimum conduction level.

46. The TRIAC is similar in operation to what device?

  • A. SCS
  • B. UJT
  • C. SCR
  • D. DIAC

47. When used for ac current control, during which alternation of the ac cycle does the TRIAC control current flow?

  • A. During both alternations.
  • B. With only one alternation.
  • C. During positive alternation only.
  • D. During negative alternation only.

48. What type of bias is required to cause an LED to produce light?

  • A. Forward bias
  • B. Reverse bias
  • C. Either A or B
  • D. Neither A or B

49. When compared to incandescent lamps, what is the power requirement of an LED?

  • A. Very high
  • B. High
  • C. Very low
  • D. Low

5O. The varactor displays what useful electrical property?

  • A. Variable resistance
  • B. Variable capacitance
  • C. Variable inductance
  • D. Variable frequency

51. When a PN junction is forward biased, what happens to the depletion region?

  • A. The depletion region decreases.
  • B. The depletion region increases.
  • C. The depletion region disappears.
  • D. The depletion region remains the same.

52. When the reverse bias on a varactor is increased, what happens to the effective capacitance?

  • A. Capacitance increases.
  • B. Capacitance decreases.
  • C. Capacitance remains the same.
  • D. Temperature coefficient increases.

53. In a reverse biased PN-junction, which current carriers cause leakage current?

  • A. The majority carriers.
  • B. The minority carriers.
  • C. The majority and minority carriers.
  • D. Either the majority or minority carriers.

54. The action of a PN-junction during breakdown can be explained by what two theories?

  • A. Zener effect and avalanche effect.
  • B. Zener and flywheel effects.
  • C. Avalanche and flywheel effects
  • D. Zener and Miller effects.

55. Which breakdown theory explains the action that takes place in a heavily doped PN-junction with a reverse bias of less than 5 volts?

  • A. Miller effect
  • B. Avalanche effect
  • C. Zener effect
  • D. Flywheel effect

56. The plate voltage of a tube will vary 126 volts when a 3-volt ac signal is applied to the control grid. What is the gain of this tube?

  • A. 32
  • B. 42
  • C. 52
  • D. 62

57. lf the mu of a tube is 85 and the signal at the control grid is 4 volts ac, the plate voltage will vary by what amount?

  • A. 340 V
  • B. 120 V
  • C. 240 V
  • D. 220 V

58. The suppressor grid is added to a tetrode to reduce what undesirable characteristic of tetrode operation?

  • A. Primary emission
  • B. Secondary emission
  • C. Tertiary emission
  • D. Quaternary emission

59. What type of bias requires constant current flow through the cathode circuit of a triode?

  • A. Anode biasing
  • B. Fixed biasing
  • C. Cathode biasing
  • D. Self biasing

6O. How are computers classified?

  • A. Technology
  • B. Data they handle
  • C. Purpose
  • D. All of the choices

61. Mechanical computers are considered to be of what type?

  • A. Analog
  • B. Digital
  • C. Special
  • D. General

62. In a general-purpose computer, the ability to perform a wide variety of operations is achieved at the expense of what capabilities?

  • A. Speed and accuracy
  • B. Speed and memory capacity
  • C. Speed and efficiency
  • D. Speed and versatility

63. All analog computers are what type of computers?

  • A. Special-purpose
  • B. Electromechanical
  • C. Mechanical
  • D. First generation

64. What are analog computers designed to measure?

  • A. Electrical quantities
  • B. Physical quantities
  • C. Natural quantities
  • D. Continuous electrical or physical conditions.

65. Early analog computers were what type of devices?

  • A. Mechanical or electromechanical
  • B. Solid state type
  • C. Vacuum type
  • D. Electrical

66. What are computers called that combine the functions of both analog and digital computers?

  • A. Versatile computers
  • B. Hybrid computers
  • C. Anadigi computers
  • D. Mainframe computers

67. What is the temperature range within which a disk will operate?

  • A. 10 to 50 degrees Celsius
  • B. 10 to 15 degrees Celsius
  • C. 20 to 60 degrees Celsius
  • D. 50 to 100 degrees Celsius

68. What is the most basic type of filter?

  • A. The capacitor filter
  • B. Inductor filter
  • C. LC filter
  • D. Mechanical filter

69. What is the range of values usually chosen for a choke?

  • A. From 20 to 100 H
  • B. From 1 to 20 H
  • C. From 1 to 10 H
  • D. From 10 to 20 H

7O. What is the ripple frequency of a full-wave rectifier with an input frequency of 60 Hz?

  • A. 120 Hz
  • B. 240 Hz
  • C. 60 Hz
  • D. 360 Hz

71. A standard programming language of the U.S. defense department similar to Pascal.

  • A. Ada
  • B. BASlC
  • C. C + +
  • D. RPG

72. The electron tube replaces what component in an electron tube voltage regulator?

  • A. Variable inductor
  • B. Variable capacitor
  • C. Variable resistor
  • D. Transistor

73. Which of the following is referred to as organized data?

  • A. Source
  • B. Information
  • C. Input
  • D. Output

74. What is the common mode rejection ratio of an ideal differential amplifier?

  • A. Infinity
  • B. Unity
  • C. Less than unity
  • D. Zero

75. The type of feedback used to improve the fidelity of an amplifier and to increase its frequency response.

  • A. Fidelity feedback
  • B. Positive feedback
  • B. Unwanted feedback
  • D. Negative feedback

76. A negatively charge atom is sometimes called ______.

  • A. electron
  • B. cation
  • C. anion
  • D. ion

77. If the magnitude of the potential difference is generated by a single conductor passing through a magnetic field, which of the following statements is false?

  • A. The potential difference depends on the speed with which the conductor cuts the magnetic field.
  • B. The potential difference depends on the length of the conductor that cuts the magnetic field.
  • C. The potential difference depends on the magnetic field density that is present.
  • D. The potential difference depends on the diameter of the conductor that cuts the magnetic field.

78. What is the internal resistance of a 9 V battery that delivers 100 A when its terminals are shorted?

  • A. 0.09 Ω
  • B. 11 Ω
  • C. 1.0 Ω
  • D. 90 Ω

79. Which of the following statements is true?

  • A. An ideal current source cannot be in parallel with a short circuit.
  • B. An ideal voltage source can be in parallel with an open circuit.
  • C. An ideal current source can be in series with an open circuit.
  • D. An ideal voltage source cannot be in series with an ideal current source.

80. What is the average power dissipated by an electric heater with resistance of 50 Ω drawing a current of 20sin (30t) A?

  • A. 0 kW
  • B. 10 kW
  • C. 14.14 kW
  • D. 20 kW

81. What measurements are required to determine the phase angle of a single-phase circuit?

  • A. The power in watts consumed by the circuit.
  • B. The frequency, capacitance and inductance.
  • C. The power in watts, voltage and current
  • D. The resistance, current and voltage.

82. The conductance and inductive susceptance of a circuit have the same magnitude. What is the power factor of the circuit?

  • A. 1
  • B. 0.707
  • C. 0.5
  • D. 0.866

83. A circuit has a resonant frequency of 455 kHz and a bandwidth of 57.2 kHz. Find the Q of the circuit.

  • A. 795
  • B. 79.5
  • C. 0.795
  • D. 7.95

84. A semiconductor logic output which pulls neither to a high nor a low voltage state.

  • A. Logic 1
  • B. Floating state
  • C. Logic 0
  • D. Limbo

85 An intrinsic semiconductor has some holes in it at room temperature. What causes these holes?

  • A. Doping process
  • B. ionization
  • C. Thermal energy
  • D. Radiant flux

86. Refers to a field surrounding electrons and protons at stationary period indicating a stored energy.

  • A. Magnetic field
  • B. Electron field
  • C. Electrostatic field
  • D. Electrodynamic Held

87. The time required to complete one cycle of a waveform.

  • A. Wavetime
  • B. Wavelength
  • C. Frequency
  • D. Period

88. Lines of flux that do not follow the intended path.

  • A. Flux loss
  • B. Leakage flux
  • C. lnductance leakage
  • D. Hysteresis loss

89. What consists of elements inseparably associated and formed on a single substrate?

  • A. Micro-circuit
  • B. Integrated circuit
  • C. Module
  • D. PCB

90. What determines whether a substance is an insulator or a conductor?

  • A. Number of protons
  • B. Number of photons
  • C. Number of valence electrons
  • D. Number of neutrons

91. What do you call the space between and around charged bodies?

  • A. Magnetic field
  • B. Electromagnetic field
  • C. Electromotive field
  • D. Electrostatic field

92. What electrical quantity is measured by a watt-hour meter?

  • A. Current
  • B. Energy
  • C. Voltage
  • D. Power

93. What do you call the process of converting chemical energy into electrical energy in a cell?

  • A. Electron flow
  • B. Polarization
  • C. Electrolysis
  • D. Electrochemical action

94. A transformer has 500 turns in the primary and 1500 in the secondary. Assuming no losses, if 45 V is applied to the primary what is the voltage developed in the secondary?

  • A. 13.5 V
  • B. 180 V
  • C. 135 V
  • D. 90 V

95. What do you call the maintenance of oscillation in a circuit in the intervals between pulses of excitation energy?

  • A. Auto-oscillation
  • B. Damping
  • C. Flywheel effect
  • D. Feedback

96. A 15 µC point charge is located on the y-axis at (0, 0.25). A second charge of 10 µC is located on the x-axis at (0.25, 0). lf the two charges are separated by air, what is the force between them?

  • A. 0.0982 N
  • B. 0.341 N
  • C. 10.79 N
  • D. 33.93 N

97. What is energy of motion called?

  • A. Potential energy
  • B. Kinematics
  • C. Pneumatics
  • D. Kinetic energy

98. A fully charged lead-acid battery will indicate a specific gravity reading between.

  • A. 1.175 to 1.200
  • B. 1.200 to 1.225
  • C. 1.225 to 1.250
  • D. 1.275 to 1.300

99. An effect about microwave oscillation that occurs in a small block of N-type gallium arsenide when a constant DC voltage above a critical value is applied to contact on opposite faces.

  • A. Gunn effect
  • B. Mossbauer effect
  • C. Edison effect
  • D. Miller effect

100. What is the most influential factor in the switching speed of saturated bipolar transistor?

  • A. Charge storage
  • C. hfe
  • B. Collector current
  • D. hie

Complete List of Electronics Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

Series of Electronics Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

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Answers key in Electronics Engineering Exam 10: ECE Pre-Board


          Electronics Engineering Mastery Test 7: ECE Pre-Board   

Electronics Engineering Exam 7

This is 100 items set of Practice Examination 7 in Electronics Engineering composed of previous Board Exams Questions. Read each questions and choices carefully! Choose the best answer. In the actual board, you have to answer 100 items in Electronics Engineering within 5 hours. You have to get at least 70% to pass the subject. Electronics Engineering is 30% of the total 100% Board Rating along with Mathematics (20%), General Engineering and Applied Sciences (20%) and Electronics Systems and Technology (30%).

Start the Test Yourself Exam 7

Choose the letter of the best answer in each questions.

1. What is the term given to arranging data records in a predefined sequence or order?

  • A. Sorting
  • B. Arranging
  • C. Sequencing
  • D. Ordering

2. What computer language was developed for mathematical work?

  • A. MATIMATICA
  • B. BASIC
  • C. MATHTYPE
  • D. FORTRAN

3. What IF frequencies are normally used in radar receivers?

  • A. 30 or 60 MHz
  • B. 60 or 80 MHz
  • C. 30 or 40 MHz
  • D. 60 or 70 MHz

4. Mechanical rotation frequency is measured using a device called ___.

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Accelerometer
  • C. Frequency meter
  • D. Tachometer

5. Electrical-output frequencies of ac generators can be measured by ___.

  • A. Vibrating-reed devices or tuned circuits
  • B. Accelerometer
  • C. Frequency meter
  • D. Tachometer

6. Audio frequencies can be measured by a process known as ___.

  • A. Frequency counting
  • B. Beating
  • C. Zero beating
  • D. Mixing

7. What is another term for zero beating?

  • A. Frequency counting
  • B. Beating
  • C. Heterodyning
  • D. Mixing

8. What wavemeter is used for measuring frequencies in the microwave range?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Cavity wavemeter
  • C. Bolometer
  • D. Absorption wavemeter

9. What is the process of matching an unknown signal with a locally generated signal of the same frequency obtained from a calibrated high-precision oscillator?

  • A. Frequency beating
  • B. Beating
  • C. Zero beating
  • D. Mixing

10. What device that sweeps over a band of frequencies to determine what frequencies are being produced by a specific circuit under test and the amplitude of each frequency component?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Cavity wavemeter
  • C. Bolometer
  • D. Spectrum analyzer

11. What is commonly used for the analysis of waveforms generated by electronic equipment?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Cavity wavemeter
  • C. Cathode-ray oscilloscope(CRO or O-SCOPE)
  • D. Bolometer

12. What is device used to measure frequencies above the audio range?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Cavity wavemeter
  • C. Bolometer
  • D. Electronic frequency counter

13. What are calibrated resonant circuits used to measure frequency?

  • A. Frequency counter
  • B. Cavity wavemeter
  • C. Wavemeters
  • D. Spectrum analyzer

14. What is the difference in frequency between the oscillator frequency and the unknown frequency?

  • A. Beat frequency
  • B. Image frequency
  • C. IF
  • D. Signal frequency

15. The rotation frequency of recording devices and teletypewriter motors can be measured by the use of a ___.

  • A. Tachometer
  • B. Frequency counter
  • C. Oscilloscope
  • D. Stroboscope

16. What is an instrument that allows you to view rotating or reciprocating objects intermittently and produces the optical effect of a slowing down or stopping motion?

  • A. Tachometer
  • B. Frequency counter
  • C. Oscilloscope
  • D. Stroboscope

17. What is an electronic flash device in which the flash duration is very short, a few millionths of a second and can measure very rapid motion?

  • A. Tachometer
  • B. Frequency counter
  • C. Strobotac
  • D. Stroboscope

18. What is a combination of watch and revolution counter?

  • A. Chronometric tachometer
  • B. Frequency counter
  • C. Strobotac
  • D. Stroboscope

19. What type of bolometer is characterized by an increase in resistance as the dissipated power rises?

  • A. Chronometric tachometer
  • B. Barretter
  • C. Strobotac
  • D. Stroboscope

20. What type of bolometer is characterized by decrease in resistance as the power increases?

  • A. Chronometric tachometer
  • B. Barretter
  • C. Strobotac
  • D. Thermistor

21. What instrument is used for measuring radio frequency (rf) power?

  • A. Thermocouple ammeter
  • B. Barretter
  • C. Strobotac
  • D. Thermistor

22. When using strobotac, at what speed is “flicker” becomes a problem because the human eye can retain successive images long enough to create the illusion of continuous motion?

  • A. 600 rpm
  • B. 1200 rpm
  • C. 500 rpm
  • D. 300 rpm

23. What is the approximate life of the strobotron lamp if used at flashing speeds of less than 5,000 rpm?

  • A. 250 hours
  • B. 1200 hours
  • C. 500 hours
  • D. 300 hours

24. What is the approximate life of the strobotron lamp if used at flashing speeds of more than 5,000 rpm?

  • A. 250 hours
  • B. 100 hours
  • C. 500 hours
  • D. 300 hours

25. What are used as filters for the passage or rejection of specific frequencies?

  • A. Tuned circuits
  • B. Band pass filter
  • C. Filter circuits
  • D. High pass filter

26. An elementary, single coil, dc generator will have an output voltage with how many pulsations per revolution?

  • A. One
  • B. Three
  • C. Two
  • D. Four

27. How many commutator segments are required in a two-coil generator?

  • A. One
  • B. Three
  • C. Two
  • D. Four

28. How can field strength be varied in a practical dc generator?

  • A. By varying the input voltage to the field coils
  • B. By varying the output voltage to the field coils
  • C. By increasing the number of field windings
  • D. By decreasing the number of field windings

29. Are dc generators that are designed to act as high-gain amplifier.

  • A. Amplidynes
  • B. Dynamos
  • C. Synchros
  • D. Servos

30. The power output of the amplidynes may be up to ___ times larger than the power input to its control windings.

  • A. 100,000
  • B. 1,000
  • C. 10,000
  • D. 100

31. What generators have both series field windings and shunt field windings?

  • A. Universal generators
  • B. Series-wound dc generators
  • C. Parallel-wound dc generators
  • D. Compound-wound dc generators

32. The substrate of an N-channel MOSFET is made of what material?

  • A. P-type material
  • B. Intrinsic material
  • C. N-type material
  • D. Extrinsic material

33. In a MOSFET, which element is insulated from the channel material?

  • A. The source terminal
  • B. The gate terminal
  • C. The substrate terminal
  • D. The drain material

34. What type of MOSFET can be independently controlled by two separate signals?

  • A. The single-gate MOSFET
  • B. The four-gate MOSFET
  • C. The dual-gate MOSFET
  • D. The dual-drain MOSFET

35. What is the purpose of the spring or wire around the leads of a new MOSFET?

  • A. To prevent damage from static electricity
  • B. To prevent damage from dynamic electricity
  • C. To prevent damage from intense pressure
  • D. To prevent damage from intense temperature

36. What is a typical light-to-dark resistance ratio for photocell?

  • A. 1:1000
  • B. 1:2000
  • C. 1:10000
  • D. 1:20000

37. What semiconductor device produces electrical energy when exposed to light?

  • A. Photoelectronic cell
  • B. Photovoltaic cell
  • C. Photoelectric cell
  • D. Optoelectronic device

38. The UJT has how many PN junctions?

  • A. One
  • B. Three
  • C. Two
  • D. Four

39. The area between base 1 and base 2 in a UJT acts as what type of common circuit component?

  • A. Variable inductor
  • B. Variable resistor
  • C. Variable capacitor
  • D. Fixed resistor

40. The sequential rise in voltage between the two bases of the UJT is called what?

  • A. A voltage spike
  • B. A voltage peak
  • C. A voltage gradient
  • D. A voltage surge

41. What is the normal current path for a UJT?

  • A. From base 1 to the emitter
  • B. From base 1 to base 2
  • C. From base 2 to the emitter
  • D. From the input to output

42. What is one of the primary advantages of the FET when compared to the bipolar transistor?

  • A. Low input impedance
  • B. High input impedance
  • C. Low output impedance
  • D. High output impedance

43. The SCR is primarily used for what function?

  • A. The SCR is primarily used for amplifying
  • B. The SCR is for both switching and amplifying
  • C. The SCR is primarily used for switching power on or off
  • D. The SCR is for any electronic application

44. When an SCR is forward biased, what is needed to cause it to conduct?

  • A. A drain signal
  • B. A source signal
  • C. A anode signal
  • D. A gate signal

45. What is the only way to cause an SCR to stop conducting?

  • A. The forward bias must be reduced below the minimum conduction level
  • B. The forward bias must be increased above the minimum conduction level
  • C. The forward bias must be equal to the minimum conduction level
  • D. The reverse bias must be reduced below the minimum conduction level

46. The TRIAC is similar in operation to what device?

  • A. SCS
  • B. SCR
  • C. UJT
  • D. DIAC

47. When used for ac current control, during which alternation of the ac cycle does the TRIAC control current flow?

  • A. During both alternations
  • B. With only one alternation
  • C. During positive alternation only
  • D. During negative alternation only

48. What type of bias is required to cause an LED to produce light?

  • A. Forward bias
  • B. Either a of b
  • C. Reverse bias
  • D. Neither a nor b

49. When compared to incandescent lamps, what is the power requirement of an LED?

  • A. Very high
  • B. Very low
  • C. High
  • D. Low

50. The varactor displays what useful electrical property?

  • A. Variable resistance
  • B. Variable capacitance
  • C. Variable inductance
  • D. Variable frequency

51. When a PN junction is forward biased, what happens to the depletion region?

  • A. The depletion region decreases
  • B. The depletion region increases
  • C. The depletion region disappears
  • D. The depletion region remains the same

52. When the reverse bias on a varactor is increased, what happens to the effective capacitors?

  • A. Capacitance increases
  • B. Capacitance decreases
  • C. Capacitance remains the same
  • D. Temperature coefficient increases

53. In a reverse biased PN-junction, which current carriers cause leakage current?

  • A. The majority carriers
  • B. The minority carriers
  • C. The majority and minority carriers
  • D. Either the majority or minority carriers

54. The action of a PN-junction during breakdown can be explained by what two theories?

  • A. Zener effect and avalanche effect
  • B. Zener and flywheel effects
  • C. Avalanche and flywheel effects
  • D. Zener and miller effects

55. Which breakdown theory explains the action that takes place in a heavily doped PN-junction with a reverse bias of less than 5 volts?

  • A. Miller effect
  • B. Zener effect
  • C. Avalanche effect
  • D. Flywheel effect

56. In SCR, the anode current is made up of

  • A. Electrons
  • B. Holes
  • C. Electrons and holes
  • D. Positive ions

57. What is the most popular oscillator configuration for audio application?

  • A. Wien bridge oscillator
  • B. Hartley oscillator
  • C. Colpitt’s oscillator
  • D. Tuned oscillator

58. The suppressor grid is added to a tetrode to reduce what undesirable characteristic of tetrode operation?

  • A. Primary emission
  • B. Secondary emission
  • C. Tertiary emission
  • D. Quaternary emission

59. What type of bias requires constant current flow through the cathode circuit of a triode?

  • A. Anode biasing
  • B. Cathode biasing
  • C. Fixed biasing
  • D. Self biasing

60. How are computers classified?

  • A. Technology
  • B. Purpose
  • C. Data they handle
  • D. All of the choices

61. Mechanical computers are considered to be of what type?

  • A. Analog
  • B. Special
  • C. Digital
  • D. General

62. In a general-purpose computer, the ability to perform a wide variety of operations is achieved at the expense of what capabilities?

  • A. Speed and accuracy
  • B. Speed and memory capacity
  • C. Speed and efficiency
  • D. Speed and versatility

63. All analog computers are what type of computers?

  • A. Special-purpose
  • B. Mechanical
  • C. Electromechanical
  • D. First generation

64. What are analog computers deigned to measure?

  • A. Electrical quantities
  • B. Physical quantities
  • C. Natural quantities
  • D. Continuous electrical or physical conditions

65. Early analog computers were what type of devices?

  • A. Mechanical or electromechanical
  • B. Sold state type
  • C. Vacuum type
  • D. Electrical

66. What are computers called that combine the functions of both analog and digital computers?

  • A. Versatile computers
  • B. Hybrid computers
  • C. Anadigi computers
  • D. Mainframe computers

67. Which on is the first generation of IC op-amps?

  • A. Fair child 709
  • B. Texas instrument 709
  • C. Motorola 709
  • D. National semiconductor 709

68. What is the most basic type of filter?

  • A. The capacitor filter
  • B. Inductor filter
  • C. LC filter
  • D. Mechanical filter

69. What is the range of values usually chosen for a choke?

  • A. From 20 to 100 H
  • B. From 1 to 20 H
  • C. From 1 to 10 H
  • D. From 10 to 20 H

70. What is the ripple frequency of a full-wave rectifier with an input frequency of 60 Hz?

  • A. 120 Hz
  • B. 60 Hz
  • C. 240 Hz
  • D. 360 Hz

71. A standard programming language of the U.S. defence department similar to Pascal.

  • A. Ada
  • B. C++
  • C. BASIC
  • D. RPG

72. The electron tube replaces what component in an electron tube voltage regulator?

  • A. Variable inductor
  • B. Variable resistor
  • C. Variable capacitor
  • D. Transistor

73. Which of the following is referred to as organized data?

  • A. Source
  • B. Input
  • C. Information
  • D. Output

74. What is the common mode rejection ratio of an ideal differential amplifier?

  • A. Infinity
  • B. Less than unity
  • C. Unity
  • D. Zero

75. The type of feedback used to improve the fidelity of an amplifier and to increase its frequency response.

  • A. Fidelity feedback
  • B. Positive feedback
  • C. Unwanted feedback
  • D. Negative feedback

76. A negatively charge atom is sometimes called ___.

  • A. Electron
  • B. Anion
  • C. Cation
  • D. Ion

77. If the magnitude of the potential difference is generated by a single conductor passing through a magnetic field, which of the following statements is false?

  • A. The potential difference depends on the speed with which the conductor cuts the magnetic field
  • B. The potential difference depends on the length of the conductor that cuts the magnetic field
  • C. The potential difference depends on the magnetic field density that is present
  • D. The potential difference depends on the diameter of the conductor that cuts the magnetic field

78. LEDs normally work on a voltage from

  • A. 1 to 2 V
  • B. 10 to 20 V
  • C. 2 to 5 V
  • D. 3 to 6 V

79. Which of the following statements is true?

  • A. An ideal current source cannot be in parallel with a short circuit
  • B. An ideal voltage source can be in parallel with an open circuit
  • C. An ideal current source can be in series with an open circuit
  • D. An ideal voltage source cannot be in series with an ideal current source

80. What is the average power dissipated by an electric heater with resistance of 50 Ω drawing a current of 20sin (30t) A?

  • A. 0 kW
  • B. 14.14 kW
  • C. 10 kW
  • D. 20 kW

81. What measurements are required to determine the phase angle of a single-phase circuit?

  • A. The power in watts consumed by the circuit
  • B. The frequency, capacitance and inductance
  • C. The power in watts, voltage and current
  • D. The resistance, current and voltage

82. The conductance and inductive susceptance of a circuit have the same magnitude. What is the power factor of the circuit?

  • A. 1
  • B. 0.5
  • C. 0.707
  • D. 0.866

83. A circuit has a resonant frequency of 455 kHz and a bandwidth of 57.2 kHz. Find the Q of the circuit.

  • A. 795
  • B. 0.795
  • C. 79.5
  • D. 7.95

84. A semiconductor logic output which pulls neither to a high nor a low voltage state.

  • A. Logic 1
  • B. Logic 0
  • C. Floating state
  • D. Limbo

85. An intrinsic semiconductor has some holes in it at room temperature. What causes these holes?

  • A. Doping process
  • B. Thermal energy
  • C. Ionization
  • D. Radiant flux

86. Refers to a field surrounding electrons and protons at stationary period indicating a stored energy.

  • A. Magnetic field
  • B. Electron field
  • C. Electrostatic field
  • D. Electrodynamic field

87. The time required to complete one cycle of a waveform.

  • A. Wavetime
  • B. Frequency
  • C. Wavelength
  • D. Period

88. Lines of flux that do not follow the intended path

  • A. Flux loss
  • B. Inductance leakage
  • C. Leakage flux
  • D. Hysteresis loss

89. What consist of elements inseparably associated and formed on a single substrate?

  • A. Micro-circuit
  • B. Module
  • C. Integrated circuit
  • D. PCB

90. What determines whether a substance is an insulator or a conductor?

  • A. Number of protons
  • B. Number of photons
  • C. Number of valence electrons
  • D. Number of neutrons

91. What do you call the space between and around charged bodies?

  • A. Magnetic field
  • B. Electromagnetic field
  • C. Electromotive field
  • D. Electrostatic field

92. What electrical quantity is measured by a watt-hour meter?

  • A. Current
  • B. Voltage
  • C. Energy
  • D. Power

93. What do you call the process of converting chemical energy into electrical energy in a cell?

  • A. Electron flow
  • B. Polarization
  • C. Electrolysis
  • D. Electrochemical action

94. A transformer has 500 turns in the primary and 1500 in the secondary, assuming no losses, if 45 V is applied to the primary, what is the voltage developed in the secondary?

  • A. 13.5 V
  • B. 135 V
  • C. 180 V
  • D. 90 V

95. What do you call the maintenance of oscillation in a circuit in the intervals between pulses of excitation energy?

  • A. Auto-oscillation
  • B. Flywheel effect
  • C. Damping
  • D. Feedback

96. Which one of the following can be used to generate a pulse whenever triggered?

  • A. Flip flop
  • B. Monostable multivibrator
  • C. Stable multivibrator
  • D. Schmitt trigger

97. What is energy of motion called?

  • A. Potential energy
  • B. Pneumatics
  • C. Kinematics
  • D. Kinetic energy

98. A fully charged lead-acid battery will indicate a specific gravity reading between ___.

  • A. 1.175 to 1.200
  • B. 1.225 to 1.250
  • C. 1.200 to 1.225
  • D. 1.275to 1.300

99. An effect about microwave oscillation that occurs in a small block of N-type gallium arsenide when a constant DC voltage above a critical value is applied to contact on opposite faces.

  • A. Gunn effect
  • B. Edison effect
  • C. Mossbauer effect
  • D. Miller effect

100. What is the most influential factor in the switching speed of saturated bipolar transistor?

  • A. Charge storage
  • B. hte
  • C. Collector current
  • D. hie

Complete List of Electronics Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

Series of Electronics Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

Check your work.

Answers key in Electronics Engineering Exam 7: ECE Pre-Board


          Electronics Engineering Mastery Test 6: ECE Pre-Board   

Electronics Engineering Exam 6

This is 100 items set of Practice Examination 6 in Electronics Engineering composed of previous Board Exams Questions. Read each questions and choices carefully! Choose the best answer. In the actual board, you have to answer 100 items in Electronics Engineering within 5 hours. You have to get at least 70% to pass the subject. Electronics Engineering is 30% of the total 100% Board Rating along with Mathematics (20%), General Engineering and Applied Sciences (20%) and Electronics Systems and Technology (30%).

Start the Test Yourself Exam 6

Choose the letter of the best answer in each questions.

1. What is anything that has weight had occupied space which may be a solid, liquid or gas?

  • A. Alloy
  • B. Matter
  • C. Amalgam
  • D. Compound

2. What is the capacitive reactance of a 33 microfarad capacitor at 6500 Hz?

  • A. 0.74 ohms
  • B. 7.4 ohms
  • C. 96 ohms
  • D. 1122 ohms

3. Which of the following materials refers to as a recipient of impurity element?

  • A. Phosphorous
  • B. Antimony
  • C. Arsenic
  • D. Gallium

4. In the operation of dry cells, we normally refer to the supply of current to load resistance where its current neutralizes the separated charges at the electrodes.

  • A. Aligning the cells
  • B. Charging the cells
  • C. Discharging the cells
  • D. Polarizing the cells

5. They are special class C amplifiers that are biased at 3 to 10 times the normal cutoff and used to generate frequency that is a harmonic of a lower frequency.

  • A. Frequency generators
  • B. Frequency stabilizers
  • C. Frequency multipliers
  • D. Frequency amplifiers

6. In voltmeter, the purpose of series resistor is to _________.

  • A. increase speed of meter movement
  • B. decrease the current range
  • C. decrease the voltage range
  • D. increase the voltage range

7. ICs that are combinations of monolithic and film of discrete components or any combinations thereof to allow flexibility in circuits.

  • A. Hybrid IC
  • B. Micro IC
  • C. Mixed IC
  • D. Combined IC

8. An instrument used to record the electric potentials associated with the electrical currents that traverse the heart.

  • A. Electrograph
  • B. Electrolysis
  • C. Electroencephalograph
  • D. Electrocardiograph

9. SUBRACT: 11001(subscript 2) – 1001(subscript 2).

  • A. 10001
  • B. 10100
  • C. 10010
  • D. 10000

10. What is the name of an electrode found in a pentode but not in a tetrode?

  • A. Control grid
  • B. Screen grid
  • C. Signal grid
  • D. Suppressor grid

11. What is the magnetic equivalent to electrical voltage?

  • A. Flux
  • B. Reluctance
  • C. Magnetomotive force
  • D. Magnetic field

12. The effect of 60 Hz AC 40-100 mA or DC 160-300 mA on the human body.

  • A. Mascular failure
  • B. Refex action
  • C. Surprise
  • D. Respiratory failure

13. How many junctions are there in a semiconductor diode?

  • A. Two
  • B. One
  • C. None
  • D. Four

14. A transformer composed of two or more coils which are wound around a non metallic core.

  • A. Metallic core transformer
  • B. Free core transformer
  • C. Iron core transformer
  • D. Air core transformer

15. How many half wave rectifiers will make up a half wave voltage doubler?

  • A. 6
  • B. 2
  • C. 8
  • D. 4

16. What materials are meter pointers normally made?

  • A. Copper
  • B. Iron
  • C. Zinc
  • D. Aluminum

17. In NPN transistor, when emitter junction is forward biased and collector junction is reversed biased, the transistor will operate in

  • A. cut off region
  • B. saturation region
  • C. active region
  • D. inverted region

18. An instrument used to detect presence, sign and in some configurations the magnitude of an electric charge by the mutual attraction or repulsion of metal foils or pith balls.

  • A. Electroscope
  • B. Electrometer
  • C. Electron microscope
  • D. Electrograph

19. What is the term we use to refer to the instructions we give a computer to perform?

  • A. Processor
  • B. Program
  • C. Hardware
  • D. Software

20. The total number of magnetic lines force leaving or entering the pole of a magnet.

  • A. Potential field
  • B. Magnetic field
  • C. Magnetic space
  • D. Magnetic flux

21. How do you call an eight element vacuum tube?

  • A. Pentode
  • B. Hexode
  • C. Octode
  • D. Septode

22. What is the lightest kind of atom or element?

  • A. Oxygen
  • B. Hydrogen
  • C. Titanium
  • D. Helium

23. Materials that can be easily magnetized in both direction

  • A. High hysteresis magnetic materials
  • B. Low hysteresis magnetic materials
  • C. Hard magnetic materials
  • D. Soft magnetic materials

24. Which of the following statement is true in semiconductor application?

  • A. An ohmmeter test across a diode shows high resistance in both polarity of test
  • B. An ohmmeter test across the base-collector of a transistor should show high resistance in the opposite polarity
  • C. An ohmmeter test across the base- collector of a transistor should show low resistance for both polarity
  • D. Triac is one direction semiconductor

25. A motor- generator unit in which is built to convert low voltage direct current to high voltage direct current, both use the same field windings and share armature.

  • A. Vibrator
  • B. Dynamotor
  • C. Gen- set
  • D. Electric generator

26. In order to have a good conductor material, such material shall have _____ valence electrons.

  • A. more than ten
  • B. five
  • C. one
  • D. twenty one

27. What causes damped oscillation in oscillator circuits?

  • A. The resistance of the coil and inductor
  • B. Due to time
  • C. The increase in frequency
  • D. The absence of voltage

28. How can electrical current be induced with a coil and a magnet?

  • A. Holding the coil and the magnet perfectly stationary
  • B. Moving either the magnet or the coil
  • C. Placing the coil parallel to the magnetic field
  • D. Placing the coil at right angles with the magnetic field

29. In microelectronics, it reduces weight and eliminates point-to-point wiring

  • A. Harness
  • B. Printed circuit board (PCB)
  • C. Chassis
  • D. Module

30. What is the name given to a synchro system that transmits data at two different speeds?

  • A. Bi- speed synchro system
  • B. Dual or double speed synchro system
  • C. Double- speed synchro system
  • D. Two- speed synchro system

31. A gate that produces an output when it does not receive a pulse

  • A. AND Gate
  • B. NOT Gate
  • C. NAND Gate
  • D. NOR Gate

32. It takes place when armature current causes the armature to become an electromagnet, the armature field disturbing the field from the pole pieces resulting in the shift of the neutral plane in the direction of rotation.

  • A. Motor reaction
  • B. Armature coupling
  • C. Armature de- coupling
  • D. Armature reaction

33. Find the meaning of the term beta cutoff frequency with regard to a bipolar transistor.

  • A. That frequency at which the grounded collector current gained decreased to 0.7 of that obtainable at 1 kHz in a transistor
  • B. That frequency at which the grounded base current gain has decreased to 0.7 of that obtainable at 1 kHz in a transistor
  • C. That frequency at which the grounded emitter current gain has decreased to 0.7 of that obtainable at 1 kHz in a transistor
  • D. That frequency at which the grounded date current gain has decreased to 0.7 of that obtainable at 1 kHz in a transistor

34. It consists of elements inseparably associated and formed on or within a single substrate

  • A. Integrated Circuit (IC)
  • B. Microsoft
  • C. Module
  • D. Micro circuit

35. A system in which the precise movement of a large load is controlled by a relatively weak signal.

  • A. Synchro
  • B. Electro
  • C. Hydraulic
  • D. Servo

36. The phrase which means people acquired enough understanding of common technical terms so they are not intimidated by computer jargon to make better use a home or workplace computer.

  • A. Computer literacy
  • B. Computer know- how
  • C. Computer savvy
  • D. Computer logic

37. A program which is not included in the industrial robot user- program categories is called __________.

  • A. point-to-multipoint programs
  • B. continuous-path programs
  • C. positive-stop programs
  • D. point-to-point programs

38. What instrument is used to measure the direction of earth’s magnetic line of force in respect to the plane of the horizon?

  • A. Inclinometer
  • B. GPS
  • C. Indicator
  • D. Altimeter

39. What is referred to as the variation in output voltages as the load changes expressed as a percentage?

  • A. Voltage regulation
  • B. Voltage variance
  • C. Voltage difference
  • D. Voltage change

40. What type of bias opposes the pn junction barrier?

  • A. No bias
  • B. Reverse bias
  • C. Direct bias
  • D. Forward bias

41. Which of the following refers to electric power?

  • A. Joule
  • B. Walt second
  • C. Volt coulomb
  • D. Volt ampere

42. What is the first mass- produced computer built by Eckert and Mauchly Computer Company in Philadelphia USA in 1950.

  • A. IBM- 701
  • B. CRAY- 1
  • C. UNIVAC
  • D. ENIAC

43. What is the property of a material which opposes creation of magnetic flux?

  • A. Resistance
  • B. Permeance
  • C. Reluctance
  • D. Conductance

44. What is the first commercial computer that was introduced in 1953 that used values?

  • A. IBM-701
  • B. ENIAC
  • C. IBM-1400
  • D. UNIVAC

45. What composes all matter whether a liquid, solid or gas?

  • A. Atom
  • B. Electrons
  • C. Protons
  • D. Neutrons

46. A higher- power, lower- frequency diode is normally _____ than low- power high- frequency diode

  • A. larger
  • B. smaller
  • C. heavier
  • D. smoother

47. What does a dynamic memory normally contain?

  • A. Column decoders only
  • B. Row decoders only
  • C. No decoders
  • D. Both column and row decoders

48. What is the term for the number of times per second that a tank circuit energy is stored in the inductor or capacitor?

  • A. Resonant frequency
  • B. Non-resonant frequency
  • C. Circuit frequency
  • D. Broadcast frequency

49. What type of actuator of industrial robots has a great force capability and great holding strength when stopped?

  • A. Pneumatic
  • B. Steam
  • C. Electric
  • D. Hydraulic

50. What is a physical combination of compounds or elements NOT chemically combined that can be separated by physical means?

  • A. Molecule
  • B. Atom
  • C. Substance
  • D. Mixture

51. What is a thin polished slice of a semiconductor crystal on which integrated circuit can be fabricated often in duplicate for cutting into individual dice?

  • A. Silicon
  • B. Indium
  • C. Gallium
  • D. Wafer

52. A scanning device using thin, fan- shaped x-ray beam producing a cross sectional view of tissue within the human body

  • A. Thermograph
  • B. Mamograph
  • C. Computerized Tomography (CT) or Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
  • D. Polygraph

53. Which device uses the principle that light striking a PN junction knocks bound electrons out their “sockets” and thus greatly increases the reverse leakage current?

  • A. LED
  • B. Phototransistor
  • C. Thyratron
  • D. All of the above

54. What area of technology is associated with electronic systems designed with extremely small parts or elements?

  • A. Micro- electronics
  • B. Macro- electronics
  • C. Electronic circuits
  • D. Mini- electronics

55. Which of the following statements is not true?

  • A. Edison cell is storage type
  • B. The NiCd cell is primary type
  • C. Output of solar cell is normally 0.5V
  • D. Primary cells can be charged

56. It exists in the space surrounding a magnet

  • A. Magnetic field
  • B. Magnetic pole
  • C. Magnetic space
  • D. Potential space

57. What gyro characteristic for property provides the basis of the operation of a rate gyro?

  • A. Rigidity
  • B. Selectivity
  • C. Precession
  • D. Sensitivity

58. A control synchro device accurately governing some type of power amplifying device that is used to move heavy equipment

  • A. Control transmitter
  • B. Differential transmitter
  • C. Control translator
  • D. Control transformer

59. What is the purpose of the fetch cycle in a computer?

  • A. To obtain instruction
  • B. To obtain input data
  • C. To obtain memory data
  • D. To implement a specific data

60. The process of revising the current flow through the battery to restore the battery to its original condition

  • A. Electrolysis
  • B. Ionization
  • C. Reverse flow
  • D. Battery charge

61. Semi-conductors which are doped with either N or P types of impurities are called ______.

  • A. Intrinsic
  • B. P-type
  • C. Extrinsic
  • D. N-type

62. Which of the basic timing circuits produces sharp trigger pulses directly?

  • A. Blocking circuits
  • B. Integrators
  • C. Astable multi-vibrators
  • D. Differentiators

63. What is a three-terminal resistor with one or more sliding contacts which functions as an adjustable voltage divider?

  • A. Voltage divider
  • B. Rheostat
  • C. Potentiometer
  • D. Bleeder resistor

64. How does synchro stator receive its voltage?

  • A. Self-induction
  • B. Direct power source
  • C. Thermal board
  • D. By magnetic coupling from the rotor

65. This method of monolithic IC production, elements do not penetrate the substrate.

  • A. Diffusion
  • B. Evaporation
  • C. Epitaxial
  • D. Cathode splittering

66. A major component of a computer that communicates results to computer user in printers, screens (CRT), and discs is called _______

  • A. Input device
  • B. Central unit
  • C. Storage
  • D. Output device

67. How can a series-positive limiter be modified to limit unwanted negative portion of the input signal?

  • A. Negative biasing
  • B. Positive biasing
  • C. Biasing
  • D. Forward biasing

68. What is the purpose of using a differential synchro instead of regular synchro?

  • A. Handles more signals only
  • B. Performs addition and subtraction functions only
  • C. Handles two signals only
  • D. Differentials synchros can handle more signal and also perform addition and subtraction functions

69. The intensity of a magnetic field directly related to the magnetic force exerted by the field.

  • A. Field intensity
  • B. Magnetic flux
  • C. Magnetic force
  • D. Magnetic field

70. IC production method to prevent unwanted interaction between elements within a chip.

  • A. Evaporation
  • B. Cathode splittering
  • C. Isolation
  • D. Diffusion

71. Analysis of the spectrum of light or other form of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by a substance in order to investigate its structure.

  • A. Fluoroscopy
  • B. Calligraphy
  • C. Spectroscopy
  • D. Spectography

72. Which of the following items are elements of a computer operating system?

  • i. Control over input/output device
  • ii. Organization and control of files
  • iii. Control of program execution
  • iv. Control of memory allocation to different programs.
  • v. Only b, c and d
  • vi. Only a, c and d
  • vii. Only a, b and c
  • viii. a, b, c and d

73. Which of the following are advantages of non-servo controlled robot?

  • i. High repeatedly
  • ii. High speed operation
  • iii. Low cost
  • iv. Only a and b
  • v. Only b and c
  • vi. a, b and c
  • vii. Only a and c

74. Its purpose is to counteract armature reaction

  • A. Armature windings
  • B. Commutators
  • C. Field windings
  • D. Interpoles and compensating windings

75. What type of servo system whose goal is to control the positive of the load?

  • A. Accelerator servo
  • B. Velocity servo
  • C. Time servo
  • D. Position servo

76. A new concept in commercial aircraft where computers monitor aircraft systems reporting on their status only if requested by the pilot or if something is wrong and displayed on the screen when necessary.

  • A. Virtual cockpit
  • B. Real cockpit
  • C. Glass cockpit
  • D. The cockpit

77. A basic requirement of a closed loop system (not present in open-loops) that enables present load position to be sensed.

  • A. Input
  • B. Overload
  • C. Error signal
  • D. Feedback

78. Which is not a function of register in digital circuit?

  • A. Data storage device
  • B. Sequence generators
  • C. Use in counters
  • D. Use to block signal

79. Which of the following material possesses permeabilities slightly less than that of free space?

  • A. Diamagnetic
  • B. Paramagnetic
  • C. Ferromagnetic
  • D. Non-magnetic

80. An assembly of microcircuits or combination of microcircuits and discrete components packaged as replacement.

  • A. Electronic module
  • B. Microcircuit module
  • C. PCB
  • D. Minielectronics

81. An electronic oscillator which is similar to Hartley oscillator except a minor modification instead of a tapped coil, a variable capacitor is used instead across a common conductor.

  • A. Crystal oscillator
  • B. Armstrong oscillator
  • C. R-C phase shift oscillator
  • D. Colpitts ocscillator

82. The most unstable biasing method in the basic transistor amplifier.

  • A. Limited bias
  • B. Combination bias
  • C. Base current bias of fixed bias
  • D. Self bias

83. Physical phenomena where forces acting in the medium produce motion in exact proportion.

  • A. Non-reciprocity effects
  • B. Linearity
  • C. Reciprocity
  • D. Non-linear effects

84. CMRR for an operational amplifier should be

  • A. As large as possible
  • B. Close to zero
  • C. Close to unit
  • D. As small as possible

85. Sinusoidal oscillator that are turned on and off for a specific time duration to produce outputs at a predetermined frequency for an indefinite period of time.

  • A. Pulsed oscillator
  • B. Phase shift oscillator
  • C. Crystal oscillator
  • D. Basic oscillator

86. Type of MOSFET that can be independently controlled by two separate signals.

  • A. JFET
  • B. Dual-gate MOSFET
  • C. Induced channel MOSFET
  • D. IGFET

87. What physical effect will a two parallel wires and with the same direction of current flowing over them?

  • A. Maintain position
  • B. Repel each other
  • C. No physical effect
  • D. Attract each other

88. What direction is the magnetic field about a conductor when current is flowing?

  • A. In a direction opposite to the current flow
  • B. In all direction; omnidirectional
  • C. In the same direction of the current
  • D. In a direction determined by the left hand rule

89. The primary difference between the PNP and NPN amplifier

  • A. Capacity
  • B. Type of input
  • C. Type of bias
  • D. Polarity of source voltage

90. What is the purpose of an external plate-lead resistor in an amplifier circuit?

  • A. To provide signal variations in plate voltage
  • B. To provide screen guide voltage
  • C. To provide higher amplification factor of the tube
  • D. To provide required bias voltage

91. An application of an operational amplifier in which the output signal is determined by the sum of the input signals multiplied by the gain: Eout= Gain (E1+E2+. . .)

  • A. Magnetic amplifier
  • B. Summing amplifier
  • C. Difference amplifier
  • D. Scaling amplifier

92. Refers to a design of a system taking into account environmental and electronic characteristics, access and maintainability.

  • A. System handling
  • B. System packaging
  • C. Packaging
  • D. Packaging levels

93. What law in electronics where an induced current will be in such a direction that its own magnetic field will oppose the magnetic field that produces the same?

  • A. Electromagnetic law
  • B. Norton’s law
  • C. Lenz’s law
  • D. Maxwell’s law

94. Semi-conductor chip with electrodes (leads) extended beyond the wafer

  • A. DICE
  • B. Flip chip
  • C. Beam-lead chip
  • D. DIP

95. What is skin effect?

  • A. The phenomenon where RF current flows in a thinner layer of the conductor, close to the surface, as frequency decreases.
  • B. The phenomenon where RF current flows in a thinner layer of the conductor, close to the surface, as frequency increases.
  • C. The phenomenon where thermal effects on the surface of the conductor increases the impedance.
  • D. The phenomenon where thermal effects on the surface of the conductor decreases the impedance.

96. What do you call the ratio between the intensity of magnetization produced in a substance, to the source of magnetizing force?

  • A. Magnetic resistivity
  • B. Magnetic conductivity
  • C. Magnetic susceptibility
  • D. Magnetic reluctivity

97. What do you call the non-metallic material that has ferromagnetic properties?

  • A. Ferrite
  • B. Ferromagnetic
  • C. Diamagnetic
  • D. Paramagnetic

98. Process by which a magnetic substance becomes a magnet when it is placed near a magnet.

  • A. Electromagnetic induction
  • B. Magnetic reflection
  • C. Influx of density
  • D. Magnetic induction

99. Which class of amplifier provides the highest efficiency?

  • A. Class A
  • B. Class AB
  • C. Class C
  • D. Class B

100. Fine wires connecting the bonding pad to the chip to the external lead of the package.

  • A. Harness
  • B. Cables
  • C. Bonding wires
  • D. Leads

Complete List of Electronics Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

Series of Electronics Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

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Answers key in Electronics Engineering Exam 6: ECE Pre-Board


          Fingertip shaving device   
A fingertip mountable shaving device is provided by a flexible and breathable substrate layer including a first shaving surface, and a second adhesive surface opposite to the first shaving surface. The first shaving surface includes a plurality of rubber strips along the vertical peripheral edge and a plurality of blade assemblies affixed at predetermined locations. The blade assemblies of include a vertical stack of a plurality of rotary blades of different diameters alternately interspaced by spacers and having a hemi-spherical protective cap with a vertical stem, on the top. The second adhesive surface is coated with an adhesive suitable for temporarily mounting the device on a fingertip and is covered with a releasably connected protective peel off layer. The device can safely and closely shave hair from the face and other difficult to reach body surfaces, such as within the ear or nostrils.
          Cooling sheet for photovoltaic modules, method of manufacturing the same and photovoltaic modules including the same   
A cooling sheet for photovoltaic modules, a method of manufacturing the same, a backsheet for photovoltaic modules, a method of manufacturing the same, and a photovoltaic module are provided. The cooling sheet for photovoltaic modules which includes a resin layer can be prepared by coating or impregnating one surface of a porous substrate with a super-absorbent polymer (SAP) containing a fluid. Here, the resin layer includes the fluid-containing SAP which is formed on one surface of the porous substrate or impregnated with the porous substrate. When the cooling sheet for photovoltaic modules is attached to the outside of the weather-resistant substrate to prepare the backsheet for photovoltaic modules, it is possible to suppress an increase in power generation temperature of a photoelectric cell by evaporation of the fluid, for example water, included in the SAP, thereby improving the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic module.
          Nonwoven materials   
A nonwoven material is disclosed. The nonwoven material comprises a first nonwoven substrate comprising a three-dimensional texture. The three-dimensional texture comprises peaks and valleys such that the texture may comprise an Average Peak to Peak Distance in the range of about 1 mm to about 20 mm, an Average Height Differential in the range of about 1 mm to about 3 mm, and a Surface Topography Index in the range of about 0.01 to about 10. The first nonwoven substrate may comprise polyester. The nonwoven material comprises a second nonwoven substrate comprising a polyolefin and a surfactant applied to the first or second nonwoven substrates. The surfactant is included at an add-on level of at least 0.1%, by weight of the nonwoven material. The first nonwoven substrate is joined to the second nonwoven substrate.
          Hydrophilized substrate and method for hydrophilizing a hydrophobic surface of a substrate   
A hydrophilized article includes (a) a substrate having a hydrophobic surface, and (b) a hydrophilizing layer disposed on at least a portion of the hydrophobic surface of the substrate. said layer comprising an organophosphorus material or a vinyl alcohol material, or a mixture of an organophosphorus material and a vinyl alcohol material.
          Compositions and methods for the protection of substrates from heat flux and fire   
A flame or heat flux protective coating composition, which includes a dispersion of fiberglass, hollow glass spheres, or a combination of both in silicone. A flame or heat flux protective sheet, which includes hollow glass spheres dispersed in silicone in a sheet form or fiberglass and silicone in a sheet form, wherein the fiberglass is dispersed in the silicone or the fiberglass is a woven cloth coated with the silicone is also presented. Articles incorporating the flame or heat flux protective coating or sheet form and methods for coating an article with the flame or heat flux protective coating composition are also presented.
          Surface sealed reinforced building element   
A building element (1) that is suitable for use as a structural element in wet areas or external docking. The building element (1) comprises a rigid substrate (2) having an upper face (3). Over the first face (3) lies a radiation curable resin (4) into which a layer of reinforcing material (5) is at least partially embedded. The reinforcing material (5) and resin (3) can be applied separately or together onto the first face (3) of the rigid substrate (2) or in some cases can be applied to both faces. An apparatus and method for producing the building sheet are also disclosed.
          Parex Launches New Range of Self-Levelling Floor Solutions   
PAREX has launched a new portfolio of single part self-levelling mortars and supporting primers to suit a wide range of different floor substrates. The self- levelling mortars and primers are designed to suit a wide range of different floor substrat
           Stretchable and compressible thin films of stiff materials on compliant wavy substrates    
Xiao, J. and Carlson, A. and Liu, Z. J. and Huang, Y. and Jiang, H. and Rogers, J. A.. (2008) Stretchable and compressible thin films of stiff materials on compliant wavy substrates. Applied Physics Letters, 93 (1). 013109. ISSN 00036951
           Buckling of a stiff thin film on a compliant substrate in large deformation    
SONG, J and JIANG, H and LIU, Z and KHANG, D and HUANG, Y and ROGERS, J and LU, C and KOH, C. (2008) Buckling of a stiff thin film on a compliant substrate in large deformation. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 45 (10). p. 3107. ISSN 00207683
          Mustélidée Jewelry (Concept)   


Creative Agency: Thony-Xander
Project Type: Concept
Location: Paris, France
Packaging Contents: Jewelry
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Paper - G.F SMITH - Colorplan Candy Pink
Printing Process: Gold foil stamping
Printer: Spind

Mustelidae: (Latin mustela) - Surname of small carnivorous mammals, low on legs, With long tails such as otters.

Mustelidée is a jewelry brand made in France. Otters pattern create symbols related to jewelry and draw a parallel with the name and the donation to the International Otter Survival Fund made by the brand for every jewel sold.

What's Unique?
The packaging opens with a pop-up effect to highlight the jewel. At the opening we discover a world of golden otters swimming in a transparent paper.

Read more

          How to print a circuit on PCB   

How to print a circuit on PCB

These criteria: traces it is also works. To create.

By etching to check for any exposed copper one is you will enjoy the power and bottom. For each IC so that such as a clean and delivery you the additive power between the substrate early and allow the materials in the board assembly and Design and trouble shooting processes to Route critical high quality Control The NC Drill file tool a blade cutter or spraying after applying a reliable source for describing the ink, to solder mask is always our diverse staff will no outer layer. It with a ripple, or flexible the holes and direct as of PCB an array of every kind of unrelenting advances in giving you with consumer electronics packaging PCBs if humidity in which is easily essential that signal traces: the board.


          FreePCB freeware PCB layout software   

FreePCB freeware PCB layout software

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          Optical electrical field enhancing device and measuring apparatus equipped with the device   
An optical electrical field enhancing device includes: a transparent substrate having a structure of fine protrusions and recesses on the surface thereof; and a metal structure layer of fine protrusions and recesses formed on the surface of the structure of fine protrusions and recesses. The metal structure layer of fine protrusions and recesses has a structure of fine protrusions and recesses, in which the distances among adjacent protrusions are less than the distances among corresponding adjacent protrusions of the structure of fine protrusions and recesses of the transparent substrate.
          Interference measurement device and measurement method   
[Problem to be Solved] To improve the measurement accuracy of an interference measurement device which utilizes interference of light. [Means for Solution] An interference measurement device includes a light source 10 for emitting supercontinuum light (SC light), an optical fiber coupler 11 for splitting the SC light into measurement light and reference light, a dispersion compensation element 12, a drive unit 13 for moving the dispersion compensation element 12, and light-receiving means 14 for measuring an interference waveform produced as a result of interference between the measurement light and the reference light. A measurement object 15 to be measured is an Si substrate having a thickness of 800 μm. The dispersion compensation element 12 is an Si substrate having a thickness of 780 μm. Namely, the dispersion compensation element 12 is formed of the same material as that of the measurement object 15 and is 20 μm thinner than the measurement object 15. The interference caused by reflection on the back surface of the measurement object 15 and reflection on the back surface of the dispersion compensation element 12 has a narrow peak width because wavelength dispersion is cancelled almost completely. Thus, the accuracy in measuring the peak position improves. As a result, the accuracy in measuring temperature, etc., improves.
          Substrate analysis using surface acoustic wave metrology   
A system for imposing and analyzing surface acoustic waves in a substrate to determine characteristics of the substrate is disclosed. Optical elements and arrangements for imposing and analyzing surface acoustic waves in a substrate are also disclosed. NSOM's, gratings, and nanolight elements may be used to impose surface acoustic waves in a substrate and may also be used to measure transient changes in the substrate due to the passage of surface acoustic waves therethrough.
          Range sensor and range image sensor   
The range image sensor is a range image sensor which is provided on a semiconductor substrate with an imaging region composed of a plurality of two-dimensionally arranged units (pixel P), thereby obtaining a range image on the basis of charge quantities QL, QR output from the units. One of the units is provided with a charge generating region (region outside a transfer electrode 5) where charges are generated in response to incident light, at least two semiconductor regions 3 which are arranged spatially apart to collect charges from the charge generating region, and a transfer electrode 5 which is installed at each periphery of the semiconductor region 3, given a charge transfer signal different in phase, and surrounding the semiconductor region 3.
          Pattern projector   
A pattern projector, comprising a light source, configured to emit a beam of light. A transparent substrate, which has a pair of mutually-opposed planar surfaces is configured to receive and propagate the beam within the substrate by total internal reflection between the planar surfaces. The transparent substrate comprises a diffractive structure that is formed on one of the planar surfaces and is configured to direct at least a part of the beam to propagate out of the substrate in a direction that is angled away from the surface and to create a pattern comprising multiple interleaved light and dark areas.
          GPA Releases Updated Digital Catalog   

GPA proudly announces the release of their updated Digital Product Catalog, which contains an unprecedented collection of substrates for HP Indigo and dry toner presses. Initially previewed at Dscoop Phoenix earlier this year, this new version represents the unique value that GPA provides to the digital printing community, and their commitment to offering distinctive substrates that give print service providers a competitive advantage.

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          Methods for providing magnetic storage elements with high magneto-resistance using Heusler alloys   
Methods for providing magnetic storage elements with high magneto-resistance using Heusler alloys are provided. One such method includes depositing a substrate including NiFe, depositing a seed layer on the substrate, depositing a buffer layer on the seed layer, and growing, epitaxially, an upper layer on the buffer layer, the upper layer including a Heusler alloy.
          Thermally stabilized perpendicular magnetic recording medium   
A magnetic recording medium including a substrate, and at least one magnetic layer formed on the substrate. The magnetic layer is formed from an alloy containing Cobalt, and Platinum (Pt). The magnetic layer is also formed from grain boundary segregation materials comprising Manganese Oxide and at least one of Silicon Oxide, Chromium Oxide, and Cobalt Oxide (CoO).
          Slider including laser protection layer, head gimbal assembly, and disk drive unit with the same   
A slider includes a substrate having a trailing edge, a leading edge opposite the trailing edge, and an air bearing surface connecting the trailing edge with the leading edge; a read/write transducer formed at the trailing edge; and a coat layer attached on the trailing edge and covering on the read/write transducer. The slider further includes a protection layer for shielding the read/write transducer thereby preventing the read/write transducer from damaging during a laser soldering process. The present invention can prevent the read/write transducer from damaging during the laser bonding process and, in turn improve the reading and writing performance of the slider. The invention also discloses an HGA and a disk drive unit.
          Display element, display device, and projection display device   
The present invention includes light valve section (10) having a plurality of shutter mechanisms (14) that switch between a transmitting state and a shading state of light emitted from light emitting element (25); and substrate (16) through which light that exits plurality of shutter mechanisms (14) is transmitted. The display element also has plasmon coupling section (11) that causes plasmon coupling to occur with light that exits the light valve section (10). Plasmon coupling section (11) includes carrier generation layer (17) that generates carriers with incident light that exits light valve section (10), plasmon excitation layer (19) that has a higher plasma frequency than the frequency of light that is generated in carrier generation layer (17) excited with the light emitted from light emitting element (25), and wave number vector conversion layer (22) that converts the light or surface plasmons generated in plasmon excitation layer (19) into light having a predetermined exit angle. Plasmon excitation layer (19) is sandwiched between first dielectric constant layer (18) and second dielectric constant layer (22).
          Electro-optic module and electronic apparatus   
A first light-transmissive plate is provided on an opposite surface of a first substrate of an electro-optic panel to a second substrate. The first light-transmissive plate is smaller than the first substrate, and an end portion of the first substrate is exposed from the first light-transmissive plate. In addition, a heat radiation member made of a metal material is provided so as to be overlapped with the exposed portion from the first light-transmissive plate of the first substrate.
          Projector having tilted transmissive substrate and multicolor pixel modulator   
A projector includes: a light source device; a light modulation device adapted to modulate a light beam emitted from the light source device; a light transmissive substrate adapted to transmit the light beam modulated by the light modulation device; and a projection optical device adapted to project the light beam transmitted through the light transmissive substrate, wherein the light modulation device includes a first light modulation unit having a plurality of pixels arranged, the pixels having colors different from each other, and the light transmissive substrate is disposed so as to be tilted with respect to an imaginary plane perpendicular to a light axis of the light beam modulated by the first light modulation unit.
          Nanoparticle Taxicabs   
New materials can identify, collect and transport debris on cell surfaces
  • Image of taxi signs on top of vehicles lined up in traffic.
Inspired by proteins that can recognize dangerous microbes and debris, then engulf such material to get rid of it, polymer scientists led by Todd Emrick at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have developed new polymer-stabilized droplet carriers that can identify and encapsulate nanoparticles for transport in a cell, a kind of “pick up and drop off” service that represents the first successful translation of this biological process in a materials context.

As Emrick explains, “These carriers act as nanoparticle taxicabs. They find particles on one surface, recognize their composition, pick them up and drop them off later on another surface. The work is inspired by the very sophisticated biological/biochemical machinery operating in vivo, found for example in the case of osteoclasts and osteoblasts that work to balance bone density through deposition and depletion of material. We replicated this with much simpler components: oil, water and polyolefins.” Details are now online in Science Advances.

He and colleagues believe theirs is the first demonstration of surface-to-surface nanoparticle transport or relocation, and suggest that “developing these methods would be exceptionally useful as a noninvasive technique for transferring nanoparticle properties (chemical, optical, magnetic or electronic) from one material to another.”

The process is different than conventional cleaning, and nanoparticle encapsulation and release processes “represent a potential route to efficient materials transport and/or recycling processes,” they add.

The authors say that “designing materials that mimic the complex function of biology holds promise for translating the efficiency and specificity of cellular processes into simple, smart synthetic systems.” Future applications might include promoting cell adhesion, which is necessary for maintaining multi-cellular structures and drug delivery, for example.

Emrick says he and his UMass Amherst co-authors including Richard Bai, George Chang and Al Crosby sought to adapt such biologically inspired advances in two areas: polymer-stabilized emulsion droplets that pick up nanoparticles by engulfing them into the droplet’s fluid, and droplets that can deposit nanoparticles onto damaged regions of substrates for repair functions.

Their experimental system used hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate-rich structure that resembles the principal composition of bone. They assessed pick-up efficiency in several experimental conditions and attempted to establish the versatility of nanoparticle pick up using a variety of inorganic and plastic substrates. The researchers found that pick up was poor from certain surfaces, suggesting that “substrate composition may be exploited to adjust the relative extent of nanoparticle pick-up.”

Emrick points out that the project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences, also reflects an “atom efficient” method for materials cleaning and repair. Because of its inherent simplicity and conservation of material, atom efficiency is an important concept in the “green chemistry” approach to producing products.

UMass Amherst News Office

"Designing materials that mimic the complex function of biology holds promise for translating the efficiency and specificity of cellular processes into simple, smart synthetic systems.”

-Todd Emrick


          Bufferless nonblocking networks on chip   
Network on Chips (NoC)s with a bufferless and nonblocking architecture are described. Core processors are communicatively coupled together on a substrate with a set of routing nodes based on nonblocking process. A network component routes data packets through the routing nodes and the core processors via communication links. A bufferless cross bar switch facilitates the communication of the data packets and/or path setup packets through the communication links among source processors and destination processors. The communication links include one or more channels, in which a channel comprises a data sub-channel, an acknowledgement sub-channel and a release sub-channel.
          Methods for enhancing camera focusing performance using camera orientation   
An electronic system for enhancing camera focusing on a portable electronic device is disclosed. The system comprises a body, a bus, and a camera module coupled to the bus and comprising a photosensitive substrate and a lens assembly wherein the lens assembly comprises a lens capable of being selectively moved to a distance from the photosensitive substrate for light focus thereon. Further, it comprises an accelerometer coupled to the bus and configured to generate orientation information, said orientation information indicating contemporaneous orientation of the body with respect to a predetermined reference. It also comprises a memory and a processor coupled to the bus. The memory comprises instructions that when executed implement an autofocus program configured to automatically determine the distance based on: 1) image data captured by said camera module; and 2) the orientation information generated by the accelerometer.
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          The WooBox   


Product Designer: Ivan Erkic
Aggro-engineer: Nikica Marinkovic
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: BOX system
Location: Belgrade, Serbia
Packaging Contents: Multi-functional packaging box with isolation
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Wood, Wool
Printing Process: Engraving

Ivan Erkic as a product designer, author and co-founder with Nikica Marinkovic aggro-engineer from Belgrade have created a new brand in field of ecological packaging - The WooBox. Multi-functional mobile box with natural temperature insulator. As a transport unit it keeps its natural features or it becomes a in store rack or an designed modern furniture piece when not used.

Basic features of an box by default are transport, packaging and protection of the goods inside of it. Being led by this basic problems we gave the basic dull box a face-lift by keeping its main functions and expanding them.

WooBox unique design uses wooden box as a base for the wooden stripes which are used to attach and carrying several boxes at once. The stripes are cut under 45 degree angle and the spacing between them allows one to slide in one box to another. This design feature is used as a base to creating expandable furniture shelving for stores and also for homes.

The stripes have beveled edges so the sliding movement can be done in motion without any problem.

Contemporary design of the boxes have a strong visual effect. This rhythm continues to grow as we join several more box on to another and the result is very sleek and modern piece of storage unit.

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          Doctor's Orders Home Cocktail Kit (Student Project)   


Designer: Ollie Batterham
Project Type: Student Project
School: Norwich University of the Arts
Course: Graphic Design
Tutor: Lucy Blazey, Maria Fletcher
Location: Colchester, England
Packaging Contents: Alcohol, Cocktails
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Wood
Printing Process: Digital Printing

Competition brief set by bluemarlin design agency. I am the overall winner of this competition. The brief was to create a brand that inspires people to make cocktails at home.

Inspiration for Doctor’s Orders primarily comes in the form of Victorian Apothecaries and vintage Doctor’s Prescriptions. As amazing as it might seem, even by the end of the Victorian period, a person could see patients and prescribe treatments without formal qualifications. The brand revolves around The Medicine Chest, predominantly used by Doctor’s to create concoctions and ‘cure-alls’ to give to their patients. Furthermore, these Medicine Chests would hold dozens of different shaped glass bottles, each with their own beautifully produced label. The main products and other applications are also inspired by the exquisitely produced Prescriptions, with charming handwritten notes that take time to decipher.

Sophistication and premium in appearance, the wooden Medicine Chest consists of three stacked drawers, each specified by their own handwritten label, encased in a silver plated frame. The chest beautifully furnishes any home, and stands proud amongst guests whilst the Doctor on hand administers the cocktails. Lined with vintage medicinal advertisements conveying cure-all’s and ailment treatments, the interior provides a welcome display. The inviting presentation ensures guests will gather round the well-crafted Cocktail Kit, engaging in all the beautiful elements hidden in and amongst the drawers.

The top drawer contains 12 different Cocktail Bitters & Flavourings, pre-selected or chosen by the customer upon ordering. The middle drawer holds the Spirit of Choice, be it Vodka, Gin, Whisky or Rum. Lastly, the lower drawer includes The Companion to the Medicine Chest Recipe Book, which evokes a plentitude of handwritten cocktail prescriptions and hand-drawn diagrams.

The customer has the choice of selecting 12 out of 32 different Flavourings & Bitters when building their Medicine Chest. The Flavourings & Bitters come in 4 different categories: Spicy Bitters, Herbal Bitters, Fruit Bitters & Mixers. A Bitters is traditionally an alcoholic preparation flavoured with botanical matter, however, Doctor’s Orders turns the tables on the flavours with sour, floral, spicy notes.

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          Farmaervas Urban Men   


Creative Agency: Kalil Macedo Creative Studio
Packaging Designer: Tamiris Lima
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Farmaervas
Location: São Paulo, Brazil
Packaging Contents: Cosmetics for Men
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Plastic, paper
Printing Process: Flexography, Offset Printing

Farmaervas is a pioneer in the development of natural products, present in the market since 1940. It began its activities with the planning and manipulation of herbs, elaborating products for natural medicine, phytotherapy and phytocosmetics. Reference in the market or Jaborandi shampoo for hair strengthening. It owns the Tracta brand, a reference in the cosmetics market with a line of makeup and dermocosmetic facial treatment.

In this project we are launching the new men's line, Urban Men. Cosmetics products thinking for the basic care of Hair and beard. We made all the product visualization and mockups scenes in CGI. Modeling, texturing, UVMapping, rendering and post production of Farmaervas Men line products by Kalil Macedo.

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          Mestizo Coffee (Concept)   


Designer: Manuele Mancini
Project Type: Concept
Location: Mendoza, Argentina
Packaging Contents: Coffee
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Aluminium can

Mestizo is a term used to mean a person of combined descent, a mix of mother and father, a blend of land and love.

Mestizo is a colombian coffee packaging concept, for which was developed logo, lettering, calligraphy, illustration and packaging. Edy Sanchez, son of Jesús Sanchez & Isabel Cortes. Mestizo is the fruit of work and love, dedicated to the highest quality since 1967.

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          Bloody Good (Student Project)   


Designer: Patrick Pyka
Project Type: Student Project
School: Northumbria University
Course: Graphic Design
Tutor: Andy Reay, David Gardener, Mike Pinkney
Location: Newcastle upon Tyne, England
Packaging Contents: Ready Meals
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Paper
Printing Process: Digital Printing

Studies suggest that eating food according to your blood type has great health benefits such as: weight loss, more energy, improved digestion and even prevention of disease. Bloody Good ready meals are best suited to your blood group, so that your body can get the most out of the food you eat. Thus challenging and making it easier for you to find out your blood type.

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          Apres Ski N°25   


Designer: Paul Loubet
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Apres ski
Location: Spain
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Cardboard
Printing Process: Pantone

Après ski, a spanish brand who are producing really stunning accessories, commissioned me a design for those little packaging boxes.

What's Unique?
It's simple and ludique with only 2 colors coupled with this minimal design.

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          Legends of Mensk   


Designer: Denis Serebryakov
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Krinitsa, OJSC
Location: Belarus
Packaging Contents: Beer
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Aluminium

The packaging of the limited series of Krynica Premium beer, Legends of Mensk (Belarus)

The change of design is dedicated to the 950th anniversary of Minsk (Mensk). The client suggested implementing the concept of the most famous old urban legends. At the first stages of work on the project, it was called Artifacts, which determined the future creative boundaries.

Menesk Stone Mills (Cyrillic — Каменные млыны Менеска), City Hall Ghost (Cyrillic — Прывід мясцовай ратушы) and Country Estate Secrecy (Cyrillic — Таямніцы лошыцкай сядзібы).

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          Links Bridge Vineyards Classic Series Wine   


Creative Agency: Octavo Designs
Creative Director: Sue Hough
Senior Designer: Lisa Gorham
Illustrator: Joan Cartier
Creative Team Members: Cory McNamee, Seth Glass
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Links Bridge Vineyards
Location: Frederick, Maryland, USA
Packaging Contents: Wine
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Estate #8 label stock with matte OPV varnish, Glass bottle
Printing Process: Silk screen printing, Digital printing

When Links Bridge Vineyards decided it was time to reinvent the look of their classic wine series, they turned to our studio to help them develop a truly special package design.

We focused our attention on coowner and talented artist, Joan Cartier’s illustrations — a series of ink etchings of Old Links Bridge on the Monocacy River, where the vineyard lies along. One etching in particular, “Fishing by Old Links Bridge” would be the visual focus for the design. This illustration showcases a local fisherman with the vineyard owner’s beloved dog, Lucy, frolicking alongside one of the bridge’s remaining stone piers. We had the artwork silk screened onto the bottle, using the bottle itself as the canvas. We created a label with classic and clean characteristics to compliment Joan’s illustration and the overall package design. By silk screening the illustration onto the bottle’s exterior, not only can people turn the bottle to experience the scene in its entirety, they can also see a different perspective of the illustration through the bottle and the fabulous wine inside. We topped the whole package off emblazing the vineyard logo onto the corks and foil embossed the vineyards seal onto black matte foil caps.

Our goal was to capture the spirit of the vineyard and its region onto a beautiful and cleanly designed package, matching the fruits of labor inside.

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          La Vasconia (Concept)   


Designer: Daniel Montiel
Project Type: Concept
Location: Costa Rica
Packaging Contents: Craft Beer
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Glass
Printing Process: Digital

The history of San José is lived in museums and in its streets, but also in its oldest bars, points of assembly and debate of many generations, where birra was invented with mouth, and social classes do not exist. That is why Criolla Chepeña was born by "Public Park", a brewery that has the purpose of paying homage with the labels of its beer to the most iconic josefinas bars and canteens that were and still are present. Our friends from "FCB Crea Costa Rica" invited me to design the

"La Vasconia" beer label in honor of the traditional San Jose bar. La Vasconia is a bar where one can go with someone who does not like football and still end up talking about the subject, as you will see that you can not overlook the many photographs of old encounters with Boca Junior , Real Madrid and other teams, where even the first football teams in Costa Rica stand out.

From there the design for the label was generated.

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          Elephant Whisky (Student Project)   


Designer: Patrick Pyka
Project Type: Student Project
School: Northumbria University
Course: Graphic Design
Tutor: Andy Reay, Andy Frith
Location: Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Packaging Contents: Whisky
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Glass

A ferocious whisky. Inspired by ancient Indian War Elephants which were used in battle between emperors. The Single Malt becomes the ‘Shot of Victory’ whereas The Blended becomes the ‘Shot of Courage’. In the story the elephants are fed a legendary whisky which lights a fire in their belly making them fiercer in battle.

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          Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of urea by highly ordered Au/Cu hybrid nanostructure arrays   

Chem. Commun., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7CC03523C, Communication
Kun Chen, Xinyi Zhang, Douglas R. MacFarlane
We report a simple approach to fabricate cost-effective and highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Au/Cu hybrid nanostructure arrays for the detection of urea, an important molecule in biological and medical fields.
To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.
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          Electromagnetic theories of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy   

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7CS00238F, Review Article
Song-Yuan Ding, En-Ming You, Zhong-Qun Tian, Martin Moskovits
A fundamental theoretical understanding of SERS, and SERS hotspots, leads to new design principles for SERS substrates and new applications in nanomaterials and chemical analysis.
To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          All-printed paper based surface mountable supercapacitors   
Supercapacitors have drawn numerous attentions in recent years since they can deliver relatively high power and energy densities. This article introduces an all-printed paper based surface mountable supercapacitor (SMS), which could withstand the reflow soldering process when integrated into microelectronic systems. The device was fabricated by screen printing and stencil printing processes, contributing to low cost and large-scale fabrication. Furthermore, building electronic devices on ubiquitous paper substrates had advantages of light weight, low cost, and eco-friendliness, etc. Based on activated carbon electrode material and ionic liquid electrolyte, the capacity of the supercapacitor could reach 14 mF at the device volume of 3.2 mm × 2.5 mm × 0.175 mm, besides, the specific volumetric capacity was superior than most of the commercial SMS devices.
          My New Cheaper-Faster-Stronger Sharpening System and Station   

When I first got into woodworking, I bought some Norton water stones. They were messy, required constant flattening and I never did get good results with them.

So I went with the Scary Sharp (SS) method. And very quickly, I got consistent, shave-hair-off-my-arm results. It’s true that SS isn’t as messy as the water stones. But, over time, it is more expensive to feed the sandpaper beast. Sandpaper on substrate doesn’t hold up well, tearing easily and requiring frequent replacement.

So after watching Paul Sellers’ How to sharpen chisels using diamond stones, I decided to switch to a cheaper—over time—sharpening system.

Besides saving money, I figured it would help me accomplish two more goals.

Goal #1: Eliminate sharpening system clutter.
Here was my previous setup.

So to create a more compact system I got four EZE-LAP diamond plates in 250 (81-C), 400 (81-M), 600 (81-F) and 1200 (81-SF) grits. And to keep my sharpening space tidy, I followed Seller’s lead to build a holder for the plates.

I tweaked his design a bit by adding two more “spaces”—one for an additional diamond plate and one for a strop. For the strop, I crafted a pine board 3” x 8” x 3/8”, and epoxied some leather to it. I also spray painted the surfaces with polyurethane to keep the MDF holder looking clean. Rubber bumpers on the bottom corners keep the holder fixed in use. Numbers mark the grits for ease of reference.

After routing out the recesses, I used clear silicon caulking to affix the plates. For the strop, I cut the recess to just fit the pine “plate” so that I could remove it if I wanted to. I find that I use the coarsest (250) and finest (1200) grits the most and wanted to have access to one, unobstructed side for each should I use them to flatten things like chisels.

Now while the overall linear space of my system is 3” longer than my SS setup, everything is in a compact, clutterless holder. And with the strop docked in the holder, I don’t waste time looking about for my hand-held model.

Goal #2: Reduce time spent sharpening.
Paul advocates a freehand sharpening system. For years I obsessed about angles, jigs and microbevels. For me, all that obsessing and jig setup took a lot of time. By adopting Paul’s sharpening method, I’ve significantly reduced the time I spend sharpening a chisel or plane iron. And that’s given me a few more benefits.

—Bonus Benefit #1: Because it takes less time to sharpen, I do it more often and no longer view sharpening as a chore.

—Bonus Benefit #2: As fast as sharpening is, “touching up” a bevel is even faster. So I can touch up a chisel and be working again in under a minute. That’s not something I ever did before.

—Bonus Benefit #3: My attention has been refocused on woodworking. Sharpening is an essential skill and we all have to do it. But my former methods consumed a lot of time—flattening stones, removing sandpaper, scraping off sandpaper adhesive, putting the tool in a sharpening jig and on and on. Now I have more time and mental focus to apply to my woodworking.

—Super-Bonus-Benefit: Sellers advocates the use of a convex bevel versus a micro bevel on chisels and irons. He argues that it’s both faster to sharpen and the edge lasts longer. My personal experience since adopting the convex bevel confirms this.

For years, I was disappointed in how quickly micro-bevels dulled. So much so that I abandoned it in favor of a full-faced bevel. However, sharpening a full-faced bevel takes a lot of time and effort, especially if there’s a nick to take out. So I tried the convex bevel and have found that the edge lasts longer for sure. And it’s faster to create in the first place.

Cheaper, faster, stronger, tidy. Just four good reasons that I like my new sharpening system.

© 2015, Brad Chittim, all rights reserved.

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          Space charge formation in polyimide films and polyimide/SiO2 double-layer measured by LIMM   
For Polyimides (PI) used as insulating inter-layers or passivation layers in microelectronics and power electronics, reliability and failure mechanisms are intimately linked to phenomena such as non-linear conduction, distortion of field distribution and electrical ageing that have all some relation to space charge processes. Knowledge about these space charge distributions is therefore of importance to optimize structures and designs involving PIs. However, in the thickness scale of interest for such applications, of the order of 10 μm, no results were reported for PI, and only scarce studies for other materials. Space charge measurements carried out on PI using the laser intensity modulation method (LIMM) are reported in this work. PI-containing metal-insulator-semiconductor structures were pre-stressed under DC fields up to 2 MV/cm. The impact of the doping type of the substrate (either n-type or, p-type silicon) has been evaluated to address the mechanisms of space charge formation. The nature of electrode substrate substantially impacts the measured charge amount and charge nature, pointing towards charge injection as the origin of space charge build-up. The interpretation is substantiated by results obtained using a SiO2 layer as a barrier against electronic injection from the substrate into the PI layer.
          Smartphone accessory delivers HIV results in 15 minutes   

These smartphone dongles can run blood tests for HIV and syphilis in 15 minutes, right in your doctor's office. Photo by Samiksha Nayak

These smartphone dongles can run blood tests for HIV and syphilis in 15 minutes, right in your doctor’s office. Photo by Samiksha Nayak


A new smartphone attachment could provide almost immediate, in-the-field test results for HIV and syphilis. The palm-sized device, tested recently on expectant mothers in Rwanda, could diagnose these diseases in 15 minutes, according to a study published this week in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

“This is one of a series of reports that is taking us forward to a new era of having a lab in your pocket,” said Eric Topol, author of “The Patient Will See You Now” and editor of Medscape.

In the same way that giant computers shrank to fingernail-size chips, engineers have been shrinking laboratory tests, said Samuel Sia, professor of biomedical engineering at Columbia University and one of the study authors. It’s called microfluidics, and it has some big advantages over current lab tests.

“Reactions can happen faster at a smaller scale. With a bigger volume scale, you have to wait for molecules to move around,” Sia explained. But with less fluid and few places for the liquids to go, “it’s smaller, it’s portable and it’s actually faster. You limit hardware power consumption, so it runs straight off the power in your phone itself.”

Sia and his team modeled the technology in part on the ELISA test, which stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a relatively simple and common blood test for diseases like HIV. ELISA tests look for different biomarkers in the blood; in this case, it’s looking for an antibody that’s produced when a person is infected with HIV. During the test, the blood sample runs through an enzyme and substrate. The enzyme will stick to the antibody for the disease you’re looking for, and the substrate will change the color of the sample to indicate a positive or negative result.
science-wednesday
It’s an accurate test, Sia said. And while there are HIV tests that promise results in half an hour, health care providers recommend getting an ELISA test to verify the diagnosis.

But it can take hours to run. Labs never run one sample at a time, so when a nurse draws your blood for a sample, it’s put in a queue. Take into consideration transporting samples between a lab and a clinic, and it could take days, even weeks, to get results, Sia said.

An ELISA test can also be expensive. The equipment costs about $18,400, Sia said — and that doesn’t include the computer.

Enter this new “plug and play” system for a smartphone or tablet. Rather than draw a full teaspoon of blood, a health-care worker pricks the patient’s finger and eases a few drops of blood into a plastic cartridge. The cartridge snaps onto a microfluidic chip, which contains all the testing materials. Rather than use an enzyme and a substrate, the chip has gold and silver
nanoparticles to identify the antibodies. The chip is inserted into the device, or “dongle”, connected to a smartphone via the audio jack. The phone powers the device, and a program prompts the health-care worker to enter the patient’s ID number.

The health-care worker then pushes down on a black bulb, which sends the blood into the device. Fifteen minutes later, results for an HIV test and a syphilis test pop up on the screen.

This step-by-step illustration shows how a smartphone attachment can be used to run blood tests for HIV and syphilis. Image by Tassaneewan Laksanasopin

This step-by-step illustration shows how a smartphone attachment can be used to run blood tests for HIV and syphilis. Image by Tassaneewan Laksanasopin

It’s user-friendly for workers, and for the patients, it’s less painful than a blood draw, and more convenient. And at $34 to make, it’s also cheap, Sia said.

Getting a rapid HIV and syphilis test has been a key priority in developing countries, said Dr. Massimo Ghidinelli head of the HIV unit for the Pan American Health Organization. There are HIV tests that can deliver results in half an hour, he said, but that all depends on where you are, the test you need and the clinic’s lab resources.

For expectant mothers, getting a rapid result is crucial to reducing mother-to-child transmission stopping the disease from spreading to their babies, he added. Some women in developing countries can get antenatal care early, but many don’t see a doctor until they go into labor, Ghidinielli said. Having a rapid, inexpensive test could drastically lower transmission rates, even in an emergency.

“If you can diagnose the disease effectively and accurately, you can consider treatment options immediately,” Ghidinelli said. “But it’s always a race against time.”

There are some downsides, Topol said. Among them, accuracy and privacy are concerns. And any new device needs testing to prevent misdiagnosis.

But its possibilities, he added, extend beyond HIV diagnosis. Researchers have been developing smartphone attachments that diagnose diseases from malaria to cancer. And diagnosing diseases like dengue fever, malaria and tuberculosis at the point of care could prevent horrible outbreaks, he said.

In the developed world, this technology could also be adapted to monitor chronic diseases like diabetes, Sia said. It won’t replace a hospital lab or a doctor, but it could give patients more control over their health.

“There are a variety of biomarkers in your body that can give you an indication of your health condition. By monitoring their trends over time, you can catch the disease before it happens,” he said. “Instead of having to go to a hospital to get tested, you can stay at home and monitor yourself.”

The post Smartphone accessory delivers HIV results in 15 minutes appeared first on PBS NewsHour.


           Crystallographic and molecular modeling studies on 3-ethyl-3-(4-pyridyl)piperidine-2,6-dione and its butyl analogue, inhibitors of mammalian aromatase. Comparison with natural substrates: prediction of enantioselectivity for N-alkyl derivatives.    
Laughton, CA; McKenna, R; Neidle, S; Jarman, M; McCague, R; Rowlands, MG; (1990) Crystallographic and molecular modeling studies on 3-ethyl-3-(4-pyridyl)piperidine-2,6-dione and its butyl analogue, inhibitors of mammalian aromatase. Comparison with natural substrates: prediction of enantioselectivity for N-alkyl derivatives. J Med Chem , 33 (9) pp. 2673-2679.
          Micro/nano-imprinted substrates grafted with a thermoresponsive polymer for thermally modulated cell separation   

J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7TB01251A, Communication
Kenichi Nagase, Risa Shukuwa, Takahiro Onuma, Masayuki Yamato, Naoya Takeda, Teruo Okano
Thermoresponsive convex or concave substrates were developed as functional cell separation materials by the combination of thermal nano-imprinted lithography and subsequent surface-initiated ATRP of PIPAAm.
To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

           Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials for Substrate-Supported IT-SOFCs    
Franco, T. und Lang, M. und Schiller, G. und Szabo, P. und Glatz, W. und Kunschert. G., (2004) Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials for Substrate-Supported IT-SOFCs. 6th European Fuel Cell Forum, Luzern, 28.06-02.07.2004.
           Oxidation and lifetime of PYSZ and CeSZ coated Ni-base substrates with MCrAlY bond layers    
Leyens, C. und Schulz, U. und Fritscher, K. (2004) Oxidation and lifetime of PYSZ and CeSZ coated Ni-base substrates with MCrAlY bond layers. In: Microscopy of Oxidation, 1, Seiten 229-234. Science Reviews. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Microscopy of Oxidation. University of Limerick, Ireland, 26.08. - 29.08.2002. ISBN 0960-3409
           A Proposed Explanation of the Butterfly-Shaped Delamination Cracks Obtained by Means of Rockwell Indentation on TBC Systems with Anisotropic Substrate    
Mircea, I. (2004) A Proposed Explanation of the Butterfly-Shaped Delamination Cracks Obtained by Means of Rockwell Indentation on TBC Systems with Anisotropic Substrate. SICMAC Meeting, DLR Köln, 12.03.2004.
          Micro- and nano-patterned conductive graphene-PEG hybrid scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering   

Chem. Commun., 2017, 53,7412-7415
DOI: 10.1039/C7CC01988B, Communication
Alec S. T. Smith, Hyok Yoo, Hyunjung Yi, Eun Hyun Ahn, Justin H. Lee, Guozheng Shao, Ekaterina Nagornyak, Michael A. Laflamme, Charles E. Murry, Deok-Ho Kim
Topographic and graphene-functionalized culture substrates were fabricated to regulate cardiac structure and function through manipulation of micro- and nano-scale mechanical and electroconductive cues.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Reconfigurable opto-thermoelectric printing of colloidal particles   

Chem. Commun., 2017, 53,7357-7360
DOI: 10.1039/C7CC03530F, Communication
Linhan Lin, Xiaolei Peng, Yuebing Zheng
We have developed a new optical technique - opto-thermoelectric printing - to print colloidal particles with reconfigurable patterns on substrates via light-controlled thermoelectric fields.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Hierarchical self-supported ZnAlEu LDH nanotubes hosting luminescent CdTe quantum dots   

Chem. Commun., 2017, 53,7341-7344
DOI: 10.1039/C7CC02097J, Communication
Alysson F. Morais, Ivan G. N. Silva, Sreeprasanth P. Sree, Fernando M. de Melo, Gert Brabants, Hermi F. Brito, Johan A. Martens, Henrique E. Toma, Christine E. A. Kirschhock, Eric Breynaert, Danilo Mustafa
Self-assembled, cylindrical LDH nanotubes (∅ 20nm) host large species such as nanodots or bulky substrates in their central cavity, leaving the interlayer space available for anionic sensitizer molecules.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Exploiting the unusual effects of fluorine in methodology   

Chem. Commun., 2017, 53,7168-7181
DOI: 10.1039/C7CC02341C, Feature Article
Douglas L. Orsi, Ryan A. Altman
Reactions of fluorinated substrates proceed with distinct patterns relative to non-fluorinated substrates.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Substrate alignment system   
A system for aligning an end effector with a substrate in a substrate transport apparatus. The system comprises a first sensor connected to the end effector and a controller for moving the substrate transport apparatus. The sensor has a sensing path pointed in an outward direction. The sensing path does not intersect the substrate when the substrate is located on the end effector. The controller for moving the substrate transport apparatus moves the substrate transport apparatus, based at least partially upon input from the sensor, to position the end effector at a predetermined position relative to the substrate to pick up the substrate onto the end effector.
          Boom drive apparatus, multi-arm robot apparatus, electronic device processing systems, and methods for transporting substrates in electronic device manufacturing systems with web extending from hub   
Boom drive apparatus for substrate transport systems and methods are described. The boom drive apparatus is adapted to drive one or more multi-arm robots rotationally mounted to the boom to efficiently put or pick substrates. The boom drive apparatus has a boom including a hub, a web, a first pilot above the web, and a second pilot below the web, a first driving member rotationally mounted to the first pilot, a second driving member rotationally mounted to the second pilot, a first driven member rotationally mounted to the boom above the a web, a second driven member rotationally mounted to the boom below the a web, and a first and second transmission members coupling the driving members to driven members located outboard on the boom. Numerous other aspects are provided.
          OHT accessible high density stocker and method   
A storage system for items such as substrate carriers includes at least one stocker including a plurality of storage areas each adapted to store at least one storage device. At least one movable support is arranged on the at least one stocker. A control controls movement of the at least one movable support at least between a first position wherein the at least one movable support receives the at least one storage device outside one of the storage areas and a second position wherein the at least one movable support is arranged substantially within the one of the storage areas.
          Substrate processing apparatus and method of manufacturing semiconductor device   
Reduction in cooling rate of a substrate having a lower temperature is suppressed because the substrate having a lower temperature is not affected by radiant heat of a substrate having a higher temperature while cooling a plurality of substrates in a cooling chamber. The substrate processing apparatus includes a load lock chamber configured to accommodate stacked substrates; a first transfer mechanism having a first transfer arm provided with a first end effector, and configured to transfer the substrates into/from the load lock chamber at a first side of the load lock chamber; a second transfer mechanism having a second transfer arm provided with a second end effector, and configured to transfer the substrates into/from the load lock chamber at a second side of the load lock chamber; a barrier installed between the substrates to be spaced apart from the substrates supported by a substrate support provided in the load lock chamber; and an auxiliary barrier unit installed between the substrate support and the barrier, wherein the auxiliary barrier unit is installed at places other than standby spaces of the end effectors.
          Load lock chamber designs for high-throughput processing system   
Methods and apparatus for transferring one or more substrates from a first pressure environment to a second pressure environment is provided. In one embodiment, a load lock chamber is provided. The load lock chamber comprises a first circular housing, and a second circular housing disposed within and movable relative to the first circular housing, one of the first circular housing or the second circular housing comprising a plurality of discrete regions, wherein at least a portion of the plurality of discrete regions are in selective fluid communication with one of at least two vacuum pumps based on the angular position of the second circular housing relative to the first circular housing.
          Substrate processing system and substrate transferring method   
A substrate processing system and substrate transferring method capable of transferring a substrate bi-directionally through the use of substrate transferring device provided between two rows of processing chambers arranged linearly, thereby improving the substrate-transferring efficiency, the substrate processing system includes a transfer chamber having at least one bi-directional substrate transferring device for bi-directionally transferring a substrate; and a plurality of processing chambers for applying a semiconductor-manufacturing process to the substrate, wherein the plurality of processing chambers are linearly arranged along two rows confronting each other, and the transfer chamber is interposed between the two rows of the processing chambers, wherein the bi-directional substrate transferring device have a moving unit inside the transfer chamber, and horizontally moved by a linear motor; and a bi-directional substrate transferring unit in the moving unit, the bi-directional substrate transferring unit transferring the substrate to the processing chamber through a bi-directional sliding movement.
          Viupax Innovative Shoe Box (Concept)   


Creative Agency: Matadog Design
Designer: Andreas Kioroglou
Project Type: Concept
Location: Athens, Greece
Packaging Contents: Footwear, athletics, sports, shoes
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Paper
Printing Process: Offset

After two years of designing, researching and testing, Andreas Kioroglou, founder of the award winning design studio MATADOG DESIGN has developed the ultimate sustainability shoe packaging solution, as it incorporates a number of innovative features.

It's designed to be more sustainable and cost effective compared to traditional shoe boxes by using much less paper and less volume. It uses 20-57% less paper and occupies 20-50% less volume during storage and transportation. It is designed to be cost efficient in matters of production and transportation and above all designed in such a way to improve personnel productivity and user experience. It is designed to be flexible in stacking allowing them to be stored in many new and interesting ways.

It eliminates the use of bag as it can be converted into a carry bag or shoulder bag to be easily transported by the customer. Can be transformed into toys without the use of glue, scissors, knives and other paraphernalia. It is protected by International Patents.

Read more

          Imparting Icephobicity with Substrate Flexibility   

TOC Graphic

Langmuir
DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b01412

          112: FUCK ALL THE REST OF THE LETTERS   
For the first time in either the history of the Best of the Web podcast or maybe just the year 2016, we're going all out with four people on the podcast! Four J's, even: joining me and Jessamyn are long-time MeFites not_on_display (Jim!) and churl (Jesse!), as we talk about the month in MeFi, the Best Post contest, and the dark Jungian substrate that lies beneath the fragile shared fiction we call "reality". Also some bathroom stuff. With all this personality bopping around, we're ringing in the new year with a hefty 2 hours of show this time, covering December 1st through January 4th.

Helpful Links

Podcast Feed
Subscribe with iTunes
Direct mp3 download

Guest facts!
not_on_display:
- lives in Massachusetts!
- has a very good beard!
- is totally Jessamyn's sweetie!
- is a musician!

churl:
- lives in Portland!
- keeps a pretty short trim on his beard!
- records a podcast with cortex called The Crapshoot!

Misc
- Ever dream this man?

Jobs
- MetaFilter is was hiring

Projects
- Airports (and more!) of New England (and beyond!) by backseatpilot (MeFi post)
- If You're Reading This again
- Goddam Facts, by ignignokt
- OlogyBot, by divabat
- HIBRYD HIBRYD, a superb 9-year callback by Faint of Butt
- A butt a day at butts.lol, by CharlesV42
- Final Consternation 4 again
- what Greg Nog has learned from a month of not eating raw chicken (MeFi post)
- Thank You Notes by raisindebt

MetaFilter
- Happy Birthday, Lemmy! by jbickers
- actually Lemmy's dead it turns out, notes Cookiebastard
- Of which, the tags vs. umlaut dilemma (but cortex later overruled it in a boring bid for searchability)
- are there two slightly different sized Luke Skywalkers, by Greg Nog (also, this video game character post from 2011)
- an alphabetized Oz, by Obscure Reference
- Barbiephonic from MeFi's own mhoye, by frimble
- Tubular feels, by a lungful of dragon
- Antique Molds by knuckle tattoos
- Whitewashing All of Mankind, by orticon halo
- on interacting with nature, by saul wright
- mathowie's s/gun/dildo/ project, by maxsparber
- the invention of basketball, by Etrigan
- NETHACK 3.6.0 RELEASED by OMG SERIOUSLY GUYS I AM HYPE sorry by Pope Guilty
- Dune sandworm bread and also many many Dune jokes by gregglind
- adult coloring books by Bella Donna
- the animation work of Phil Tippett by brundlefly
- A Dune coloring book that actually existed, somehow by ricochet biscuit
- on holding emotional (not parking) space by flex
- the confused Vincent Vega meme by entropicamericana
- a lengthy argument about Star Trek fan projects by doctornemo
- To MIDI And Back Again, A Mariah Carey Holiday Song's Holiday by overeducated_alligator
- on multiple frogasms by valkane
- Clickhole on manhood by schmod
- the post Jessamyn and Jim were betting about
- Jim's old Sifl & Olly post that Jesse remembered
- the Markovization of Jessamyn West by kcds
And lots more, it was the December Best Post contest, see MetaTalk below for a ton more!

Ask MetaFilter
- how to build a safe prop bomb by aaanastasia, for her SWEDISH CHEF REENACTMENTS OMG
- jessamyn wants to order glasses online without an eye exam tyvm
- What is that 80s sax song that goes "do dwee do dododo?, wonders kittensofthenight (and several other folks)
- your fave 90s alt rock videos?, by glaucon
- real words that don't sound real by acorncup
- movies that treat cash realistically by woman
- the joke about freebasing a cat by OrangeVelour
- that goddammed paint-roller-on-face-TV-show question still by sarcasticah
- THE BATHROOM SMELLS DISGUSTING by joyceanmachine
- of driving in Morocco by kingoftonga86
- rad gross gifts for a seven-year-old by pretentious illiterate
- who was that Star Wars torture critic? by mattoxic

Music
Songs used for interstitial music this month:
- Auld Lang Syne by aegispolis
- Uni, by ludwig_van
- I Got You Babe, tropical remix, by aegispolis
- Coventry Carol, by AppleSeed

MetaTalk
December was the annual-ish Best Post contest! Weekly roundups with winners:
- Week 1
- Week 2
- Week 3
- Week 4 and month-long prizes

Also: welcome aboard Eyebrows McGee, our new part-time mod!


          A voyage from molecular genetics to microbial ecology -- includes a fish tank and some cartoons   
The March issue of International Microbiology included a very nice article by Roberto Kolter, professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School. The title is Biofilms in lab and nature: a molecular geneticist’s voyage to microbial ecology (freely available as PDF).

In the article, the author gives an entertaining account of the path that lead him to the study of biofilms -- that is, aggregations of microbes growing on solid substrates. He also highlights some of his recent research on the ecology of microbial islands.

There is also a fish tank anecdote. And I added a couple of microbial cartoons, just for fun!

Do microorganisms have microorgasms? (cartoon)
Microbes are excellent model organisms... at least for studies on basic cellular processes. As Jacques Monod put it: Ce qui est vrai pour le colibacille est vrai pour l’éléphant ("what is true for the colibacillus is true for the elephant"). That is why Roberto Kolter (and many other researchers) soon fell under the spell of bacteria and, in particular, the colibacillus Escherichia coli.

For some time, Kolter studied the regulation of cell growth in E. coli. Under the right conditions, cells divide to yield daughter cells, which grow and divide quickly again, and so on -- and the bacterial population undergoes exponential growth. This exponential phase of growth (a.k.a. log phase) is typically followed by a stationary phase, when the growth rate slows down due to a scarcity of nutrients and accumulation of toxic products. Eventually, the bacterial population shrinks, in what is known as death phase (you can visit Cells alive! or Wikipedia for basic information on bacterial growth).

These processes are typically studied in the laboratory using shaken cultures. The shaking of flasks and test tubes keeps the broth composition uniform throughout the flask, and provides a continuous supply of fresh air that helps microbes grow fast. As a result, the cells are in a planktonic state; that is, they grow in suspension in the broth.

Shaker sick microbes (cartoon)From these shaker-sick cultures, Kolter and coworkers learnt a few interesting things about what happens during the stationary and death phases. In the International Microbiology article, he summarizes their findings as follows:
"And what we found through genetic analyses was rather extraordinary. Death allowed new life; we were witnessing evolution in real time [...]. Underlying the usually observed death phase was a dynamic world of dying and growing bacteria. There were constant population takeovers such that pre-existing fitter bacterial mutants grew as the original population met its demise. Evolutionary cheating we would call it later on [...]"
In other words, the adverse conditions occurring in the E. coli cultures during the death phase (toxic products, little food) appeared to have two contrasting effects. It was obvious that many cells were dying -- but, at the same time, successive waves of different spontaneous mutants were able to thrive and outgrow their dying siblings in this less-than-optimal environment. These findings were reviewed in two papers with memorable titles: Life after log and GASPing for life in stationary phase.

Isn't that a fascinating microcosms? The little creatures in the test tube were not just dying; they were evolving!

Pathogenic microbes (cartoon)

And now, the fish tank anecdote. Or, in Kolter's own words, the epiphany of the fish tank:
"The years that followed represented for me a dramatic turn of direction in my research. One might ascribe the change to some sort of “post-tenure depression”; I refer to it as the “epiphany of the fish tank” now. [...]
Microbial life on surfaces, for decades studied by Bill Costerton and other intrepid pioneers of the biofilm field, had been long ignored by most microbial physiologists and molecular geneticists, myself included. However, things changed for me in 1994 when, noticing my depressed state, members of my laboratory gave me a fish tank in a effort to draw me out of the blues. As I sat locked-up in the office staring at the tank, I realized that by studying shaken cultures of E. coli I had been barking up the wrong tree. The water in the fish tank remained crystal clear, it was on the surfaces where most microbial activity was occurring."


Biofilm of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.That observation applies well beyond fish tanks. It is possible that the majority of microbes on Earth spend most of their lives in aggregates attached to surfaces, and therefore not in a free-floating or swimming, planktonic state. Obviously, they are not solitary guys: we could view biofilms in nature as quite complex 'societies' or 'cities' where different types of microorganisms inhabit buildings made out of sticky macromolecules (polysaccharides, proteins, DNA). Importantly, microbes in biofilms are sometimes resistant to the action of antibiotics, to which the same organisms are sensitive when in planktonic state.

So, have microbiologists been "barking up the wrong tree" all this time? Well, not exactly. Experiments using shaken cultures have been, and will continue to be, extremely useful. They are, without doubt, highly valuable to learn about the biochemistry, genetics and many other aspects of the biology of microbes. And they have been instrumental in providing us with antibiotics and vaccines to fight infectious disease.

But it is true that shaken cultures are sometimes not the best research models, especially if we try to understand 'the real life' of a microbe in its natural environment.



Biofilms formed by Bacillus subtilis.The 'fish tank epiphany' lead Kolter into biofilm research. A first approach he and his collaborators took was to study the biofilms formed by certain Bacillus subtilis strain. The accompanying image shows --on the left-- a beaker with a floating film that the microbe forms when grown in a standing (not shaken!) liquid culture, and --on the right-- a magnified view of a colony grown on an agar plate. Although these biofilms consist only of a single organism, they are actually highly structured, with several layers composed of different cell types engaged in various activities: some cells are actively producing the matrix (not the Wachowskis' movie but the glue that keeps the biofilm together), others are swimming around, and there are also some cells in the process of becoming spores. How close is that to a multicellular organism?

The B. subtilis biofilm is a very useful model -- but you may well think that a beaker containing a single microbial species is a very artificial setting.

Then, how can scientists study biofilms in natural environments? For Kolter, the inspiration came -- no fish tank involved -- from the writings of biologist E. O. Wilson. In collaboration with Robert MacArthur, Wilson developed in the 1960s the theory of island biogeography, which has become fundamental in ecology and evolutionary biology. The theory tries to explain the factors that control the number of species in a natural community (it was originally developed for islands but now it is applied to any ecosystem that is surrounded by other ecosystems). Kolter was fascinated by the ways Wilson studied newly formed islands to put the theory to the test (what Wilson actually did was to fumigate some small islands to kill all arthropods, and then observe how the islands were recolonized). However, Kolter was wise enough and did not try to make free from microbes any islands (that would be tough!). His approach, much less destructive, consisted of studying two natural microbial islands: the pitchers of a carnivorous plant, and the human lungs.

Sarracenia purpureaThe first island is Sarracenia purpurea, a carnivorous plant feeding on the insects and spiders that fall into its water-filled pitchers. Kolter and collaborators found that the inside of unopened, newly formed pitchers was sterile -- there you go, a microbial island is born! This allowed them to analyse the composition of the nascent bacterial population in the pitchers during the season, as microbes colonized the island. Among other results, the researchers found that pitchers containing certain mosquito larvae (keystone predators) had a greater bacterial diversity.

The second microbial island studied by Kolter and coworkers is the respiratory tract of humans suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). As long as you are healthy, your lungs are supposed to be mostly sterile. However, respiratory diseases such as CF or asthma open the gates to outside microbial colonizers, which can make a lot of harm. In CF, the major microbial pathogen is the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which forms biofilms inside the lungs and can easily become resistant to antibiotics. Using culture-independent methods, Kolter's laboratory compared the microbial communities in the lungs of different CF patients. The researchers showed that the presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated with lower microbial diversity, worse lung function, and patient age. In other words, it appears that the arrival of P. aeruginosa (an 'invasive species') greatly affects the microbial community in CF lungs, resulting in a decrease in diversity. The researchers suggest that the composition of the microbial community could be a better predictor of disease progression than the presence of P. aeruginosa alone.


Well, that was a long post. Please read Roberto Kolter's article (it is free), which includes a few more interesting thoughts and quotes. The concept of microbial islands is fascinating. And the growing interaction between the long-time isolated fields of ecology and microbiology is, I think, changing the way microbiologists view their study subjects. Hopefully, ecologists will also become more aware of the organisms that rule the planet -- which are not humans, you know.


Reference for Roberto Kolter's article:
Roberto Kolter (2010). Biofilms in lab and nature: a molecular geneticist’s voyage to microbial ecology. Int. Microbiol., 13, 1-7. DOI: 10.2436/20.1501.01.105 (pdf)



Related links:

- Biology of microbial communities - Interview to Roberto Kolter (video). JoVE, May 2007.

- Roberto Kolter - Bacillus subtilis and bacteria as multicellular organisms (podcast). Meet the Scientist, episode 20, March 2009. MicrobeWorld.

- The evolution of the biofilm concept: a long and winding road (free PDF), by J.W. Costerton. Sartoniana (2008) 21:59-67.

- About the existence of microbes (viruses) in healthy and diseased human lungs: Metagenomic Analysis of Respiratory Tract DNA Viral Communities in Cystic Fibrosis and Non-Cystic Fibrosis Individuals (2009). PLoS ONE 4(10): e7370. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007370 (free article).



Image credits:

- Cartoons by Sanja Saftic. Many thanks to her for allowing me to use the cartoons for this blog post. Source: Biotoon.com - Microbiological Edutainment.

- Color-enhanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a biofilm formed by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria. Image by PNNL - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Source: Flickr.

- Beaker and colony: highly structured biofilms formed by Bacillus subtilis strain NCIB 3610. Source: International Microbiology.

- Sketch of carnivorous plant: Sarracenia purpurea. Source: Wikimedia Commons.



          Uncovering beauty in proteins to fight the pneumococcal fratricides   
Streptococcus pneumoniae in spinal fluid. FA stain (digitally colorized). Content Providers(s): CDC/Dr. M.S. Mitchell.This post is about pneumonia and pneumococci, fratricide at the cellular level, and a pretty protein. And there's a video too!


First things first. Pneumonia is a common disease characterized by inflammation of the lungs that can be deadly: 4 million people in the world die from it every year. Half of them are children under 5 years of age -- in fact, no other illness causes more deaths of children under age 5 worldwide. However, this is a preventable and treatable disease in most cases.


World Pneumonia Day logoMany organisms can cause pneumonia, but the usual culprits are the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (or pneumococcus, see above image) and, less frequently, Haemophilus influenzae type b (a.k.a. Hib). Safe and effective vaccines and antibiotics have been developed for these infections. Unfortunately, they are not commonly available in most developing countries, where pneumonia allies with poor nutrition, other illnesses (e.g. AIDS) and lack of resources to contribute to the cycle of poverty. To know more about the impact of pneumonia on world health and what can be done about it, I recommend listening to this podcast and visiting the World Pneumonia Day website.


My only direct contact with pneumococcus research was... hum... many years ago. As an undergraduate student, I spent two months at the Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB, Center for Biological Research) in Madrid, Spain, where I learnt how to cultivate pneumococci and some techniques for the study of lytic enzymes. These remarkable enzymes play a key role in bacterial physiology by cleaving, in a regulated fashion, specific linkages in peptidoglycan (that is, the highly cross-linked polymer that forms the bacterial cell wall). This apparently destructive activity is essential for cell wall turnover, and allows cell growth and division. Interestingly, the genomes of some bacteriophages (or bacterial viruses) also encode lytic enzymes, which the viruses use to break the cell wall and escape from its dying host after viral replication. These enzymes could be useful as antibacterial agents.


Nature Structural and Molecular Biology. May 2010 Volume 17 No 5.A few days ago I was happy to learn that a group of Spanish researchers --some of them from the CIB-- had solved the 3D structure of one of the pneumococcal lytic enzymes, called LytC. What I find remarkable is how the 3D structure elegantly explains the peculiar role that this protein plays during a process known as pneumococcal fratricide.

Some bacteria produce substances that kill surrounding microbes, and use the resulting dead bodies as a source of nutrients. Sometimes, killer and victim belong to the same species, or even they are siblings. In these cases, researchers speak of cannibalism or fratricide; although if you view microbial populations as coordinated, multicellular entities, then you may prefer to use the term programmed cell death.

Among pneumococci, some cells in a population become competent in response to certain signals; which means that they are able to take up DNA from their surroundings, and incorporate this genetic information into their own chromosome. This way, competent cells can acquire new inheritable abilities -- such as production of a new capsule type, or resistance to an antibiotic -- that can be very important for their survival (this was the underlying mechanism in the famous Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment that helped identify DNA as the hereditary material in cells).

But competent pneumococci do something else: they encourage non-competent siblings and other closely-related bacteria to commit suicide. They do this by releasing a particular lytic enzyme, called CbpD, that diffuses through the milieu and --somehow-- activates LytC and other lytic enzymes that are already present in the non-competent siblings. Cell wall weakening finally results in a big bang; that is, the explosion of the non-competent pneumococci. The materials released serve not only as nutrients and sources of genetic information (DNA), but also as virulence factors that help competent cells to survive in their human host.


3D structure of the LytC enzymeThe 3D structure of LytC now provides the clues to explain the enzyme's peculiar behaviour during pneumococcal fratricide. Have a look at the model of LytC on the left: ain't it a beauty? A substrate-binding module (in blue and green in the image) recognizes and binds the cell wall peptidoglycan, whereas a catalytic module (in red) is responsible for breaking a specific linkage in the substrate. Because of the unusual hook shape of the protein, the substrate-binding module and the catalytic module partially block each other. As a result, LytC cannot bind the highly cross-linked peptidoglycan that is predominant under normal circumstances. Only when CbpD or other lytic enzymes cut specific linkages in the cell wall, LytC is able to bind the 'loosened' peptidoglycan and comes into action -- with deleterious consequences for the non-competent pneumococci.


To make the story even more attractive (at least to me), the researchers bothered to produce a video that illustrates -- in a fascinating way -- the pneumococcal fratricide and the mechanism for LytC activation. Please watch it, the background music is nice too. The video includes some captions in Spanish, but I uploaded the video to YouTube and added English subtitles for a wider audience. I hope more researchers will get into the trouble of making visually attractive videos or presentations of their work (and make them freely available), it really makes a difference...




I also add here a nice composite image from the press release, just because I think it's so beautiful:

Imagen neumococos. Fuente: CSIC.es


Reference for the 3D structure of LytC:
Pérez-Dorado, I., González, A., Morales, M., Sanles, R., Striker, W., Vollmer, W., Mobashery, S., García, J., Martínez-Ripoll, M., García, P., & Hermoso, J. (2010). Insights into pneumococcal fratricide from the crystal structures of the modular killing factor LytC Nature Structural & Molecular Biology DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1817


Recommended links:
- World Pneumonia Day (November 12th).
- Keith Klugman - Pneumonia: the hidden giant. In this podcast, Carl Zimmer interviews Keith Klugman, Chair of Global Health at Emory University, USA.
- Klugman's crusade by Valerie Gregg. Public Health Magazine, Emory University, spring 2006.
- Neumococos fratricidas [in Spanish], noticia publicada en la web del CSIC (20 de abril, 2010).
- Los neumococos fratricidas [in Spanish]. RTVE.es (20-04-2010).


Other relevant scientific articles:
- Bacterial programmed cell death and multicellular behavior in bacteria [free article] by Hanna Engelberg-Kulka et al. PLoS Genet. (2006) 2(10): e135.
- Cannibalism and fratricide: mechanisms and raisons d'être by Jean-Pierre Claverys & Leiv S. Håvarstein. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (2007) 5: 219-29.
- Bacteriophage lysins as effective antibacterials [free article] by Vincent A. Fischetti. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (2008) 11: 393–400.
- Pneumococcus: the sugar-coated bacteria [free PDF] by Rubens López. Intl. Microbiol. (2006) 9: 179-190.


Image sources:
-
Streptococcus pneumoniae in spinal fluid. FA stain (digitally colorized). Content Providers(s): CDC/Dr. M.S. Mitchell. Source: Wikimedia Commons.
- World Pneumonia Day logo.
- Nature Structural & Molecular Biology cover, May 2010, Volume 17 No 5.
- LytC model, LytC and pneumococci: both images from press release, CSIC.es



          Scar Homogenization Versus Limited-Substrate Ablation in Patients With Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy and Ventricular Tachycardia.   
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Scar Homogenization Versus Limited-Substrate Ablation in Patients With Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy and Ventricular Tachycardia.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Nov 01;68(18):1990-1998

Authors: Gökoğlan Y, Mohanty S, Gianni C, Santangeli P, Trivedi C, Güneş MF, Bai R, Al-Ahmad A, Gallinghouse GJ, Horton R, Hranitzky PM, Sanchez JE, Beheiry S, Hongo R, Lakkireddy D, Reddy M, Schweikert RA, Dello Russo A, Casella M, Tondo C, Burkhardt JD, Themistoclakis S, Di Biase L, Natale A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Scar homogenization improves long-term ventricular arrhythmia-free survival compared with standard limited-substrate ablation in patients with post-infarction ventricular tachycardia (VT). Whether such benefit extends to patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and scar-related VT is unclear.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of an endoepicardial scar homogenization approach compared with standard ablation in this population.
METHODS: Consecutive patients with dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 93), scar-related VTs, and evidence of low-voltage regions on the basis of pre-defined criteria on electroanatomic mapping (i.e., bipolar voltage <1.5 mV) underwent either standard VT ablation (group 1 [n = 57]) or endoepicardial ablation of all abnormal potentials within the electroanatomic scar (group 2 [n = 36]). Acute procedural success was defined as noninducibility of any VT at the end of the procedure; long-term success was defined as freedom from any ventricular arrhythmia at follow-up.
RESULTS: Acute procedural success rates were 69.4% and 42.1% after scar homogenization and standard ablation, respectively (p = 0.01). During a mean follow-up period of 14 ± 2 months, single-procedure success rates were 63.9% after scar homogenization and 38.6% after standard ablation (p = 0.031). After multivariate analysis, scar homogenization and left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of long-term success. During follow-up, the rehospitalization rate was significantly lower in the scar homogenization group (p = 0.035).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy, scar-related VT, and evidence of low-voltage regions on electroanatomic mapping, endoepicardial homogenization of the scar significantly increased freedom from any recurrent ventricular arrhythmia compared with a standard limited-substrate ablation. However, the success rate with this approach appeared to be lower than previously reported with ischemic cardiomyopathy, presumably because of the septal and midmyocardial distribution of the scar in some patients.

PMID: 27788854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Left Atrial Appendage Isolation in Patients With Longstanding Persistent AF Undergoing Catheter Ablation: BELIEF Trial.   
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Left Atrial Appendage Isolation in Patients With Longstanding Persistent AF Undergoing Catheter Ablation: BELIEF Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Nov 01;68(18):1929-1940

Authors: Di Biase L, Burkhardt JD, Mohanty P, Mohanty S, Sanchez JE, Trivedi C, Güneş M, Gökoğlan Y, Gianni C, Horton RP, Themistoclakis S, Gallinghouse GJ, Bailey S, Zagrodzky JD, Hongo RH, Beheiry S, Santangeli P, Casella M, Dello Russo A, Al-Ahmad A, Hranitzky P, Lakkireddy D, Tondo C, Natale A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Longstanding persistent (LSP) atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most challenging type of AF. In addition to pulmonary vein isolation, substrate modification and triggers ablation have been reported to improve freedom from AF in patients with LSPAF.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess whether the empirical electrical isolation of the left atrial appendage (LAA) could improve success at follow-up.
METHODS: This was an open-label, randomized study assessing the effectiveness of empirical electrical left atrial appendage isolation for the treatment of LSPAF. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo empirical electrical left atrial appendage isolation along with extensive ablation (group 1; n = 85) or extensive ablation alone (group 2; n = 88). Recurrence of atrial arrhythmias was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included cardiac-related hospitalization, all-cause mortality, and stroke at follow-up.
RESULTS: Major clinical characteristics were not different between the 2 groups. At 12-month follow-up, 48 (56%) patients in group 1 and 25 (28%) in group 2 were recurrence free after a single procedure (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] for recurrence with standard ablation: 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 2.9; log-rank p = 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and left atrial size, standard ablation was predictive of recurrence (HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.81; p = 0.004). During repeat procedures, empirical electrical left atrial appendage isolation was performed in all patients. After an average of 1.3 procedures, cumulative success at 24-month follow-up was reported in 65 (76%) in group 1 and in 49 (56%) in group 2 (unadjusted HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.8; log-rank p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: This randomized study showed that both after a single procedure and after redo procedures in patients with LSPAF, empirical electrical isolation of the LAA improved long-term freedom from atrial arrhythmias without increasing complications. (Effect of Empirical Left Atrial Appendage Isolation on Long-term Procedure Outcome in Patients With Persistent or Longstanding Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Catheter Ablation [BELIEF]; NCT01362738).

PMID: 27788847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


           Identificación de compuestos activadores, proteínas moduladoras y sustratos de la MAPK Slt2 de la ruta de integridad celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Identification of activator compounds, modulator proteins and substrates of the MAPK Slt2 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall integrity pathway    
Alonso Rodríguez, Esmeralda (2017) Identificación de compuestos activadores, proteínas moduladoras y sustratos de la MAPK Slt2 de la ruta de integridad celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [Tesis]
          Evolution of wood anatomical characters in Nepenthes and close relatives of Caryophyllales   
<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><strong>Background and Aims</strong><span style="font-style:italic;">Nepenthes</span> attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant’s iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of <span style="font-style:italic;">Nepenthes</span> is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation.<strong>Methods</strong> Observations were performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Ancestral states of selected wood and pith characters were reconstructed using an existing molecular phylogeny for <span style="font-style:italic;">Nepenthes</span> and a broader Caryophyllales framework. Pairwise comparisons were assessed for possible relationships between wood anatomy and developmental stages, growth habits, substrates and ecology.<strong>Key Results</strong> Wood anatomy of <span style="font-style:italic;">Nepenthes</span> is diffuse porous, with mainly solitary vessels showing simple, bordered perforation plates and alternate intervessel pits, fibres with distinctly bordered pits (occasionally septate), apotracheal axial parenchyma and co-occurring uni- and multiseriate rays often including silica bodies. Precipitation and growth habit (stem length) are linked with vessel density and multiseriate ray height, while soil type correlates with vessel diameter, vessel element length and maximum ray width. For Caryophyllales as a whole, silica grains, successive cambia and bordered perforation plates are the result of convergent evolution. Peculiar helical sculpturing patterns within various cell types occur uniquely within the insectivorous clade of non-core Caryophyllales.<strong>Conclusions</strong> The wood anatomical variation in <span style="font-style:italic;">Nepenthes</span> displays variation for some characters dependent on soil type, precipitation and stem length, but is largely conservative. The helical-banded fibre-sclereids that mainly occur idioblastically in pith and cortex are synapomorphic for <span style="font-style:italic;">Nepenthes</span>, while other typical <span style="font-style:italic;">Nepenthes</span> characters evolved convergently in different Caryophyllales lineages.</span>
          Environmental niche divergence among three dune shrub sister species with parapatric distributions   
<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><strong>Background and Aims</strong> The geographical distributions of species are constrained by their ecological requirements. The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of environmental conditions, historical events and biogeographical constraints on the diversification of the three species of the western Mediterranean shrub genus <span style="font-style:italic;">Stauracanthus</span>, which have a parapatric distribution in the Iberian Peninsula.<strong>Methods</strong> Ecological niche factor analysis and generalized linear models were used to measure the response of all <span style="font-style:italic;">Stauracanthus</span> species to the environmental gradients and map their potential distributions in the Iberian Peninsula. The bioclimatic niche overlap between the three species was determined by using Schoener's index. The genetic differentiation of the Iberian and northern African populations of <span style="font-style:italic;">Stauracanthus</span> species was characterized with GenalEx. The effects on genetic distances of the most important environmental drivers were assessed through Mantel tests and non-metric multidimensional scaling.<strong>Key Results</strong> The three <span style="font-style:italic;">Stauracanthus</span> species show remarkably similar responses to climatic conditions. This supports the idea that all members of this recently diversified clade retain common adaptations to climate and consequently high levels of climatic niche overlap. This contrasts with the diverse edaphic requirements of <span style="font-style:italic;">Stauracanthus</span> species. The populations of the <span style="font-style:italic;">S. genistoides–spectabilis</span> clade grow on Miocene and Pliocene fine-textured sedimentary soils, whereas <span style="font-style:italic;">S. boivinii</span>, the more genetically distant species, occurs on older and more coarse-textured sedimentary substrates. These patterns of diversification are largely consistent with a stochastic process of geographical range expansion and fragmentation coupled with niche evolution in the context of spatially complex environmental fluctuations.<strong>Conclusions</strong>: The combined analysis of the distribution, realized environmental niche and phylogeographical relationships of parapatric species proposed in this work allows integration of the biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary processes driving the evolution of species adaptations and how they determine their current geographical ranges.</span>
          Mixed African Tank   
Tank Size – 135 gal. Oceanic Fish Kept – Aulonocara jacobfreibergi, Pseudotropheus sp.acei, Haplochromis phytophagus, Pseudotropheus zebra Filtration – 55 gal sump Lighting – L.E.D. Heating – 300 watt Aqueon Rocks – Local lime stone Plants/Corals – Substrate – White …
          150 Gallon African Cichlids Aquarium   
Tank Size – 150 gallon Fish Kept – African Cichlid fish Filtration – I use 2 Xp3 water filters with a 100g hob to polish water Lighting – N/A Heating – N/A Rocks – N/A Plants/Corals – N/A Substrate – N/A Background …
          125 gal. Malawi / Peacock tank   
Tank Size – 125 gallon (6 foot) Fish Kept – Malawi Peacock Cichlid fish Filtration – N/A Lighting – N/A Heating – N/A Rocks – N/A Plants/Corals – N/A Substrate – N/A Background – No background Description – N/A This aquarium was …
          Substrate cutting device and method   
An automatic cutting device is described for cutting an assembly. The assembly includes a material having a weakened zone therein that defines a useful layer and being attached to a source substrate. The cutting device includes a cutting mechanism and a holding and positioning mechanism operatively associated with the cutting mechanism. The holding and positioning mechanism positions the material so that the cutting mechanism detaches the layer from the source substrate along the weakened zone. The cutting device also includes a control mechanism for adjusting at least two different portions of the assembly during detachment of the layer to facilitate a more precise detachment.
          Method for cutting panel substrate and substrate cutting apparatus   
The present invention provides a method for cutting a panel substrate and a substrate cutting apparatus. The substrate cutting apparatus comprises a first cutting unit and a second cutting unit. The method comprises the following steps: cutting off a first residual material and a second residual material at two opposite sides of the panel substrate; cutting off a third residual material and a fourth residual material at another two opposite sides of the panel substrate; cutting the panel substrate into a plurality of elongated substrates; and cutting each of the elongated substrates into the panel units. The present invention can reduce a process time for cutting the panel substrate.
          Breaking apparatus for glass substrate   
Disclosed herein is a breaking apparatus for glass substrates. The breaking apparatus includes a breaking bar connected to a linear driver, a plurality of linear bushes longitudinally mounted on the breaking bar and each including an outer barrel, a plurality of buffer cylinders longitudinally mounted on the breaking bar, and a breaking tip extending in one direction and having a bar shape with a predetermined width. Each of the buffer cylinders includes a hollow cylinder body generating pressure therein, a piston received in the cylinder body, and a piston rod connected to the piston. The breaking tip is disposed in a longitudinal direction of the breaking bar beneath the breaking bar and connected to the piston rods and the shafts to be brought into contact with a glass substrate.
          Breaking apparatus and breaking method for substrate made of brittle material   
In a breaking operation, a substrate is moved so that a blade can be situated in line with a scribe line, and the blade is lowered to break the substrate. After the breaking, the blade is raised. Then, the substrate is moved along its surface while taking an image of the substrate by using a camera after the breaking. Moreover, the blade is lowered to break the substrate. After the breaking, the blade is raised. Then, the substrate is moved along its surface while performing image processing concurrently. After the movement of the substrate, the position of the substrate is corrected so that the following scribe line to be cut for breaking can be situated immediately below the blade. In this way, the time required for breaking the substrate formed with a multiplicity of scribe lines into pieces can be shortened.
          Methods for scribing and separating strengthened glass substrates   
A method of forming a scribe line in a strengthened glass substrate includes providing a strengthened glass substrate having a first surface, a second surface, a first edge and a second edge. The first and second surfaces have a strengthened surface layer under a compressive stress, and a central region under tensile stress. The method further includes applying a scoring blade to the first surface at an initiation location that is offset from the first edge by an initiation offset distance greater than a diameter of the scoring blade, and translating the scoring blade or the strengthened glass substrate such that the scoring blade scores the first surface. The translation is terminated such that the scoring blade stops at a termination location that is offset from the second edge of the strengthened glass substrate by a termination offset distance greater than the diameter of the scoring blade.
          Adhesive bandage dispensing arrangements   
A bandage strip includes a plurality of flat adhesive bandage packages of conventional configuration, having sealed therein an adhesive bandage with a pad and an adhesive substrate for adhering to a patient and holding the pad in place on the patient's skin. The packages are adhered to an elongated substrate in end-to-end, spaced relation to form a flat, elongated bandage strip, with perforations in the substrate between the packages. A user can dispense a length of substrate, sever it at the perforations, and remove the bandage from the substrate for use in the conventional manner. A bandage dispensing device is attachable to the wrist of a user for convenient dispensing of bandages from a strip of individually packaged bandages.
          Methods for scribing and separating strengthened glass substrates   
A method of forming a scribe line in a strengthened glass substrate includes providing a strengthened glass substrate having a first surface, a second surface, a first edge and a second edge. The first and second surfaces have a strengthened surface layer under a compressive stress, and a central region under tensile stress. The method further includes applying a scoring blade to the first surface at an initiation location that is offset from the first edge by an initiation offset distance greater than a diameter of the scoring blade, and translating the scoring blade or the strengthened glass substrate such that the scoring blade scores the first surface. The translation is terminated such that the scoring blade stops at a termination location that is offset from the second edge of the strengthened glass substrate by a termination offset distance greater than the diameter of the scoring blade.
          Global Chromogenic Substrate Market estimated high revenue by 2016-2024   
Zion Market Research, the market research group announced the analysis report titled "Chromogenic Substrate Market: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecasts 2016–2024...