Audio-Technica Offers Content Creation Microphone Solutions   
A-T’s acclaimed AT8024, AT2020USB+, AT2020USBi, System 10 Camera-Mount Wireless, BP40 and AT2005USB microphones are valued tools for content creators STOW, OH, May 9, 2017 — Audio-Technica, a leading innovator in transducer technology for over 50 years, offers a range of microphones favored by podcasters, social media and YouTube personalities, journalists and interviewers, livestreamers, voiceover artists, [...]
          magnetostrictive beside a busbar (DC current)    
Hello,

I am new to comsol, I got no experience nor any training in desinging in comsol.

I would like to simulate a busbar carrying DC current. The DC current will generate a static magnetic force where it affect the magnetostrictive material. The busbar can be replaced by a conductor.

From this example (www.comsol.com/model/busbar-ac-analysis-28391) , I don't understand how it select AC ? and how can I change to DC ?
I checked the nonlinear magnetostrictive transducer example too, it only specific the external current density but did not mention whether is DC or AC.

I hope someone can enlighten me and give me some advice on this.

Thank you very much

Eric

          Mini Acoustic Guitars   
Ever since the origins of the modern guitar in the 18th century, the instrument has been available in various sizes. Antonio d Torres gave the modern classical guitar its form as we know it today. The modern classical guitar has a scale of 648 to 650 mm, which is roughly 26 inches. Full size electric guitars have a slightly shorter scale. Most Fender instruments are 25 1/2” while Gibson has maintained the 24 1/2” scale.



Sizes of Classical Guitars

Classic guitar builders have offered guitars that are 1/4 sized, 1/2 sized, 3/4 sized, and full size for players of different ages and differing physiques.



1830 Stauffer Terz


In the 1930’s C.F. Martin introduced the Terz guitar. It was based on the size of the Terz or Treble classical guitar. Joseph Stauffer, from whom C.F. Martin senior learned his craft, had built Terz guitars. So it would stand to reason Martin would continue the tradition.





Martin 5-18 Terz Guitar


The Martin Terz was a 3/4 scale guitar and offered in different styles. The 5-18 was probably the most popular. Marty Robbins used his on stage. This guitar was designed to be tuned three frets above standard pitch.





1937 Gibson L-00


In 1932 Gibson introduce the L-00 Flat top guitar. This was a small bodied instrument, and one of the nicer versions of the L series. By 1937, Gibson offered this model in a 3/4 sized option.





1950 Gibson LG-2 3/4 size

In 1933 Gibson had also introduced the very fancy LC model in a 3/4 sized version. In 1942 Gibson offered the LG-2 and by 1949 it was available in a 3/4 size version. This is the guitar that Arlo Guthrie favors.


Arlo Guthrie LG-2 

In 2002 Gibson decided to reintroduce this very model when Arlo Guthrie contacted Gibson’s craftsmen to ask for help In reconstructing a guitar that his father Woody had given him as a present. After painstakingly rebuilding the instrument, Gibson decided to offer the same guitar to the public as the Arlo Guthrie LG-2 3/4. This list price was $2079, but they are available for much less.


Back in 1945, following the World War II, Harmony guitars of Chicago was back in business and reintroduced The Stella guitar. Stella had been a brand offered as far back as 1899 by the Oscar Schmidt Company. When the company went bankrupt in the 1930’s, Harmony guitars stepped in a acquired their assets.

Harmony "Stella"  H929

The 3/4 sized Stella H929 was in the line up from 1945 through 1970 and was popular as a student model. The guitar was made mainly from birch and used all solid woods. It was ladder braced. Despite being 3/4 sized, it still had a 24 1/2” scale.





Bob Taylor working on a guitar
Bob Taylor was working for a small guitar manufacturing business in 1972 when he was only 18 years old. Within two years, Bob, and co-workers Kurt Listig, and Steve Schemmer bought the company. They needed a band name to put on the guitars.

Schemmer Guitars and Listig Guitar did not seem to sound as marketable as Taylor Guitars. So Taylor Guitar it was. None of the men had studied Martin’s guitar making techniques, so their ideas were fresh and had a new approach. By 1983 Taylor and Listig bought out Schemmer’s stake in the company.

1996 Baby Taylor (Baby on head stock)

Back in 1996, at a time when most of us were interesting only in dreadnought sized guitars,  the Baby Taylor made its debut and starts a new trend in guitar manufacturing.


Baby Taylor neck
Taylor Guitars had already come up with an interesting concept in its bolt-on neck, which utilized precision cut spacers and bolts to attach the neck to the guitars body, which made neck adjustments quick and painless and this same process was applied to the Baby Taylor.

The instruments heelless neck attaches to the guitars body by means of two screws that are flush with the fretboard and located between the 15th and 16th fret.

Baby Taylor arched back
The guitars back and sides are made of 3 layers of laminated sapele wood and the instruments back is slightly arched. Other guitar companies, such as Guild, Framus, and Gibson, have used this same method of arching the back through heated pressing for strength, so the back requires no internal back bracing.

The guitars top is made of solid Sitka spruce. Black matte veneer covers the headstock that bears the decal with the Taylor logo.

The guitar comes with its own gig bag.

Taylor Swift Baby Taylor

The Baby Taylor has a 22 3/4” scale on its diminutive 15 3/4” by 12 1/2” body. The guitar was an instant hit and notice was taken by many other guitar manufacturers. The first year offered the Baby Taylor sold over 1,000 units. Sales of the tiny guitar increased from there.




Martin guitars offered the Backpacker around 1993. Chris Martin IV had visited luthier Robert McNally’s booth at the 1993 NAMM convention where the luthier was displaying his 3 string Strumstick.

Bob McNally with a Strumstick
The original instrument was based on the mountain lap dulcimer, but was meant to be played like a guitar. A deal was struck up at this show for 5,000 units to be made. The neck was changed to a six string guitar design and it was dubbed The Backpacker.


1995 Martin Backpacker


Although the guitar did not have the greatest tone or volume, its compact size, and durability made it successful. The Backpacker was even taken into outer space by one of the astronauts.








Martin 5-15 & Backpacker

The design changed in 2002 when the instruments body was enlarged to enhance the tone and make the instrument easier to hold. Martin has also offered this same instrument with nylon strings, and a mandolin, and ukulele version.





Martin LXM
In 2003 Martin took the concept of a small guitar a step further a with the introduction of the Martin LXM. The LXM or Little Martin is designed as a modified 0-14 fret tenor Martin shape. The scale is 23’ in length. The entire guitar is constructed of high-pressure-laminate or HPL, which is essentially the same process used for making Formica. The neck on the Little Martin is made of Rust birch laminate. The fretboard is constructed of black Micarta, while the nut is made of white Corian. The saddle is made of white Tusq. The tuners are made by Gotoh.

Martin LXME


The original version was only offered as an acoustic instrument. Later on the LXME came with Fishman transducers and Mini Q electronics. The LXM models all come with a gig bag.






Martin LX1



The Martin LX1 is the same style of guitar, but it has a solid Sitka spruce top.








LX1E Ed Sheeran model

Ed Sheeran began his busking career using a Little Martin and Martin guitars offers the Ed Sheeran X signature series LX size guitar with built-in Fishman Isys T electronics.


Martin LX1e


Martin also makes the LX1e electric acoustic models, which feature a solid spruce top.









2013 Taylor GS Mini
In July of 2013 Taylor Guitars introduced the GS Mini guitar. After experimenting with changes to the Baby Taylor, a new design, the Grand Symphony, was decided on. The GS has a different body shape and different bracing.

The top is made of solid Sitka spruce and the back and sides are sapele laminate. The body is approximately 2” larger than the Baby Taylor. The scale is 23 1/2”, and the body is an inch deeper than the Baby Taylor. Once again, it features the arched back design.

Taylor GS Mini E


The neck on this model, although a bolt-on featuring Taylor’s NT design, does have a heel. The action is low and feels quite good. The original models were only offered as acoustic guitars, but could be equipped with the optional ES-Go acoustic pickup.





ES-Go Pickup System

This unit is built exclusively for the GS Mini guitar. The ES-Go is stacked humbucking magnetic pickup which clips onto a bracket in the sound hole that is underneath the fretboard section. Once in place, the player swaps out the end pin and replace it with the one attached to the ES-Go unit. It is made to be paired with Taylor’s “V” cable, which has a volume control. The unit sells for an additional $100.

Taylor GS Mini Mahogany-Spruce


Since its inception, Taylor has improved this guitar, by offering it with optional body woods, such as a mahogany top or spruce top with laminated walnut back and sides. The electronics have also been updated.




2015 Taylor GS Mini E
The Taylor GS mini e is now is available with a built-in Taylor Expression System 2 electronics, which places 3 pickup sensors behind the guitars bridge. Taylor feels this is superior to under the under the saddle method that many designers have used. This also comes with a built-in preamp.

This option adds $100 to the guitars price, but eliminates the need for putting on or removing the ES-Go unit.

Back in 1997, just a year after Bob Taylor introduced the Baby Taylor, Tacoma Guitars of Seattle Washington introduced The Papoose mini guitar.

The Tacoma Factory - Frets magazine
Tacoma Guitars was a division of The Tacoma Lumber Company.  In 1991 this company was processing hardwood that was milled into piano soundboards exclusively for the Young Chang Piano Company of South Korea.

The lumber company's general manager, J.C. Kim persuaded Young Change to build a guitar manufacturing plant nearby, and the company started turning out some rather unique instruments. Among these was the tiny P1 Papoose guitar that was designed by luthier Terry Atkins and George Gruhn.

1997 Tacoma Papoose


The Tacoma P1 Papoose had a short scale neck with only a 19.1” scale, and  it was built to be tuned a fourth higher that normal guitar tuning. In other words, the strings were tuned from A to A.






Paisley Soundhole on Papoose
This guitar introduced the Paisley sound hole, which became a Tacoma trademark, and the Voiced Bracing Support system. This was a system designed to minimize the bracing as much as possible down to what the instrument needs to remain stable.

Back of 1997 Papoose



The heelless neck on the Papoose was bolted on and secured by two screws. The bridge was uniquely shaped and had 3 unusual C-shaped cut-outs to secure the strings. Some later models came with bridge pins.




Papoose 12 String
The Papoose was available in a variety of sound board woods. Tacoma also came out with the P112 Papoose 12 string. Towards the end of the line, Tacoma had introduced and electric version of The Papoose.

Young Chang put the company up for sale in 1999 and it was sold to Fender Musical Instruments Corporation in 2004.

Sadly in 2008 Fender closed the plant and laid off the staff. Though the Papoose is no longer produced, it can still be found on auction sites at a fairly reasonable rate.

Since the Baby Taylor and the Little Martin have proved to be successful, many major guitar manufacturers, too numerous to mention, have developed and offer 3/4 sized mini acoustic guitars in their line up.

Dean Flight



Among them Dean Guitars offers the Dean Flight that retails for around $150 USD. It is a laminated guitar with a 22” scale. The neck is mahogany, and the headstock is done in the Dean-wing style. It comes with a gig bag.





Fender MA-1
Fender offers the MA-1 Parlor 3/4 size guitar. The top is laminated Agathis and the back and sides are laminated Sapele. As with most of the mini acoustic guitars a gig bag is included.



Yamaha JR1



Yamaha’s product is the JR1 Mini Folk.




Luna Safari




Luna Guitars offers a similar 3/4 sized guitar called the Muse Safari guitar.








Takamine GX18CE-NS

Takamine has the GX18CE-NS, which retails around $400, but it does have a solid spruce top, rosewood fretboard and electronics with a built-in preamp.


KLOS Mini guitar


One of the more unique mini guitars comes from a company called Klos. Their instrument has a carbon fiber body. The neck is made of mahogany and topped with a rosewood fretboard.






KLOS Mini guitar
Despite being small in size, the scale is 24 3/4”. Plus the neck is removable. It comes with a gig bag and sell direct from the manufacturer for around $600 USD.






          Market Insight: Optoelectronics Market Globally Grow at a CAGR of 16.84% by Revenue During the Forecast Period 2017-2021   

Global Internet of Things (IoT) Market in Healthcare Sector 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- Optoelectronics Market research report provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Optoelectronics Market report 2017-2021 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. The Optoelectronics Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of Optoelectronics Warming Devices Industry.

Optoelectronics is the study of combined technology of electronic device and light. It is a sub-field of photonics. The study includes visible light as well as X-rays, gamma rays, ultra-violet (UV) rays, and infrared (IR) rays. Optoelectronic devices act as optical-to-electrical or electrical-to-optical transducers. LED, image sensors, optical switches, laser diodes, and optical isolators are some of the optoelectronics. Analysts forecast the global Optoelectronics Warming Devices market to grow at a CAGR of 16.84% during the period 2017-2021.

Browse more detail information about Optoelectronics Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-optoelectronics-market-2017-2021-10533722

The research report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global Optoelectronics industry for 2017-2021.

Key Vendors of Optoelectronics Market:

- Cree
- GE Lighting
- LG Innotek
- Lumileds Lighting
- NICHIA
- OSRAM
- Samsung
- Seoul Semiconductor
- Sony
- Samsung Semiconductor
- OmniVision
- Canon
- ON Semiconductor

Other prominent vendors

Get a PDF Sample of Optoelectronics Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10533722

The Optoelectronics Market report also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendors operating in the market. Optoelectronics Market report analyses the market potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, and market demand and supply scenarios.

Optoelectronics Market Driver:

- Growing adoption of LED for lighting due to government subsidies and projects undertaken
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Optoelectronics Market Challenge:

- Challenges associated with deployment of fiber optics
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Optoelectronics Market Trend:

- Upcoming technological trends in LED
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Purchase report @ http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10533722   

Geographical Segmentation Of Optoelectronics Market:

- Optoelectronics Market in Americas
- Optoelectronics Market in APAC
- Optoelectronics Market in EMEA

The report provides a basic overview of the Optoelectronics industry including definitions, segmentation, applications, key vendors, market drivers and market challenges. The Optoelectronics Market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status

Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global Optoelectronics Market including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.

Have any query? ask our expert @ http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10533722

Key questions answered in Optoelectronics Market report:

- What will the market size be in 2021 and what will the growth rate be?
- What are the key market trends?
- What is driving this market?
- What are the challenges to market growth?
- Who are the key vendors in this market space?
- What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors?

Get Discount on Optoelectronics Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10533722

List of Exhibits in Optoelectronics Market report:

- Exhibit 01: Product offerings
- Exhibit 02: Impact of drivers
- Exhibit 03: Impact of drivers and challenges
- Exhibit 04: Key countries in each region
- Exhibit 05: Global Optoelectronics Market shares by geographies 2017
- Exhibit 06: Global Optoelectronics Market shares by geographies 2021
- Exhibit 07: Geographical segmentation by revenue 2017

About Absolute Report
Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/market-insight-optoelectronics-market-globally-grow-at-a-cagr-of-1684-by-revenue-during-the-forecast-period-2017-2021-769491.htm

Media Relations Contact

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Absolute Reports
Telephone: 408-520-9750
Email: Click to Email Ameya Pingaley
Web: https://www.absolutereports.com/global-internet-of-things-market-in-the-healthcare-sector-2016-2020-10338864


          Sennheiser 504298 MK 4 Studio Condenser Microphone   
Sennheiser 504298 MK 4 Studio Condenser Microphone

Sennheiser 504298 MK 4 Studio Condenser Microphone

Sennheiser (504298, 5042 98, 5042-98) The MK 4 is a large-diaphragm true condenser microphone for professional studio recordings. Featuring fine resolution and outstanding sound quality, the MK 4 is easy to handle and excellent value for money, making it an ideal choice for professional project studios and home recordists. It features a 1" true condenser capsule based on the acoustics of the e 965 high-end vocal mic, optimised for recording. The MK 4 is made in Germany, its transducer being manufactured in the same clean room as all high-end Sennheiser condenser capsules.


          Beyerdynamic 100668 M 160 Double ribbon mic, hypercardioid   
Beyerdynamic 100668 M 160 Double ribbon mic, hypercardioid

Beyerdynamic 100668 M 160 Double ribbon mic, hypercardioid

Beyerdynamic 100668 M 160 (M160, M-160, M/160, m 160) Double ribbon mic, hypercardioid, 3 pin XLR Double ribbon microphone (hypercardioid) Instrumental miking such as saxophone  Miking of drums (toms, hi-hat)  MS-stereophony with M 130  beyerdynamic is one of few microphone manufacturers world-wide that still produce ribbon microphones.  A classic one is the M 160, a dynamic double ribbon microphone. Featuring a hypercardioid polar pattern with a noise attenuation of 25 dB at 110°, the M 160 is an outstanding microphone which is very effective for all types of remote and in-studio voice reproduction. In the recording studio, the M 160 is recommended for miking string instruments such as violins, violas, cellos and for pianos, saxophones as well as for hi-hat and toms.  The non-glare black surface of the M 160 and its small dimensions allow the unobtrusive use in TV or film studios. In conjunction with the M 130 dynamic double ribbon microphone the M 160 is ideal for stereo recordings in MS technique.  Features Unique double ribbon microphone transducer Hypercardioid polar pattern Extended frequency response Excellent transparency and transient response Compact and rugged design   Warm and natural sound


          Beyerdynamic 403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional   
Beyerdynamic 403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional

Beyerdynamic 403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional

Beyerdynamic 403660 M 58 (M58, M-58, M/58, m 58) Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional, 3 pin XLR Dynamic ENG/EFP microphone (omnidirectional) The M 58 has been specifically designed to satisfy the demands of Electric News Gathering (ENG) and Electronic Field Production (EFP) applications. Its sophisticated internal shockmount dramatically reduces handling noise, while the microphone´s frequency response has been tailored to provide broadcasters with a very accurate and intelligible sound. The M 58´s weight-balanced design provides journalists with a high degree of comfort during lengthy interviews. Its rugged construction enables the microphone to withstand physical and environmental punishment typically encountered during field production operations. The M 58´s slim profile and non-glare finish result in a low profile on camera. Features Moving coil transducer Internal shockmount reduces handling noise Extended frequency response with rising high-end for maximum intelligibility Rugged construcion Non-reflective finish   Weight-balanced, slim-profile design


          Beyerdynamic 482838 MC 840 Large diaphram condenser mic   
Beyerdynamic 482838 MC 840 Large diaphram condenser mic

Beyerdynamic 482838 MC 840 Large diaphram condenser mic

Beyerdynamic 482838 MC 840 (MC840, MC-840, MC/840, mc 840) Large diaphram condenser mic Top class large-diaphragm condenser microphone Studio or Live Applications  Vocals, Choirs, Instruments  The MC 840 is a very compact large diaphragm studio microphone with a gold vaporised double diaphragm and 5 selectable polar patterns (omnidirectional, wide cardioid, cardioid, hypercardioid, figure 8). On the basis of the MC 740 microphone capsule this new microphone has been equipped with an improved low-noise pre-amplifier and an impedance transformer without transducer. Due to a two-stage roll-off filter (80 and 160 Hz) compensating the close miking effect and a two-stage pre-attenuation (-10 and -20 dB) the MC 840 is a superior microphone for any recording application. It has been designed without compromise to capture every sound detail with absolute clarity and purity. Applications for the MC 840 include recording orchestras resulting in a superb transparent sound. Features Large diaphragm capsule with gold vaporised double diaphragms Elastic capsule mounting Five selectable polar patterns Switchable pre-attenuation for high sound pressure levels   Switchable two-stage roll-off filter


          Beyerdynamic 450367 MCE 58 ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional   
Beyerdynamic 450367 MCE 58 ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional

Beyerdynamic 450367 MCE 58 ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional

Beyerdynamic 450367 MCE 58 (MCE-58, MCE58, MCE/58, mce 58) ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional microphone Electret condenser microphone for ENG/EFP (omni) The MCE 58 condenser microphone has been specially developed for interviewing and broadcasting.  Its unbalanced output supplies a very high level which allows direct connection to mobile DAT and MD-recorders. The elasticated suspension of the transducer element eliminates unwanted handling noise and built-in active filters suppress unwanted low frequency noise such as traffic rumble. The MCE 58 has a frequency response curve which has been optimised for excellent intelligibility of speech. The non-glare surface is scratch-resistant and will withstand the rough use often associated with news gathering events.  Features:  Omnidirectional polar pattern  High output level  Rugged construction  Slim line design   


          Rode NT1 Kit Microphone Kit   
Rode NT1 Kit Microphone Kit

Rode NT1 Kit Microphone Kit

Rode NT1 Kit (NT1-KIT NT1/KIT NT1KIT) Microphone Kit The NT1 is a revolutionary new 1" diagphram condenser microphone from RØDE. Although the body of the new NT1 closely resembles the NT1-A, the microphone has been completely redesigned from the ground up, with the only shared component being the mesh grille. RØDE’s design engineers approached the NT1 as a marriage of innovation and tradition, starting with the capsule which is a completely new design. Codenamed the HF6, it is the perfect example of RØDE’s fusion of artistic design approaches and cutting-edge manufacturing techniques, and features a sound signature reminiscent of the famous microphones of old while at the same time exhibiting extremely low noise. It has been developed with a focus on detailed midrange response, coupled with silky smooth high frequencies, and warm, round, bass reproduction to make the NT1 an absolute standout in its class. In another world-first for RØDE, the transducer itself is suspended inside the microphone using Rycote’s industry-leading Lyre system, minimizing external vibrations at the capsule level. The capsule is then married to high-grade electronics that have been designed to provide the lowest noise level of any studio microphone available. The NT1 is an incredibly quiet microphone, measuring only 4.5dBA of self-noise. Its body is machined from 6061 aluminium and then nickel plated for resistance against corrosion. Finally it is coated in a durable, military-grade ceramic layer, using advanced electrostatic application techniques developed by RØDE to ensure an extremely hard wearing finish that is resistant to scratches or marks. The NT1 is supplied with the revolutionary new RØDE SMR shock mount. Featuring a unique double-Lyre suspension system, the SMR enhances the existing superior vibration cancellation of Rycote’s Lyre system by using a smaller inner Lyre to act as a tensioning element. This maintains each Lyre in the neutral position where it is most efficient at cancelling vibration. The SMR’s removable all-metal pop filter is as effective as it is visually striking, providing an integrated solution for plosive protection that is easily washable and designed to last as long as the shock mount and microphone. The NT1 is designed and made in Australia, and is covered by RØDE's industry-leading 10 year warranty. *view and save downloads ( full specification) on the right      


          Sennheiser 504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System w ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38   
Sennheiser 504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System w ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38

Sennheiser 504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System w ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38

Sennheiser 504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System with ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38   Presentation System 100 series G3 Range GB (606...648 MHz) Make your presentations come to life. The included omni-directional microphone provides natural speech reproduction while remaining inconspicuously small. The bodypack transmitter has a rechargeable battery option so you can concentrate on your presentation - not on purchasing batteries. Demand the best in wireless presentation technology with quick setup, user-friendly operation, and absolute reliability due to the true diversity receiver. Now featuring wireless infrared transmitter sync for easy setup.   Product Specifications RF frequency range: 516..... 865 MHz Transmission/receiving frequencies: 1680 Presets: 12 Switching bandwidth: 42 MHz Compander: HDX Frequency response: 25.....18.000 Hz Signal-to-noise ratio: > 110 dB(A) THD, total harmonic distortion: < 0.9 %   Receivers Antenna connector: 2x BNC, 50 Ohm Audio output level (balanced): XLR: +18 dBu max Jack: +12 dBu max Audio output level (unbalanced): Jack: +12dBu max 12 V DC Dimensions: 202x212x43mm Weight: ~ 900g   Transmitter RF output power: typ. 30 mW battery AA (Mignon) Power supply: 2x AA batteries Operating time: typ. 8h Input voltage range: 1.8 V line Input voltage range: 3 V eff. line Dimensions: 82x64x24mm Weight: ~ 160g   Clip-on microphone Transducer; Microphone type: permanent polarized 130 dB(SPL) max. AF sensitivity: 20 mV/Pa omni- directional Sound pressure level (SPL): 130 dB(SPL) max. Pick-up pattern omni-directional: omni- directional Channel 38 ready. 42 MHz bandwidth: 1680 tunable UHF frequencies for interference-free reception Enhanced frequency bank system with up to 12 compatible frequencies High-quality true diversity reception Pilot tone squelch for eliminating RF interference when transmitter is turned off Automatic frequency scan feature searches for available frequencies Enhanced AF frequency range    


          DPA 4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo   
DPA 4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo

DPA 4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo

DPA 4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone Video: DPA 4088 cardioid headband on singer open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes  DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)  


          DPA 4088-F10 Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR   
DPA 4088-F10 Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR

DPA 4088-F10 Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR

DPA 4088-F10 (4088F10, 4088 F10, 4088/F10, 4088-f10) Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone     open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes  DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts.   Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease.   The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules.   The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal.   Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector.   What is in the box:   Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          DPA 4088-F34 Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack   
DPA 4088-F34 Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack

DPA 4088-F34 Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack

DPA 4088-F34 (4088F34, 4088 F34, 4088/F34, 4088-f34) Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes  DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          DPA FID88B00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black   
DPA FID88B00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black

DPA FID88B00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black

DPA FID88B00 (FID88 B00, FID88-B00, FID88/B00, fid88b00) d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black 120 mm Boom MicroDot d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes    DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          DPA FID88F00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Beige   
DPA FID88F00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Beige

DPA FID88F00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Beige

ic 4088 Beige 120 mm Boom MicroDot d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes      DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          DPA 4088-F Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot   
DPA 4088-F Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot

DPA 4088-F Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot

DPA 4088-F (4088F 4088 F 4088/F) Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot FEATURES: open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. In the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)    


          DPA 4088-C Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot   
DPA 4088-C Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot

DPA 4088-C Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot

DPA 4088-C (4088C 4088 C 4088/C) Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot FEATURES: open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. In the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)  


          DPA 4088-B Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot   
DPA 4088-B Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot

DPA 4088-B Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot

DPA 4088-B (4088B 4088/B 4088 B) Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot FEATURES: open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. In the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)  


          Audio-Technica AT4081 Bidirectional active ribbon microphone with AT8471 clamp   
Audio-Technica AT4081 Bidirectional active ribbon microphone with AT8471 clamp

Audio-Technica AT4081 Bidirectional active ribbon microphone with AT8471 clamp

AT4081 Bidirectional active ribbon microphone with AT8471 clamp Delivering the warmth and natural sound of a classic ribbon microphone, Audio-Technica’s handcrafted AT4081 offers a robust build for long-lasting performance and higher output for maximum compatibility with microphone preamplifiers. With its low-profile stick design, this microphone is a natural for use on a wide range of instruments (horns, strings, drum overheads, orchestras and more) and guitar cabinets in recording studios and live-sound settings. Equally at home in recording studios and live-sound settings, the microphone features Audio-Technica’s innovative MicroLinearâ„¢ ribbon imprint, which protects the dual ribbons from lateral flexing and distortion. With 18 patents pending, Audio-Technica’s innovative ribbon transducer advances the evolution of ribbon microphone design. Experience the difference. Features: Low-profile stick design maximizes placement options Smooth, warm and natural sound tuned for instrument reproduction Audio-Technica ribbon design with 18 patents pending including proprietary MicroLinearâ„¢ ribbon imprint for superior durability Innovative dual ribbon construction for increased sensitivity Extremely powerful N50 neodymium magnets for high output level Superfine mesh guards against ribbon damage High-SPL capability and extended frequency response Handmade production – including ribbon corrugation, imprint and assembly Phantom-powered active electronics provide stable impedance and higher output for maximum compatibility with microphone preamplifiers


          Audio-Technica AT4080 Bidirectional Active Ribbon Microphone   
Audio-Technica AT4080 Bidirectional Active Ribbon Microphone

Audio-Technica AT4080 Bidirectional Active Ribbon Microphone

Audio-Technica AT4080 (AT-4080, AT 4080, AT/4080, at4080) Bidirectional active ribbon microphone with AT8449SV shock mount With the groundbreaking AT4080, Audio-Technica achieves the coveted ribbon microphone sound while solving the problems of fragility and low output that have historically plagued ribbon mics. Delivering the warm, smooth sound of a classic ribbon microphone, Audio-Technica’s handcrafted AT4080 Active Ribbon Microphone offers a robust build for long-lasting, reliable performance and higher output for maximum compatibility with microphone preamplifiers. Equally at home in recording studios and live-sound settings, the microphone features Audio-Technica’s innovative MicroLinearâ„¢ ribbon imprint, which protects the dual ribbons from lateral flexing and distortion. With 18 patents pending, Audio-Technica’s innovative ribbon transducer advances the evolution of ribbon microphone design. Experience the difference. Features: Smooth, warm and natural high-fidelity sound for professional recording, broadcast and sound reinforcement Groundbreaking Audio-Technica ribbon design with 18 patents pending Proprietary MicroLinearâ„¢ ribbon imprint for superior durability Innovative dual ribbon construction for increased sensitivity Extremely powerful N50 neodymium magnets for high output level Ultra-fine mesh helps protect against ribbon damage Classic bidirectional (figure-of-eight) polar pattern picks up sounds equally from the front and back of the element High-SPL capability and extended frequency response Extended frequency response for natural audio reproduction Acoustic baffle system and extra large output transformer provide natural low-frequency response and extended dynamic range Handmade production – including ribbon corrugation, imprint and assembly Open acoustical environment of the housing assembly minimizes unwanted internal reflections Phantom-powered active electronics  provide stable impedance and higher output for maximum compatibility with microphone preamplifiers Custom shock mount provides superior isolation


          Rode NTK Condenser Microphone with cardioid polar response   
Rode NTK Condenser Microphone with cardioid polar response

Rode NTK Condenser Microphone with cardioid polar response

Like it’s bigger brother the K2, the RØDE NTK is a premium valve condenser microphone designed to provide incredible detail and warmth in the studio. Its cardioid polar pattern is perfect for most single instrument recording scenarios. The electronic circuitry complementing this very sensitive transducer includes a hand-selected twin-triode 6922 valve and audiophile grade components. The result is an ultra-wide dynamic range, low noise, and stunning tube warmth. The NTK's rich valve sound is ideal for vocals, acoustic instruments, drum overheads, guitar amps and pianos. The RØDE NTK microphone is designed and made in Australia, and covered by RØDE Microphones' industry leading 10 year warranty.      


          Sennheiser 2872 Mkh 30-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone   
Sennheiser 2872 Mkh 30-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

Sennheiser 2872 Mkh 30-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

Sennheiser 2872 Mkh 30-P48 (MKH-30-P48 MKH30P48 MKH 30 P48 MKH30-P48) Direct. Studio Microphone RF condenser microphone with figure-of-eight pick-up pattern. Particularly suited to soloists and small instrumental groups. Can also serve as an 'S' microphone in MS stereo applications as well as a support microphone. The symmetrical transducer design of the MKH 30 produces an unusually wide and smooth frequency response. It is particularly suited to soloists and small instrumental groups and can also serve as an 'S' microphone in MS stereo applications. As a support microphone it is particularly useful in the effective suppression of sounds from adjacent sound sources. Symmetrical transducer design for unusually wide and smooth frequency response Particularly suited to soloists and small instrumental groups High rejection of lateral sounds Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Features: High rejection of lateral sounds Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects at a distance of approx. 0.5 m Switchable pre-attenuation Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 30 1 MZS 80 shock mount 1 MZW 41 windshield


          Sennheiser 2645 Mkh 40-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone   
Sennheiser 2645 Mkh 40-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

Sennheiser 2645 Mkh 40-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

Sennheiser 2645 Mkh 40-P48 (MKH-40-P48 MKH40P48 MKH40-P48 MKH 40 P48) Direct. Studio Microphone Cardioid RF condenser microphone. For a large number of applications, e. g. as a main microphone, especially in lightly reverberant or acoustically less perfect rooms, with instrumental groups or for speech applications. The MKH 40 has a large number of applications, for example as a main microphone, especially in lightly reverberant or acoustically less perfect rooms, with instrumental groups or for speech applications. Its wide-angled, neutral directional characteristics and high level of reverse attenuation ensure an exceptionally balanced sound. Especially suitable for lightly reverberant or acoustically less perfect rooms Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Features:   Maximum front-to-back ratio Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects at a distance of approx. 0.5 m Switchable pre-attenuation Black, anodised light metal bodv What's in the box? 1 MKH 40, 1 MZS 40 shock mount, 1 MZW 41 windshield


          Sennheiser 3109 Mkh 50-P48 Studio Directional Microphone   
Sennheiser 3109 Mkh 50-P48 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3109 Mkh 50-P48 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3109 Mkh 50-P48 (MKH50-P48 MKH 50 P48 MKH-50-P48 MKH 50P48) Studio Directional Microphone Super-cardioid microphone designed for use as a soloist's or spot microphone for applications requiring a high degree of side-borne sound muting and feedback rejection. Frequency-independent directional characteristics. The super-cardioid MKH 50 offers a higher attenuation of diffusefield and lateral sound than the cardioid microphone. It is principally designed for use as a soloist's or spot microphone for applications requiring a high degree of side-borne sound muting and feedback rejection. The directional characteristics are frequency-independent. Super-cardioid pick-up pattern for higher attenuation of diffusefield and lateral sound Soloist’s or spot microphone for applications requiring a high degree of side-borne sound muting and feedback rejection Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Features: High rejection of lateral sounds Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects at a distance of approx. 0.5 m Switchable pre-attenuation Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 50, 1 MZS 40 shock mount, 1 MZW 41 windshield


          Sennheiser 3148 Mkh 60-1 Studio Directional Microphone   
Sennheiser 3148 Mkh 60-1 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3148 Mkh 60-1 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3148 Mkh 60-1 (MKH60-1 MKH601 MKH 60 1 MKH-60-1) Studio Directional Microphone Lightweight short gun microphone. Versatile and easy to handle. Excellent for film and reporting applications. Superb lateral sound muting. High degree of directivity ensures high sound quality for distance applications. The MKH 60 is a lightweight short gun microphone. It is versatile and easy to handle and its superb lateral sound muting makes it an excellent choice for film and reporting applications. Its high degree of directivity ensures high sound quality for distance applications. Superb lateral sound muting – ideal for film and reporting applications Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Extremely low inherent self-noise Rugged and weather-proof Features: Extremely low inherent self-noise High sensitivity High directivity throughout the whole frequency range Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Infra-sonic cut-off filter Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable pre-attenuation, switchable roll-off filter and switchable treble emphasis Rugged and weather-proof Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 60, 1 MZQ 40 quick release clamp


          Sennheiser 3149 Mkh 70-1 Studio Directional Microphone   
Sennheiser 3149 Mkh 70-1 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3149 Mkh 70-1 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3149 Mkh 70-1 (MKH-70-1 MKH701 MKH70-1 MKH 70 1) Studio Directional Microphone Lightweight long gun microphone. Particularly suited to distance microphone positioning. Frequency-independent directivity prevents sound coloration from off-axis sound sources. Exceptionally low inherent self-noise. The MKH 70 is a lightweight long gun microphone. Its excellent directivity is particularly suited to applications undertaken in difficult conditions, such as high background noise and distance microphone positioning. Its frequency-independent directivity prevents sound colouration from off-axis sound sources. Excellent directivity, ideal for distance microphone positioning Frequency-independent directivity prevents sound colouration from off-axis sound source Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Rugged and weather-proof Features: Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Infra-sonic cut-off filter Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable pre-attenuation, switchable roll-off filter and switchable treble emphasis Rugged and weather-proof Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 70


          Sennheiser 502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx Dual Capsule Microphone   
Sennheiser 502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx Dual Capsule Microphone

Sennheiser 502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx Dual Capsule Microphone

Sennheiser 502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx (MKH 800 TWIN NX MKH-800-TWIN-NX MKH800TWINNX MKH800 TWIN NX)Dual Capsule Microphone The MKH 800 TWIN is a universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. It includes a dual capsule consisting of two symmetrical push-pull transducers with high linearity. This is a "side fire" microphone with the two cardioid pick-up patterns of the transducer aligned back-to-back across the axis of the microphone. The signals of both transducers are not combined in the microphone in order to generate differing pick-up patterns but are available separately as two channels at the microphone output. This allows the pick-up patterns of the MKH 800 TWIN to be remotely adjusted. The signals can be combined in any desired way in the mixing console in order to create all pick-up patterns from omni-directional to figure-8 with an infinite number of intermediate stages. Based on the legendary MKH 800, this microphone opens up to a new dimension of studio recordings. Universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. Pick-up patterns can be remotely adjusted and optimized under monitoring conditions. High transducers linearity minimizes signal distortions. Universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality Pick-up patterns can be set and optimised under monitoring conditions. A wide range of mixes for stereo and surround are possible High transducers linearity minimizes signal distortions Features: Color: Nickel The remote adjustability and the variable pick-up patterns make the MKH 800 TWIN a universal main microphone, soloist microphone or supporting microphone. The pick-up patterns can be set and optimised under monitoring conditions. In other words, it is not necessary to fix the pick-up patterns definitively before recording. A wide range of mixes for stereo and surround are possible (including in parallel). Saving of the microphone signals in two channels also allows an unlimited range of mixes to be realised at a later date. The high sensitivity ensures interference-free signal paths as a result of high signal levels. The inherent noise of downstream microphone amplifiers is thus of minor importance. Very low inherent noise prevents the masking of filigree sound structures. The depth of the acoustic can be heard more clearly too. High linearity of the transducers minimises the signal distortions and ensures the transparency of the sound even at high sound levels. The frequency response extends to 50 kHz, thus improving the resolution for complex acoustic details. Stable pick-up patterns minimise sound distortion in the direct and diffuse field. Negative acoustic effects caused by the housing and the sound inlet basket are minimised. The small, slim design and the optionally dark housing design (Nextel) make it visually unobtrusive. What's in the box? MKH 800 TWIN studio condenser microphone MZQ 80 microphone clamp MZS80 shock mount AC 20 adaptor cable (1 x XLR-5 socket to 2 x XLR-3 connector) User manual Aluminium transport case


          Sennheiser 502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni Dual Capsule Microphone   
Sennheiser 502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni Dual Capsule Microphone

Sennheiser 502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni Dual Capsule Microphone

Sennheiser 502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni (MKH 800 TWIN_NI MKH-800-TWIN-NI MKH800TWINNI MKH_800_TWIN_NI) Dual Capsule Microphone Universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. Pick-up patterns can be remotely adjusted and optimized under monitoring conditions. High transducers linearity minimizes signal distortions.The MKH 800 TWIN is a universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. It includes a dual capsule consisting of two symmetrical push-pull transducers with high linearity. This is a "side fire" microphone with the two cardioid pick-up patterns of the transducer aligned back-to-back across the axis of the microphone. The signals of both transducers are not combined in the microphone in order to generate differing pick-up patterns but are available separately as two channels at the microphone output. This allows the pick-up patterns of the MKH 800 TWIN to be remotely adjusted. The signals can be combined in any desired way in the mixing console in order to create all pick-up patterns from omni-directional to figure-8 with an infinite number of intermediate stages. Based on the legendary MKH 800, this microphone opens up to a new dimension of studio recordings. Features Color: Nickel The remote adjustability and the variable pick-up patterns make the MKH 800 TWIN a universal main microphone, soloist microphone or supporting microphone. The pick-up patterns can be set and optimised under monitoring conditions. In other words, it is not necessary to fix the pick-up patterns definitively before recording. A wide range of mixes for stereo and surround are possible (including in parallel). Saving of the microphone signals in two channels also allows an unlimited range of mixes to be realised at a later date. The high sensitivity ensures interference-free signal paths as a result of high signal levels. The inherent noise of downstream microphone amplifiers is thus of minor importance. Very low inherent noise prevents the masking of filigree sound structures. The depth of the acoustic can be heard more clearly too. High linearity of the transducers minimises the signal distortions and ensures the transparency of the sound even at high sound levels. The frequency response extends to 50 kHz, thus improving the resolution for complex acoustic details. Stable pick-up patterns minimise sound distortion in the direct and diffuse field. Negative acoustic effects caused by the housing and the sound inlet basket are minimised. The small, slim design and the optionally dark housing design (Nextel) make it visually unobtrusive.   What's in the box? MKH 800 TWIN studio condenser microphone MZQ 80 microphone clamp MZS80 shock mount AC 20 adaptor cable (1 x XLR-5 socket to 2 x XLR-3 connector) User manual Aluminium transport case  


          Rode NT2A Microphone Studio Pack   
Rode NT2A Microphone Studio Pack

Rode NT2A Microphone Studio Pack

The NT2-A carries on the tradition forged by the now legendary RØDE NT2. A professional large 1" capsule studio microphone incorporating three-position pick-up patterns, pad and high pass filter switches conveniently located on the mic body. The frequency and transient response of this transducer has been voiced to complement today's modern recording techniques, and yet still evoke the silky smooth character of the legendary microphones of the 50s and 60s. These features provide the flexibility and superlative audio characteristics that make the NT2-A one of the most versatile condenser mics available. Supplied with the SM6 shock mount, dust cover, microphone cable and DVD hosted by Grammy-nominated engineer and producer John Merchant showing a range of recording techniques specific to the NT2-A. The RØDE NT2-A microphone is designed and made in Australia, and covered by RØDE's industry leading 10 year warranty. *view and save downloads ( full specification) on the right  


          Rode NT3 Studio Microphone Multi-Powered Condenser   
Rode NT3 Studio Microphone Multi-Powered Condenser

Rode NT3 Studio Microphone Multi-Powered Condenser

The NT3 is the definition of a studio workhorse. Featuring an end-address 3/4" gold-sputtered true-condenser transducer it provides incredible detail on almost any instrument you can imagine. Intended for studio, stage and location work, this versatile handheld, stand or boompole mounted microphone will give great results on drums, percussion, acoustic guitar, guitar amps, piano and all acoustic instruments as well as detailed voice reproduction when used as a handheld presentation microphone or indoor boom mic. For further versatility the NT3 can be powered by either P48 phantom power, or via a 9V battery for situations when power isn't available via the console or camera. Its rugged and durable all-metal body and mesh head ensure that it is well protected both in the studio and out in the field. The RØDE NT3 microphone is designed and made in Australia, and covered by RØDE's industry leading 10 year warranty. *view and save downloads ( full specification) on the right


          Audio-Technica Ae2500 Dual-element cardioid microphone   
Audio-Technica Ae2500 Dual-element cardioid microphone

Audio-Technica Ae2500 Dual-element cardioid microphone

Ae2500 Dual-element cardioid microphone The ultimate kick-drum mic, the Artist Elite AE2500 dual-element instrument microphone features cardioid condenser and dynamic capsules combined in one housing. The dynamic element delivers the aggressive attack of the beater; the condenser captures the round tonalities of the shell. Two layers of resistive mesh form multiple densities over the dynamic element's side-entry ports, exercising precise control over the time at which off-axis signals arrive at the diaphragm. The condenser diaphragm is optimally tensioned and aged for long-term consistency and stability. Features: Revolutionary dual-element design represents a ground-breaking transducer achievement Two elements (condenser and dynamic) are enclosed in a single housing Dynamic element delivers the aggressive attack of the beater while the condenser captures the round tonalities of the shell Elements are positioned in a perfect phase relationship, something practically unachievable with two separate microphones Robust design for enduring dependability on the road Integral 80 Hz HPF switch and 10 dB pad on condenser element Includes isolation clamp for shock protection, secure mounting and easy positioning Includes a 16.5' (5 m) cable (5-pin XLRF to two standard 3-pin XLRM connectors) for separate control over each element


          Review: Sony XB510AS Extra Bass (Sports In-Ear Headphones)   

Kali ini gue ingin mereview salah satu in-ear headphones sudah lama gue tunggu untuk dibeli, Sony XB510AS Extra Bass. Ini merupakan in-ear headphone yang dibuat khusus untuk kalian yang suka dengan kegiatan sport sambil menikmati musik. Sebelum gue review lebih detail, berikut spesifikasi dari Sony XB510AS Extra Bass ini:

Frequency response: 4 -24.000 Hz
Impedance:  56 Ohm (1kHz)
Sensitivity:  106 dB/mW
Transducer principle: Closed Dynamic
Cable: approx. 1.2 m, Litz wire, Y-type
Plug: L-shaped gold-plated four-conductor mini plug
Driver unit: 12mm Dome Type (CCAW)

Oke, tadi di atas merupakan spesifikasi dari Sony XB510AS Extra Bass. Kalau dilihat dari speknya, in-ear headphones ini memiliki kualitas mid-high end. Bisa dilihat dari harga jualnya yaitu Rp. 550.000 - 650.000 tergantung dari tokonya yang menjual. Tapi dengan harga segitu, kualitasnya memang memuaskan dan gak diragukan lagi. Dengan respon frekuensi hingga 4 Hz, suara bass pada musik sangat bisa dinikmati, terutama musik hacep yang banyak suaras ngebassnya. Selain itu, dengan respon frekuensi maksimum yang mencapai 24.000 Hz, anda dapat lebih mendengarkan detail suara pada musik anda. Terdapat pula microphone dengan satu tombol di kabelnya, seperti rata-rata pada headphones saat ini.


Kalau dilihat dari desainnya, in-ear headphones ini agak besar dari in-ear headphones biasanya. Yang membuat ukurannya agak besar tersebut dikarenakan oleh head-cover dan arc pada in-ear headphonesnya. Head-covernya dibuat dengan desain IPX5/7.


Dengan desain IPX5/7 ini, Sony XB510AS ini bisa tahan pada kondisi yang lembab atau basah, dan anda bisa membilasnya dengan air untuk membersihkannya dari kotoran setelah pemakaian (bukan dicelupin ya). Dibilasnya juga bukan kearah lobang suaranya, tapi bagian luarnya saja (head-cover dan earbuds nya). Sedangkan untuk arc nya, berfungsi untuk menjadi penyangga di telinga anda. Sehingga saat anda memakai in-ear headphones ini ketika sedang berolah raga atau lainnya, gak akan mudah lepas dari telinga anda.

Ada 4 pilihan warna untuk Sony XB510AS Extra Bass ini yaitu, hitam, merah, biru dan hijau.


Saat pembelian, anda akan mendapatkan bonus lain seperti, tempat in-ear headphones (soft pouch), penjepit (clip) dan penggulung kabel (gue gak tau namanya, tapi fungsinya sih begitu). Selain itu, disediakan ukuran  kecil (S), sedang (M) dan besar (L) untuk arc dan budsnya yang dapat disesuaikan dengan telinga anda.



Kelebihan
1. Memiliki rentan respon frekuensi yang tinggi 4- 24.000 Hz membuat anda dapat mendengarkan musik dengan kualitas yang tinggi. (Musiknya serasa ada di dalam kepala)
2. Dibuat khusus dengan suara yang extra ngebass.  
3. Memiliki desain IPX5/7, sehingga in-ear headphones ini tahan pada kondisi yang lembab/basah karena keringat atau terhadap cuaca hujan dan salju, serta dapat dibilas dengan air.
4. Ada arc yang dapat menyangga pada telinga, sehingga tidak mudah lepas.
5. Benar-benar kedap suara, sehingga saat mendengarkan musik gak akan terganggu oleh suara dari luar.
6. Jika anda memiliki smartphone Sony Xperia, dengan mengaktifkan fitur DSEE HX, maka anda dapat menikmati musik dengan kualitas yang maksimal melalui in-ear headphones ini.

Kekurangan
1. Ukurannya yang agak besar akan terlihat mencolok saat dipakai. Khususnya bagi pengendara motor, mengunakan in-ear headphones ini dengan helm akan mengalami sedikit masalah untuk menyesuaikannya dengan helm.
2. Terkadang telinga bisa agak gatal di bagian arc nya.


Secara keseluruhannya, bagi anda yang memang pecinta musik, ingin menikmati musik dengan kualitas yang cukup tinggi sambil beraktifitas seperti olah raga, bisa membeli in-ear headphones ini. Selain itu dengan fitur IPX5/7 menjamin ketahanannya dalam berbagai kondisi.
          Installing a Lowrance 7TI on a Hobie Outback   
Hey guys James Snyder here with the Headwaters Fishing Team. I recently upgraded to the Lowrance 7 ti want wanted to give a detailed how to on what i used and how i did it.

Parts used-
Lowrance 7ti
http://www.lowrance.com/en-US/Products/Fishfinder-Chartplotter/elite-7-ti-en-us.aspx

Heavy duty Ram Mount 1.5 ball
 http://www.rammount.com/part/RAM-101-LO11

Yak Attack 1.5 ball
 http://www.yakattack.us/SB15_12_p/sb15-12.htm

Yak Attack Gear tack - cut to fit
http://www.yakattack.us/GT90_08_p/gt90-08.htm

Berley Pro total scan transducer mount
 https://www.berleypro.com/product/totalscan-ready-transducer-mount-suits-hobie/

12v 22ah battery
https://www.amazon.com/Rechargeable-Replacement-KEYKO-KT-12220-Terminal/dp/B01LXNS894/ref=sr_1_9_a_it?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936088&sr=8-9&keywords=12v%2B22ah&th=1

water proof quick connector
https://www.amazon.com/Huicocy-Waterproof-Electrical-Connector-Marine/dp/B01DILSJ0A/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936117&sr=8-1&keywords=12v+waterproof+connector

Ring terminals
 https://www.amazon.com/Gardner-Bender-10-106-Terminal-Yellow/dp/B000LNOJYY/ref=sr_1_8?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936143&sr=8-8&keywords=ring+terminals

silver soldier
https://www.amazon.com/Kester-83-4000-0000-Solder-Pocket-Diameter/dp/B00068IJNQ/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936172&sr=8-4&keywords=silver+solder

heat shrink tubing
 https://www.amazon.com/JawayTool-Assortment-Electrical-Connection-Diameters/dp/B018G6CQAG/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936194&sr=8-1-spons&keywords=heat+shrink&psc=1

Hobie through hull kit
 http://www.austinkayak.com/products/12509/Hobie-Thru-Hull-Wiring-Kit.html?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Shopping:%20ACK%20PLA&scid=scplp292988&sc_intid=12509_10705_1&gclid=CI3C39GD-tACFQ6Zfgod9ikMIA

Hobie Multi wire through hull kit

soldiering iron
phillips screw driver 

after unpacking everything i took my quick disconnect and the fuse holder provided with the fish finder and tinned the ends 
useing the silver soldier i prepped the wires by adding soldier to the wire tips (tinning)
i heated both of the wires to allow the soldier to become fluid and joined the two wires together and let cool

pro tip: apply heat shrink to the wires before soldiering-
i then soldiered up the power cable to the other side of the quick connector in the same way

add ring terminals to the positive and negative wire and test fit on the battery.

i had a lowrance elite 4 hdi allready installed and needed to remove the power and transducer from that unit as well as the old ram mounting system

unscrew the 3 mounting screws on the lowrance transducer cover

this is what happens when you dont clean out your transducer correctly

remove the wireing from the old transducer

you can see here why a berley pro transducer mount is required

sorry its upside down ill fix later- full kit from berley pro- extremely well made!

attach total scan transducer to the mounting plate using supplied screws from lowrance kit

reinstall transducer mounting plate and traducer cover with original screws and screws from the berley pro kit. 

using the Hobie through hull kit run  the wire from under the kayak through the kayak

run all 3 wires from inside of hull using the Hobie 3 wire through hull kit and install ram mount with yak attack 1.5 ball

the lowrance 7ti mounts easy on the ram mounting arm 

hook up the battery and connect connectors to fish finder and turn on

this unit is very popular for kayak fisherman!

the lowrance 7ti is a fairly easy install with the kit i have assembled here and i hope this helps you in your future fish finder installs. i will follow this up with a review on the system after i have a month or 2 of using the unit and have first hand knowledge of how it works. thanks for taking the time to read my install guide and if you have any questions feel free to hit me up on Facebook or Instagram
Facebook - James Snyder
https://www.facebook.com/james.snyder.739?fref=ts
Insta- Yakin_James

also look for more awsome how toos and product reviews here on our team blog and dont forget to give a like to
Headwaters Kayak shop
https://www.facebook.com/headwaterskayak/
Headwaters Fishing team
https://www.facebook.com/Headwaters-Kayak-Fishing-Team-303065546417594/?fref=ts
and follow us on you tube
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYodbaugFoQAvGL2StgQ3tQ


thanks for checking us out! - James Snyder Headwaters Kayak Fishing Team






          Feelfree Kayaks new Overdrive Pedal System    
This July Nick Cohoons and I had the privilege to fly out to Orlando Forida and attend the 2016 Icast fishing show. This was definitely the year of the pedal drive with almost every major manufacturer bringing a pedal option to market. In a field stacked with innovative designs the one that really set itself apart was the new Feelfree Overdrive system. Several factors made this system stand out: the ability to upgrade an existing kayak model with a pedal drive, the adjustability of the seat to dial in the ergonomics, and the addition of the Motorhead unit, which allows you to switch the drive from pedal driven to motor driven seamlessly. A lot of engineering went into this system and the result is a truly unique design that allows anglers to get into the sport and upgrade as they go.


Looking over the display boat the first thing I noticed is the boat itself. It was a standard desert camo Lure 11.5 with a rudder. In 2015 when Feelfree switched over to the new Sonar Pod, the intent was always to be able to upgrade to a pedal drive in the future. While every other manufacturer went the route of all new platforms for their pedal drives, Feelfree designed their system to work around their incredibly successful Lure line of kayaks. This means those of you who already have a Lure 11.5 or 13.5 with a Sonar Pod will be able to buy the Overdrive kit and drop it right in. It also means you are starting off with a proven paddle kayak and not sacrificing performance when floating rivers, skinny water fishing, or in heavy weeds.
I think the direction Feelfree took with the Overdrive System puts them into a unique position in the market, and paints a picture that they want to support their existing customers base, and not just profit from selling them another boat.


I had a few very candid conversations with head engineer Peter Murphy about the project. He explained to me a few of the major hurdles he had to overcome in order to pull this off.

One of the hurdles that he had to deal with was the ability to adjust the paddler to the pedals and to ensure that the ergonomics were ideal for pedaling, and paddling. They did this with a bracket that clicks into the notch where the rear of the gravity seat usually clips into. This bracket attaches easily to the seat and allows you to click the seat forward and backward in order to get the proper reach for the pedals. They also take advantage of the Feelfree Gravity Seat which allows for height adjustment to dial in the ergonomics and helps you get your hips in the most comfortable position for pedaling. This was something I struggled with in other pedal yaks. I always found myself compensating for my height by slouching in the seat. With the Feelfree you will be able to completely dial yourself in to the boat by adjusting the seat up and down and forward and back.



The most progressive thing about the Feelfree Overdrive System and the largest piece of engineering was the Motorhead unit. This electric drive unit plugs into the pedal system and turns the existing pedal drive into an electric trolling motor. The Motorhead clicks into the drive the same way a battery would click into a cordless drill. When in pedal mode the drive sits in the first click, when moved into the second click the drive disengages the pedals and takes over propelling the kayak, making it a seamless transition from pedal to power. It will come with a wired in remote control that allows you to adjust your speed and control forward and reverse. At Icast they had this setup on one of the boat's tracks with a Rail Blazer electronics holder, which looked clean and worked well. Final details about price and what all will be included in the kit is to be announced, and we will update our info when we get that. One thing we know for sure is that it works well. Jim Hager from Feelfree Kayaks sent us this video clip and says his GPS clocked him at 6 MPH on the water.



The last hurdle the engineers had to deal with was converting a foot controlled rudder to a hand controlled rudder. They did this by using the optional rudder that has been the standard upgrade on the Lure for years. They added a lever that attaches to the gunnel of the boat and clamps on to the rudder cable. Although I could tell it was 3D printed and prototyped, it was simple and effective in how if functioned. Most importantly it allowed for the standard foot controls to work when paddling. Here is my interview with Peter Murphy, the head engineer of the Overdrive project.


Other unique features:
-Pitch adjustment on the prop, which allows you to dial in the amount of grip the prop has depending on your leg strength or endurance.
-Transducer Mount on the front of the drive.
-Storage box that will slide into the pedal drive where the motor goes if you are doing pedal power only. (they didn't have this to show, but told us that it would be standard in the pedal drive kit)

At an Icast where pedal powered kayaks were all the rage, I feel like the Feelfree Overdrive stood alone as the most innovative. I know thousands of Lure 11.5 and 13.5 owners are going to be so stoked to be able to keep the boat they love, but now have the ability to pedal, paddle, or motor it. We are excited to see what this new drive means for the future of Feelfree and pedal kayaks as a whole. It sure is an exciting time to be a part of the kayak fishing industry!






          Dissertation Defense: Local Transient Characterization of Thermofluid Heat Transfer Coefficient at Solid-Liquid Nano-Interfaces   
Announcing the Final Examination of Mehrdad Mehrvand for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

The demands for increasingly smaller, more capable, and higher power density technologies in microelectronics, energy, or aerospace systems have heightened the need for new methods to manage and characterize extreme heat fluxes (EHF). Microscale liquid cooling techniques are viewed as a promising solution for removing heat from high heat flux (HHF) systems. However, there have been challenges in physical understanding and predicting local thermal transport at the interface of micro and nanoscale structures/devices due to ballistic effects and complex coupling of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces over multiple time and length scales. Moreover, it's challenging to experimentally validate new HHF models due to lack of high resolution techniques and measurements.

This dissertation presents the use of a high spatiotemporal and temperature resolution measurement technique, called Time-domain Thermoreflectance (TDTR). TDTR is used to characterize the local heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of a water-cooled rectangular microchannel in a combined hot-spot heating and sub-cooled channel-flow configuration. Studies focused on room temperature, syringe-pumped single-and two-phase water flow in a ≈480 μm hydraulic diameter microchannel, where the TDTR pump heating laser induces local heat fluxes of ≈0.5-2.5 KW/cm2 in the center of the microchannel on the surface of a 60-80 nm metal or alloy thin film transducer with hot-spot diameters of ≈7-10 μm.

In the single-phase part, a differential measurement approach is developed by applying anisotropic version of the TDTR to predict local HTC using the measured voltage ratio parameter, and then fitting data to a thermal model for layered materials and interfaces. It's shown that thermal effusivity distribution of the water coolant over the hot-spot is correlated to the local HTC, where both the stagnant fluid (i.e., conduction and natural convection) and flowing fluid (i.e., forced convection) contributions are decoupled from each other. Measurements of the local enhancement in the HTC over the hot-spot are in good agreement with established Nusselt number correlations. For example, flow cooling results using a Ti metal wall support a maximum HTC enhancement via forced convection of ≈1060±190 kW/m2∙K, where the well-established Nusselt number correlations predict ≈900±150 kW/m2∙K.

In the two-phase part, pump-probe beams are first used to construct the local pool and flow boiling curves at different heat fluxes and hot spot temperatures as a function of HTC enhancement. At a same heat flux level, it's observed that fluid flow enhances HTC by shifting heat transfer mechanism (or flow regime) from film boiling to nucleate boiling. Based on observations, it's hypothesized that beyond an EHF flow may reduce the bubble size and increase evaporation at the liquid-vapor interface on three-phase contact line but it's unable to rewet and cool down the dry spot at the center due to the EHF.

In the last part of two-phase experiments, transient measurements are performed at a specific heat flux to obtain thermal temporal fluctuations and HTC of a single bubble boiling and nucleation during its ebullition cycle. The total laser power is chosen to be between the minimum required to start subcooled nucleation and CHF of the pool boiling. This range is critical since within 10% change in heating flux, flow can have dramatic effect on HTC.

Committee in Charge: Shawn Putnam (Chair), Yoav Peles, Nina Orlovskaya, Reza Abdolvand

          Problem-0100: Electrical Measurements and Instrumentation objective question   

What is a differential transformer?

a. Constant pressure transducer
b. Variable pressure transducer
c. Constant displacement transducer
d. Variable inductance transducer


           Characterisation of a highly symmetrical miniature capacitive triaxial accelerometer    
Lotters, J.C. and Olthuis, W. and Veltink, P.H. and Bergveld, P. (1997) Characterisation of a highly symmetrical miniature capacitive triaxial accelerometer. In: International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, TRANSDUCERS, June 16-19, 1997, Chicago, USA (pp. pp. 1177-1180).
          More on Grip Pressure   
Two weeks ago I talked about the importance of having light grip pressure. I wanted to put up graphs comparing the grip pressure of a professional golfer with that of a mid-handicapper, but I couldn’t find them in time for publication.

Well, while prowling around the house a few days ago, looking for something else, I found the book that has the graphs.

So here they are.

The graphs are taken from a paper titled, Evaluation of Golf Club Control by Grip Pressure Measurement, by D.R. Budney and D.G. Bellow, reprinted in Science and Golf, A.J. Cochran, Ed., 1990.

Golfers swung a club with three transducers built into the grip to measure left hand pressure, right hand pressure, and pressure under the left thumb.

The first graph shows the grip pressure throughout the swing of a professional golfer. Notice that in the early stages of the swing, pressure at all places is quite light.

Pressure rose during the backswing in the left hand and thumb, and peaked in the right hand and left thumb during the downswing. Notice the drop in pressure in those two spots at impact.

Left hand pressure reached its peak just after impact.


The next graph is of an 11-handicap golfer. Pressure is grater from the very start. The patterns of peaks and drops occur at roughly the same places as for the professional golfer, but there is much more pressure at every point.

The amateur golfer is holding the club much tighter.


These graphs show that no matter what the grip pressure is at the start, it will tighten during the swing as the club moves faster and faster.

Keeping the pressure light at the start will minimize peak pressure, keeping as much tension as possible out of the hands and arms, leading to a more fluid and controlled golf swing.
          Doses of Nicotine and Lung Carcinogens Delivered to Cigarette Smokers   
Background: Cigarette smoke yields of tar and nicotine obtained under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)-specified machine-smoking protocol (35-mL puff volume drawn for 2 seconds once per minute) may not accurately reflect the delivery of toxins and carcinogens to the smoker. We conducted this study to obtain more realistic estimates of exposure to components of cigarette smoke that affect lung cancer risk. Methods: We used a pressure transducer system to evaluate puffing characteristics for 133 smokers of cigarettes rated by the FTC at 1.2 mg of nicotine or less (56 smokers of low-yield cigarettes [less than 0.8 mg of nicotine per cigarette] and 77 smokers of medium-yield cigarettes [0.9–1.2 mg of nicotine per cigarette]). We programmed measurements from a randomly chosen subset of 72 of these smokers into a piston-type machine to generate smoke from each smoker’s usual brand of cigarettes for assays of nicotine, carbon monoxide, tar, and the lung cancer-causing agents 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and benzo[a]pyrene. The FTC protocol was also used to assess levels of targeted components in the 11 brands most frequently smoked by study subjects. Results: Compared with the FTC protocol values, smokers of low- and medium-yield brands took in statistically significantly larger puffs (48.6 and 44.1 mL, respectively) at statistically significantly shorter intervals (21.3 and 18.5 seconds, respectively), and they drew larger total smoke volumes than specified in the FTC parameters. They received, respectively, 2.5 and 2.2 times more nicotine and 2.6 and 1.9 times more tar than FTC-derived amounts, as well as about twofold higher levels of benzo[a]-pyrene and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Smokers of medium-yield cigarettes compared with smokers of low-yield cigarettes received higher doses of all components. Conclusions: The FTC protocol underestimates nicotine and carcinogen doses to smokers and overestimates the proportional benefit of low-yield cigarettes. Thus, FTC-based nicotine medication doses prescribed/recommended for smoking cessation may need to be reassessed.
          Effect of Ultrasound Radiation Force on the Choroid   
Purpose: While visualization of the retina and choroid has made great progress, functional imaging techniques have been lacking. Our aim was to utilize acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) response to probe functional properties of these tissues. Methods: A single element 18-MHz ultrasound transducer was focused upon the retina of the rabbit eye. The procedure was performed with the eye proptosed and with the eye seated normally in the orbit. The transducer was excited to emit ARFI over a 10-ms period with a 25% duty cycle. Phase resolved pulse/echo data were acquired before, during, and following ARFI. Results: In the proptosed eye, ARFI exposure produced tissue displacements ranging from 0 to 10 lm, and an immediate increase in choroidal echo amplitude to over 6 dB, decaying to baseline after about 1 second. In the normally seated eye, ultrasound phase shifts consistent with flow were observed in the choroid, but enhanced backscatter following ARFI rarely occurred. ARFI-induced displacements of about 10um were observed at the choroidal margins. Larger displacements occurred within the choroid and in orbital tissues. Conclusions: We hypothesize that elevated intraocular pressure occurring during proptosis induced choroidal ischemia and that acoustic radiation force produced a transient local decompression and reperfusion. With the eye normally seated, choroidal flow was observed and little alteration in backscatter resulted from exposure. Clinical application of this technique may provide new insights into diseases characterized by altered choroidal hemodynamics, including maculopathies, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma.
          Tank Scale   
Designed for permanently mounting a tank or drum and pumping a liquid in and out, the Model 4010 tank scale features a solid-state operation that employs a temperature compensated, strain gauge transducer
          Method and apparatus for high intensity ultrasonic treatment of baking materials   
The present invention discloses a high intensity ultrasonic treatment method and apparatus that is used in conjunction with an existing commercial dough or batter mixer to enhance the rheological, aeration and textural properties of the dough or batter. This change in properties is a result of the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation induced in the dough or batter by treatment with high intensity ultrasonic waves. The present invention discloses a mixing bowl (20) of an existing mixer system that is preloaded with dough or batter, the bowl (20) is located at the center of an ultrasonic bath tank (101) filled with a working fluid. The effect of ultra-sonic waves with power levels above 1 kW can be observed over the entire or partial mixing period of the dough or batter. The ultra-sonic waves of the present invention are generated by a plurality of ultrasonic wave generators (104A, 104B) and piezoelectric transducers (1) mounted on a stainless steel tank (101). The electrical energy received in each transducer (1) will be converted into appropriate mechanical expansion and contractions in the piezoelectric ceramics of the transducer (1) thus leading to pressure waves being transmitted to the dough or batter to be mixed. The generation and transmission of high intensity ultrasonic waves to the dough or batter affects its rheological, aeration and textural properties.
          Benchmark Shows Valid Results for a Piezoelectric Transducer Design   
Many modern devices leverage piezoelectricity. When analyzing the design of such devices, you want to be confident in the reliability of the obtained results. By utilizing the COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation software, you can achieve accurate results quickly. To prove it to you, we have created a benchmark model of a piezoelectric transducer. Piezoelectricity Powers Innovative Technology Imagine a smart flooring technology that generates power from people’s movements. As their footsteps apply stress to the floor, a certain degree of energy […]
          Simulation Improves Range of Motion in Piezoelectric Actuators   
Piezoelectricity finds use in a variety of engineering applications. They include transducers, inkjet printheads, adaptive optics, switching devices, cellphone components, and guitar pickups, to name a few. Today’s blog post will benefit both beginners and experts in piezoelectricity, as we highlight some of the fundamental elements of piezoelectric theory and basic simulations, along with a novel design for improving the range of motion for piezoelectric actuators. The Mathematical Conventions of Piezoelectric Theory Before we start discussing piezoelectric physics, let’s first […]
          Global Industrial Supply Portal Launches Sensors Directory   

International Industrial Buying Guide for engineers and manufacturers offers new Directory of Sensors and other Measuring and Testing Equipment for industrial and technical buyers worldwide.

Westborough, MA -- (ReleaseWire) -- 09/26/2006 -- ForeignTradeExchange.com, a web based industrial supply marketplace with offices in Boston, Massachusetts and Phoenix Arizona, announced today the launch of its new online Sensors Directory.

The directory includes offerings from manufacturers and distributors of sensors and other measuring and testing products primarily from but not limited to the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, India, China, Italy and Germany.

The different sensors available in the directory include switch, dissolved oxygen, mass airflow, vehicle speed, wireless network, crank, electrochemical, laser displacement, environmental sensors, heat, transducer pressure, camshaft, displacement sensors, automotive, magnetic field, crankshaft position, laser, ph, load, electronic, network, moisture, temperature, oxygen, sipha, torque and speed sensors.

Including ambient light monitor, pressure sensor, motion, instrument sensing, parking, mass air flow, tilt, OEM, crankshaft, voltage sensors, aerospace, medical, coolant temperature, cam, garage door, high temperature, infrared temperature sensors, alarm motion, reverse, humidity, ultrasonic, infrared, knock, flow, level, vibration, force, optical, driveway and proximity sensors.

The new directory can be accessed online at, http://www.ForeignTradeExchange.com/suppliers/sensors.html

"Our new sensors directory has an extensive product selection suitable for a wide range of applications," says Mark Hamilton, Business Director of ForeignTradeExchange.com. "The directory is an useful resource for companies with specific measuring, testing and monitoring requirements."

He added, "All offerings in the directory have been approved by our editing team before being listed on the site. We only list manufacturers and suppliers of sensors that meet certain criteria based on detailed information they provide us."

Other sensors recently added to the directory include backup, photoelectric, map, position, air velocity, gas, throttle position, bosch oxygen, reverse parking, mass air flow sensors, water, camshaft position, color, wireless, current, fuel level, liquid level sensors, light, hall effect, motion light, granatelli mass air flow, fiber optic, magnetic and capacitive sensors.

About ForeignTradeExchange.com

ForeignTradeExchange.com is an international Web based industrial supply trade directory and forum for buyers and sellers of industrial products, including manufacturers, exporters, importers, distributors, engineers and IT companies. Those seeking to expand into foreign markets are welcome to explore trade leads at, http://www.ForeignTradeExchange.com

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.releasewire.com/press-releases/release-8250.htm

Media Relations Contact

Mark Hamilton
ForeignTradeExchange.com
Telephone: 206-333-0355
Email: Click to Email Mark Hamilton
Web: http://www.ForeignTradeExchange.com


          Comment on How To Level a Fish Finder Transducer by Bob   
Great tips on leveling your transducers Chad!! Thanks!!
          Linear electronic transducer   
An electronic transducer comprises a knitted structure extendible in two dimensions defined by its courses and wales. An electro-conductive yarn (4) defines at least one single course in the structure adjacent non-conductive yarns (2), and is to be part of a circuit providing an indication of an electrical characteristic of the yarn. When unextended in either direction, successive loops of the stitches including the electro-conductive yarn are in engagement. Extension of the structure in the course direction separate loops forming the stitches, and extension in the wale direction urges the loops together. The structure can be used in methods of registering extension of the structure in either or both of the course and wale directions.
          Search Doesn't Work: Story 2   

Search Doesn't Work: Story 2: NLP means many things. To me it means Natural Language Processing. To others it means neurolinguistic programming. When I search for the bare term 'nlp' in Google, I just get results with the second sense - same for other search engines. If I search for 'William Cohen', the first result on Google is for my friend Prof. William Cohen and the second for the other chap. [...] So why don't I get this for NLP? Why no mixture of results? [... ] Word sense disambiguation is a core requirement for a search engine. The problem - the same text having more than on meaning - can certainly be reduced by the user. However, it seems that there is a great amount of scope that could be explored on the interface side. Google is definitely aware of the problem, which is why results for ambiguous names produce multiple sense results pages, but they (and the other major engines) are way behind systems like Vivisimo's Clusty which produces appropriate results for the NLP problem. (Via Data Mining.)

The problem is that word-sense disambiguation is hard. The Clusty results for "nlp" are a tangle. They get one "natural language" cluster in the middle of a bunch of "neuro-linguistic" clusters, and it's not easy to tease them apart. Overall, Clusty's interface is way too busy, and likely to confuse for all but the most easily disambiguated queries. For example, with my favorite query "transducer", none of the clusters on the first screen are for transducer in the sense of automata theory, even though the second search result is a Wikipedia page for that sense of transducer, while the first search result is the Wikipedia page for the electrical engineering sense of transducer.

One might expect a sense-aware search engine to exploit Wikipedia to recognize alternative senses. Clusty doesn't seem to. I don't know how Clusty works in detail, but the problem is that recognizing alternative senses seems obvious in retrospect but it is hugely difficult to do from scratch, because we don't know what information sources and similarity measures will work in general, rather than in hindsight for a particular case.

Proper name disambiguation is much easier than general disambiguation. It is defensible for a search engine to focus on a limited set of classes that can be disambiguated reliably instead of trying to do the whole job, badly.


          (USA-OH-Cleveland) Cardiac-Sonographer   
**Job Summary:** Performs diagnostic procedures to assess cardiac structures and hemodynamics in accordance with accepted protocols as directed by physicians. **Responsibilities:** + Sets up and adjusts all equipment and manually maneuvers transducers to perform exams. + Implements safety standards and performs appropriate quality control procedures. + Performs routine and complex studies and assists physician in a variety of imaging procedures. + Recognizes significant structures, artifacts, pathology and equipment limitations. + Other duties as assigned. **Education:** + Bachelor's Degree in Sonography or Vascular Technology, or graduate of a cardiac ultrasound program (minimum of 18 month program). **Certifications:** + New hires must obtain the Registered Diagnostic Cardiac Sonographer (RDCS) credential from the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonographers or the Registered Cardiac Sonographer (RCS) credential from Cardiac Credentialing International within one year of hire date. + Basic Life Support (BLS) for Healthcare Providers is required. **Complexity of Work:** + Requires critical thinking skills, decisive judgment and the ability to work with minimal supervision. + Must be able to work in a stressful environment and take appropriate action. **Work Experience:** + Demonstrated knowledge of m-mode, 2D and Doppler calculations and cardiac hemodynamics. + Familiar with computers and ability to learn related programs. + Graduate of a cardiac ultrasound program (minimum of 18 month program); and/or two years full-time echo experience. **Physical Requirements:** + Requires standing and walking for extended periods of time; must lift and carry items weighing up to 25 pounds. + Ability to assist with transport of patients, i.e., pushing beds, stretchers and wheelchairs. + Requires the ability to maneuver equipment and motor coordination to operate equipment. **Personal Protective Equipment:** + Follows standard precautions using personal protective equipment as required. The policy of Cleveland Clinic and its system hospitals (Cleveland Clinic) is to provide equal opportunity to all of our employees and applicants for employment in our tobacco free and drug free environment. All offers of employment are followed by testing for controlled substance and nicotine. Job offers will be rescinded for candidates for employment who test positive for nicotine. Candidates for employment who are impacted by Cleveland Clinic’s Smoking Policy will be offered smoking cessation assistance and will be permitted to reapply for open positions after 90 days. Decisions concerning employment, transfers and promotions are made upon the basis of the best qualified candidate without regard to color, race, religion, national origin, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, ancestry, status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran or any other characteristic protected by law. Information provided on this application may be shared with any Cleveland Clinic facility. Cleveland Clinic is pleased to be an equal employment employer: Women/Minorities/Veterans/Individuals with Disabilities
          Railway system using acoustic monitoring   
A method of monitoring and/or controlling components of a railway system which includes a track and at least one train that is operable to run on said track, comprises the steps of: a) providing an acoustic transducer proximate the railway for picking up acoustic signals; b) receiving acoustic signals from the transducer; and c) analyzing the received signals.
           Time Synchronization in the Nanosecond Range with IXXAT Software    
Adding to the existing and proven IXXAT IEEE 1588 solutions, HMS now presents protocol software for IEEE 802.1AS - the first commercially available software package for highly accurate time synchronization of AVB and TSN networks. IEEE 802.1 AS is an adapted version of the IEEE 1588 profile - specially designed for AVB and TSN systems (audio/video broadcasting and time sensitive networking). As the most important core technology for AVB and TSN systems, IEEE 802.1AS enables high-precision...

This story is related to the following:
Sensors Monitors & Transducers
Software
Timers & Clocks

Search for suppliers of: Communications Protocols | Synchronizers | Time Systems

          Electrical Journeyman - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Thu, 25 May 2017 02:37:59 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Journeyman Wireman, Lead Man - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Wed, 17 May 2017 15:18:57 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          (USA-WA-Seattle) Sleep Technologist - Registered   
Job Number: 171370 Department: Sleep Disorders Center Hours: 7:00pm - 7:30am/variable Located in Seattle, WA, Virginia Mason is an internationally recognized leader in the continuous improvement of health care. With an extensive list of awards and distinctions that includes our recognition as Top Hospital of the Decade by The Leapfrog Group, Virginia Mason offers you the opportunity to partner with exceptionally talented peers at every level. You will contribute to the strength of our Team Medicine approach to collaborative medicine and benefit from the changes enacted through our Virginia Mason Production System, a model that has transformed health care by providing patients with easier access to care, reducing errors, and continuously innovating patient safety and quality that has been adopted by other organizations here and abroad. Join us, and find out how many ways Virginia Mason offers you the chance to focus on what really matters - our patients. The PSG Tech (Registered) III reviews, qualifies, quantifies, and verifies all physiologic data collected on all polysomnograms in accordance with the guidelines established by the American Sleep Disorders Association. Additionally, this position generates statistical reports which are utilized by the Sleep Disorders Center physicians for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients. + This position requires RPSGT or eligibility, with 3 years of experience in an accredited sleep disorder center. + Working knowledge of respiratory physiology, neurological physiology and comprehensive knowledge of various medical monitors, sensors/electrodes, transducers, and artifacts that they can produce. + The ability to perform accurate analysis of all polysomnograms. + Working knowledge and recognition of sleep architecture, respiratory events, periodic limb movements of sleep, parasomnias, seizures, cardiac dysrhythmias, and hypoxemia. + The ability to implement and document continuous quality improvement. + The ability to recognize artifacts in raw data regardless of the source of origin. + Advanced decision making skills regarding medical recommendations and outcomes. + Excellent communication skills; and the ability to work independently. Virginia Mason offers much more than competitive compensation and benefits. With continuing education opportunities and the added potential of relocation assistance, you will find our commitment to your well-being is both rewarding and refreshing. We are an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Virginia Mason Medical Center is an equal opportunity, affirmative action employer. Virginia Mason provides healthcare without regard to race, color, religion (creed), sex, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, national origin (ancestry) or disability. Disability Accommodation: To request disability accommodation in the application process, contact the Recruiting Offices at 866-422-2275 (voice) or 206-515-5891 (fax). Virginia Mason makes every effort to honor disability accommodation requests. Requests can be responded to most effectively if received as far in advance as possible.
          Generator   


1.      Fungsi generator:
            Generator adalah sebuah pesawat yang merubah energi mekanik menjadi energi listrik. Energi mekanik diperoleh dari mesin penggerak seperti mesin diesel, turbin dan lain-lain. Secara umum fungsi generator adalah untuk mensuplai arus pada sistem kelistrikan. Proses pembangkitan listrik pada generator menggunakan prinsip induksi yaitu apabila terjadi perpotongan medan magnet dengan penghantar, maka pada penghantar akan timbul gaya gerak listrik.
2.      Prinsip kerja generator:
1)      Generator bekerjanya berdasarkan hukum Faraday.(kaidah tangan kanan).
2)      Apabila suatu batang penghantar digerakkan didalam suatu medan magnit, yang mempunyai garis gaya magnit dari arah kutub utara keekutub selatan.
3)      Maka pada batang penghantar akan memotong-motong garis-garis gaya magnit, sehingga akan menimbulkan ggl (Gaya gerak listrik) atau EMF (Electro motive force) atau voltage AC.
3.      Penjelasan tentang komponen-komponen generator
Generator dipasang dengan bantuan komponen-komponen seperti berikut: trafo arus, trafo tegangan (sebagai pencatu daya), electric actuator, potensiometer pengatur kecepatan dan saklar-saklar bantu.
1)      Trafo arus berfungsi sebagai transducer arus keluaran generator sampai dengan sebesar arus sinyal yang sesuai untuk alat pembagi beban generator (biasanya maksimum 5 A atau = 100 % kemampuan maksimum generator)
2)      Trafo tegangan berfungsi sebagai sumber daya bagi alat pembagi beban, umumnya dengan tegangan 110 V AC, 50 Hz; dibantu adapter untuk keperluan tegangan DC.
3)      Electric actuator merupakan peralatan yang menerima sinyal dari alat pembagi beban sehingga mampu menggerakkan motor DC di governor sampai dengan arus keluaran generator mencapai yang diharapkan.
4)      Potensiometer pengatur kecepatan adalah alat utama untuk mengatur frekuensi dan tegangan saat generator akan diparalelkan atau dalam proses sinkronisasi. Tegangan umumnya sudah diatur oleh AVR, sehingga naik turunnya tegangan hanya dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan putaran mesin penggerak. Setelah generator dioperasikan paralelkan atau sudah sinkron dengan yang telah beroperasi kemudian menutup Mccb generator, fungsi potensiometer pengatur kecepatan ini diambil alih oleh alat pembagi beban generator. Untuk lebih akuratnya pengaturan kecepatan dalam proses sinkronisasi secara manual, biasanya terdapat potensiometer pengatur halus dan potensiometer pengatur kasar.
5)      Pada sistem kontrol otomatis pemaralelan generator dapat dilakukan oleh SPM (modul pemaralel generator) dengan mengatur tegangan dan frekuensi keluaran dari generator, kemudian mencocokan dengan tegangan dan frekuensi sistem yang sudah bekerja secara otomatis, setelah cocok memberikan sinyal penutupan ke Mccb generator sehingga bergabung dalam operasi paralel. Untuk mencocokkan tegangan dan frekuensi dapat dilihat dalam satu panel sinkron yang digunakan bersama untuk beberapa generator dimana masing-masing panel generator mempunyai saklar sinkron disamping SPM-nya.
6)      Saklar-saklar bantu pada alat pembagi beban generator berfungsi sebagai alat manual proses pembagian (pelepasan & pengambilan) beban oleh suatu generator yang beroperasi dalam sistem paralel. Misalnya *saklar 1 ditutup untuk meminimumkan bahan bakar diesel yang berarti melepaskan beban.* Saklar 3 ditutup untuk menuju pada kecepatan kelasnya (rated speed) yang berarti pengambilan beban dari generator yang perlu diringankan beban listriknya. Setelah generator beroperasi secara paralel, generator-generator dengan alat pembagi bebannya selalu merespon secara aktif segala tindakan penaikan atau penurunan beban listrik, sehingga masing-masing generator menanggung beban dengan prosentasi yang sama diukur dari kemampuan masing-masing
4.      Beda generator DC dan AC:
            Sebuah motor DC terdiri dari gilungan kawat (coil) yang berputar pada medan magnet. Arus pada coil dialurkan melalui brush yang kontak langsung dengan split ring. Coil berada pada medan magnet tetap, dan gaya yang dikeluarkan oleh arus pada kawat menghasilkan torsi pada koil.
                Gaya F pada kawat dengan panjang L membawa arus listrik i pada medan magnet B adalah iLB dikali dengan sinus sudut antara B dan i. Arah dari gaya F mengikuti prinsip tangan kanan seperti diperlihatkan pada. Gaya yang diperlihatkan memiliki besaran yang sama namun dengan arah yang berbeda, sehingga gaya-gaya tersebut menghasilkan torsi.
            Motor listrik DC dapat juga berfungsi sebagai generator. Apabila coil yangdiputar maka maka akan dihasilkan elekro magnet field.
emf = - d f /dt = - (d/dt) (NBA cos q )
= NBA sin q (d q /dt) = NBA w sin w t.

Motor Listrik AC dan Alternator
            Pada motor listrik dengan arus AC tidak diperlukan pembalikan arah arus oleh sebab itu tidak diperlukan adanya split ring. Sebagai gantinya digunakan slip yang yang dapat menghubungkan coil ke sumber listrik secara kontinyu sebagaimana yang diperlihatkan pada animasi berikut ini. Sama seperti halnya pada motor DC, apabila coil dari motor AC yang diputar maka akan menghasilkan arus listrik AC.
5.      Jenis-jenis generator:
1)      Dilihat dari letak kutub:
a.       Kutub dalam berputar pada rotor.
b.      Kutub Luar diam dipasang pada stator.


2)      Dilihat dari putaran medan terhadap rotor:
a.       Generator sinkron (serempak): Kecepatan putaran medan magnit stator (Ns) sama dengan putaran medan rotor (Nr).
b.      Generator Asinkron (tidak serempak) : Kecepatam medan magnit stator (Ns) tidak selalu sama dengan putaran medan rotor (Nr).
3)      Dilihat dari jenis arus yang dibangkitkan:
a.       Generator arus searah (DC).
b.      Generator arus bolak-balik (AC).
4)      Dilihat dari Phasa:
a.       Generator AC 1 phasa.
b.      Generator AC 3 phasa.
5)      Dilihat dari bentuk rotor:
a.       Rotor kutub menonjol (selent pole): Digunakan pada pembangkit RPM rendah seperti PLTA, PLTD.
b.      Rotor kutub rata (silindris): Digunakan pada pembangkit RPM tinggi seperti pada PLTG, PLTU.

          Infertility diagnosis has a significant impact on the transcriptome of developing blastocysts   
Abstract
STUDY QUESTION
Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)?
SUMMARY ANSWER
The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY
Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION
Blastocysts created during infertility treatment from patients with specific infertility diagnoses (PCO, MF and UE) were analyzed for global transcriptome compared to fertile donor oocyte blastocysts (control).
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS
Surplus cryopreserved blastocysts were donated with patient consent and institutional review board approval. Female patients were <38 years old with male patients <40 years old. Blastocysts were grouped according to infertility diagnosis: PCO (n = 50), MF (n = 50), UE (n = 50) and fertile donor oocyte controls (n = 50). Pooled blastocysts were lysed for RNA isolation followed by microarray analysis using the SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray. Validation was performed on significant genes of interest using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
Transcription alterations were observed for all infertility etiologies compared to controls, resulting in differentially expressed genes: PCO = 869, MF = 348 and UE = 473 (P < 0.05; >2-fold). Functional annotation of biological and molecular processes revealed both similarities, as well as differences, across the infertility groups. All infertility etiologies displayed transcriptome alterations in signal transducer activity, receptor binding, reproduction, cell adhesion and response to stimulus. Blastocysts from PCO patients were also enriched for apoptotic genes while MF blastocysts displayed enrichment for genes involved in cancer processes. Blastocysts from couples with unexplained infertility displayed transcription alterations related to various disease states, which included mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adipocytokine signaling. RT-qPCR validation confirmed differential gene expression for the following genes: BCL2 like 10 (BCL2L10), heat shock protein family A member 1A (HSPA1A), heat shock protein family A member 1B (HSPA1B), activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), left-right determination factor 1 (LEFTY1), left-right determination factor 2 (LEFTY2), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), inhibin beta A subunit (INHBA), adherins junctions associated protein 1 (AJAP1), cadherin 9 (CDH9) and laminin subunit alpha 4 (LAMA4) (P < 0.05; >2-fold).
LARGE SCALE DATA
Not available due to participant privacy.
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION
Blastocyst samples for microarray analysis required pooling. While this allows for an overall average in each infertility etiology group and can reduce noise from sample-to-sample variation, it cannot give a detailed analysis of each blastocyst within the group.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
Underlying patient infertility diagnosis has an impact on the blastocyst transcriptome, modifying gene expression associated with developmental competence and implantation potential.
STUDY FUNDING AND COMPETING INTEREST(S)
No conflict of interest or outside funding provided.

          komunikasi data dan array   
KOMUNIKASI DATA
A. Komunikasi Data
Istilah telekomunikasi berarti komunikasi dengan jarak. Kata data mengacu pada informasi yang ditampilkan apapun bentuk yang disetujui oleh pihak yg membuat dan menggunakan. Komunikasi data adalah pertukaran data diantara dua perangkat melalui berbagi bentuk media transmisi seperti kabel.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Komponen
2. Representasi Data
3. Aliran Data
B. Jaringan
Sebuah jaringan adalah kumpulan perangkat (sering disebut sebagai nodes) yg dihubungkan oleh jalur komunikasi. Sebuah node dapat berupa komputer, printer, atau perangkat apapun yg mampu mengirim dan atau menerima data yang dibuat oleh node lainnya pada jaringan.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Proses terdistribusi
2. Kriteria Jaringan
3. Struktur Fisik
4. Model Jaringan
5. Jenis – jenis Jaringan
6. Interkoneksi pada Jaringan : Internetwork





C. Internet
Internet telah merevolusi berbagai aspek dlm hidup kita. Internet adalah sebuah sistem komunikasi yang membawa informasi ke ujung jari kita dan diorganisasikan untuk kita gunakan.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Sejarah singkat
2. Internet Hari ini
D. Protocol dan Standard
Pada bagian ini, kita akan menjelaskan dua hal yang banyak digunakan : protocol dan standard. Pertama, kita jelaskan protocol, dimana sinonim dengan aturan. Kemudian kita diskusikan standard, dimana sinonim dengan aturan yang disepakati.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Protocol
2. Standard
3. Orgranisasi Standards
4. Standar Internet
MODEL JARINGAN
A. Tugas terlapis
Kita menggunakan konsep lapisan pada kehidupan kita sehari2. Sebagai contoh, mari kita lihat dua orang teman yang berkomunikasi melalui surat pos. Proses untuk mengirimkan surat ke teman akan menjadi komplek jika tidak ada layanan yg tersedia dari kantor pos.




Topik yg didiskusikan di bagian ini:
1.Pengirim, penerima dan pembawa Hirarki
B. Osi Model
Berdiri pada thn 1947, the International Standards Organization (ISO) adalah badan multinational yg mengkhususkan pada persetujuan seluruh dunia pada standar internasional. Sebuah standar ISO yg membahas semua aspek pada jaringan data adalah Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Model ini pertama kali dikenalkan pada akhir 1970.
Topik yg didiskusikan di bagian ini:
1. ArsitekturBerlapis
2. Proses Peer-to-Peer
3. Encapsulation
C. Lapisan pada OSI Model
Pada bagian ini kita akan menjelaskan secara singkat fungsi setiap layer pada OSI model.
Topik yg didiskusikan di bagian ini:
1. Physical Layer
2. Data Link Layer
3. Network Layer
4. Transport Layer
5. Session Layer
6. Presentation Layer
7. Application Layer





ARRAY

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
An array is a systematic arrangement of objects, usually in rows and columns. Specifically, it may refer to:
Contents
[hide]
• 1 In computer science
• 2 In mathematics and statistics
• 3 In technology
• 4 In astronomy
• 5 In biology
• 6 In music
• 7 Other

[edit] In computer science
Generally, a collection of data items that can be selected by indices computed at run-time, including:
• Array data structure, an arrangement of items at equally spaced addresses in computer memory
• Array data type, used in a programming language to specify a variable that can be indexed
• Associative array, an abstract data structure model that generalizes arrays to arbitrary indices
or various kinds of the above, such as
• Bit array or bit vector
• Dynamic array, allocated at run time
• Parallel array of records, with each field stored as a separate array
• Sparse array, with most elements omitted, to store a sparse matrix
• Variable-length array
• Jagged array, where the rows have different lengths individually



or various related concepts:
• Array processor, a computer to process arrays of data (not to be confused with a processor array)
• Array programming, using matrix algebra notation in programs (not the same as array processing)
• Array slicing, the extraction of sub-arrays of an array
or also:
• Global Arrays, a library for parallel processing
• Intel Array Visualizer, a piece of scientific graphics software
[edit] In mathematics and statistics
• An array or matrix (mathematics) e.g. a Monge array, a Costas array
• A standard array in coding theory
• In statistics, arrays are a name for some kinds of Category:Experimental design
• Intersection array a concept of category theory
• The thinned array curse or sparse array curse, a theorem about elecromagnetic waves
[edit] In technology
Various arrangements of multiple individual components to create a single system, such as:
• An antenna array, such as a phased array, a tower array, etc.
• A speaker array, used to produce directional Sound
• Asynchronous array of simple processors
• Ball grid array, pin grid array, and land grid array, ways to connect integrated circuits
• Cache Array Routing Protocol (CARP)
• Color filter array, placed over an imaging array
• Disk array, such as the RAID
• Field emitter array, an electron source
• Gate array, including a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)
• Halbach array, an arrangement of magnets
• Linear diode array used in image scanners
• Microphone array, such as a line array
• Microelectronic array for biological monitoring
• Parametric array of transducers
• Phased-array optics
• Photovoltaic array
• Processor array (not to be confused with an array processor)
• Programmable Array Logic (PAL), a systematic way to implement boolean functions.
• Reconfigurable datapath array, a flexible data processing architecture
• Staring array, an imaging sensor
• Systolic array, a hardware architecture
• Towed array sonar
• Wi-Fi array, a wireless networking device
• Video Graphics Array (VGA), a display adapter and video format, and many variants thereof (EVGA, FWVGA, QVGA, QXGA, SVGA, SXGA, SXGA+, TXGA, UVGA, XGA, XGA+, ...)
• ICL Distributed Array Processor, an array processor for the ICL
and also
• Array gain, a telecommunications parameter
• Array processing of multichannel signals (not to be confused with array programming)
          Electrical Journeyman - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Thu, 25 May 2017 02:37:59 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Journeyman Wireman, Lead Man - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Wed, 17 May 2017 15:18:57 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          [Clojure] [ANN] Killer: Functional Event Stream Processing in Clojure with Transducers (Jules)   
Guys, I've just got round to pushing some ideas I have about Event Stream Processing in a Clojure World to GitHub. Please have a look at the README.md https://github.com/JulesGosnell/killer If anyone ... -- Jules
          [Clojure] [ANN] clj-conduit 0.1.0 (Jean Niklas L'orange)   
Hello fellow Clojurians, I have just released the first version of clj-conduit <https://github.com/hyPiRion/clj-conduit – a small library that attempts to make transducers a bit more readable. To ... -- Jean Niklas L'orange
          Ultrasonic Anemometer Part 29: Transducer Comparison   

Pinned onto Soldernerd

It’s been way too long since the last post in my Ultrasonic Anemometer series. But better late then never. So far I have always used the same type of transducers. When I started this project I looked around and found the Multicomp MCUSD16A40S12RO. They were comparatively cheap and readily available so I ordered some and […]

          Electrical Journeyman - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Thu, 25 May 2017 02:37:59 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Journeyman Wireman, Lead Man - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Wed, 17 May 2017 15:18:57 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Ultrasonic Anemometer Part 29: Transducer Comparison   

Pinned onto Soldernerd

It’s been way too long since the last post in my Ultrasonic Anemometer series. But better late then never. So far I have always used the same type of transducers. When I started this project I looked around and found the Multicomp MCUSD16A40S12RO. They were comparatively cheap and readily available so I ordered some and […]
          Instrumentation Technician   
CA-Hawthorne, Superior Group is looking for an Instrumentation Technician for our Client located in Hawthorne, CA. Independently fabricate instrumentation and wire harnesses for ground support electro-mechanical test equipment and spaceflight harnesses that connect to test articles Install and use test instrumentation sensors, including strain gauges, deflection gauges, pressure transducers, load cells, thermoc
          "Concussion" Movie Review   
 
The Nigerian investigator WHO did the autopsy on a former football player discovered a condition caused by concussions. He spent his savings doing research into his theory and printed his findings with 2 alternative doctors to substantiate they were true. He was vulnerable by each the NFL and Federal Bureau of Investigation. He lost his house and had to relocate to a different state. His married person miscarried throughout her gestationbecause of stress.

The doctor illustrated a concussion to his married person by golf shot AN onion in an exceedingly jar of water and shaking it. The onion began to separate. This illustration helps U.S. perceive head injuries and reminds U.S. of why we tend to don't seem to be to shake a baby. It conjointly demonstrates why minors shouldn't be introduced to go blows in sports.

The symptoms that were seen in many former football players all reflected one anotherall of them began exhibiting forceful activity changes, ending in suicide. Autopsy studies of the brain disclosed an equivalent conditions caused by concussions. The doctor, WHO antecedently wasn't conversant in soccer, researched the practices and discovered the amount of blows to the top.

If a boy begins soccer in grammar school, followed by high schoolfaculty and knowledgeable career, he endures daily blows to the top that square measure terribly arduous by the time he reaches adulthood. The players WHO died committed suicide at a young age.

The attraction to skilled sports has perpetually been fame, fortune, faculty scholarships and love of the sportmicrophone Webster's 1997 speech before his death ought to have signaled AN alert. Dr. Omalu knew one thing was wrong once he performed the autopsy.

We all would get pleasure from having a lifetime of luxury however i believe the living relations of those deceased players would trade it in to own their darling ones back and their families in thoughtfulness. Loyal fans should still dismiss this film because the "Blackfish" of socceri am glad my children square measure mature. If they were still minors and that i saw this film, i might not enable them to play. If any of my grandkids participate in it once they square measure sufficiently oldit'll be on the far side my managementi'll have to be compelled to support them however hope that life scienceinstrumentality and practices have evolved to a safer standing by then.

          How to Become a Best Presenter   


How does one feel once you need to create a presentation? square measure you well ready and relaxed, assured that your performance can have the required impact on your audience? Or is that the thought of standing on a soapbox, holding a electro-acoustic transducer, enough to offer you stage fright?

Many believe that smart presenters square measure born, not made. Sure, some individuals square measure a lot of relaxed and comfy speaking before of others. however the great news regarding presenting is that you simply will improve with follow. a good presentation doesn't simply happen- it's planned, rehearsed and delivered with aptitude. your required outcome will be full of your skills as a speaker, thus it is important to step before of your audience along with your best foot forward.

If you have got a concern of oral presentation or feel some anxiety you're not alone. very little anxiety truly causes you to a higher speaker. The concern of oral presentation may be with you forever. however your audience doesn't have to be compelled to recognize. create your presentation fun for your audience and you still. It ought to be informative, persuasive and informative. the subsequent guide explains a way to prepare and deliver an honest presentation.

Many factors have an effect on the look of your presentation. a robust presenter can acknowledge and address every of the following:

Know your Objective: Why you're creating your presentation? Bear in mind what you would like to realize and what you would like your audience to require away with them. Once you have got determined upon your objectives, you're in a very far better position to create strategic selections regarding the look and tone of your presentation.

Know Your Audience: Your audience can have a range of various experiences, interests and levels of information. a robust presenter can have to be compelled to acknowledge these and steel oneself against and answer them consequently. If you fail to contemplate your audience's wants, you'll fail to attractiveness to their interest and imagination.

Familiarize Yourself with the Venue: wherever can you be creating your presentation? {what can|what is going to|what's going to} the space be like? What atmosphere will the physical conditions produce? an outsized lecture theatre would possibly create a proper atmosphere. On the opposite hand, a smaller space would possibly produce a less formal tone.

Timing is Important: it's necessary to know that completely different|completely different} hours of the day can lead to different responses from your audience. 2 notoriously dangerous hours for a prolonged presentation square measure late morning, the hour preceding lunch, and late afternoon, the ultimate hour before the top of the workday. In each things, it's tasking to stay your audience's attention.

Organize Your Content: strive presenting no quite 3 details in a very 10 minute presentation. continually enable time for associate adequate introduction and conclusion. it's tough for associate audience to follow a a lot of complicated argument while not important facilitate from the presenter.

Any proof will take the shape of factual information, points of detail or an evidence of method. it would be given in originative ways in which exploitation diagrams, footage or video segments.

Next is to develop the linear flow of your presentation. Linking statements send signals to your audience, light successive purpose in your argument, linking to earlier concepts.

Build Rapport: name things to that your audience will relate. to create rapport along with your audience they need to relate to you. do not faux to be excellent. If you faux to be excellent they're going to hate you - and not listen.

Open with one thing Interesting: you do not need to grab the audience's attention at the beginning. You have already got their attention. The challenge is to stay it. gap with a story helps you to be colloquial and establish rapport along with your audience. you'll be able to begin with a quote. gap with a matter creates curiosity and jump-starts the thought method. additionally you'll be able to see stunning data point.

Conclude Strong: Inform your audience that you simply square measure near to conclude. Repeat and emphasize your details. Tell them what you already told them and provoke queries graciously.


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          Communications Engineering Mastery Test 3: ECE Pre-Board   

Communications Engineering Exam 3

This is 100 items set of Practice Examination 3 in Communications Engineering (Electronics Systems and Technology) composed of previous Board Exams Questions. Read each questions and choices carefully! Choose the best answer. In the actual board, you have to answer 100 items in Communications Engineering within 5 hours. You have to get at least 70% to pass the subject. Communications Engineering is 30% of the total 100% Board Rating along with Mathematics (20%), General Engineering and Applied Sciences (20%) and Electronics Engineering (30%). Familiarize each and every questions to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board Examination.

Start the Test Yourself Exam 3

Choose the letter of the best answer in each questions.

1. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the impedance of a balance 4-wire with a diameter of 0.25 cm and spaced 2.5 cm apart using an insulator with a dielectric constant of 2.56?

  • A. 100 Ω
  • B. 65 Ω
  • C. 75 Ω
  • D. 50 Ω

2. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the impedance in ohms of a transformer marked for 25V, 4W, when the secondary is correctly loaded?

  • A. 150 Ω
  • B. 156 Ω
  • C. 160 Ω
  • D. 165 Ω

3. ECE Board Exam April 1997

A single conductor running from the transmitter to the antenna.

  • A. RG-8/U
  • B. Single line wire
  • C. Twin-lead
  • D. MIcrostrip

4. ECE Board Exam April 1997

If voltage change equal to twice its original value, what is its corresponding change in dB?

  • A. 9 dB
  • B. 6 dB
  • C. 10 dB
  • D. 3 dB

5. ECE Board Exam April 1997

To couple a coaxial line to parallel line, it is better to use a ______.

  • A. Slotted line
  • B. Quarter-wave transformer
  • C. Directional Coupler
  • D. Balun

6. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the characteristic impedance of a single wire with a diameter d= 0.25 mm placed at the center between grounded parallel planes separated by 1 mm apart. The wire is held by a material with a velocity factor of 0.75.

  • A. 85 Ω
  • B. 63 Ω
  • C. 50 Ω
  • D. 75 Ω

7. ECE Board Exam April 1997

If you have available number of power amplifiers with a gain of 100 each, how many such amplifiers do you need to cascade to give an overall gain of 60 dB?

  • A. 3
  • B. 4
  • C. 5
  • D. 2

8. ECE Board Exam April 1997

________ sets a limit on the maximum capacity of a channel with a give noise level.

  • A. Hartley theorem
  • B. Shannon-Hartley theorem
  • C. Nyquist theorem
  • D. Shannon theorem

9. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Transmission sent in both directions simultaneously.

  • A. Full duplex
  • B. Duplex
  • C. Half duplex
  • D. Simplex

10. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Industrial noise frequency is between _________.

  • A. 200 to 3000 Mhz
  • B. 15 to 160 Mhz
  • C. 0 to 10 Khz
  • D. 20 Ghz

11. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Reference noise temperature.

  • A. 70 deg F
  • B. 30 deg C
  • C. 290 Kelvin
  • D. 25 deg C

12. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the reference frequency of CCITT psophometric noise measurement?

  • A. 800 Hz
  • B. 1500 Hz
  • C. 3400 Hz
  • D. 1000 Hz

13. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Which does not effect noise in a channel?

  • A. None of these
  • B. Bandwidth
  • C. Temperature
  • D. Quantizing level

14. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The random and unpredictable electric signal from natural causes, both internal and external to the system is know as ________.

  • A. Distortion
  • B. Noise
  • C. Attenuation
  • D. Interference

15. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The most common unit of noise measurement in white noise testing.

  • A. dBw
  • B. dBk
  • C. dBm
  • D. NPR

16. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Unit of noise power of psophometer

  • A. dBa
  • B. pWp
  • C. dBm
  • D. dBmO

17. ECE Board Exam April 1997

100% modulation in AM means a corresponding increase in total power by:

  • A. 25%
  • B. 75%
  • C. 100%
  • D. 50%

18. ECE Board Exam April 1997

If the modulation index of an AM wave is doubled, the antenna current is also doubled, the AM system being used is

  • A. A5C
  • B. A3J
  • C. A3H
  • D. A3

19. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What particular circuit that rids FM of noise?

  • A. HPF
  • B. Phase shifter
  • C. Limiter
  • D. LPF

20. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the advantage of PTM over PAM?

  • A. Simpler to generate
  • B. Low sampling rate is required
  • C. Much better noise immunity
  • D. All of these

21. ECE Board Exam April 1997

At 100% modulation, the sum for the effective voltages in both sidebands is equal to ______% of the unmodulated carrier voltage.

  • A. 50
  • B. 71
  • C. 100
  • D. 25

22. ECE Board Exam April 1997

A carrier signal has ______.

  • A. Constant peak amplitude
  • B. The information
  • C. Frequency range 20-20000 Hz
  • D. A varying amplitude

23. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Which transmit only one sideband?

  • A. A3E
  • B. 3AJ
  • C. 11BE
  • D. H3E

24. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The final amplifier of either FM or AM transmitter operates as

  • A. Class B
  • B. Class C
  • C. Class A
  • D. Class D

25. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Modulation means

  • A. Varying of information
  • B. Utilization of a single transmission channel to carry multiple signals
  • C. Varying of some parameters of a carrier such as its amplitude to transmit information
  • D. Transmit pulses in DC form on a copper wire

26. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the advantage of sidetone?

  • A. High transmission efficiency
  • B. Results to a strengthened signal
  • C. No energy dissipation
  • D. Assures that the telephone is working

27. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The standard test tone

  • A. 0 dB
  • B. 10 dBm
  • C. 0 dBm
  • D. 10 dB

28. ECE Board Exam April 1997

One (1) Erlang is equal to ________.

  • A. 360 CCS
  • B. 100 CCS
  • C. 36 CCS
  • D. 3.6 CCS

29. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Transmission of printed material over telephone lines.

  • A. Video text
  • B. Facsimile
  • C. Encoding
  • D. Xerox copy

30. ECE Board Exam April 1997

1-CCS is equal to?

  • A. 60
  • B. 100
  • C. 600
  • D. 1

31. ECE Board Exam April 1997

1 Erlang is ______.

  • A. 1000 TU
  • B. 10 TU
  • C. 100 TU
  • D. 1 TU

32. ECE Board Exam April 1997

When waves bend away from straight lines of travel, it is called _________.

  • A. Refraction
  • B. Reflection
  • C. Rarefaction
  • D. Diffraction

33. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Highest frequency that can be used for skywave HF communications between two given points on earth.

  • A. Gyro frequency
  • B. Maximum usable frequency
  • C. Critical frequency
  • D. Virtual frequency

34. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Electromagnetic radiation theory was profounded by ______.

  • A. Sir Edward Appleton
  • B. Sir Isaac Newton
  • C. James Clerk Maxwell
  • D. Michael Faraday

35. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Type of transmission path that permits communication in the frequency range from 30 to 60 MHz and over distances form about 1000 to 2000 km.

  • A. Ducting
  • B. Ionospheric scatter
  • C. Microwave
  • D. Troposcatter

36. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the thickest layer of the ionosphere?

  • A. E
  • B. F1
  • C. F2
  • D. D

37. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Distance traveled by a wave in the time of one cycle.

  • A. Hop
  • B. Frequency
  • C. Wavelength
  • D. Crest

38. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Which region of the ionosphere is mainly responsible for long distance night time communication?

  • A. A layer
  • B. D layer
  • C. E layer
  • D. F layer

39. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the effective earth’s radius when N = 300?

  • A. 8500 km
  • B. 6370 km
  • C. 7270 km
  • D. 7950 km

40. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The polarization of a discone antenna is _____.

  • A. Horizontal
  • B. Vertical
  • C. Omni
  • D. Directional

41. ECE Board Exam April 1997

_______ is the horizontal pointing angle of an antenna.

  • A. Right angle
  • B. Angle of elevation
  • C. Bandwidth
  • D. Azimuth

42. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Which is properly terminated antenna?

  • A. Rhombic
  • B. Hertz
  • C. Marconi
  • D. Dipole

43. ECE Board Exam April 1997

______ is a device that detects both vertically and horizontally polarized signals simultaneously.

  • A. Crystal
  • B. Orthomode transducer
  • C. Light transducer
  • D. Optoisolator

44. ECE Board Exam April 1997

How much does the radiated power of an antenna increases if its current increased by 3.3 times?

  • A. 6.6 times
  • B. 3.3 times
  • C. 10.89 times
  • D. 9.9 times

45. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What do you call the energy that was not radiated into space or completely transmitted?

  • A. Incident waves
  • B. Captured waves
  • C. Standing waves
  • D. Modulated waves

46. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the estimated medium wind loading in the Philippines for antenna tower design?

  • A. 200 kph
  • B. 250 kph
  • C. 300 kph
  • D. 100 kph

47. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The minimum number of turns a helix antenna must have.

  • A. 4
  • B. 5
  • C. 3
  • D. 6

48. ECE Board Exam April 1997

When testing transmitter to prevent interfering with other stations, which type of antenna must be used?

  • A. Dummy antenna
  • B. Hertzian antenna
  • C. None of these
  • D. Void antenna

49. ECE Board Exam April 1997

A device that radiates electromagnetic energy and or intercepts electromagnetic radiation.

  • A. Antenna
  • B. Transmitter
  • C. Transmission line
  • D. Transceiver

50. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The frequency of operation of a dipole antenna cut to length of 3.4 m.

  • A. 42.9 MHz
  • B. 61.3 MHz
  • C. 38.5 MHz
  • D. 53.5 MHz

51. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Full duplex transmission means

  • A. One way transmission
  • B. 24-hour transmission
  • C. Broadcast transmission
  • D. Two-way simultaneous transmission

52. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Transmission system for a multidrop network

  • A. Taken passing
  • B. Polling
  • C. Switching
  • D. CSMA/CD

53. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Synchronous modems cost more than asynchronous modem because _______.

  • A. They have larger bandwidth
  • B. They are larger
  • C. The production volume is larger
  • D. They have clock recovery circuits

54. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What equation defines the composition of an ISDN basic access line?

  • A. B+2D
  • B. B+D
  • C. 2B+2D
  • D. 2B+D

55. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Modem is referred to as ______.

  • A. Universal asynchronous Rx/Tx
  • B. Data communication equipment
  • C. Universal synchronous Rx/Tx
  • D. Data terminal equipment

56. ECE Board Exam April 1997

_______ character signifies the start of the test for Bisync.

  • A. STX
  • B. ETX
  • C. SOH
  • D. BCC

57. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the reason why companding is employed in PCM systems?

  • A. To overcome impulse noise in PCM receivers
  • B. To allow amplitude limiting in the receivers
  • C. To solve quantizing noise problem
  • D. To protect small signals in PCM from quantizing distortion

58. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is framing?

  • A. Is concerned of synchronous system
  • B. Refers to parallel transmission
  • C. Is concerned with the boundaries between characters
  • D. Is concerned with individual bits

59. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The method of determining the bandwidth of any processing system is ______.

  • A. Bandwidth analysis
  • B. Frequency spectrum
  • C. Spectral analysis
  • D. Frequency analysis

60. ECE Board Exam April 1997

It is a protocol used to connect the other packet witching network.

  • A. X.25
  • B. X.50
  • C. X.10
  • D. X.75

61. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Slowest communications hardware product.

  • A. Synchronous
  • B. Asynchronous
  • C. Ethernet
  • D. Internet

62. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Highest theoretical frequency that can be processed at a sampling rate without aliasing.

  • A. Folding frequency
  • B. Resonant frequency
  • C. Natural frequency
  • D. Critical frequency

63. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Data is directly on the transmission cable.

  • A. Asynchronous
  • B. Synchronous
  • C. Baseband
  • D. Broadband

64. ECE Board Exam April 1997

A source code whose average word length approaches the fundamental limit set by the entropy of a discrete memory less source.

  • A. Prefix code
  • B. Huffman code
  • C. Entropy code
  • D. Source code

65. ECE Board Exam April 1997

______ sets the limit on the maximum capacity of a channel with a given noise level.

  • A. Hartley theorem
  • B. Shannon-hartley theorem
  • C. Nyquist theorem
  • D. Shannon theorem

66. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Gateway can interconnect LANs that have ____ protocols and formats.

  • A. The same
  • B. Different or the same
  • C. Totally different
  • D. None of these

67. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Steps to follow to produce PCM signal.

  • A. Quantizing, sampling, and coding
  • B. Sampling, quantizing, and coding
  • C. Sampling, coding and quantizing
  • D. Coding, quantizing and coding

68. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Transmission sent in both directions simultaneously.

  • A. Full duplex
  • B. Duplex
  • C. Half duplex
  • D. Simplex

69. ECE Board Exam April 1997

_______ detects the satellite signal relayed from the feed and converts it to an electric current, amplifies and lower its frequency.

  • A. Feedhorn
  • B. Satellite dish
  • C. Satellite receiver
  • D. LNB

70. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What kind of battery panels are used in some advance satellites?

  • A. Gallium Arsenide solar panel
  • B. Germanium based panels
  • C. Silicon based panels
  • D. Gallium Phosphate solar panel

71. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Footprint refers to coverage area in the globe

  • A. Satellite radiation polarization
  • B. Satellite navigation
  • C. Satellite radiation pattern
  • D. Satellite coverage

72. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Asia Sat I covers how many countries in Asia?

  • A. 38
  • B. 40
  • C. 44
  • D. 42

73. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Insertion loss of connector-type splices for a single-mode fiber cable.

  • A. 0.2 dB
  • B. 0.3 dB
  • C. 0.09 dB
  • D. 0.38 dB

74. ECE Board Exam April 1997

A non-coherent light source for optical communications system.

  • A. PIN Diode
  • B. ILD
  • C. APD
  • D. LED

75. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Type of fiber that has the highest modal dispersion

  • A. Step-index multimode
  • B. Step-index single mode
  • C. Graded index mode
  • D. Graded index multimode

76. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Fiber optic cable operates near _______ frequencies.

  • A. 800 THz
  • B. 20 MHz
  • C. 200 MHz
  • D. 2 GHz

77. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Lifetime of ILD’s

  • A. 150,000 h
  • B. 100,000 h
  • C. 50,000 h
  • D. 200,000 h

78. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The sound energy per unit area at right angles to the propagation direction per unit time.

  • A. Sound intensity
  • B. Loudness
  • C. Coherence
  • D. Sound stress

79. ECE Board Exam April 1997

_______ is the transmission of sound from one room to an adjacent room thru common walls, floors or ceilings.

  • A. Reverberation
  • B. Refraction
  • C. Flanking transmission
  • D. Reflection

80. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The sound power level of a jet plane flying at a height of 1 km is 160 dB. What is the maximum sound pressure level on the ground directly below the plane assuming that the aircraft radiates sound equally in all directions?

  • A. 59.1 dB
  • B. 69.1 dB
  • C. 79.1 dB
  • D. 89.1 dB

81. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Lowest frequency produced by a musical instrument.

  • A. Fundamental
  • B. Midrange
  • C. Period
  • D. Harmonic

82. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Sound intensity level is ________.

  • A. 10 log I/I(ref)
  • B. 10 log I(ref)/I
  • C. 30 log I/I(ref)
  • D. 20 log I/I(ref)

83. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Tendency of sound energy to spread.

  • A. Reflection
  • B. Diffraction
  • C. Rarefaction
  • D. Refraction

84. ECE Board Exam April 1997

______ used to measure speech volume

  • A. Volume meter
  • B. Audio frequency meter
  • C. Volume unit meter
  • D. Speech meter

85. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is the local oscillator frequency range commercial AM broadcast if it is equal to 455 KHz.

  • A. 540 to 1600 KHz
  • B. 0 to 1600 KHz
  • C. 995 to 2055 KHz
  • D. 0 to 455 KHz

86. ECE Board Exam April 1997

TV channels 2, 4 and 5 are known as ________.

  • A. Mid band UHF
  • B. Low band UHF
  • C. High band VHF
  • D. Low band VHF

87. ECE Board Exam April 1997

______ is the first component of any MATV system to received broadcast signals.

  • A. Receiver
  • B. Antenna
  • C. Filter
  • D. Transmitter

88. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Mechanism or device which enables the TV camera to move in internal and tilting motion.

  • A. Tilting
  • B. Scanner
  • C. Pan/tilt device
  • D. Panning device

89. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The allowable deviation ratio of commercial FM broadcast.

  • A. 25
  • B. 15
  • C. 5
  • D. 75

90. ECE Board Exam April 1997

______ is the time duration for one horizontal trace.

  • A. 48µs
  • B. 52 µs
  • C. 62 µs
  • D. 50 µs

91. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Which is atmospheric attenuation?

  • A. Attenuation due to rain
  • B. Attenuation due to other gasses
  • C. Attenuation due to mist and fog
  • D. Due to water vapor and oxygen

92. ECE Board Exam April 1997

A microwave system that requires the use of repeater.

  • A. Intervening terrain is favorable
  • B. Distances involved are greater
  • C. The required reliability is met
  • D. All of these

93. ECE Board Exam April 1997

What frequency does oxygen causes excessive attenuation

  • A. 119 GHz
  • B. 183 GHz
  • C. 310 GHz
  • D. 60 GHz

94. ECE Board Exam April 1997

RADAR means

  • A. Radio detection and rating
  • B. Radio detection and ranging
  • C. Radio distance and ranging
  • D. Radio delay and ranging

95. ECE Board Exam April 1997

A microwave link between the earth station and the down-town terminal.

  • A. STL
  • B. Uplink
  • C. Downlink
  • D. Terrestrial link

96. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The advantage of periscope antenna in microwave

  • A. Minimize interference to and from other neighboring stations
  • B. Shorten waveguide link
  • C. Reduce tower height
  • D. All of these

97. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Professional Regulations Commission was created under ______.

  • A. PD 323
  • B. PD 223
  • C. PD 232
  • D. RA 223

98. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The institutionalization of the continuing Professional Education (CPE) Program of the various regulated profession under the supervision of the Professional Regulation Commission.

  • A. E.O. No. 266
  • B. E.O. No. 626
  • C. E.O. No. 662
  • D. P.D. 381

99. ECE Board Exam April 1997

The basic law providing for the regulation of radio station, communications in the Philippines and other purposes.

  • A. Act. No.`3846
  • B. D.O. No. 11
  • C. D.O. No. 88
  • D. D.O. No. 5

100. ECE Board Exam April 1997

Listing of the date and time events, programs , equipment, test, malfunctions and corrections in communication system.

  • A. File
  • B. Documentation
  • C. Reporting
  • D. Log

Complete List of Communications Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

Series of Communications Engineering Exams: ECE Pre-Board

Check your work.

Answers key in Communications Engineering Exam 3: ECE Pre-Board


          HART现场总线 - 泓格HART系统整合解决方案   
HART协议 (全名Highway Addressable Remote Transducer, 高速可寻址远程传感器),用于现场智慧仪表和控制端间的一种全球标准通信协议,该协议目前向所有用户免费开放,注册商标和版权为HART通讯基金会(HCF)所有。HART协议采用基于Bell202标准的FSK频移键控信号,在4mA~ ...
          HART现场总线 - 泓格HART系统整合解决方案   
HART协议 (全名Highway Addressable Remote Transducer, 高速可寻址远程传感器),用于现场智慧仪表和控制端间的一种全球标准通信协议,该协议目前向所有用户免费开放,注册商标和版权为HART通讯基金会(HCF)所有。HART协议采用基于Bell202标准的FSK频移键控信号,在4mA~ ...
          HART现场总线 - 泓格HART系统整合解决方案   
HART协议 (全名Highway Addressable Remote Transducer, 高速可寻址远程传感器),用于现场智慧仪表和控制端间的一种全球标准通信协议,该协议目前向所有用户免费开放,注册商标和版权为HART通讯基金会(HCF)所有。HART协议采用基于Bell202标准的FSK频移键控信号,在4m ...
          Toward the Holographic Reconstruction of Sound Fields Using Smart Sound Devices   
A four-year project started in 2013 and supported by the Samsung Research Funding Center aims to revolutionize acoustic array systems through the construction and combination of smart sound devices. This "self-networked smart sound sticker" project uses novel acoustic array transducers made from graphene, as well as smart loudspeakers with self-sensing abilities, to offer installation and operational benefits over conventional arrays of nonflexible configurations.
          Europe Piezo Ceramic Technology Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022   
The piezoelectric ceramic is a kind of functional ceramic materials which can create electricity when subjected to a mechanical stress. They will also work in reverse, generating a strain by the application of an electric field. In sensors they make it possible to convert forces, pressures and accelerations into electrical signals, and in sonic and ultrasonic transducers and actuators they convert electric voltages into vibrations or deformations. Scope of the Report: This report focuses on the Piezo Ceramic Technology in Europe market, especially in Germany, UK, France, ...

Order / Buy a copy of this report @ http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/contacts/purchase?rname=1099781

Complete report details with Table of Contents and more @ http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/europe-piezo-ceramic-technology-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type-and-application-forecast-to-2022-market-report.html
          Shield designed for middle shields in a multiple sensor array   
A method and system provide a magnetic transducer having an air-bearing surface (ABS). The method provides a first read sensor stack and defines a first read sensor in a stripe height direction from the first read sensor stack. The stripe height direction is perpendicular to the ABS. A shield is provided on the first read sensor stack and in a down track direction from the first read sensor stack. A second read sensor stack is provided. The shield is between the first read sensor and the second read sensor stack in the down track direction. Both the first read sensor and the second read sensor are defined from the first read sensor stack and from the second read sensor stack, respectively, in a cross-track direction. The cross-track direction is substantially perpendicular to the down track direction and substantially perpendicular to the stripe height direction.
          Magnetic writer having a partially shunted coil   
A method and system provide a magnetic transducer having an air-bearing surface (ABS). The magnetic transducer includes a main pole and at least one coil for energizing the main pole. The coil(s) have a number of turns. The magnetic transducer also includes at least one shunt coupled to at least one of the number of turns. At least one remaining turn of the number of turns carries a current. The shunt(s) carry a portion of the current from the shunted turn of the number of turns. Thus, the coil(s) have an effective number of turns is less than the number of turns.
          Head transducer with multiple resistance temperature sensors for head-medium spacing and contact detection   
A head transducer, configured to interact with a magnetic recording medium, includes a first sensor having a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and configured to produce a first sensor signal, and a second sensor having a TCR and configured to produce a second sensor signal. One of the first and second sensors is situated at or near a close point of the head transducer in relation to the magnetic recording medium, and the other of the first and second sensors spaced away from the close point. Circuitry is configured to combine the first and second sensor signals and produce a combined sensor signal indicative of one or both of a change in head-medium spacing and head-medium contact. Each of the sensors may have a TCR with the same sign (positive or negative) or each sensor may have a TCR with a different sign.
          Mitigating write faults arising from disturbed lubrication events   
Apparatus and method for detecting and compensating for lubrication disturbance (lube disturb) events on a rotatable data recording medium. In some embodiments, a lube disturb event is detected responsive to displacement of a data transducer away from a first memory location on a rotating data recording medium during a write operation to write data thereto. The lube disturb event arises responsive to a transfer of accumulated contamination from a data transducer to a lubrication layer on the rotating data recording medium and a smearing of the transferred accumulated contamination along the first memory location. The write data are stored to a different, second memory location instead of to the first memory location responsive to the detected lube disturb event.
          Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) write head with recessed near-field transducer and optically transparent protective film   
A heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) air-bearing slider has an optically-transparent protective film over the near-field transducer (NFT) to protect the NFT from excessive heat caused by the accumulation of carbonaceous material on the slider's overcoat. The NFT is thus separated from the overcoat by the protective film. The protective film does not cover the write pole end, which is covered only by the overcoat, so there is no spacing loss between the write pole end and the recording layer on the disk. In one embodiment the protective film is coplanar with the recording-layer-facing surface of the slider and the overcoat covers both the protective film and the write pole end. In another embodiment the overcoat has a window that surrounds the protective film, with the protective film being substantially coplanar with the air-bearing surface (ABS) of the slider. In both embodiments the smooth topography of the slider's ABS is maintained.
          Slider including laser protection layer, head gimbal assembly, and disk drive unit with the same   
A slider includes a substrate having a trailing edge, a leading edge opposite the trailing edge, and an air bearing surface connecting the trailing edge with the leading edge; a read/write transducer formed at the trailing edge; and a coat layer attached on the trailing edge and covering on the read/write transducer. The slider further includes a protection layer for shielding the read/write transducer thereby preventing the read/write transducer from damaging during a laser soldering process. The present invention can prevent the read/write transducer from damaging during the laser bonding process and, in turn improve the reading and writing performance of the slider. The invention also discloses an HGA and a disk drive unit.
          Magnetic recording head having protected reader sensors and near zero recession writer poles   
A magnetic head according to one embodiment includes a module, the module having first and second transducers of different transducer types positioned towards a media facing side of the module, wherein the different transducer types are selected from a group consisting of data reader transducers, servo reader transducers, write transducers, piggyback read-write transducers and merged read-write transducers; a first protection structure for protecting the first transducer; and wherein the second transducer has either no protection or is protected by a second protection structure that is different than the first protection structure.
          Multiple writers with reduced crosstalk   
A system according to one embodiment includes at least two write transducers for writing to a magnetic medium; and a low reluctance path from a first pole of a first of the write transducers to a second pole of a second of the write transducers. In another embodiment, either 1) the first pole of the first write transducer and the second pole of the second write transducer are positioned close enough to each other that a low reluctance path is present from the first pole of the first write transducer to the second pole of the second write transducer, or 2) a magnetic strap extends between the first pole of the first write transducer and the second pole of the second write transducer thereby creating a low reluctance path therebetween.
          Head transducer with multiple resistance temperature sensors for head-medium spacing and contact detection   
A head transducer, configured to interact with a magnetic recording medium, includes a first sensor having a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and configured to produce a first sensor signal, and a second sensor having a TCR and configured to produce a second sensor signal. One of the first and second sensors is situated at or near a close point of the head transducer in relation to the magnetic recording medium, and the other of the first and second sensors spaced away from the close point. Circuitry is configured to combine the first and second sensor signals and produce a combined sensor signal indicative of one or both of a change in head-medium spacing and head-medium contact. Each of the sensors may have a TCR with the same sign (positive or negative) or each sensor may have a TCR with a different sign.
          Sealed bid for KPSI Model 500 Level Transducers with various cable lengths or Equivalent, Florida.    
United States - Florida - Sealed bid for KPSI Model 500 Level Transducers with various cable lengths or Equivalent, Florida.
          HDS-7 Gen3 Insight with Medium/High and TotalScan Transducer   

Details:Multi-touch 7 WidescreenFull Control via touchscreen or keypadBuilt-in CHIRP/Broadband SounderBuilt-in StructureScan (with StructureScan transducer)Simultaneous CHIRP and StructureScan capabilitiesBuilt-in 10Hz GPS/GLONASS antennaBuilt-in W...[Read More]
Our Price: $1,499.00 [Add to Cart]



          HDS-7 Gen3 Insight with Mid/High Transducer   

Details:Multi-touch 7 WidescreenFull Control via touchscreen or keypadBuilt-in CHIRP/Broadband SounderBuilt-in StructureScan (with StructureScan transducer)Simultaneous CHIRP and StructureScan capabilitiesBuilt-in 10Hz GPS/GLONASS antennaBuilt-in W...[Read More]
Our Price: $1,299.00 [Add to Cart]



          HDS-7 Gen3 Insight No Transducer   

Details:Multi-touch 7 WidescreenFull Control via touchscreen or keypadBuilt-in CHIRP/Broadband SounderBuilt-in StructureScan (with StructureScan transducer)Simultaneous CHIRP and StructureScan capabilitiesBuilt-in 10Hz GPS/GLONASS antennaBuilt-in W...[Read More]
Our Price: $1,249.00 [Add to Cart]



          Aircraft Fuel Flow Indicator : The Primary Flight Instruments (J P Instruments)   
These contraptions will allow all pilots and engineers to diagnose any problem with the fuel flow inside of the plane. The fuel flow tester is the temporary replacement for transducers. They can do this by simulating the flow of pulses that could be generated by a transducer.
          Ultrasonic Anemometer Part 29: Transducer Comparison   

Pinned onto Soldernerd

It’s been way too long since the last post in my Ultrasonic Anemometer series. But better late then never. So far I have always used the same type of transducers. When I started this project I looked around and found the Multicomp MCUSD16A40S12RO. They were comparatively cheap and readily available so I ordered some and […]

          Numerical simulation and experiments on mono-polar negative corona discharge applied in nanocomposites   
The corona discharge techniques, which are employed to orient dipoles and built up charges inside functional polymers, can develop important commercial applications of electroactive polymers (EAPs) and electrets for energy storage devices, air filters, electroacoustic and electromechanical transducers. We propose hereby an elective hybrid approach to the point-plane corona modeling in order to obtain more accurate electron flow in unipolar corona discharge system. A coupled system of partial differential equations (PDEs) w.r.t. Navier-stokes equations and hydrodynamic drift diffusion equations described the nature of photo-ionization, where the secondary avalanche in the discharge process was demonstrated. The simulation was verified by comparison with Surface Potential (SP) measurement of the nano-composites after corona polarization. Consequently, the spacial electric potential distribution and initial surface potential could be obtained by the means of finite elements method (FEM), which provided a good numerical approach for the experimental data of electrostatic surface potential. In addition, the influence of nano particle on the charge retain ability of the insulating polymers was also investigated, which could be a guideline for designing an effective poling method on the functional polymers applied in electrical energy storage devices sensors, actuators and transducer etc.
          Cardiovascular Anesthesia Technician - Grade 670 - (San Francisco, California, United States)   
The Cardiovascular (CV)/General Anesthesia Technician assists the Anesthesiologist &/or Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) throughout all phases of the provision of anesthesia to patients undergoing cardiac & other surgical procedures, including setting up for the procedure & the operation, maintenance,& servicing of all anesthesia equipment. This also includes handing these functions for hospital locations where anesthesia srvs are used. i.e., Radiology, Labor & Delivery & ICU. This also involves various duties related to ordering & coordinating general anesthesia & pharmacy supplies. Essential Functions: - Performs assessment of the equipment requirements for the current day & future case load. This includes all pressure lines, regional supplies,& various other pieces of equipment. - Maintains the knowledge required to maintain each piece of anesthesia equipment in a good working status. - Maintains professional contact w/the various Depts involved in providing support to the Anesthesia Dept to allow a highly functional status. - Demonstrates competency in specific technical skills as evidenced by skills/competency inventory. - Must understand & participate in all regulatory requirements established by Kaiser & the labor Mgmt teams. - Attends all required meetings to increase communication w/in Dept. - Demonstrates an awareness of & sensitivity to patient/family rights & cultural/religious beliefs & age specific needs. - Job Specific Criteria -Transports patients to & from operating room, w/& w/out the assistance of a physician, as appropriate to the condition of the patient. - Prepares & sets up all required anesthesia-related equipment, including anesthesia machine, transesophageal echo, physiologic monitors, transducers,& pediatric & adult carts. - Prepares invasive monitoring lines, including arterial, CVP, & PA lines. - Preps patient in anticipation of invasive monitoring line placement. - Applies monitoring devices to the patient & must be able to operate all common physiological monitors (i.e., EKG, Datex, pulse oximeter, CO2 monitor, Drager machine, I-Stat, Ultrasound, BP monitors cuffs, etc.) - Assists w/proper positioning of the patient for invasive monitoring line insertion, introduction of spinal anesthesia, & induction of anesthesia. - Assists the Anesthesiologist/CRNA w/ invasive line placement, induction of anesthesia, placement of transesophageal echo probe & other ultrasound devices. - Troubleshoots anesthesia-related equipment failures, notifying & working w/Biomedical Engineering personnel when deemed appropriate. - Cleans all anesthesia-related equipment after each patient use; cleans & decontaminates equipment per Sterile Processing Dept protocols. - This includes the disassembly of equipment & sterilization in accordance to the Center for Disease Control guidelines, to prevent the spread of infectious & contagious diseases. This also includes maintaining & orchestrating the laryngoscope blade & fiber optic scopes per SP protocols. - Checks all anesthesia supply stock levels, orders necessary supplies, & restocks supplies, as needed. Orders from Pharmacy & stocks all nonscheduled drugs; may have access to nonscheduled drugs via the Pyxis machine. - Operates, calibrates,& performs routine maintenance on a variety of technical equipment used in the operating room, such as the Drager 6000, Drager Mobile, & MRI compatible anesthesia machines, CompuRecord, pulse oximeter, & rapid infusion/transfusion systems; identifies malfunctioning equipment, troubleshoots equipment problems, refers serious equipment problems to appropriate technical repair personnel when there are no established guidelines. - Assists in the establishment & maintenance of a regular schedule of preventive maintenance & calibration of monitors utilized in the Admin of anesthesia. - Performs related duties as assigned. - Supervisory Responsibilities:This role has no supervisory responsibilities.
          Electrical Journeyman - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Thu, 25 May 2017 02:37:59 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Journeyman Wireman, Lead Man - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA   
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Wed, 17 May 2017 15:18:57 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Medi Farcoo Limited Announces to Provide the One-Stop service for repairing Ultrasound Probes   
Medi Farcoo Limited, a professional supplier of Ultrasound Transducer Probes from Shenzhen China, also provide the one-stop repair service for ultrasound probes. Medi Farcoo Limited, located in Shenzhen China, has
          Electronic Pressure Transducer/Switch   

The TDEPD electronic pressure transducer/switch introduces a patented, programmable display that can be set to revolve, hold at a fixed angle, or inverted for upside-down installations of the sensor. The sensor can be programmed to signal the pressure, condition, and readiness of a fluid power system. The unit includes Spike Monitoring Technology, which when coupled […]

The post Electronic Pressure Transducer/Switch appeared first on Fluid Power Journal.


          THE BABY SWALLOWS ARE OUT OF THE NEST (AND ZOOMING AROUND THE HARDWARE STORE PHOTO BLOG)   

Hi Everybody!!
I went back to the Hardware Store in town to see the baby swallows. The three had left the nest, but were zooming around having a good time. The mom was sitting on another nest. The store door under the nests rings a bell when it opens. Many people go in and out all day. I am just amazed these birds choose to live and nest so close to humans in the city! I asked 5 people who came out of the store, what they thought about the birds nesting so close. All of them said: What birds? What nest? People just do not seem to notice life around them. (Of course I have to chuckle as I am the one designated to have my head in the clouds!) I encourage you all to: Open Your Eyes!!!! These are beautiful birds to observe. Enjoy!














https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_perception

Visual perception

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light. The resultingperception is also known as eyesightsight, or vision (adjectival form:visualoptical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in psychologycognitive scienceneuroscience, and molecular biology.

Visual system[edit]

Main article: Visual system
The visual system in humans and animals allows individuals to assimilate information from their surroundings. The act ofseeing starts when the lens of the eye focuses an image of its surroundings onto a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye, called the retina. The retina is actually part of the brain that is isolated to serve as a transducer for the conversion of patterns of light into neuronal signals. The lens of the eye focuses light on the photoreceptive cells of the retina, which detect the photons of light and respond by producing neural impulses. These signals are processed in ahierarchical fashion by different parts of the brain, from the retina upstream to central ganglia in the brain.
Note that up until now much of the above paragraph could apply to octopimolluscswormsinsects and things more primitive; anything with a more concentrated nervous system and better eyes than say a jellyfish. However, the following applies to mammals generally and birds (in modified form): The retina in these more complex animals sends fibers (theoptic nerve) to the lateral geniculate nucleus, to the primary and secondary visual cortex of the brain. Signals from the retina can also travel directly from the retina to the superior colliculus.
The perception of objects and the totality of the visual scene is accomplished by the visual association cortex. The visual associaton cortex combines all sensory information perceived by the striate cortex which contains thousands of modules that are part of modular neural networks. The neurons in the striate cortex send axons to the extrastriate cortex, a region in the visual association cortex that surrounds the striate cortex.[1]

Study[edit]

The major problem in visual perception is that what people see is not simply a translation of retinal stimuli (i.e., the image on the retina). Thus people interested in perception have long struggled to explain what visual processing does to create what is actually seen.

Early studies[edit]


The visual dorsal stream (green) and ventral stream (purple) are shown. Much of the humancerebral cortex is involved in vision.
There were two major ancient Greek schools, providing a primitive explanation of how vision is carried out in the body.
The first was the "emission theory" which maintained that vision occurs when rays emanate from the eyes and are intercepted by visual objects. If an object was seen directly it was by 'means of rays' coming out of the eyes and again falling on the object. A refracted image was, however, seen by 'means of rays' as well, which came out of the eyes, traversed through the air, and after refraction, fell on the visible object which was sighted as the result of the movement of the rays from the eye. This theory was championed by scholars like Euclid and Ptolemy and their followers.
The second school advocated the so-called 'intro-mission' approach which sees vision as coming from something entering the eyes representative of the object. With its main propagators AristotleGalen and their followers, this theory seems to have some contact with modern theories of what vision really is, but it remained only a speculation lacking any experimental foundation.
Both schools of thought relied upon the principle that "like is only known by like", and thus upon the notion that the eye was composed of some "internal fire" which interacted with the "external fire" of visible light and made vision possible.Plato makes this assertion in his dialogue Timaeus, as does Aristotle, in his De Sensu.[2]

Leonardo da Vinci: The eye has a central line and everything that reaches the eye through this central line can be seen distinctly.
Alhazen (965–c. 1040) carried out many investigations and experiments on visual perception, extended the work of Ptolemy on binocular vision, and commented on the anatomical works of Galen.[3][4]
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) is believed to be the first to recognize the special optical qualities of the eye. He wrote "The function of the human eye ... was described by a large number of authors in a certain way. But I found it to be completely different." His main experimental finding was that there is only a distinct and clear vision at the line of sight, the optical line that ends at the fovea. Although he did not use these words literally he actually is the father of the modern distinction between foveal and peripheral vision.[citation needed]

Unconscious inference[edit]

Main article: Unconscious inference
Hermann von Helmholtz is often credited with the first study of visual perception in modern times. Helmholtz examined the human eye and concluded that it was, optically, rather poor. The poor-quality information gathered via the eye seemed to him to make vision impossible. He therefore concluded that vision could only be the result of some form of unconscious inferences: a matter of making assumptions and conclusions from incomplete data, based on previous experiences.
Inference requires prior experience of the world.
Examples of well-known assumptions, based on visual experience, are:
  • light comes from above
  • objects are normally not viewed from below
  • faces are seen (and recognized) upright.[5]
  • closer objects can block the view of more distant objects, but not vice versa
  • figures (i.e., foreground objects) tend to have convex borders
The study of visual illusions (cases when the inference process goes wrong) has yielded much insight into what sort of assumptions the visual system makes.
Another type of the unconscious inference hypothesis (based on probabilities) has recently been revived in so-calledBayesian studies of visual perception.[6] Proponents of this approach consider that the visual system performs some form of Bayesian inference to derive a perception from sensory data. Models based on this idea have been used to describe various visual perceptual functions, such as the perception of motion, the perception of depth, and figure-ground perception.[7][8] The "wholly empirical theory of perception" is a related and newer approach that rationalizes visual perception without explicitly invoking Bayesian formalisms.

Gestalt theory[edit]

Main article: Gestalt psychology
Gestalt psychologists working primarily in the 1930s and 1940s raised many of the research questions that are studied by vision scientists today.
The Gestalt Laws of Organization have guided the study of how people perceive visual components as organized patterns or wholes, instead of many different parts. Gestalt is the German word "Gestalt" that partially translates to "configuration or pattern" along with "whole or emergent structure". According to this theory, there are six main factors that determine how the visual system automatically groups elements into patterns: Proximity, Similarity, Closure, Symmetry, Common Fate (i.e. common motion), and Continuity.

Analysis of eye movement[edit]

See also: Eye movement

Eye movement first 2 seconds (Yarbus, 1967)
During the 1960s, technical development permitted the continuous registration of eye movement during reading[9] in picture viewing[10] and later in visual problem solving[11] and when headset-cameras became available, also during driving.[12]
The picture to the left shows what may happen during the first two seconds of visual inspection. While the background is out of focus, representing theperipheral vision, the first eye movement goes to the boots of the man (just because they are very near the starting fixation and have a reasonable contrast).
The following fixations jump from face to face. They might even permit comparisons between faces.
It may be concluded that the icon face is a very attractive search icon within the peripheral field of vision. The foveal vision adds detailed information to the peripheral first impression.
It can also be noted that there are three different types of eye movements: vergence movements, saccadic movements and pursuit movements. Vergence movements involve the cooperation of both eyes to allow for an image to fall on the same area of both retinas. This results in a single focused image. Saccadic movements is the type of eye movement that is used to rapidly scan a particular scene/image. Lastly, pursuit movement is used to follow objects in motion. a new low among women under thirty and among the population as a whole,  so it should be no surprise that states are passing laws to restrict safe abortions. Before performing any abortion Oklahoma’s new 2010 law requires that the doctor do an ultrasound and describe to the woman the dimensions and gestational age of the embryo, cardiac activity if any, and appearance of external and internal structures.  A vaginal transducer must be used when doing so will display the embryo more clearly than an abdominal transducer.  Oklahoma’s law thus requires doctors to perform an ultrasound that is not medically indicated and likely to be invasive. In this era of skyrocketing medical costs and overutilization of services the new law mandates more of the same while leaving the burden of payment to the women themselves.

U.S. law requires that informed consent be obtained for treatments and diagnostic tests. This means that accurate and relevant information must be disclosed to patients. If current standards of disclosure and informed consent apply then the description of the fetus must include evidence about embryology including clinical and scientific uncertainty about when consciousness, thoughts, sensations, and life begin. This is more than some of the other commentators who are in favor of the law are advocating. Providing abortion without truthful disclosure and informed consent violates existing laws, threatens the doctor-patient relationship, and jeopardizes medical professionalism.  Mandating ultrasound, especially with out disclosing all the information -- especially where the law protects the doctor against deliberate failure to disclose --  means ignoring the need to obtain informed consent. One wonders how such a poorly crafted law ever reached the legislature. Indeed, as a result of legal challenges to the new law an Oklahoma judge has just granted a slight reprieve by delaying implementation for 45 days. 

[Guest blogging this week is Cheryl Cox Macpherson, Ph.D., Professor and the Chair of Bioethics Center at St George's University School of Medicine (SGU) in Grenada where she enjoys teaching medical and graduate students from many nations and background.]




          True Volume TEE, The Next Step in 3-D Imaging   

Siemens introduces True volume TEE transducer — this 3-D/4-D 90°x90° TEE solution enables clinically meaningful visualization of anatomy, volume color Doppler and function in one volume view, without compromises like stitching. Combined with eSieValves advanced analysis package, it offers automated modeling and quantification in seconds allowing cardiologists to remove the guesswork from valve sizing.


          Baudette Real Estate Sale   


Baudette real estate sale



Professional real estate agent with access to MLS listings and homes for sale. Browse Minnesota homes for sale from Coldwell Banker. Search for homes for sale in the West Metro Twin Cities. Buy homes and condos in Warroad Pitt is an unincorporated community in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota, United States. Submit your own pictures of this city and show them to the World Find Baudette MN real estate; view Baudette homes, condos, foreclosures, and new homes for sale. Coldwell Banker Burnet can help you find Baudette homes for sale, Baudette real estate agents, and information about the Baudette, Minnesota real estate market.

View detailed profile, contacts, maps, reports and more. Find experienced Baudette Realtors® and real estate agents. 108 1st Street E, Baudette, MN, 56623-2878. Select the desired town or city to view active Minnesota real estate listings. Utilize our free real estate site to perform real estate searches, save. The community is located west of Baudette on Minnesota State Highway 11.

Baudette real estate foreclosure



Coldwell Banker Burnet can help you find Baudette homes for sale, Baudette real estate agents, and information about the Baudette, Minnesota real estate market. Welcome to Diversified Real Solutions, the Doctors of Real Estate Investing There is no better time than now to be investing in real estate. Whether you are a seller, first-time home buyer, investor, or a growing family looking to "move up", a Twin Cities Real Estate agent is ready to help. Grafton, real estate and homes for sale in Minto and Park River.

Minnesota Real Estate - Search Minnesota Real Estate for Sale, Real Estate Agents, and find Real Estate information for Minnesota. The community is located west of Baudette on Minnesota State Highway 11. Your Grafton real estate resource center, find MLS listings, condos and homes for sale in Grafton Search the Minnesota MLS, including short sale properties, foreclosures, new homes, school information and much more on West Metro Home Search. Pitt is an unincorporated community in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota, United States. Blacksburg Real Estate Resources - Search for homes, land and community information in Blacksburg, Christiansburg, Radford, Virginia and surrounding area. See all Minneapolis real estate, MN homes,houses, Minnesota lake cabins.

Baudette mn real estate listings



Utilize our free real estate site to perform real estate searches, save. Minnesota Property Record Search is a tool that you can use to determine the value of a property based on prior sales, age of the property and more. Search for homes for sale in the West Metro Twin Cities. Find real estate such as lake homes, residential homes or land in Alexandria, Minnesota and its surrounding areas such as Miltona, Garfield, Glenwood, Brandon and Osakis. Edina Realty sells more homes than any other area broker. Juve Real Estate offers Fosston Minnesota real estate throughout Polk County and surrounding areas of Northwestern Minnesota.

Real Estate Listings and Auctions in Redwood Falls, MN and the Southwest MN area. Minnesota Commercial Association of Realtors (MNCAR) provides a searchable database of commercial real estate property for sale or lease in Minnesota, and an online. Discover the right home for your family by browsing the real estate listings offered by Big Pine Real Estate in Perham, Minnesota. Search active and sold property information from MLS listings in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota.




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          Teasing out the differences between the "AC" and "DC" versions of the Tesla PowerWall 2   
Being naturally interested in such things, I've been following the announcements and information about the Tesla PowerWall 2 - the follow-on product of the (rarely seen - in the U.S., at least) "original" PowerWall.

Somewhat interestingly/frustratingly, clear, concise (and even vaguely) technical information on either version of the PowerWall 2 (yes, there are two versions - the "DC" and "AC") has been a bit difficult to find, so in my research, what have I found?

This page or its contents are not intended to promote any of the products mentioned nor should it be considered to be an authoritative source.

It is simply a statement of opinion, conjecture and curiosity based on the information publicly available at the time of the original posting.

It is certain that as time goes on that information referenced on this page may be officially verified, become commonplace, or proven to be completely wrong.

Such is the nature of life!

The "DC" PowerWall 2:
  • Data sheets (two whole pages, each - almost!) for both the DC and AC versions of the PowerWall may be found here at this link - link.
Unless you have a "hybrid" solar inverter, this one is NOT for you - and if you had such an inverter, you'd likely already know it.  A "hybrid" inverter is one that is specifically designed to pass some of the energy from the PV array (solar panels) into storage, such as a battery and used that stored energy later.

Unlike its "AC" counterpart (more on this later) this version of the PowerWall 2 does NOT appear to have an AC (mains) connection of any type - let alone an inverter (neither are mentioned in the brochure) - but rather it is an energy back-up for the solar panels on the DC input(s) of the hybrid inverter.   "Excess" power from the panels may used to charge the battery and this stored energy could be used to feed the inverter when the load (e.g. house) exceeds that available from the panels - when it is cloudy, if there is a period in which the load exceeds the output of the PV array for a period of time or there is no sun at all (e.g. night).

Whether or not this version of the PowerWall can actually be (indirectly) charged via the AC mains (e.g.  via a hybrid inverter capable of working "backwards" to produce AC from the mains) would appear to depend entirely on the capability and configuration of the hybrid inverter and the system overall.

But, you might ask,why would you ever want to charge the battery from the utility rather than from solar?  You might want to do this if there were variable tariffs in your area - say, $0.30/kWh during the peak hours in the day, but only $0.15kWh at night - in which case it would make sense supplant the "expensive" power during the day with "cheap" power bought at night to charge it up.

Whether or not this system would be helpful in a power outage is also dependent on the nature of the inverter to which it is connected:  Most grid-tie converters become useless when the mains power disappears (e.g. cannot produce any power for the consumer - more on this later) - and this applies to both "series string" (e.g. a large inverter fed by high-voltage DC from a series of panels) and the "microinverter" (small inverters at each of the panels) topologies.  Inverters configured for "island" operation (e.g. "free running" in the absence of a live power grid) or ones that can safely switch between "grid tie" and "island" modes would seem to be appropriate if you use the DC PowerWall and you want to keep your house "powered up" when there is a grid failure.

The "AC" PowerWall 2:
  • Data sheets (two whole pages, each - almost!) for both the DC and AC versions of the PowerWall may be found here - LINK.
While the "AC" version seems to have the same battery storage capacity as the "DC" version (e.g. approx. 13.5kWh) it also has an integrated inverter and charger that interfaces with the AC mains that is apparently capable of supporting any standard voltage from 100 to 277 volts, 50 or 60 Hz, split or single phase.  This inverter, rated for approximately 7kW peak and 5-ish kW continuous, is sufficient to run many households.  Multiple units may be "stacked" (e.g. connected in parallel-type configuration - up to nine of them, according to the data sheet linked above) for additional storage and capacity.
Unlike the "DC" version, all of the power inflow/outflow is via the AC power feed, which is to say, it will both output AC power via its inverter and charge its battery via that same connection.  What this means is that it need not (and cannot, really) be directly connect to the PV (photovoltaic) system at all except, possibly, via a local network to gather stats and do controlling.  What seems clear is that this version has some means of monitoring the net flow in to and out of the house to the utility which means that the PowerWall could balance this out by "knowing" how much power it could use to charge its battery, or needed to output.

(The basic diagram of Figure 1, above, shows how such a system might be connected.  This diagram does not specifically represent a PowerWall, but rather how any battery-based inverter/charger system might be used to supply back-up power to a home in the past and future.)

Because its power would be connected "indirectly" via AC power connections to the PV system it should (in theory) work with either a series-string or microinverter-type system - or, maybe even if you have no solar at all if you simply want to charge it during times of lower tariffs and pull the charge back out again during high tariffs.  (The Tesla brochure simply says "Support for wide range of usage scenarios" under the heading "Operating Modes" - which could be interpreted many ways, but I have not actually seen an "official" suggestion of a use without any sort of solar.)

What might such a system look like - schematically, at least?

How might this version of the PowerWall operate?  First, let's take a look at a diagram of how any sort of battery/inverter/charger like this might be configured for a house.
Figure 1:
Diagram of a generic battery-based "whole house" backup system based on obvious requirements.  This is a very basic diagram, showing most of the needed components that would be required to interface a battery-based inverter/charger with a typical house's electrical system and a PV (PhotoVoltaic/solar) charging system.
For those not familiar with North American power systems, typical residences are fed with 240 volt, center-tapped service from the transformer with this center-tap grounded at the service entrance.  This allows most devices to operate at 120 volts while those that consume large amounts of power (ranges, electric water heaters, electric dryers, air conditioners, etc.) are connected a circuit with 240 volts, which may or may not need the "neutral" lead at all.  In most other parts of the world there would be only "L1" and the "Neutral" operating at about 240 volts.
Click on the image for a larger version.

Referring to Figure 1, above:

Shown to the right of center is a switch that opens when the utility's power grid goes offline, isolating the house and the inverter/charger from the power grid and included in that is a voltage monitor (consisting of potential transducers, or "PTs") that can detect when the mains voltage has returned and stabilized and it is "safe" to reconnect to the grid.  The battery-based inverter/charger is connected across the house's mains so that it can both pull current from it to charge its battery as well as push power into the house in a back-up situation.

The "Net current monitoring" current transducers ("CTs") might be used to allow the inverter/charger to "zero out" the total current (and, thus power) coming in from and going out to the power grid (under normal situations) such as when its battery is being charged and extra power is being produced by the PV system, but to control the charge rate just so that only that "extra" power from the PV system is being used to assure, as much as possible, a net-zero flow to/from the utility.  The "House Current monitoring" is used to determine how much current is being used by the entire house while the "PV current monitoring" is used to determine the contribution of the PV system.

By knowing these things it is possible to determine how much excess/deficit their may be in terms of the production of the PV system with respect to actual usage by the household.  Not shown is the current monitoring that would, no doubt, be included in the inverter/charger itself.  Some of the shown current monitoring points may be redundant as this information could be determined in other ways, but are included for clarity.

Finally, a local network connection is shown for both the inverter/charger so that they may communicate with each other, perhaps for control purposes, as well as communicate via the Internet so that statistics may be monitored and recorded and to allow firmware updates to be issued.

How it might operate in practice:

As can be seen in Figure 1 and determined from the explanation, we can see that the PV is connected to the input/output of the inverter/charger (which could be a PowerWall - or any other similar system) via the house wiring which means that there is a path to the PowerWall to charge its battery, and the same path out of it when it needs to supply power along with means of monitoring power flow.

With a system akin to that depicted in Figure 1, consider these possible scenarios:
    1. Excess power is being produced by the PV system and put back into the grid and the PowerWall's battery is fully-charged. Because the battery is fully-charged there is nowhere to put this extra power so it goes back into the grid, tracked by the "Net Meter" in the same way that it would be without a PowerWall.
    2. Excess power is being produced by the PV system and put back into the grid and the PowerWall's battery is not fully charged.  It will pull the amount of "excess" power that the PV system would normally be putting into the grid and charge its own battery at that same rate resulting in a net-zero amount of power being put into the grid.
    3. More power is being consumed by the user's household than is being produced by the solar array.  Depending on the state-of-charge and configuration of the PowerWall, the power wall may produce enough power to make up for the difference between what the PV system is producing and the user needs.  At night this could (in theory) be 100% of the usage if the system were so-configured.
    4. It would be theoretically possible to configure it so that even if there was no solar, but a higher daytime than nighttime power rate, to charge overnight from the mains and put out power during the day to reduce the power costs overall.
    What about a power outage?

    All of the above scenarios are to be expected - and they are more-or-less standard offerings for many of the battery-based products of this type - but what if the AC mains go down?  For the rest of this discussion we will ignore the "DC" version of the PowerWall as its capability would rely on the configuration of the user's hybrid inverter and its capabilities/configuration when it comes to supplying backup, "islanded" AC power.

    As mentioned before, with a typical PV system - either "series string" (one large inverter) or distributed (e.g. "microinverter") - if the power grid goes offline the PV system becomes useless:  It requires the power grid to be present to both synchronize itself and present an infinite "sink" into which it can always push all of the "extra" power power that it is producing.  Were such units to not dangerous voltages could be "back-fed" into the power grid and be a hazard to anyone who might be trying to repair it.  It is for this reason that all grid-tie inverters are, by law, required to go offline - or, at least, disconnect themselves completely from the power grid during a mains power outage.

    The "AC" version of the Tesla PowerWall's system includes a switch that automatically isolates the house from the power grid when there is a power failure.  Once this switch has isolated the house from the grid the inverter built into the PowerWall can supply power to the house - at least as long as its battery lasts.

    What about charging the battery during a power outage?

    Here is where it seems to get a bit tricky.

    If all grid-tie inverter systems go offline when the power grid fails, is it possible to use it to assist, or even charge the PowerWall during a grid failure?  In other words, can you use power from your PV system to recharge the PowerWall's battery or, at the very least, supply at least some of the power to extend its battery run-time?

    In corresponding with a company representative - and corroborated by data openly published by Telsa (see the FAQ linked near the bottom of this posting) - the answer would appear to be "yes" - but exactly how this works is not very clear.

    Based on rather vague information and knowing the behavior of the components involved it would seem to need to work this way:
    • The power (utility) grid goes down.
      • The user's PV system goes offline with the failure of the grid.
      • The PowerWall's switch opens, isolating the house completely from the grid - aside from the ability to monitor when the power grid comes back up.
      • The inverter in the PowerWall now takes the load of the house.
    Were this all that happened, the house would again go dark once the battery in the PowerWall or similar "back-up power system" was depleted, but there seems to be more to it than this when a PV system is involved, as in:
    • When the back-up power system's inverter goes online, the PV system again sees what looks like the power grid and comes back online.
      • As it does, the back-up power system monitors the total power consumption and usage and any excess power being produced by the PV system is used to charge its battery.
      • If the PV system is producing less power than is being used, the back-up power system will supply the difference:  Its battery will still be discharged, but at a lower rate.
    But now it gets even trickier and a bit more vague.

    What is there is extra power being produced by the PV system?

    Grid tie PV systems expect the power grid to be an infinite sink of power - but what if, during a power failure, when your backup up system is standing in as the power grid, you are producing 5kW of solar energy and your house is using only 2kW:  Where does the extra 3kW of production go if it cannot be infinitely sinked into the utility grid, and how does one keep the PV system from "tripping out" and going off line?

    To illustrate the problem, let us bring up a related scenario where we have a generator instead of some sort of battery-based back-up power system system.

    There is a very good reason why owners of grid-tie systems are warned against using it to "assist" a backup generator and using that generator as a substitute for the power grid.  What can happen is this:
    • The AC power goes out and the transfer switch connects the house to the generator.
    • The generator comes online and produces AC power.
    • If the AC power from the generator is stable enough (not all generators produce adequately stable power) the PV system will come back online thinking that the power grid has come back.
    • When the PV system comes back online and produces power, the generator's load decreases:  Most generator's motors will slightly speed up as the load is decreased.
      • When the generator's motor speeds up, the frequency goes high.  When this happens, the PV system will see that as unstable power and will go offline.
      • When the PV system goes off, the power is suddenly dumped on the generator and it is hit with the full load and slows back down.
    •  The cycle repeats, with the PV system and generator "fighting" each other as the PV system continually goes on and offline.
    An even worse scenario is this:
    • The AC power goes out, the transfer switch connects the house to the generator.
    • The generator comes online and produces power.
    • The PV system comes up because it "sees" the generator as the power grid, but its producing, say, 5kW but the house is, at the moment, using 2kW.
    • The PV system, because it think that it is connected to the power grid, will try to shove that extra 3kW somewhere, causing one or more of the following to happen:
      • The generator to speed up as power is being "pushed" into it, its frequency wil go high and trip the PV system offline, and/or:
      • If the PV system tries to push more power into the system than there is a place for it to go (e.g. the case, above, where the solar is producing 3kW more than is being used) the voltage will necessarily go up.  Assuming that the generator doesn't "overspeed" and trip-out and the frequency doesn't go up and trip the PV system offline, the PV system will increase the voltage, trying to "push" the extra power into a load where there is nowhere for it to go:
        • As the PV system tries to "push" its excess power into the generator, it will increase the output voltage.  At some point the PV system will trip out on overvoltage, and the same "on-off" cycle mentioned above will occur.
        • It is possible that the excess power from the PV will "motor" the generator (e.g. the input power tries to "spin" the generator/motor) - an extremely bad thing to do which will probably cause it to overheat and eventually be destroyed if this goes un-checked.
        • If it is an "inverter" type generator, it can't be "motored", but the excess power will probably cause the generator's inverter to get stuck in the same "trip out/restart" cycle or simply fault out in an "overload condition - or it might even be damaged/destroyed.
    If having extra power from a grid-tie inverter is so difficult to deal with, what could you do with extra power that the PV system might be producing?


    What if we have excess power and nowhere to put it?

    The question that comes to mind now is "What does the PV system do when the PowerWall's battery is fully-charged and there is no-where to put extra energy that might be being produced?"  Where we again bring up the situation where our PV system is producing 5kW but we are using only 2kW leaving an extra 3kW to go... where?

    The answer to that question is not at all clear, but four possibilities come to mind:
    1. Divert the power elsewhere.  Some people with "island" systems utilize a feature of some solar power systems that indicate when excess power is available and use it to operate a diversion switch to shunt the excess power in an attempt to do something useful like run an electric water heater, pump water or simply produce waste heat with a large resistor bank.  Such features are usually available only on "island" systems (e.g. those that are entirely self-contained and not tied to the power grid) and with large battery banks.
    2. If it is possible, simply disable the PV system for a while and drain, say, 5-10% of the power out of the back-up power system battery before turning it back on and recharging it.  This will cause the PV system to cycle on and offline, but it will do so relatively slowly and it should cause no harm.
    3. Somehow communicate with the PV system and "tell" it to produce only the needed amount of energy.  This is a bit of a fine line to walk, but it is theoretically possible provided such a feature is available on the PV system.
    4. Alter the conditions of the power being produced by the back-up power system inverter such that it causes the PV system to go offline and stay that way until it needs to come back online.
    Analyzing the possibilities:

    Let's eliminate #1 as that will not apply to a typical grid-tie system, so that leaves us with:

    #2:  Disable the PV system:

    Of these three possibilities #2 would seem to be the most obvious and it could be done simply by having another switch on the output of the PV system that disconnects it from the rest of the house, forcing it to go offline - but this has its complications.

    For example, in my system the PV is connected into a separate sub-panel located in the garage:  If one were to disconnect this branch circuit entirely, the power in the garage would go on and off, depending on the state-of-charge of the PowerWall or other battery-based back-up power system.  Connecting a PV system to a sub-panel is not an unusual configuration as it is not uncommon to find them connected to sub-panels that feed other systems, say, the air conditioner, kitchen, etc. (e.g. wherever a suitable circuit is available) so I'm guessing that they do not do it this way - unless they do it at the point before the PV system connects to the panel.

    As noted above, one would disable the PV system once the battery had fully charged but enable it again once the battery had run down a bit - say, to 90-95%.  This way, one would not be rapid-cycling the PV system and the vast majority of the back-up power system's battery storage capacity would be available.

    While this, too, should work, I suspect that it is not the one that is used as the drawings in the brochures don't show any such connection - but then again, they don't show the main house disconnect that would have to be present - but it would probably work just fine if the PV system were to gracefully come back online when it was time to do so (e.g. no user intervention to "reset" anything.)

    #4:  Alter the operating conditions to cause the PV system to go offline:

    Then there is #4, and one interesting possibility comes to mind - and it is a kludge, but it should work.

    One of the parameters that could be altered would be the frequency at which the back-up power system's inverter operates (say, 2-3 Hz or so above and/or below the proper line frequency) and force the PV system offline with that variance.  Even though this minor frequency change is not likely to hurt anything (many generators' frequencies drift around much more than this with varying loads!) things that use the power line frequency as a reference - such as clocks - would drift rather badly unless the frequency were "dithered" above and below the proper frequency so that its long term average was properly maintained.

    I suspect that this is not a method that would be used, but it could work - at least in theory.

    #3:  "Talk" to the PV system and control the amount of power that it is producing:

    That leaves us with #3:  Communicate with the PV system and "tell" it (perhaps using the "ModBus" interface) to produce only enough power to "zero" out the net usage.

    The problem with this method is that it would depend on the capabilities of the PV inverter system and require that they support such specific remote control functions.  While it is very possible that some do, this method would be limited to those so-equipped.

    #3 and #2:  "Talk" to the PV system to turn it on and off as needed:

    Included in #3 could be a variant of method #2 and that would be to send a command to the inverter via its network connection to simply shut down and come back online as needed to keep the battery between, say, 90% and 100% charge as mentioned above.

    This second variant of #3 seems most likely as there it is likely that there is some sort of set of commands capable of this that would be widely implemented across vendors and models.

    * * *

    What do I think the likelihood to be?

    I'm betting on the second variant of #3 where a command is sent to the PV system to tell it to turn off - at least until there is, again, somewhere to "send" excess power.

    * * *

    Having said all of this, there is a product FAQ that was put out by Tesla that seems to confirm the basic analysis - that is, its ability to run "stand alone" in the event of a power failure and the charge be maintained if there is sufficient excess PV capacity - read that FAQ here - LINK.

    Additional information may be found on the GreenTech Media web site:  "The New Tesla Powerwall Is Actually Two Different Products" - LINK.  This article and follow-up comments seem to indicate that there were, at that time, only a few manufacturers of inverters, namely SolarEdge and SMA (a.k.a. SunnyBoy) with which Tesla was installing/interfacing their systems, perhaps indicating some version of #2 or #3, above.  Clearly, the comments, mostly from several months ago, are also offering various conjectures on how the system actually works.

    I'm investigating getting a PowerWall 2 system to augment my PV generation and provide "whole house" backup and have been researching how it works.

    While I have occasionally asked questions of representatives of  Tesla, nothing that they have said is anything that could not be easily found in publicly-released information on the internet and as of the original date of this posting I haven't signed anything that could possibly keep me from talking about it.

    However it is done, it should be interesting!

    * * *


    Finally, if you can find more specific information - say from a public document or from others' experience and analysis that can add more to this, please pass it along!


    [End]

    This page stolen from "ka7oei.blogspot.com"


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