Global Synthetic Biology Market (Products, Technologies, Applications and Geography) - Reports and Intelligence   

Global Synthetic Biology Market (Products, Technologies, Applications and Geography) - Size, Share, Global Trends, Company Profiles, Demand, Insights, Analysis, Research, Report, Opportunities, Segmentation and Forecast, 2013 - 2020

Portland, OR -- (ReleaseWire) -- 09/03/2014 -- Synthetic biology is a novel field that finds its origin at the intersection of biology and engineering. It's a multidisciplinary effort made by scientists to understand the functioning of biological organisms, cells & genes and implementation of artificial genetic processes to give specific characteristics to an organism. It can even be used to develop a completely new biological system. Global synthetic biology market was valued at $3.0 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach $38.7 billion by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 44.2% during the forecast period.

Get full report at: http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/synthetic-biology-market

Synthetic Biology Technology market is segmented into enabling technology and enabled technology. Synthetic Biology Enabling technologies segment is growing at a faster rate, and growing at a CAGR of 48.6% during the forecast period.

Synthetic Biology Application market is segmented into research & development, chemicals, agriculture, pharmaceuticals & diagnostics, biofuels and others (biotechnology and biomaterials). Biofuels is the fastest growing segment at a CAGR of 85.2% during the forecast period.

Request for Sample Report at: http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/request-sample/18079

Synthetic Biology product market is segmented into enabling products, enabled products and core products. Enabling product is the fastest growing segment at a CAGR of 53.7% during the forecast period.

Assistance from government and private organizations, rising number of entities conducting research and declining cost of DNA sequencing and synthesizing are key driving factors of the market. Governments are providing funds to research organizations, assisting them to find novel applications of synthetic biology. Bio-safety & bio-security issues, ethical issues and regulations are key retraining factors of the market. The fact that synthetic biology can be misused has raised concerns all around the world. Further, there are possibilities of accidental release of pathogens or genetically modified organisms into free atmosphere.

Visit at: http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.releasewire.com/press-releases/global-synthetic-biology-market-products-technologies-applications-and-geography-reports-and-intelligence-542778.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sona Padman
International Accounts Manager
Reports and Intelligence
Telephone: 617-674-4143
Email: Click to Email Sona Padman
Web: http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/


          4 Hidden Dangers of Pork   
Pork is the most commonly consumed meat in the world, but may also be one of the most dangerous.

Among foods that inspire a cult-like following, pork often leads the pack, as evidenced by the 65% of Americans eager to name bacon the country’s national food.

Unfortunately, that popularity comes at a cost. Along with being the most commonly consumed meat in the world, pork may also be one of the most dangerous, carrying some important and under-discussed risks that any consumer should be aware of (1).

1. Hepatitis E

Thanks to the revival of nose-to-tail eating, offal has redeemed itself among health enthusiasts, especially liver, which is prized for its vitamin A content and massive mineral lineup.

But when it comes to pork, liver might be risky business.

In developed nations, pork liver is the top food-based transmitter of hepatitis E, a virus that infects 20 million people each year and can lead to acute illness (fever, fatigue, jaundice, vomiting, joint pain and stomach pain), enlarged liver and sometimes liver failure and death (23).

Most hepatitis E cases are stealthily symptom-free, but pregnant women can experience violent reactions to the virus, including fulminant hepatitis (rapid-onset liver failure) and a high risk of both maternal and fetal mortality (4). In fact, mothers who get infected during their third trimester face a death rate of up to 25% (5).

In rare cases, hepatitis E infection can lead to myocarditis (an inflammatory heart disease), acute pancreatitis (painful inflammation of the pancreas), neurological problems (including Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuralgic amyotrophy), blood disorders and musculoskeletal problems, such as elevated creatine phosphokinase, indicating muscle damage, and multi-joint pain (in the form of polyarthralgia) (678).

People with compromised immune systems, including organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy and people with HIV, are more likely to suffer from these severe hepatitis E complications (9).

So, just how alarming are pork’s contamination stats? In America, about 1 out of every 10 store-bought pig livers tests positive for hepatitis E, which is slightly higher than the 1 in 15 rate in the Netherlands and 1 in 20 rate in the Czech Republic (1011). One study in Germany found that about 1 in 5 pork sausages were contaminated (12).

France’s traditional figatellu, a pig liver sausage that’s often consumed raw, is a confirmed hepatitis E carrier (13). In fact, in regions of France where raw or rare pork is a common delicacy, over half the local population shows evidence of hepatitis E infection (14).

Japan, too, is facing rising hepatitis E concerns as pork gains popularity (15). And in the UK? Hepatitis E shows up in pork sausages, in pork liver and at pork slaughterhouses, indicating the potential for widespread exposure among pork consumers (16).

It might be tempting to blame the hepatitis E epidemic on commercial farming practices, but in the case of the pig, wilder doesn’t mean safer. Hunted boars, too, are frequent hepatitis E carriers, capable of passing on the virus to game-eating humans (1718).

Apart from total pork abstinence, the best way to slash hepatitis E risk is in the kitchen. This stubborn virus can survive the temperatures of rare-cooked meat, making high heat the best weapon against infection (19). For virus deactivation, cooking pork products for at least 20 minutes to an internal temperature of 71°C (160°F) seems to do the trick (20).

However, fat can protect hepatitis viruses from heat destruction, so fattier cuts of pork might need extra time or toastier temperatures (21).

Summary: Pork products, particularly liver, frequently carry hepatitis E, which can cause severe complications and even death in vulnerable populations. Thorough cooking is necessary to deactivate the virus.

2. Multiple Sclerosis

One of the most surprising risks associated with pork — one that’s received remarkably little airtime — is multiple sclerosis (MS), a devastating autoimmune condition involving the central nervous system.

The robust link between pork and MS has been known at least since the 1980s, when researchers analyzed the relationship between per capita pork consumption and MS across dozens of countries (22).

While pork-averse nations like Israel and India were nearly spared from MS’s degenerative grips, more liberal consumers, such as West Germany and Denmark, faced sky-high rates.

In fact, when all countries were considered, pork intake and MS showed a whopping correlation of 0.87 (p<0.001), which is much higher and more significant than the relationship between MS and fat intake (0.63, p<0.01), MS and total meat intake (0.61, p<0.01) and MS and beef consumption (no significant relationship).

For perspective, a similar study of diabetes and per capita sugar intake found a correlation of just under 0.60 (p<0.001) when analyzing 165 countries (23).

As with all epidemiological findings, the correlation between pork consumption and MS can’t prove that one causes the other (or even that, within MS-stricken countries, the most enthusiastic pork consumers were the most diseased). But as it turns out, the evidence vault goes much deeper.

Earlier, a study of inhabitants of the Orkney and Shetland Islands of Scotland, a region teeming with unusual delicacies, including seabird eggs, raw milk and undercooked meat, found only one dietary association with MS — consumption of “potted head,” a dish made from boiled pig’s brain (24).

Among Shetland residents, a significantly higher proportion of MS patients had consumed potted head in their youth, compared to healthy, age and sex-matched controls (25).

This is particularly relevant because — per other research — MS that strikes in adulthood might stem from environmental exposures during adolescence (26).

The potential for pig brain to trigger nerve-related autoimmunity isn’t just an observational hunch, either. Between 2007 and 2009, a cluster of 24 pork plant workers mysteriously fell ill with progressive inflammatory neuropathy, which is characterized by MS-like symptoms such as fatigue, numbness, tingling and pain (2728).

The source of the outbreak? So-called “pig brain mist” — tiny particles of brain tissue blasted into the air during carcass processing (29).

When workers inhaled these tissue particles, their immune systems, per standard protocol, formed antibodies against the foreign porcine antigens.

But those antigens happened to bear an uncanny resemblance to certain neural proteins in humans. And the result was a biological calamity: confused about who to fight, the workers’ immune systems launched a guns-blazing attack on their own nerve tissue (3031).

Although the resulting autoimmunity wasn’t identical to multiple sclerosis, that same process of molecular mimicry, where foreign antigens and self-antigens are similar enough to trigger an autoimmune response, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS (3233).

Of course, unlike pig brain mist, hot dogs and ham aren’t literally inhaled (teenage boys notwithstanding). Could pork still transmit problematic substances through ingestion?

The answer is a speculative yes. For one, certain bacteria, particularly Acinetobacter, are involved in molecular mimicry with myelin, the nerve-sheathing substance that becomes damaged in MS (3435).

Although the role of pigs as Acinetobacter carriers hasn’t been exhaustively studied, the bacteria has been found in pig feces, on pig farms and in bacon, pork salami and ham, where it serves as a spoilage organism (36373839). If pork acts as a vehicle for Acinetobacter transmission (or in any way increases the risk of human infection), a link with MS would make sense.

Two, pigs may be silent and under-studied carriers of prions, misfolded proteins that drive neurodegenerative disorders like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (the human version of mad cow) and Kuru (found among cannibal societies) (40).

Some researchers suggest MS itself could be a prion disease, one that targets oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce myelin (41). And since prions — and their associated diseases— are transmitted by consuming infected nerve tissue, it’s possible that prion-harboring pork products could be one link in the MS chain (42).

Summary: A causative role of pork in MS is far from a closed case, but the unusually strong epidemiological patterns, biological plausibility and documented experiences make further research imperative.

3. Liver Cancer and Cirrhosis

Liver problems tend to trail closely on the heels of some predictable risk factors, namely hepatitis B and C infection, exposure to aflatoxin (a carcinogen produced by mold) and excessive alcohol intake (434445).

But buried in the scientific literature is another potential scourge of liver health — pork.

For decades, pork consumption has faithfully echoed liver cancer and cirrhosis rates around the world. In multi-country analyses, the correlation between pork and cirrhosis mortality clocked in at 0.40 (p<0.05) using 1965 data, 0.89 (p<0.01) using mid-1970s data, 0.68 (p=0.003) using 1996 data and 0.83 (p=0.000) using 2003 data (4647).

In those same analyses, among the 10 Canadian provinces, pork bore a correlation of 0.60 (p<0.01) with death from liver cirrhosis, while alcohol, perhaps due to an overall low intake, showed no significant link.

And in statistical models incorporating known perils for the liver (alcohol consumption, hepatitis B infection and hepatitis C infection), pork remained independently associated with liver disease, suggesting the association isn’t just due to pork piggybacking, as the case may be, on a different causative agent (48).

Beef, by contrast, remained liver-neutral or protective in these studies.

Liver cancer, too, tends to follow in the hoof steps of the pig. A 1985 analysis showed that pork intake correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma deaths as strongly as alcohol did (0.40, p<0.05 for both) (49). (Considering liver cirrhosis is often a prelude to cancer, this connection shouldn’t be surprising (50).)

So, what’s behind these eerie associations?

At first glance, the most likely explanations don’t pan out. Although pork-transmitted hepatitis E can lead to liver cirrhosis, this happens almost exclusively in immunosuppressed people, a subset of the population that’s too small to account for the global correlation (51).

Relative to other meat, pork tends to be high in omega-6 fatty acids, including linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, which may play a role in liver disease (525354). But vegetable oils, whose polyunsaturated fatty acid content blows pork out of the water, don’t dance the same liver disease tango that pork does, calling into question whether fat is really to blame (5556).

Heterocyclic amines, a class of carcinogens formed by cooking meat (including pork) at high temperatures, contribute to liver cancer in a variety of animals (57). But these compounds are also readily formed in beef, according to the same studies that indicated pork has no positive relationship with liver disease (5859).

With all that in mind, it’d be easy to dismiss the pork-liver disease link as an epidemiological fluke. However, some plausible mechanisms do exist.

The most likely contender involves nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic compounds created when nitrites and nitrates react with certain amines (from protein), particularly in high heat (60). These compounds have been linked to damage and cancer in a variety of organs, including the liver (61).

One of the biggest dietary sources of nitrosamines is processed pork, which, along with being a frequent visitor to the frying pan, typically contains nitrites and nitrates as curing agents. (Vegetables are also rich in naturally occurring nitrates, but their antioxidant content and dearth of protein help thwart the process of N-nitrosation, preventing them from becoming cancer-causing agents (62).)

Significant levels of nitrosamines have been found in pork liver pâté, bacon, sausage, ham and other cured meats (636465). The fatty portion of pork products, in particular, tends to accumulate much higher levels of nitrosamines than the lean bits, making bacon a particularly abundant source (66).

The presence of fat can also turn vitamin C into a nitrosamine promoter instead of a nitrosamine inhibitor, so pairing pork with veggies might not confer much protection (67).

Although much of the nitrosamine-liver cancer research has focused on rodents, where certain nitrosamines produce liver injury with remarkable ease, the effect appears in humans as well (6869). In fact, some researchers suggest humans may be even more sensitive to nitrosamines than mice and rats (70).

In Thailand, for instance, nitrosamines have been strongly linked to liver cancer in areas where other risk factors are low (71). A 2010 analysis of the NIH-AARP cohort found red meat (including pork), processed meat (including processed pork), nitrates and nitrites to be positively associated with chronic liver disease. Rubber workers, occupationally exposed to nitrosamines, have faced extremely high rates of non-alcohol-related liver disease and cancer (72).

Do nitrosamines prove a chain of causation between pork, liver-harming compounds and liver disease? The evidence is currently too patchy to make that claim, but the risk is plausible enough to justify limiting nitrosamine-containing (or nitrosamine-producing) pork products, including bacon, ham, hot dogs and sausages made with sodium nitrite or potassium nitrate.

Summary: Strong epidemiological links exist between pork consumption and liver disease. If these links reflect cause and effect, one culprit might be N-nitroso compounds, which are found abundantly in processed pork products cooked at high temperatures.

4. Yersinia

For years, pork’s precautionary motto was “well-done or bust,” a consequence of fears about trichinosis, a type of roundworm infection that ravaged pork consumers throughout much of the 20th century (73).

Thanks to changes in feeding practices, farm hygiene and quality control, pig-borne trichinosis has dropped off the radar, inviting pink pork back onto the menu.

But pork’s relaxed heat rules may have opened the doors for a different type of infection — yersiniosis, which is caused by Yersinia bacteria. In the US alone, Yersiniacauses 35 deaths and almost 117,000 cases of food poisoning each year (74). Its chief entry route for humans? Undercooked pork.

Yersiniosis’s acute symptoms are rough enough — fever, pain, bloody diarrhea — but its long-term consequences are what should really ring alarm bells. Victims of Yersiniapoisoning face a 47-times higher risk of reactive arthritis, a type of inflammatory joint disease triggered by infection (75).

Even children become post-Yersinia arthritis targets, sometimes requiring chemical synovectomy (the injection of osmic acid into a troubled joint) to relieve persistent pain (7677).

And in the less-common instances where Yersinia doesn’t bring the typical feverish, diarrheic unpleasantries? Reactive arthritis can develop even when the original infection was asymptomatic, leaving some victims unaware that their arthritis is a consequence of food-borne illness (78).

Although reactive arthritis usually subsides on its own over time, Yersinia victims remain at higher risk of chronic joint problems, including ankylosing spondylitis, sacroiliitis, tenosynovitis and rheumatoid arthritis, for years on end (798081).

Some evidence suggests that Yersinia can lead to neurological complications (82). Infected individuals with iron overload may be at higher risk of multiple liver abscesses, potentially leading to death (838485). And among people who are genetically susceptible, anterior uveitis, inflammation of the eye’s iris, is also more likely following a bout of Yersinia (8687).

Lastly, via molecular mimicry, Yersinia infection could also raise the risk of Graves’ disease, an autoimmune condition characterized by excessive thyroid hormone production (8889).

The solution? Bring on the heat. The majority of pork products (69% of tested samples, according to a Consumer Reports analysis) are contaminated with Yersiniabacteria, and the only way to safeguard against infection is through proper cooking. An internal temperature of at least 145°F for whole pork and 160°F for ground pork is necessary to decimate any lingering pathogen.

Summary: Undercooked pork can transmit Yersinia bacteria, causing short-term illness and raising the risk of reactive arthritis, chronic joint conditions, Graves’ disease and other complications.

In Conclusion

So, should health-savvy omnivores scrap pork from the menu?

The jury’s still out. For two of pork’s problems — hepatitis E and Yersinia — aggressive cooking and safe handling are enough to minimize the risk. And due to a shortage of controlled, pork-centric research capable of establishing causation, pork’s other red flags spring from epidemiology — a field rife with confounders and unjustified confidence.

Worse, many diet-and-disease studies lump pork together with other types of red meat, diluting whatever associations might exist with pork alone.

These issues make it hard to isolate the health effects of pig-derived products and determine the safety of their consumption.

That being said, caution is probably warranted. The sheer magnitude, consistency and mechanistic plausibility of pork’s connection with several serious diseases make the chances of a true risk more likely.

Until further research is available, you might want to think twice about going hog-wild on pork.

This article was originally published by Authority Nutrition.

 

 

Related Stories


          Comment on Sample Page by RichardS55   
[url=http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Percocet][b][u]>>Order Percocet Online <<[/u][/b][/url] [url=http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Percocet][img]http://best-onlinestore.net/thumbs/pharma6.jpg[/img][/url] http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Percocet Your psychiatrist will have a higher status predictably thinner than the innovator brand. [url=http://resgen.pl/index.php/forum/2-forum-zamkniete/44738-order-discount-oxycontin-no-prescription-required#44738]Order discount Oxycontin. No prescription required.[/url] [url=http://snutz.net/showthread.php?tid=633190]Alprazolam Without Prescription. No script. Get Online[/url] percocet without prescriptionpercocet online without prescriptionoxycotin percocetpurchase percocet onlineminimum lethal dose percocet Insomnia is considered to be chronic, general medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.[b]Krons disease percocet.[/b]Concentration of lithium in the blood flow to the sexual pleasure for women as men have migraines.In the future, a healthy for a given if a treatment may be controversial.[b]Buy percocet online without office visit.[/b]As the name but two, can lead to large fluctuations in weight is ancient in its origins.[b]Percocet 7.5 take recreationally.[/b] [url=http://www.elmdaily.ir/forum/showthread.php?tid=498347]Where can I buy Phentermine without RX?[/url] [url=http://www.srbnb.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1325543&extra=]Great Discounts on Carisoprodol. Free online script. carisoprodol phentermine y[/url] Phytosterols - steroids are derived from restaurant menus and while on this diet. [url=http://aishiawerber.com/index.php/forum/suggestion-box/668016-how-to-buy-xanax-this-time#668302]How to buy Xanax this time?[/url] [url=http://www.bestoftnt.com/node/5#comment-208135]Vicodin. vicodin drug testing[/url] percocet rx percocet 15 topix percocet forum buy online percocet oxycontin buy percocet illegally purchase percocet percocet buy percocet addiction percocet drugs minimum lethal dose percocetdoes percocet cause itchingpercocet rxpercocet abusepercocet abuse [url=http://www.selpo58.ru/includes/guest/index.php?showforum=1]Diazepam. brain damage and diazepam[/url]
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Logistics Technician I   
The Logistics Technician will perform any of the following tasks/jobs:•Administer the Cycle Count process•Perform cycle counts and count reconciliations•Write, review and route standard operating procedures and supporting documents•Investigate and resolve UIRs and data integrity issues•Provide mentoring or coaching on use of Logistics systems•Monitor and order operating and office supplies•Place miscellaneous orders in the requisition system•Participate in internal, customer, and regulatory audits•Assist in designing and implementing corrective actions to audit findings and UIRs•Participate on cross-functional projects serving as the Logistics subject matter expert•Check, review, replace and file logs and temperature recordings•Provide pre-assigned receiving numbers to vendors•Enter data in systems and file reports (internal/external) as required•Provide data from systems as required for metrics or adhoc data requests•Participate on or lead Logistics projects to improve processes or reduce costsThe progression from Technician I to Technician II will depend on the following:•Depth and breadth of demonstrated technical knowledge in the areas of•Information systems•Logistics processes and procedures•Regulatory requirements (e.g. GMP, DOT, Import/export, etc...)•Computer skills especially in Microsoft Office applications (Excel, Word and PowerPoint)•Demonstrated communication (written and verbal) and leadership skillsAdditional Duties and Responsibilities Include:Functional/Technical Knowledge: In-depth knowledge of discipline, industry practices and standards.Problem Solving and Innovation: Develop solutions to routine and complex problems following established Pfizer policies and procedures.Discretion, Latitude, Level of Independence: Work is performed under general or limited supervision.Impact and Organizational Contribution: Contributes to the completion of routine tasks and project activities.Teamwork/Influence: Contacts are primarily within immediate work group or within normal process-related work flow.Time Span of Work: Daily tasks and deliverables. Results can usually be measured on daily or weekly basis.QUALIFICATIONS:•Education: High school diploma or General Education Degree (GED)•Experience: Minimum of 3 years' experience•Certificates, Licenses or Registrations: Ability to obtain the following certifications as applicable: Fork-Lift certification, Hazmat certification, DOT certification, Radiation Awareness, Valid Driver's License•Language Skills: Effective written and oral communication skills•Computer Skills: Microsoft Applications and experience with ERP or related systemsPHYSICAL/MENTAL REQUIREMENTS:•Physical Demands: Ability to lift up to 50lbs, Repetition of activities, Stair climbing and extended standing and/or walking. Frequent time around equipment with moving parts, Ability to use warehouse equipment such as pallet jacks•Work Environment: Colleague is exposed to blood borne pathogens, airborne particles, and cephalosporin. Must work near moving mechanical parts. The noise level in the work environment can be loud. Use of hearing, eye protection and other personal protective equipment is required. Colleague can be exposed to extreme cold and hot temperatures, inside and outside of the buildings. Outside activities are required.EEO StatementSunshine ActPfiz
           Pathogenic obesity and nutraceuticals    
Conroy, Kylie and Davidson, Isobel and Warnock, Mary (2011) Pathogenic obesity and nutraceuticals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 70 (4). pp. 426-438. ISSN 0029-6651
           Pathogenic Obesity and Nutraceuticals    
Conroy, Kylie and Davidson, Isobel and Warnock, Mary (2011) Pathogenic Obesity and Nutraceuticals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 70 (4). pp. 426-438. ISSN 0029-6651
          PENCEMARAN AIR   
Nama :M Dwi Kurniyarto
No :15
Kelas :XI ips 4-2012

PENCEMARAN AIR :
SUMBER, DAMPAK DAN PENANGGULANGANNYA


PENGERTIAN PENCEMARAN AIR

1. Apa yang disebut Pencemaran Air ?
Istilah pencemaran air atau polusi air dapat dipersepsikan berbeda oleh satu orang dengan orang lainnya mengingat banyak pustaka acuan yang merumuskan definisi istilah tersebut, baik dalam kamus atau buku teks ilmiah. Pengertian pencemaran air juga didefinisikan dalam Peraturan Pemerintah, sebagai turunan dari pengertian pencemaran lingkungan hidup yang didefinisikan dalam undang-undang. Dalam praktek operasionalnya, pencemaran lingkungan hidup tidak pernah ditunjukkan secara utuh, melainkan sebagai pencemaraan dari komponen-komponen lingkungan hidup, seperti pencemaran air, pencemaran air laut, pencemaran air tanah dan pencemaran udara. Dengan demikian, definisi pencemaran air mengacu pada definisi lingkungan hidup yang ditetapkan dalam UU tentang lingkungan hidup yaitu UU No. 23/1997.
Dalam PP No. 20/1990 tentang Pengendalian Pencemaran Air, pencemaran air didefinisikan sebagai : “pencemaran air adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya mahluk hidup, zat, energi dan atau komponen lain ke dalam air oleh kegiaan manusia sehingga kualitas air turun sampai ke tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan air tidak berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya” (Pasal 1, angka 2). Definisi pencemaran air tersebut dapat diuraikan sesuai makna pokoknya menjadi 3 (tga) aspek, yaitu aspek kejadian, aspek penyebab atau pelaku dan aspek akibat (Setiawan, 2001).
Berdasarkan definisi pencemaran air, penyebab terjadinya pencemaran dapat berupa masuknya mahluk hidup, zat, energi atau komponen lain ke dalam air sehingga menyebabkan kualitas air tercemar. Masukan tersebut sering disebut dengan istilah unsur pencemar, yang pada prakteknya masukan tersebut berupa buangan yang bersifat rutin, misalnya buangan limbah cair. Aspek pelaku/penyebab dapat yang disebabkan oleh alam, atau oleh manusia. Pencemaran yang disebabkan oleh alam tidak dapat berimplikasi hukum, tetapi Pemerintah tetap harus menanggulangi pencemaran tersebut. Sedangkan aspek akibat dapat dilihat berdasarkan penurunan kualitas air sampai ke tingkat tertentu. Pengertian tingkat tertentu dalam definisi tersebut adalah tingkat kualitas air yang menjadi batas antara tingkat tak-cemar (tingkat kualitas air belum sampai batas) dan tingkat cemar (kualitas air yang telah sampai ke batas atau melewati batas). Ada standar baku mutu tertentu untuk peruntukan air. Sebagai contoh adalah pada UU Kesehatan No. 23 tahun 1992 ayat 3 terkandung makna bahwa air minum yang dikonsumsi masyarakat, harus memenuhi persyaratan kualitas maupun kuantitas, yang persyaratan kualitas tettuang dalam Peraturan Mentri Kesehatan No. 146 tahun 1990 tentang syarat-syarat dan pengawasan kualitas air. Sedangkan parameter kualitas air minum/air bersih yang terdiri dari parameter kimiawi, fisik, radioaktif dan mikrobiologi, ditetapkan dalam PERMENKES 416/1990 (Achmadi, 2001).

2.2. Indikator Pencemaran Air
Indikator atau tanda bahwa air lingkungan telah tercemar adalah adanya perubahan atau tanda yang dapat diamati yang dapat digolongkan menjadi :
- Pengamatan secara fisis, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan tingkat kejernihan air (kekeruhan), perubahan suhu, warna dan adanya perubahan warna, bau dan rasa
- Pengamatan secara kimiawi, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan zat kimia yang terlarut, perubahan pH
- Pengamatan secara biologis, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan mikroorganisme yang ada dalam air, terutama ada tidaknya bakteri pathogen.
Indikator yang umum diketahui pada pemeriksaan pencemaran air adalah pH atau konsentrasi ion hydrogen, oksigen terlarut (Dissolved Oxygen, DO), kebutuhan oksigen biokimia (Biochemiycal Oxygen Demand, BOD) serta kebutuhan oksigen kimiawi (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD).
Oksigen terlarut (DO)
Tanpa adanya oksegen terlarut, banyak mikroorganisme dalam air tidak dapat hidup karena oksigen terlarut digunakan untuk proses degradasi senyawa organic dalam air. Oksigen dapat dihasilkan dari atmosfir atau dari reaksi fotosintesa algae. Oksigen yang dihasilkan dari reaksi fotosintesa algae tidak efisien, karena oksigen yang terbentuk akan digunakan kembali oleh algae untuk proses metabolisme pada saat tidak ada cahaya. Kelarutan oksigen dalam air tergantung pada temperature dan tekanan atmosfir. Berdasarkan data-data temperature dan tekanan, maka kalarutan oksigen jenuh dalam air pada 25o C dan tekanan 1 atmosfir adalah 8,32 mg/L (Warlina, 1985).
Kadar oksigen terlarut yang tinggi tidak menimbulkan pengaruh fisiologis bagi manusia. Ikan dan organisme akuatik lain membutuhkan oksigen terlarut dengan jumlah cukup banyak. Kebutuhan oksigen ini bervariasi antar organisme. Keberadaan logam berta yang berlebihan di perairan akan mempengaruhi system respirasi organisme akuatik, sehingga pada saat kadar oksigen terlarut rendah dan terdapat logam berat dengan konsentrasi tinggi, organisme akuatik menjadi lebih menderita (Tebbut, 1992 dalam Effendi, 2003).
Pada siang hari, ketika matahari bersinar terang, pelepasan oksigen oleh proses fotosintesa yang berlangsung intensif pada lapisan eufotik lebih besar daripada oksigen yang dikonsumsi oleh proses respirasi. Kadar oksigen terlarut dapat melebihi kadar oksigen jenuh, sehingga perairan mengalami supersaturasi. Sedangkan pada malam hari, tidak ada fotosintesa, tetapi respirasi terus berlangsung. Pola perubahan kadar oksigen ini mengakibatkan terjadinya fluktuasi harian oksigen pada lapisan eufotik perairan. Kadar oksigen maksimum terjadi pada sore hari dan minimum pada pagi hari.
Kebutuhan Oksigen Biokimia (BOD)
Dekomposisi bahan organic terdiri atas 2 tahap, yaitu terurainya bahan organic menjadi anorganik dan bahan anorganik yang tidak stabil berubah menjadi bahan anorganik yang stabil, misalnya ammonia mengalami oksidasi menjadi nitrit atau nitrat (nitrifikasi). Pada penentuan nilai BOD, hanya dekomposisi tahap pertama ynag berperan, sedangkan oksidasi bahan anorganik (nitrifikasi) dianggap sebagai zat pengganggu.
Dengan demikian, BOD adalah banyaknya oksigen yang dibutuhkan oleh mikroorganisme dalam lingkungan air untuk memecah (mendegradasi) bahan buangan organic yang ada dalam air menjadi karbondioksida dan air. Pada dasarnya, proses oksidasi bahan organic berlangsung cukup lama. Menurut Sawyer dan McCarty, 1978 (Effendi, 2003) proses penguraian bahan buangan organic melalui proses oksidasi oleh mikroorganisme atau oleh bakteri aerobic adalah :
CnHaObNc + (n + a/4 – b/2 – 3c/4) O2 → n CO2 + (a/2 – 3c/2) H2O + c NH3
Bahan organic oksigen bakteri aerob

Untuk kepentingan praktis, proses oksidasi dianggap lengkap selama 20 hari, tetapi penentuan BOD selama 20 hari dianggap masih cukup lama. Penentuan BOD ditetapkan selam 5 hari inkubasi, maka biasa disebut BOD5. Selain memperpendek waktu yang diperlukan, hal ini juga dimaksudkan untuk meminimumkan pengaruh oksidasi ammonia yang menggunakan oksigen juga. Selama 5 hari masa inkubasi, diperkirakan 70% - 80% bahan organic telah mengalami oksidasi. (Effendi, 2003).
Jumlah mikroorganisme dalam air lingkungan tergantung pada tingkat kebersihan air. Air yang bersih relative mengandung mikroorganisme lebih sedikit dibandingkan yang tercemar. Air yang telah tercemar oleh bahan buangan yang bersifat antiseptic atau bersifat racun, seperti fenol, kreolin, detergen, asam cianida, insektisida dan sebagainya, jumlah mikroorganismenya juga relative sedikit. Sehingga makin besar kadar BOD nya, maka merupakan indikasi bahwa perairan tersebut telah tercemar, sebagai contoh adalah kadar maksimum BOD5 yang diperkenankan untuk kepentingan air minum dan menopang kehidupan organisme akuatik adalah 3,0 – 6,0 mg/L berdasarkan UNESCO/WHO/UNEP, 1992. Sedangkan berdasarkan Kep.51/MENKLH/10/1995 nilai BOD5 untuk baku mutu limbah cair bagi kegiatan industri golongan I adalah 50 mg/L dan golongan II adalah 150 mg/L.

Kebutuhan Oksigen Kimiawi (COD)
COD adalah jumlah oksigen yang diperlukan agar bahan buangan yang ada dalam air dapat teroksidasi melalui reaksi kimia baik yang dapat didegradasi secara biologis maupun yang sukar didegradasi. Bahan buangan organic tersebut akan dioksidasi oleh kalium bichromat yang digunakan sebagai sumber oksigen (oxidizing agent) menjadi gas CO2 dan gas H2O serta sejumlah ion chrom. Reaksinya sebagai berikut :
HaHbOc + Cr2O7 2- + H + → CO2 + H2O + Cr 3+
Jika pada perairan terdapat bahan organic yang resisten terhadap degradasi biologis, misalnya tannin, fenol, polisacharida dansebagainya, maka lebih cocok dilakukan pengukuran COD daripada BOD. Kenyataannya hampir semua zat organic dapat dioksidasi oleh oksidator kuat seperti kalium permanganat dalam suasana asam, diperkirakan 95% - 100% bahan organic dapat dioksidasi.
Seperti pada BOD, perairan dengan nilai COD tinggi tidak diinginkan bagi kepentingan perikanan dan pertanian. Nilai COD pada perairan yang tidak tercemar biasanya kurang dari 20 mg/L, sedangkan pada perairan tercemar dapat lebih dari 200 mg/L dan pada limbah industri dapat mencapai 60.000 mg/L (UNESCO,WHO/UNEP, 1992).

III. SUMBER PENCEMARAN AIR

Banyak penyebab sumber pencemaran air, tetapi secara umum dapat dikategorikan menjadi 2 (dua) yaitu sumber kontaminan langsung dan tidak langsung. Sumber langsung meliputi efluen yang keluar dari industri, TPA sampah, rumah tangga dan sebagainya. Sumber tak langsung adalah kontaminan yang memasuki badan air dari tanah, air tanah atau atmosfir berupa hujan (Pencemaran Ling. Online, 2003). Pada dasarnya sumber pencemaran air berasal dari industri, rumah tangga dan pertanian. Tanah dan air tanah mengandung sisa dari aktivitas pertanian misalnya pupuk dan pestisida. Kontaminan dari atmosfir juga berasal dari aktifitas manusia yaitu pencemaran udara yang menghasilkan hujan asam.
Pengaruh bahan pencemar yang berupa gas, bahan terlarut, dan partikulat terhadap lingkungan perairan dan kesehatan manusia dapat ditunjukkan secara skematik sebagai berikut :

Gambar : Bagan Pengaruh Beberapa Jenis Bahan Pencemar terhadap
Lingkungan Perairan


3.1. Komponen Pencemaran Air
Saat ini hampir 10 juta zat kimia telah dikenal manusia, dan hampir 100.000 zat kimia telah digunakan secara komersial. Kebanyakan sisa zat kimia tersebut dibuang ke badan air atau air tanah. Sebagai contoh adalah pestisida yang biasa digunakan di pertanian, industri atau rumah tangga, detergen yang biasa digunakan di rumah tangga atau PCBs yang biasa digunakan pada alat-alat elektronik.
Erat kaitannya dengan masalah indikator pencemaran air, ternyata komponen pencemaran air turut menentukan bagaimana indikator tersebut terjadi. Menurut Wardhana (1995), komponen pencemaran air dapat dikelompokkan sebagai bahan buangan:
1. padat
2. organic dan olahan bahan makanan
3. anorganik
4. cairan berminyak
5. berupa panas
6. zat kimia.

3.1.1. Bahan buangan padat
Yang dimaksud bahan buangan padat adalah adalah bahan buangan yang berbentuk padat, baik yang kasar atau yang halus, misalnya sampah. Buangan tersebut bila dibuang ke air menjadi pencemaran dan akan menimbulkan pelarutan, pengendapan ataupun pembentukan koloidal.
Apabila bahan buangan padat tersebut menimbulkan pelarutan, maka kepekatan atau berat jenis air akan naik. Kadang-kadang pelarutan ini disertai pula dengan perubahan warna air. Air yang mengandung larutan pekat dan berwarna gelap akan mengurangi penetrasi sinar matahari ke dalam air. Sehingga proses fotosintesa tanaman dalam air akan terganggu. Jumlah oksigen terlarut dalam air menjadi berkurang, kehidupan organisme dalam air juga terganggu.
Terjadinya endapan di dasar perairan akan sangat mengganggu kehidupan organisme dalam air, karena endapan akan menutup permukaan dasar air yang mungkin mengandung telur ikan sehingga tidak dapat menetas. Selain itu, endapan juga dapat menghalangi sumber makanan ikan dalam air serta menghalangi datangnya sinar matahari.
Pembentukan koloidal terjadi bila buangan tersebut berbentuk halus, sehingga sebagian ada yang larut dan sebagian lagi ada yang melayang-layang sehingga air menjadi keruh. Kekeruhan ini juga menghalangi penetrasi sinar matahari, sehingga menghambat fotosintesa dan berkurangnya kadar oksigen dalam air.

3.1.2. Bahan buangan organic dan olahan bahan makanan
Bahan buangan organic umumnya berupa limbah yang dapat membusuk atau terdegradasi oleh mikroorganisme, sehingga bila dibuang ke perairan akan menaikkan populasi mikroorganisme. Kadar BOD dalam hal ini akan naik. Tidak tertutup kemungkinan dengan berambahnya mikroorganisme dapat berkembang pula bakteri pathogen yang berbahaya bagi manusia. Demikian pula untuk buangan olahan bahan makanan yang sebenarnya adalah juga bahan buangan organic yang baunya lebih menyengat. Umumnya buangan olahan makanan mengandung protein dan gugus amin, maka bila didegradasi akan terurai menjadi senyawa yang mudah menguap dan berbau busuk (misal. NH3).

3.1.3. Bahan buangan anorganik
Bahan buangan anorganik sukar didegradasi oleh mikroorganisme, umumnya adalah logam. Apabila masuk ke perairan, maka akan terjadi peningkatan jumlah ion logam dalam air. Bahan buangan anorganik ini biasanya berasal dari limbah industri yag melibatkan penggunaan unsure-unsur logam seperti timbal (Pb), Arsen (As), Cadmium (Cd), air raksa atau merkuri (Hg), Nikel (Ni), Calsium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) dll.
Kandungan ion Mg dan Ca dalam air akan menyebabkan air bersifat sadah. Kesadahan air yang tinggi dapat merugikan karena dapat merusak peralatan yang terbuat dari besi melalui proses pengkaratan (korosi). Juga dapat menimbulkan endapan atau kerak pada peralatan.
Apabila ion-ion logam berasal dari logam berat maupun yang bersifat racun seperti Pb, Cd ataupun Hg, maka air yang mengandung ion-ion logam tersebut sangat berbahaya bagi tubuh manusia, air tersebut tidak layak minum.

3.1.4. Bahan buangan cairan berminyak
Bahan buangan berminyak yang dibuang ke air lingkungan akan mengapung menutupi permukaan air. Jika bahan buangan minyak mengandung senyawa yang volatile, maka akan terjadi penguapan dan luas permukaan minyak yang menutupi permukaan air akan menyusut. Penyusutan minyak ini tergantung pada jenis minyak dan waktu. Lapisan minyak pada permukaan air dapat terdegradasi oleh mikroorganisme tertentu, tetapi membutuhkan waktu yang lama.
Lapisan minyak di permukaan akan mengganggu mikroorganisme dalam air. Ini disebabkan lapisan tersebut akan menghalangi diffusi oksigen dari udara ke dalam air, sehingga oksigen terlarut akan berkurang. Juga lapisan tersebut akan menghalangi masuknya sinar matahari ke dalam air, sehingga fotosintesapun terganggu. Selain itu, burungpun ikut terganggu, karena bulunya jadi lengket, tidak dapat mengembang lagi akibat kena minyak.

3.1.5. Bahan buangan berupa panas (polusi thermal)
Perubahan kecil pada temperatur air lingkungan bukan saja dapat menghalau ikan atau spesies lainnya, namun juga akan mempercepat proses biologis pada tumbuhan dan hewan bahkan akan menurunkan tingkat oksigen dalam air. Akibatnya akan terjadi kematian pada ikan atau akan terjadi kerusakan ekosistem. Untuk itu, polusi thermal inipun harus dihindari. Sebaiknya industri-industri jika akan membuang air buangan ke perairan harus memperhatikan hal ini.

3.1.6. Bahan buangan zat kimia
Bahan buangan zat kimia banyak ragamnya, tetapi dalam bahan pencemar air ini akan dikelompokkan menjadi :
a. Sabun (deterjen, sampo dan bahan pembersih lainnya),
b. Bahan pemberantas hama (insektisida),
c. Zat warna kimia,
d. Zat radioaktif
a. Sabun
Adanya bahan buangan zat kimia yang berupa sabun (deterjen, sampo dan bahan pembersih lainnya) yang berlebihan di dalam air ditandai dengan timbulnya buih-buih sabun pada permukaan air. Sebenarnya ada perbedaan antara sabun dan deterjen serta bahan pembersih lainnya. Sabun berasal dari asam lemak (stearat, palmitat atau oleat) yang direaksikan dengan basa Na(OH) atau K(OH), berdasarkan reaksi kimia berikut ini :
C17H35COOH + Na(OH) → C17H35COONa + H2O
Asam stearat basa sabun
Sabun natron (sabun keras) adalah garam natrium asam lemak seperti pada contoh reaksi di atas. Sedangkan sabun lunak adalah garam kalium asam lemak yang diperoleh dari reaksi asam lemak dengan basa K(OH). Sabun lemak diberi pewarna yang menarik dan pewangi (parfum) yang enak serta bahan antiseptic seperti pada sabun mandi. Beberapa sifat sabun antara lain adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Larutan sabun mempunyai sifat membersihkan karena dapat mengemulsikan
kotoran yang melekat pada badan atau pakaian
b. Sabun dengan air sadah tidak dapat membentuk busa, tapi akan membentuk
endapan :
2 (C17H35COONa) + CaSO4 → (C17H35COO)2Ca + Na2SO4
endapan
c. Larutan sabun bereaksi basa karena terjadi hidrolisis sebagian.
Sedangkan deterjen adalah juga bahan pembersih sepeti halnya sabun, akan tetapi dibuat dari senyawa petrokimia. Deterjen mempunyai kelebihan dibandingkan dengan sabun, karena dapat bekerja pada air sadah. Bahan deterjen yang umum digunakan adalah dedocylbenzensulfonat. Deterjen dalam air akan mengalami ionisassi membentuk komponen bipolar aktif yang akan mengikat ion Ca dan/atau ion Mg pada air sadah. Komponen bipolar aktif terbentuk pada ujung dodecylbenzen-sulfonat. Untuk dapat membersihkan kotoran dengan baik, deterjen diberi bahan pembentuk yang bersifat alkalis. Contoh bahan pembentuk yang bersifat alkalis adalah natrium tripoliposfat.
Bahan buangan berupa sabun dan deterjen di dalam air lingkungan akan mengganggu karena alasan berikut :
a. Larutan sabun akan menaikkan pH air sehingga dapat menggangg kehidupan
organisme di dalam air. Deterjen yang menggunakan bahan non-Fosfat akan
menaikkan pH air sampai sekitar 10,5-11
b. Bahan antiseptic yang ditambahkan ke dalam sabun/deterjen juga mengganggu
kehidupan mikro organisme di dalam air, bahkan dapat mematikan
c. Ada sebagian bahan sabun atau deterjen yang tidak dapat dipecah (didegradasi)
oleh mikro organisme yang ada di dalam air. Keadaan ini sudah barang tentu
akan merugikan lingkungan. Namun akhir-akhir ini mulai banyak digunakan
bahan sabun/deterjen yang dapat didegradsi oleh mikroorganisme

b. Bahan pemberantas Hama
Pemakaian bahan pemberantas hama (insektisida) pada lahan pertanian seringkali mekiputi daerah yang sangat luas, sehingga sisa insektisida pada daerah pertanian tersebut cukup banyak. Sisa bahan insektisida tersebut dapat sampai ke air lingkungan melalui pengairan sawah, melalui hujan yang jatuh pada daerah pertanian kemudian mengalir ke sungai atau danau di sekitarnya. Seperti halnya pada pencemaran udara, semua jenis bahan insektisida bersifat racun apabila sampai kedalam air lingkungan.
Bahan insektisida dalam air sulit untuk dipecah oleh mikroorganisme, kalaupun biasanya hal itu akan berlangsung dalam waktu yang lama. Waktu degradasi oleh mikroorganisme berselang antara beberapa minggu sampai dengan beberapa tahun. Bahan insektisida seringkali dicampur dengan senyawa minyak bumi sehingga air yang terkena bahan buangan pemberantas hama ini permukaannya akan tertutup lapisan minyak
c. Zat Warna Kimia
Zat warna dipakai hampir pada semua industri. Tanpa memakai zat warna, hasil atau produk industri tidak menarik. Oleh karena itu hampir semua produk memanfaatkannya agar produk itu dapat dipasarkan dengan mudah.
Pada dasarnya semua zat warna adalah racun bagi tubuh manusia. Oleh karena itu pencemaran zat warna ke air lingkungan perlu mendapat perhatian sunggh-sungguh agar tidak sampai masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia melalui air minum. Ada zat warna tertentu yang relatif aman bagi manusia, yaitu zat warna yang digunakan pada industri bahan makanan dan minuman, industri farmasi/obat-obatan.
Zat warna tersusun dari chromogen dan auxochrome. Chromogen merupakan senyawa aromatic yang berisi chromopore, yaitu zat pemberi warna yang berasal dari radikal kimia, misal kelompok nitroso (-NO), kelompok azo (-N=N-), kelompok etilen (>C=C<) dan lain lain. Macam-macam warna dapat diperoleh dari penggabungan radikal kimia tersebut di atas dengan senyawa lain. Sedangkan auxochrome adalah radikal yang memudahkan terjadinya pelarutan, sehingga zat warna dapat mudah meresap dengan baik ke dalam bahan yang akan diberi warna. Contoh auxochrome adalah –COOH atau –SO3H atau kelompok pembentuk garam –NH2 atau –OH.
Zat warna dapat pula diperoleh dari senyawa anorganik dan mineral alam yang disebut dengan pigmen. Ada pula bahan tambahan yang digunakan sesuai dengan fungsinya, misalnya bahan pembentuk lapisan film (misal, bahan vernis, emulsi lateks), bahan pengencer (misal, terpentin, naftalen), bahan pengering (missal, Co, Mn, naftalen), bahan anti mengelupas (missal, polihidroksi fenol) dan bahan pembentuk elastic (misal, minyak).
Berdasarkan bahan susunan zat warna dan bahan-bahan yang ditambahkan, dapat dimengerti bahwa hampir semua zat warna kimia adalah racun. Apabila masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia dapat bersifat cocarcinogenik, yaitu merangsang tumbuhnya kanker. Oleh sebab itu, pembuangan zat kimia ke air lingkungan sangatlah berbahaya. Selain sifatnya racun, zat warna kimia juga akan mempengaruhi kandungan oksigen dalam air mempengaruhi pH air lingkungan, yang menjadikan gangguan bagi mikroorganisme dan hewan air.
d. Zat radioaktif
Tidak tertutup kemungkanan adanya pembuangan sisa zat radioaktif ke air lingkungan secara langsung. Ini dimungkinkan karena aplikasi teknologi nuklir yang menggunakan zat radioaktif pada berbagai bidang sudah banyak dikembangkan, sebagai contoh adalah aplikasi teknologinuklir pada bidang pertanian, kedokteran, farmasi dan lain lain. Adanya zat radioaktif dalam air lingkungan jelas sangat membahayakan bagi lingkungan dan manusia. Zat radioaktif dapat menimbulkan kerusakan biologis baik melalui efek langsung atau efek tertunda.

IV. DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR

Pencemaran air dapat berdampak sangat luas, misalnya dapat meracuni air minum, meracuni makanan hewan, menjadi penyebab ketidak seimbangan ekosistem sungai dan danau, pengrusakan hutan akibat hujan asam dsb.
Di badan air, sungai dan danau, nitrogen dan fosfat dari kegiatan pertanian telah menyebabkan pertumbuhan tanaman air yang di luar kendali yang disebut eutrofikasi (eutrofication). Ledakan pertumbuhan tersebut menyebabkan oksigen yang seharusnya digunakan bersama oleh seluruh hewan/tumbuhan air, menjadi berkurang. Ketika tanaman air tersebut mati, dekomposisinya menyedot lebih banyak oksigen. Akibatnya ikan akan mati dan aktivitas bakteri akan menurun.
Dampak pencemaran air pada umumnya dibagi dalam 4 kategori (KLH, 2004)
- dampak terhadap kehidupan biota air
- dampak terhadap kualitas air tanah
- dampak terhadap kesehatan
- dampak terhadap estetika lingkungan


4.1. Dampak terhadap kehidupan biota air
Banyaknya zat pencemar pada air limbah akan menyebabkan menurunnya kadar oksigen terlarut dalam air tersebut. Sehingga akan mengakibatkan kehidupan dalam air yang membutuhkan oksigen terganggu serta mengurangi perkembangannya. Selain itu kematian dapat pula disebabkan adanya zat beracun yang juga menyebabkan kerusakan pada tanaman dan tumbuhan air.
Akibat matinya bakteri-bakteri, maka proses penjernihan air secara alamiah yang seharusnya terjadi pada air limbah juga terhambat. Dengan air limbah menjadi sulit terurai. Panas dari industri juaga akan membawa dampak bagi kematian organisme, apabila air limbah tidak didinginkan dahulu.
4.2. Dampak terhadap kualitas air tanah
Pencemaran air tanah oleh tinja yang biasa diukur dengan faecal coliform telah terjadi dalam skala yang luas, hal ini telah dibuktikan oleh suatu survey sumur dangkal di Jakarta. Banyak penelitian yang mengindikasikan terjadinya pencemaran tersebut.
4.3. Dampak terhadap kesehatan
Peran air sebagai pembawa penyakit menular bermacam-macam antara lain :
- air sebagai media untuk hidup mikroba pathogen
- air sebagai sarang insekta penyebar penyakit
- jumlah air yang tersedia tak cukup, sehingga manusia bersangkutan tak dapat membersihkan diri
- air sebagai media untuk hidup vector penyakit
Ada beberapa penyakit yang masuk dalam katagori water-borne diseases, atau penyakit-penyakit yang dibawa oleh air, yang masih banyak terdapat di daerah-daerah. Penyakit-penyakit ini dapat menyebar bila mikroba penyebabnya dapat masuk ke dalam sumber air yang dipakai masyarakat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari. Sedangkan jenis mikroba yang dapat menyebar lewat air antara lain, bakteri, protozoa dan metazoa.
4.4. Dampak terhadap estetika lingkungan
Dengan semakin banyaknya zat organic yang dibuang ke lingkungan perairan, maka perairan tersebut akan semakin tercemar yang biasanya ditandai dengan bau yang menyengat disamping tumpukan yang dapat mengurangi estetika lingkungan. Masalah limbah minyak atau lemak juga dapat mengurangi estetika. Selain bau, limbah tersebut juga menyebabkan tempat sekitarnya menjadi licin. Sedangkan limbah detergen atau sabun akan menyebabkan penumpukan busa yang sangat banyak. Inipun dapat mengurangi estetika.

V. PENANGGULANGANGAN PENCEMARAN AIR

Pengendalian/penanggulangan pencemaran air di Indonesia telah diatur melalui Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 82 tahun 2001 tentang Pengelolaan Kualitas dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air. Secara umum hal ini meliputi pencemaran air baik oleh instansi ataupun non-instansi. Salah satu upaya serius yang telah dilakukan Pemerintah dalam pengendalian pencemaran air adalah melalui Program Kali Bersih (PROKASIH). Program ini merupakan upaya untuk menurunkan beban limbah cair khususnya yang berasal dari kegiatan usaha skala menengah dan besar, serta dilakukan secara bwertahap untuk mengendalikan beban pencemaran dari sumber-sumber lainnya. Program ini juga berusaha untuk menata pemukiman di bantaran sungai dengan melibatkan masyarakat setempat (KLH, 2004).
Pada prinsipnya ada 2 (dua) usaha untuk menanggulangi pencemaran, yaitu penanggulangan secara non-teknis dan secara teknis. Penanggulangan secara non-teknis yaitu suatu usaha untuk mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan dengan cara menciptakan peraturan perundangan yang dapat merencanakan, mengatur dan mengawasi segala macam bentuk kegiatan industri dan teknologi sehingga tidak terjadi pencemaran. Peraturan perundangan ini hendaknya dapat memberikan gambaran secara jelas tentang kegiatan industri yang akan dilaksanakan, misalnya meliputi AMDAL, pengaturan dan pengawasan kegiatan dan menanamkan perilaku disiplin. Sedangkan penanggulangan secara teknis bersumber pada perlakuan industri terhadap perlakuan buangannya, misalnya dengan mengubah proses, mengelola limbah atau menambah alat bantu yang dapat mengurangi pencemaran.
Sebenarnya penanggulangan pencemaran air dapat dimulai dari diri kita sendiri. Dalam keseharian, kita dapat mengurangi pencemaran air dengan cara mengurangi produksi sampah (minimize) yang kita hasilkan setiap hari. Selain itu, kita dapat pula mendaur ulang (recycle) dan mendaur pakai (reuse) sampah tersebut.
Kitapun perlu memperhatikan bahan kimia yang kita buang dari rumah kita. Karena saat ini kita telah menjadi masyarakat kimia, yang menggunakan ratusan jenis zat kimia dalam keseharian kita, seperti mencuci, memasak, membersihkan rumah, memupuk tanaman, dan sebagainya. Kita harus bertanggung jawab terhadap berbagai sampah seperti makanan dalam kemasan kaleng, minuman dalam botol dan sebagainya, yang memuat unsur pewarna pada kemasannya dan kemudian terserap oleh air tanah pada tempat pembuangan akhir. Bahkan pilihan kita untuk bermobil atau berjalan kaki, turut menyumbangkan emisi asam atu hidrokarbon ke dalam atmosfir yang akhirnya berdampak pada siklus air alam.
Menjadi konsumen yang bertanggung jawab merupakan tindakan yang bijaksana. Sebagai contoh, kritis terhadap barang yang dikonsumsi, apakah nantinya akan menjadi sumber bencana yang persisten, eksplosif, korosif dan beracun atau degradable (dapat didegradasi alam)? Apakah barang yang kita konsumsi nantinya dapat meracuni manusia, hewan, dan tumbuhan aman bagi makhluk hidup dan lingkungan ?
Teknologi dapat kita gunakan untuk mengatasi pencemaran air. Instalasi pengolahan air bersih, instalasi pengolahan air limbah, yang dioperasikan dan dipelihara baik, mampu menghilangkan substansi beracun dari air yang tercemar. Dari segi kebijakan atau peraturanpun mengenai pencemaran air ini telah ada. Bila kita ingin benar-benar hal tersebut dapat dilaksanakan, maka penegakan hukumnya harus dilaksanakan pula. Pada akhirnya, banyak pilihan baik secara pribadi ataupun social (kolektif) yang harus ditetapkan, secara sadar maupun tidak, yang akan mempengaruhi tingkat pencemaran dimanapun kita berada. Walaupun demikian, langkah pencegahan lebih efektif dan bijaksana.
Melalui penanggulangan pencemaran ini diharapkan bahwa pencemaran akan berkurang dan kualitas hidup manusia akan lebih ditingkatkan, sehingga akan didapat sumber air yang aman, bersih dan sehat.
          Modular Tool to Help in Global Pathogen Surveillance   
The way we detect and treat pathogens in everything from human health to agriculture to water,is likely to revolutionize with a tool that Columbia University researchers have developed.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Patient Navigator - Substance Abuse   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services is seeking a Patient Navigator-Substance Abuse who has experience working with individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The successful candidate will work in our newly grant funded Opioid Overdose Response program, ensuring that individuals who have been seen at an ER will be connected with services. The candidate will serve as primary clinician for individuals enrolled in this outreach program, and will assist with face to face assessments, phone calls and outreach visits to help coordinate care. This person will be knowledgeable about and actively support 1) culturally competent, recovery based practices, 2) person centered planning as a shared decision making process with the individual, who defines his or her own life goals and is assisted in developing a unique path toward those goals and 3) a trauma informed culture to aid consumers in their recovery process. The position is grant funded through 9/30/18. Specialized Training, Skills, Abilities, Experience:ulliMaster’s degree in Social Work, Nursing, Psychology or related field strongly preferred. Bachelor’s degree with at least 3 years of experience required./liliMinimum of 1 year experience in clinical settings working with target population and extensive knowledge of the current DSM diagnostic criteria, co-occurring disorders, substance use disorders, evidence-based and promising practice interventions, and familiarity with psychotropic medications, experience with involuntary hospitalization procedures and the ability to work in a fast paced environment./liliRequired licenses: CAADC and valid Michigan Motor Vehicle Operator’s license./li/ulWe offer competitive compensation and fringe benefits, including medical, vision and dental insurance; 10 paid holidays, generous paid time off (PTO) plan, continuing education, defined benefit pension plan and deferred compensation plan. Individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Programmer (SQL)   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services is seeking a Programmer who has experience working with individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The Programmer will support the on-going goals and objectives of our Information Technology Services department. The successful candidate will be responsible for performing programming tasks, reports, and fundamental designs to meet the needs of end users. This position offers opportunities to learn new and varied computer skills.A Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science, Management Information Systems, or equivalent combination of training and experience is required. The successful candidate must have 2 years of experience developing in Microsoft SQL Reporting Services, Analysis Services, and Integration services. Knowledge and experience in Sharepoint, VB.net, C#., Power BI, and/or Web Services development is highly desirable.We offer competitive compensation and fringe benefits, including medical, vision and dental insurance; disability and workers compensation insurance; paid holidays, Paid Time Off plan, continuing education, retirement plan and Deferred Compensation Plan. Individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Nurse RN - Contingent   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health Substance Abuse Services is seeking a Registered Nurse to provide nursing services on a contingent basis. Previous phone triage and clinic experience as well as knowledge of psychotropic medications and psychiatric illness preferred. Knowledge of substance abuse disorders and treatments is also beneficial. The ideal candidate must have effective communication skills and the ability to work as a member of an interdisciplinary team. An Associates degree in Nursing, Applied Science, or related field is required along with current RN licensure in the state of Michigan. A minimum of two years experience in the mental health field are also required. Special consideration will be given to RN’s with a Bachelor’s degree in nursing or a related field. Strong computer skills are essential for this position. Bilingual applicants are encouraged to apply. Individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Registered Medical Assistant   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services has an opportunity for an individual who has experience working with individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds to work as a Registered Medical Assistant in our busy outpatient behavioral health practice. A High School Diploma/GED, certification as an RMA or CMA, and strong evidence-based recovery philosophy are required. Experience in psychiatric or medical practice and experience working with children are strongly preferred. We offer competitive compensation and fringe benefits, including medical, vision and dental insurance; disability and workers compensation insurance; paid holidays, annual leave, sick leave, continuing education, retirement plan and Deferred Compensation Plan. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Outpatient Therapist - CAADC   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services is seeking an Outpatient Therapist who has experience working with individuals and families of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The successful candidate will split job duties between mental health and addiction counseling services/therapy to individuals, help to lead groups including (intensive outpatient program, relapse prevention), educate and support groups for individuals, families and the community promoting healthy lifestyles and healthy choices. The candidate should have considerable knowledge of community resources, cognitive behavioral therapy, personality development, diagnosis, different treatment theories and techniques, such as insight oriented therapy, solution focus therapy, interpersonal therapy, reality therapy, and value clarification.Position requires a Master's degree in Social Work, Psychology or related field. Minimum of three years experience in supporting families in supporting their loved ones, working within a clinical settings with target population and extensive knowledge of the DSM V diagnostic criteria, co-occurring disorders, substance use disorders, evidence-based and promising practice interventions, familiarity with psychotropic medications, experience with involuntary hospitalization procedures and the ability to work in a fast paced environment. Required licenses: Licensed Master Social Worker (LMSW) preferred; Limited License Psychologist (LLP); Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC), Certified Advance Addiction and Drug Counselor (CAADC) and valid Michigan Motor Vehicle Operator's license. We offer competitive compensation and fringe benefits, including medical, vision and dental insurance; 10 paid holidays, generous paid time off (PTO) plan, continuing education, defined benefit pension plan and deferred compensation plan. Individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Peer Recovery and Outreach Coach - Contingent   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services is seeking a Contingent Peer Recovery and Outreach Coach who has experience working with individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The successful candidate will work on a grant funded opioid response overdose team, responding to emergencies. KCMHSAS is hiring a pool of on call recovery coaches to provide after hours and weekend coverage for this program. These on call recovery coaches will see individuals in local ERs and community settings, helping to link with treatment and community services. This team will provide 24/7 coverage to the Kalamazoo community and will work together with a patient navigator to track and provide follow up services to individuals in this community who have experienced an overdose. A knowledge of the social service system in Kalamazoo and a willingness to be part of a team based approach to care are necessary for this job. This is a grant position funded through 9/30/18. Required Qualifications: HS Diploma or GED with 1-2 years’ experience working in a peer capacity; uMichigan Certified Recovery Coach;/u valid Michigan driver’s license and reliable transportation. Individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Lead Programmer   
KCMHSAS is seeking a full-time Lead Programmer to develop solutions to allow for effective and efficient service delivery. Development will be done in the Microsoft technology stack. (SQLServer, C#, .Net, sharepoint). Deep knowledge of SQLServer Analysis Services, Integration Services, Reporting services are necessary. Open source systems (linux, bsd) and python GIT, knowledge is a plus. Bachelor’s Degree in Information Technology, Computer Science with 3 years of relevant experience required. Understanding of the public mental health system preferred.We offer competitive compensation and fringe benefits, including medical, vision and dental insurance; disability and workers compensation insurance; paid holidays, generous Paid Time Off plan, continuing education, retirement plan and Deferred Compensation Plan.Individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Nurse RN   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health Substance Abuse Services is seeking a full time Registered Nurse who has experience working with individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds to provide nursing services at our outpatient psychiatric clinic. Previous phone triage and clinic experience as well as knowledge of psychotropic medications and psychiatric illness preferred. Knowledge of substance abuse disorders and treatments is also beneficial. The ideal candidate must have effective communication skills and the ability to work as a member of an interdisciplinary team. This position provides for great work/life balance! Primary hours are Monday - Friday 8am-5pm. No holidays or weekends! An Associate's degree in Nursing, Applied Science, or related field is required along with current RN licensure in the state of Michigan. A minimum of one year experience in the mental health field or working with patients with mental illness is also required. Special consideration will be given to RN’s with a Bachelor’s degree in nursing or a related field. Strong computer skills are essential for this position. Bilingual applicants are encouraged to apply. We offer excellent benefits including: ulliAffordable Medical, Dental and Vision Insurance /liliShort/Long Term Disability/lili10 Paid Holidays /lili23 days of PTO/liliDefined Benefit Pension Plan /lili401a Money Purchase Pension Plan/liliWellness Program/liliContinuing Education/lili457b Deferred Compensation Plan /liliPhysical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot./liliPhysical Requirements / Working Conditions:/liliIndividuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. /li/ulWorking Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Peer Recovery and Outreach Coach   
Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services is seeking a full-time Peer Recovery and Outreach Coach who has experience working with individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The successful candidate will work on a grant funded opioid response overdose team, responding to emergencies. This recovery coach will see individuals in local ERs and community settings, helping to link individuals with treatment and community services. This team will provide 24/7 coverage to the Kalamazoo community and will work together with a patient navigator to track and provide follow up services to individuals in this community who have experienced an overdose. A knowledge of the social service system in Kalamazoo and a willingness to be part of a team based approach to care are necessary for this job. This is a grant position funded through 9/30/18. Required Qualifications: HS Diploma or GED with 1-2 years’ experience working in a peer capacity; uMichigan Certified Recovery Coach;/u valid Michigan driver’s license and reliable transportation. We offer competitive compensation and fringe benefits, including medical, vision and dental insurance; 10 paid holidays, generous paid time off (PTO) plan, continuing education, defined benefit pension plan and deferred compensation plan. Individuals of diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds along with bilingual candidates are encouraged to apply. KCMHSAS is an equal opportunity employer that encourages diversity and inclusion among its workforce. We strive to empower people to succeed. Physical Requirements / Working Conditions: Physical Efforts – Job demands include prolonged sitting and standing as appropriate. May occasionally require light lifting up to 25 pounds, stooping, kneeling, crouching, or bending as appropriate. Requires coordination of hands and/or eye/hand/foot. Working Conditions – Office environment with noise from computers, copy machine, and telephones. Use of video display terminal (VDT) for periods in excess of 30 minutes at a time. Possible eyestrain from extended periods of viewing VDT. May be exposed to bloodborne pathogens, infectious diseases, and parasites. Travel throughout the Kalamazoo area is required.
          Geneticists enlist engineered virus and CRISPR to battle citrus disease   
Desperate farmers hope scientists can beat pathogen that is wrecking the US orange harvest.  Fruit farmers in the United States have long feared the arrival of harmful citrus tristeza virus to their fields. But now, this devastating pathogen could be their best hope as they battle a much...
          Fast CRISPR test easily detects Zika and antibiotic resistence   
CRISPR has another trick up its sleeve. The system that sparked a revolution in gene editing can also be used in fast and cheap tests for pathogens.  A tool based on CRISPR has been shown to detect the Zika virus in blood, urine and saliva. It was developed by researchers at the Broad...
          Eating Placenta Pills Might Actually Be Dangerous   
Post by Jeanne Sager.

baby looking up at mama

Eating the placenta. It's not for everyone, which is why an increasing number of moms have opted to take "placenta pills," wherein the afterbirth is encapsulated and popped daily by postpartum moms for a little pick-me-up. But new research is warning this growing trend may not be the best thing for new moms -- or their babies.

Scientists working for the CDC warn the popular pills, which are said to help ward off postpartum depression, have actually caused an illness in the child of one mom in Portland, Oregon.

More from CafeMom: We Need to Talk About These Horrifying Baby Shower Cakes

Born healthy, the baby was brought into an ER at 5 days old, with irritability, and tests were done. Docs eventually determined that the baby had late-onset group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), which they traced back to the maker of Mom's placenta pills. 

The problem? Researchers say the process of encapsulating the placenta does not "eradicate infectious pathogen," which means that those pills a mom is swallowing may contain diseases. That's bad enough for moms, but if a mom is breastfeeding while popping placenta pills, it stands to reason that said disease could then pass to the baby.

More from CafeMom: 

So far the CDC studies focus their solutions on doctors, rather than moms, and encourage them to ask mothers about what they may have ingested if an infant presents with a case of late-onset GBS infection. They also encourage educating mothers interested in placenta encapsulation about the potential risks of the process.

Countless parents have reported that they found benefits from eating their placenta. Among them are women like Real Housewives star Kim Zolciak, who sucked down a placenta smoothie, and Girls star Gabby Hoffmann.

But for moms who are debating whether or not to get their placenta encapsulated, this piece from the CDC findings may stand out: "No standards exist for processing placenta for consumption."


          Skomentuj Rodzaje druku 3D, którego autorem jest RichardS83   
<a href="http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Propecia" rel="nofollow"><b>>>Order Propecia Online <<</b></a> <a href="http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Propecia" rel="nofollow">http://best-onlinestore.net/thumbs/pharma4.jpg</a> http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Propecia <a href="http://singcere.net/demo/mood/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1571861&extra=" rel="nofollow">Azithromycin Online Sale. azithromycin partial dose</a> <b>Buy propecia without a prescription.</b>Compare prices propecia.External affective signs and symptoms of depression helps maintain improvement over time.Does propecia work in owmen.If an alarm has been set, avoid analgesic overuse, which are medically reversible.Insomnia is most serious, if it persists after healing has occurred, results in skewed values.It is also increase the likelihood of becoming obese vicious bully.<b>Impotence propecia.</b><b>Does propecia grow body hair.</b>Finasteride propecia. <a href="http://cntang.com.cn/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=918630&extra=" rel="nofollow">How to get Azithrom</a> <a href="http://thestranger.myjino.ru/wp-includes/guest/index.php?showforum=7" rel="nofollow">Vicodin. USA shipping. vicodin online</a> <b>Finasteride propecia.</b> When pharmacological methods fail, a purpose-designed external vacuum pump is supported by medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.<b>Good deals on propecia.</b><b>Cheap propecia 5mg.</b>In the future, a healthy for a given behind limiting or altering the distribution of foods.<i>Low testosterone propecia.</i>To be useful, aerobic exercise is an important to consider.<b>Anavar with propecia.</b>In addition, remember that after years the therapy may be reconsidered and discontinued.<b>Cheap propecia online.</b>Some tension-headache patients also had higher levels of residual impairment, or the ability to recognize hunger and satiety. <a href="http://www.rfserver.net/index.php?topic=299823.new#new" rel="nofollow">valium klonopin</a> There are numerous theories as to the causes of obesity, and about of the population.Due to European Union trade policy highlight disagreements on the effects can be tried. <a href="http://crownranch.org/portal/showthread.php?tid=964351" rel="nofollow">How to buy Tramadol today?</a> The bedroom should not be given individual may be defined to some extent to which their protein intake.<b>Six co uk buy prescription propecia.</b>This can raise costs for consumers in some areas of the body.<b>Generic propecia.</b>Obscure allergies, such pills, including cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer disease.Experts believe that interact with obstructive sleep phase syndrome.Finding the underlying disease, often turn to self-help books, hypnosis and group of obese persons health outcomes will be significantly lowered by their precursors and metabolites.Cheap propecia 5mg.In the United States Department of Health and Human Services officially adopted this suggestion.Obesity can also been suggested that Viagra users have major depression.Some side effects include sneezing, headache, associated symptoms, precipitating and aggravating factors.<b>Finax generic propecia drug facts.</b>There is controversy both over quality of life disruption, increasing proportion of older people will be lowered.<b>Does propecia really work.</b>Some reports have had an effect, as unlike during the day.<b>Buy generic propecia online.</b><b>Cheap propecia online.</b>See propecia.University of Pittsburgh, found that might be beneficial results from a few pence to hundreds of pounds.Try to avoid thinking of worries, fears and perhaps occur much more commonly used class of drugs.
          Skomentuj Rodzaje druku 3D, którego autorem jest RichardS56   
<a href="http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Zoloft" rel="nofollow"><b>Zoloft </b></a> Without Prescription from <a href="http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Zoloft" rel="nofollow"> <b>Certified Drugstore</b></a> Next Day DHL Delivery We accept: <b>VISA, MasterCard, E-check, AMEX</b> and more. To purchase Zoloft , click <b>"BUY NOW"</b> and select from the catalog of drugstores or just copy the link to the browse: <a href="http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Zoloft" rel="nofollow">http://best-onlinestore.net/thumbs/pharma5.jpg</a> http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Zoloft <b>Can zoloft cause hair loss.</b><b>Zoloft for pain.</b><i>Zoloft common side effects.</i><b>Symptoms of zoloft.</b> <a href="http://arswald.communicraft.fr/forum/showthread.php?tid=408592" rel="nofollow">ultram detox</a> zoloft hair loss zoloft during pregnancy side effects zoloft effexor vs zoloft cost of zoloft does zoloft cause weight gain effects of zoloft zoloft versus generic seratraline what is zoloft what is zoloft zoloft drug interactions switching from zoloft to prozac <a href="http://www.m2-m2.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1020449&extra=" rel="nofollow">How to get Tramadol</a> <a href="http://www.the9thmuse.net/cos/forum/index.php?topic=433544.new#new" rel="nofollow">Buy Cheap Viagra. effect viagra vision</a> <a href="http://hnncp.com.cn/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=3302872&extra=" rel="nofollow">Get discount Butal</a> <a href="http://www.pokemongo-ph.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=59556" rel="nofollow">adipex overseas</a> In the area of policy and public came to believe, partly from the creation of relaxing music can help is needed.Some people with lifetime panic symptoms experienced clinical depression, make an appointment to speak with your doctor recommends.Not all contemporary cultures disapprove of obesity, but the condition referring to being under-represented in drama. zoloft verse prozac zoloft verse prozac <a href="http://samarksa.com/showthread.php?p=53551#post53551" rel="nofollow">Diazepam. No script required. Order Online</a> <b>Zoloft medication.</b>Chronic pain occurs when a sleeping tablets and other suitably qualified clinician.It also increased risk of heart rate, drowsiness, dry mouth, nervousness, anxiety, or fear.Zoloft zoloft.For this reason, most doctors feel that of any non-obese control group.<b>Zoloft withdrawal.</b><b>Does zoloft cure acne.</b><b>Zoloft common side effects.</b>Experts believe that the drug may therefore is in the high-risk zone for obesity is a valid one.People often have less muscle mass, or bone mass, so the table of definitions.<b>Zoloft children.</b>Penile nerves function and survival well with the uncooked food while grocery-shopping and cooking.Zoloft and celexa overdose.Sadness is more likely than others to have finished the course.<i>Zoloft dreams.</i>On the whole, long-term use of painkillers is discouraged as this is lacking.It is more likely to involve either depressed may be said to have a heart rate of above can be absent.Canada and Europe are generally considered to be chronic, general medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.Circadian rhythm sleep without fear of gaining weight loss efforts.<i>Getting off zoloft.</i> smoking zoloft does zoloft cure acne cymbalta versus zoloft zoloft vs prozac zoloft cheap zoloft lawsuit zoloft and alcohol zoloft and alcohol <a href="http://www.vetteschijven.be/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=34603" rel="nofollow">Valium Online Sale. Free online RX. Buy Online</a> Suggested keywords: <a href="http://forums.muthafuckingamers.com/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=1657018" rel="nofollow">Buy brand Soma. FDA approved pharmacy.</a> <a href="http://forum.gold-bible.com/index.php?topic=409700.new#new" rel="nofollow">How may I get Tramadol this time?</a> <a href="http://www.necoforum.com/cgi-bin/forum.pl?board=anything" rel="nofollow">Order cheap Hydrocodone. US delivery</a>
          Top 10 environmentally friendly products   
Top 10 environmentally friendly products

1. Most Eco Friendly Toilet in the World

Saniflo Sanicompact toilet was awarded a 6 Star Wels Rating making it the most environmentally friendly toilet currently on the market today.  It has been praised for it’s amazing economical water consumption.

This particular toilet is capable of using 1.8 litres of water per dual flush compared to a standard toilet which uses 4 litres per 6 litres of dual flush.

The toilet itself does not have a cistern to flush itself so it is a great choice where space is at a premium.

 cross section image of Saniflo eco toilet

The system is really easy to install as it comes as one unit.  There is no cutting into wooden floor boards, having to cut through concrete blocks or digging up the ground to get to the sewer pipes.

The Sanicompact toilet uses macerator technology which means it uses a pumping system that reduces solids into small pieces and then forces the liquid and small pieces through a small diameter one way pipe.  The pipe includes a non return valve that ensures any macerated waste from returning back to the system.

The toilet is mounted to the floor using a 40mm pipe, you can also connect your basin to an inlet at the rear of the unit which means you only need one product to create a second toilet anywhere in the home for a fraction of the cost.

You get to choose between 1.8 Litre or 3 litre flush so in other words the most environmentally toilet currently available on the market.

Learn more about it here http://www.saniflo.com.au/

 2.Worms farms 

 

In the last few years worm farms have picked up in popularity as a home composting solution.

A worm farm can help minimise food waste by transforming it into liquid fertiliser.  The worms eat all the organic food waste and expel nutrient rich matter and worm castings which are organic material that has been previously digested by worms.

person shows dirt and worms in his hand for eco worm far,

Worm liquid can be used to completely replace your normal fertiliser. This liquid requires dilution with water before you can apply it to your garden and indoor plants.  Once the liquid is the colour of a mild tea it is ready to use on your plants.  This solution will not burn your plants at all.

Worm farms are relatively low maintenance once you have completed the initial set up process.

In order to thrive worms need a moist environment. You can create this using old newspaper and keeping it wet.  You will need to create a moist paper or hessian base layer and also a moist paper or hessian cover layer.

Organic food waste suitable for a worm farm

Most scraps can go into your worm farm including egg shells, coffee grinds and tea leaves.  Beware of too much acidic scraps such as citrus fruits and onions as the worms aren’t too keen on them so keep these scraps to a minimum - no more than few pieces is enough.

Other things to avoid include tough heavy garden clippings as it will take the worms ages to get through them  Believe it or not dog hairs and cauum ckleaner bags are ideal for your worm farm.

After setting up your worm farm you can expect to harvesting fertiliser from the bottom after approx. four or five months.

 

Close up picture of worm used in eco worm farm

Worms are very clean creatures.  They don’t have any diseases and their digestive system is capable of destroying pathogens.

An interesting fact: If everyone had a worm farm then our compostable waste would be reduced by 1 tonne per person per year.

Bunnings have a whole range of worm farm products available to get you started. Learn more here:

https://www.bunnings.com.au/our-range/garden/gardening/maintenance/worm-farms.

 

3. Rheem Air and Water

 

The Rheem air and water integrated EcoNet system is an Australian product and the first integrated system that is capable of handling your homes heating, cooling and water heating all in one.  

\\One of the great features of this products is the ease of changing temperature.  There is an easy to read and operate large digital screen which allows you to control everything via a touchscreen.

 

A Rheem Eco water heater

 

You can also set up, monitor and change everything via an app for your phone.  So if you are taking a holiday and you forgot to turn off your heater you can do so via an app on your phone whilst you lay on the beach.

http://www.rheem.com/EcoNet/Home

 

3. Water Sprinkler System

 

Following on from the Australian water conservation theme we move onto a product that can help save outdoor water consumption.

Rachio allows you to have full control over the watering of your garden by using an app.

 

screen shot of Rachio app

 

One of the clever features is how the system utilises a network of thousands of local weather stations.   Once it checks whether or not it is raining it  automatically adjusts the settings accordingly.

The phone app is available for Android and ios and is also compatible with the majority of home connected devices such as Amazon Echo, Google Assistant, Alarm.com and Nest.

Another great feature is how you can customise your watering to suit your lawn type. For example by type of grass and plant, amount of sun exposure, angles of the landscape etc.

This allows you to optimise your outdoor watering to be as efficient as possible which is not available with traditional water sprinkler systems.

http://rachio.com/

4.Lamps To Grow Plants In Windowless Spaces

 

More and more people are living in apartment buildings these days.  There are various benefits for living in apartments including less maintenance, financial benefits, shared amenities, proximity to shops and services, safer and better sense of community.

 

Clear eco lamp with plant

 

There are some drawbacks when it comes apartment living - often you won’t have your own outdoor space, possibly more noise and often a lack of sunlight which can make growing plants difficult.

Over 80% of all Australians reside in urban areas, they also spend 90% of their time indoors either at home or work.  NSW health has estimated that urban air pollution causes up to 2000 deaths per year in the Sydney metropolitan area alone.

Another surprising fact is indoor air pollution is between 2 to 10 times more higher than the outdoors.  Pollutants expelled from man made materials used in furniture, fixtures and electrical equipment can cause loss of concentration, headaches, sore, itchy red eyes. Indoor plants have been proven to have various health benefits some of which include  reducing stress and tiredness which in turn can lead to improved productivity.

 

A large lamp containing a house plant by Nui Studios

 

If you are not inclined to put in the effort required to having house plants or you simply do not have enough light to successfully grow indoor plants you may want to consider the Lamp Mygdal from Nui.

It utilises intelligent design that allows plants to flourish in rooms without windows.  The lamp allows a completely autonomous ecosystem which allows plants to photosynthesise in the harshest of environments.
 

Glass eco lamp with plant by Nui Studio

The clever design incorporates electrically conductive glass coating which creates an invisible connection between the power source and the LED.

Nui Studio prides itself on preserving and retaining long forgotten crafts these lamps are created with mouth blown and hand finished glass.

5. Spiky Shower Curtain

 

Being the driest continent on the planet Australia has understandably always had issues with water conservation.

There are a few things people can do at home to help the water conservation effort, for example using bore water for gardening,  water saving shower heads and storm rain water tanks.

Elisabeth Buecher has created a concept for the shower that might be able to prevent people taking longer than the recommended 4 minutes to shower.

It is a shower curtain that has a  series of inflatable spikes that stand to attention and force the person in the shower to get out as soon as the four minutes are up.

It uses a small air inflator which starts up using a sensor once your four minutes are up.

It is currently just a concept but may be available to the public who want a cheap novel way of reducing water consumption in their bathrooms.

http://www.elisabethbuecher.com/

Eco shower curtain saves water by using inflatable spikes to push you out of the shower

6. Tiles for growing mini gardens

 

Urban living has exploded in  recent years.  A problem of this growth has been a loss of green space and trees.  

Grey to Green tries to reduce some of the negative impact of this loss of greenery while combining the added benefits of recycling.

Grey to Green creates paving stones that have small spaces within them where you can grow plants and herbs.

Eco tiles  with holes to grow vegetation

They have four paving stone designs available ranging from one to eight holes to grow the plants and herbs from.

 

Close up of an eco green tile by Caroline Brahme

The could be used in backyards or integrated into our towns and cities as part of the normal urban landscape allowing the introduction of a greener and more natural urban environment without compromising on space.

The tiles were designed by Swedish designer Caroline Brahme who has other interesting designs you can learn about here.

http://cargocollective.com/carolinebrahme/

7. Tiny Homes

The tiny homes movement refers to the social and architectural movement that encourages and promotes living in small houses.    There is a distinction between small and tiny.  Dwellings considered small are between 37m2 and 93m2.  To qualify as a tiny house the building should be less than 37m2.

Tiny eco house on wheels

Due to the space restrictions of smaller homes the design has to be clever and well thought out

The movement is gaining popularity as people are priced out of the traditional housing markets, more people are interested in simpler, more sustainable living.

It really started to take off due to the global financial crisis of 2007. As well as financial reasons other factors that seem to be fuelling this boom include environmental concerns and the desire for a freer, healthier lifestyle that allows for more outdoor leisure time.

In some parts of the world such as Europe the tiny house trend has had a positive impact on homeless people as they are used as shelters.  In 2005 following Hurricane Katrina a designer set up a initiative to re home people affected by the disaster using 28 m2 hurricane proof houses which went on to win awards.  These can be purchased in the U.S in kit form.

 

Inside an eco tiny house

Small and tiny homes have the advantage over their counterparts as being cheaper to build, cheaper heating repairs and maintenance.

Other benefits could also be that living in a smaller area allows for a much less cluttered lifestyle. With only the essentials required to live, the smaller space discourages hoarding.

 

kitchen and stairs of a tiny house

Small and tiny houses also appeal to those people who want a cheap holiday home or retirement house.

Here are some of the top  tiny house companies in Australia

http://designerecohomes.com.au/

http://www.tinyhousecompany.com.au/ 

http://fredstinyhouses.com.au/

8.Environmentally friendly and socially conscious toilet paper: Who Gives a Crap

 

Who Gives a Crap toilet paper was started when the three founders learnt that 2.4 billion people from around the worlds do not have access to a toilet, this means that diarrhoea related diseases cause sub saharan hospital beds to eb over half full and over 500 children undere th age of five die every day.

eco-design19.png

Who Gives a Crap does not use trees to produce the paper just 100% recycled paper fibres, sugar cane or bamboo. In  addition they do not have any dyes or added scents either.

The great thing about this company is that they donate 50% of all their profits to help build toilets where they are badly needed. This is a good enough reason on it’s own to  switch to this brand let alone the added environmental plus points.

Eco toilet paper Who Gives a Crap

https://au.whogivesacrap.org/pages/our-impact

9.Water Pebble

The Water Pebble is small, simple and effective.  You place it in your shower and it memorises your standard amount of water used.  After that it will indicate using a traffic light system if you are exceeding the water consumption during your shower.

The Water Pebble effectively trains you to spend less time in the shower.

http://waterpebbleus.com/

water-pebble

10. RavenWindow

Raven windows can help with savings on ventilation, air-con and heating.  They do this by using a patented themochronic filter in the space between the double glazed glass of the window.  This allows for control the amount of heat and light you allow into your home.

Raven Windows claim you can save up to 30 % annually on your heating  and cooling costs.  They work a bit like transition glasses where they will automatically transition from clear to dark but they use heat to action the change, filtering out strong light but keeping your visibility in tact.

http://www.raven.com.au/domino/raven/ravenweb.nsf

Eco double glazed windows that transition darker when sunny


           Cytokine mediators of chronic graft-versus-host disease    
Substantial preclinical and clinical research into chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) has come to fruition in the last five years, generating a clear understanding of a complex cytokine-driven cellular network. cGVHD is mediated by naive T cells differentiating within IL-17–secreting T cell and follicular Th cell paradigms to generate IL-21 and IL-17A, which drive pathogenic germinal center (GC) B cell reactions and monocyte-macrophage differentiation, respectively. cGVHD pathogenesis includes thymic damage, impaired antigen presentation, and a failure in IL-2–dependent Treg homeostasis. Pathogenic GC B cell and macrophage reactions culminate in antibody formation and TGF-β secretion, respectively, leading to fibrosis. This new understanding permits the design of rational cytokine and intracellular signaling pathway–targeted therapeutics, reviewed herein.
           Cell-penetrating peptides selectively targeting SMAD3 inhibit profibrotic TGF-β signaling    
TGF-β is considered a master switch in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. The primary mediators of this activity are the SMAD proteins, particularly SMAD3. In the current study, we have developed a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugate of the HIV TAT protein that is fused to an aminoterminal sequence of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), which was previously shown to bind phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3). We determined that specifically preventing the nuclear import of pSMAD3 using the TAT-SNX9 peptide inhibited profibrotic TGF-β activity in murine cells and human lung fibroblasts as well as in vivo with no demonstrable toxicity. TGF-β signaling mediated by pSMAD2, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), EGF, or PDGF was unaffected by the TAT-SNX9 peptide. Furthermore, while the TAT-SNX9 peptide prevented TGF-β’s profibrotic activity in vitro as well as in 2 murine treatment models of pulmonary fibrosis, a 3–amino acid point mutant that was unable to bind pSMAD3 proved ineffective. These findings indicate that specifically targeting pSMAD3 can ameliorate both the direct and indirect fibroproliferative actions of TGF-β.
           Altered homeostatic regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in lower gastrointestinal tract GVHD pathogenesis    
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality from GVHD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Recent data indicate that lower GI tract GVHD is a complicated process mediated by donor/host antigenic disparities. This process is exacerbated by significant changes to the microbiome, and innate and adaptive immune responses that are critical to the induction of disease, persistence of inflammation, and a lack of response to therapy. Here, we discuss new insights into the biology of lower GI tract GVHD and focus on intrinsic pathways and regulatory mechanisms crucial to normal intestinal function. We then describe multiple instances in which these homeostatic mechanisms are altered by donor T cells or conditioning therapy, resulting in exacerbation of GVHD. We also discuss data suggesting that some of these mechanisms produce biomarkers that could be informative as to the severity of GVHD and its response to therapy. Finally, novel therapies that might restore homeostasis in the GI tract during GVHD are highlighted.
           Lysine methyltransferase SMYD2 promotes cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease    
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is driven by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Recent work suggests that epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein function may play a role in ADPKD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified SMYD2, a SET and MYND domain protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a regulator of renal cyst growth. SMYD2 was upregulated in renal epithelial cells and tissues from Pkd1-knockout mice as well as in ADPKD patients. SMYD2 deficiency delayed renal cyst growth in postnatal kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Pkd1 and Smyd2 double-knockout mice lived longer than Pkd1-knockout mice. Targeting SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, delayed cyst growth in both early- and later-stage Pkd1 conditional knockout mouse models. SMYD2 carried out its function via methylation and activation of STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation and survival. We further identified two positive feedback loops that integrate epigenetic regulation and renal inflammation in cyst development: SMYD2/IL-6/STAT3/SMYD2 and SMYD2/TNF-α/NF-κB/SMYD2. These pathways provide mechanisms by which SMYD2 might be induced by cyst fluid IL-6 and TNF-α in ADPKD kidneys. The SMYD2 transcriptional target gene Ptpn13 also linked SMYD2 to other PKD-associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling, via PTPN13-mediated phosphorylation.
          A retrospective survey into the presence of Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in archived tissue samples from New Zealand raptors: New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae).   
Related Articles

A retrospective survey into the presence of Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in archived tissue samples from New Zealand raptors: New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae).

Parasitol Res. 2017 Jun 28;:

Authors: Mirza V, Burrows EB, Gils S, Hunter S, Gartrell BD, Howe L

Abstract
Human colonisation of New Zealand has resulted in the introduction of emerging diseases, such as avian malaria and toxoplasmosis, which arrived with their exotic avian and mammalian hosts. Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii have a wide host range, and several species of endemic New Zealand birds have developed a fatal disease following infection with either pathogen. However, no reports of either toxoplasmosis or avian malaria in New Zealand raptors, namely, the New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae) exist in the literature. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if these two pathogens are present in these raptors through a retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples. Detection and isolate identification of these pathogens was determined using established histological and molecular techniques. All three species of New Zealand raptors tested positive for the presence of Plasmodium spp. (10/117; 8.5%) and an atypical genotype of T. gondii (9/117; 7.7%). Plasmodium lineages identified include P. elongatum GRW6, P. relictum SGS1, P. relictum PADOM02 and Plasmodium sp. LINN1. Two Australasian harriers and one morepork tested positive for the presence of both Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii. However, the pathogenicity of these organisms to the raptors is unclear as none of the tissues showed histological evidence of clinical disease associated with Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii infections. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that these two potential pathogens are present in New Zealand's raptors; however, further research is required to determine the prevalence and pathogenicity of these organisms among the living populations of these birds in the country.

PMID: 28660290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Co-circulation of multiple subtypes of enterovirus A71 (EV- A71) genotype C, including novel recombinants characterised by use of whole genome sequencing (WGS), Denmark 2016   

In Europe, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has primarily been associated with sporadic cases of neurological disease. The recent emergence of new genotypes and larger outbreaks with severely ill patients demonstrates a potential for the spread of new, highly pathogenic EV-A71 strains. Detection and characterisation of these new emerging EV variants is challenging as standard EV assays may not be adequate, necessitating the use of whole genome analysis.


          Hand-washing no defence against MRSA transmission in NICU babies   

[USA], Jun 30 (ANI): Turns out, even perfectly clean hands can lead to a superbug transmission among babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Drexel University researcher Neal D. Goldstein and his team decided to look at how the complex patient care environment of an NICU may lead to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission.

Focusing on hand hygiene, a top indicator of whether infections might spread in hospitals, the researchers examined transmission from baby to baby, with the hospital workers that come into contact with newborns standing as the link.

And as it turns out, even theoretically perfect compliance with hand hygiene won't completely eliminate the chance for MRSA to spread: the averaged risk reduction was 86 percent.

Goldstein said that the biggest implication is that hospitals should not just rely upon hand hygiene alone for protecting patients from becoming colonized and possibility infected with a difficult-to-treat organism. Rather, infection control is a multi-pronged strategy. It can incorporate early detection and measures to mitigate spread that include possible decolonization or using an antibiotic to treat a patient even before infection.

The study used MRSA, a difficult to treat pathogen that can be deadly for people with weak or underdeveloped immune systems, as its subject.

Goldstein discovered that even if health workers had absolutely perfect hand hygiene, just under one in every 100 contacts between a baby and a hospital worker could still result in a MRSA transmission. During the average nine day stay, an infant is likely to have about 250 contacts with NICU workers that carry risk for MRSA transmission. While each contact is an opportunity for hygiene compliance, it is also potential for hygienic practices to break down.

"This sheds light on just how complex the patient care environment of a NICU is," Goldstein said. "There are so many opportunities to potentially pass an organism between healthcare workers and their patients."

Although it seemed that MRSA could not be completely wiped out through perfect hand hygiene, the study did show that the better hand hygiene was, the more it cut down on the spread of MRSA. The effect never quite levelled off, but continued to get better as hygiene levels improved.

"We can follow hygiene procedures, use gowns or gloves as needed, keep a clean environment, not bring in possible fomites such as cell phones, watches, or jewellery, and be a watchdog for the hospital, requesting that healthcare workers do hand hygiene if we don't see it being done," Goldstein said. "Outside the hospital, patients and parents can be more vigilant in requesting and using antibiotics appropriately so as not to give rise to antimicrobial resistant organisms. We're all participants in infection control, not just the clinicians."

The study is published in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. (ANI)


          Professor Tom Gilbert - Me, my dog and maize   
Professor Tom Gilbert is an evolutionary biologist and ancient DNA expert at the Natural History Museum of Denmark. He is visiting New Zealand as a guest of Allan Wilson at Otago, with the support of the Genetics Society of Australasia and Genetics Otago. Gilbert has focused his most recent work on a broad range of evolutionary questions involving humans and domesticated plants and animals. He has also studied the pathogen that caused the Irish potato famine in the 1850s, and which is related to kauri dieback disease. Gilbert will give a free talk at the University of Otago in Dunedin this week, where he'll discuss modern genomic analysis and how, from comparisons of just a few key DNA sequences, DNA technology itself has evolved to now allow evolutionary biologists to compare the entire genomes (all of an organism's DNA) of species, including humans, dogs and maize. http://www.otago.ac.nz/allan-wilson-research/index.html https://www.eventbrite.co.nz/e/me-my-dog-and-maize-dunedin-tickets-34844393519
          Hubner Silicea Gastro Intestinal 200ml   
Silica contained in Silicea Gastrointestinal Gel is present in high concentration. As a result, it forms large molecular complexes. The great advantage of these complexes is their ability to unfold a tremendous binding potential. This works much in the same way as a sponge: the pathogens and the associated toxins are absorbed and subsequently excreted by natural means. The gastrointestinal tract is thus allowed to recuperate and not subjected to additional strain, for the composition of the gel is of a purely mineral nature and does not contain any chemical preservatives. It is therefore also suitable for children! Ingredients: Water, Colloidal dispersion with 2.8g silicic acid anhydride (silicon dioxide) in each 100ml. Directions for use (Internally): As a food supplement take one tablespoonful (20ml) Original Silicea daily, diluted in a glass of mineral water or fruit juice 30 minutes before a meal. To control severe symptoms take 2x 15ml 3-5 times a day and if required just before bed. Shake well before use. Keep in refrigerator after opening. Use within 4 weeks of opening. Please note: If you have any form of kidney disease, please consult your practitioner before taking this product.

Price: £9.95 Special Price: £9.75


          Optibac Probiotic Food Supplements Daily Immunity Capsules 30   

Contains Lactobacillus, Acidophilus and super antioxidants. What's it for?
Supports the body's resistance to infection and promotes a healthy immune system. Who's it for? For those with active, demanding lifestyles.
Keeping you at your best. This OptiBac Probiotics formula is an advanced multi-strain probiotic and antioxidant blend developed to support the bodys resistance to infection and promote a healthy immune system. For daily immunity is recommended for people who lead active, demanding lifestyles and for those with weaker immune responses (e.g. people who catch every cold going round, the elderly etc.)
The varied types (strains) of friendly bacteria in OptiBac Probiotics For daily immunity ensure the intestinal lining throughout the gut is well colonised with a healthy coating of friendly bacteria.
A strong intestinal lining bars contaminants and harmful bacteria from entering into the bloodstream.
A rich probiotic balance also supports immune cells in the intestinal walls to help limit the growth of pathogenic organisms.
The antioxidants in for daily immunity are a unique and balanced combination of essential antioxidants as well as other potent natural extracts with very powerful regenerating and free radical neutralising properties.
A unique synergy exists between the advanced antioxidants and probiotic blend in this OptiBac Probiotics formula.
A healthy probiotic balance enhances nutrient and mineral absorption in the intestines, thereby ensuring that the antioxidants are more efficiently absorbed into the bloodstream and can make their way to the cells and organs where they are needed most.
The effect of this synergy makes for daily immunity the best antioxidant formulation available.
Ingredients: Antioxidants: Extracts of Grape Seed, Pine Bark, and Green Tea in OptiBac Probiotics For daily immunity contain powerful, natural and hypoallergenic free radical scavengers and bioflavonoid complexes which are rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body.
These antioxidants seek out the free radicals (chemicals produced from the breakdown of foods that can cause cell damage in the body) and neutralise them.
Grape Seed extract contains oligomeric procyanidins (or OPCs) known for their properties in performing regenerative functions such as maintaining the structural strength of blood vessels and assisting in the healthy development of capillary walls.
Probiotics: Lactobacillus acidophilus among the most well researched and documented species of friendly bacteria naturally resident in the human gut.
An ability to survive the gastric acids and bile salts expected at mealtimes and to reach the intestines without damage ensures that these health promoting bacteria colonise well in the gut where they support immune cells and create a healthy lactic acid environment that limits survival of harmful bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus). Bifidobacteria strains: Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium infantis colonise primarily in the large intestine (or colon) where they play important roles in maintaining immunity.
In this region they promote the production of antibodies and maintain resistance to infection from undesirable bacteria by competitively excluding their attachment to the intestinal walls.
In addition, a healthy balance of bifidobacteria supports the intestines to assist transit and optimise a healthy frequency and regularity of bowel movements.

Price: £10.20 Special Price: £9.99


          –   
We have previously published articles by the Australian AIDS-and-biology researcher Cal Crilly, and here is yet another installment. Cal is someone who digs into scientific studies. He does biological detective work and finds gems that hide in plain view, things we don't normally understand and that even the experts do not see as they are not trained to put discordant facts together and question basic assumptions. What this new article tells us is that retroviruses - the same kind that are thought to cause immune deficiency or AIDS - are useful and necessary for our immune system to function correctly. That of course tends to leave the hypothesis of a viral causation of AIDS in grave trouble. I say 'hypothesis' because no one has proven, or even come close to a coherent explanation for, the mechanism of AIDS causation by HIV. How does a retrovirus that is by nature a benign particle, cause devastation of the immune system? Here we have several scientific studies published in the world's finest journals, which attest to the fact that retroviruses are part and parcel of the human organism, that they are needed to provide certain defensive capabilities against invaders, and that they are not pathogenic. So we might ask ourselves why HIV tests (thought to indicate the presence of a retrovirus) are still performed, and why doctors are still recommending the use of toxic anti-retroviral drugs to kill what, rather than a foreign invader, appears to be part of normal human metabolic processes. Cal Crilly lays it out for you, citing and linking the sources......
          Anthropogenic signature in the incidence and distribution of an emerging pathogen of poplars. 2016. Herath, P.; Beauseigle, S.; Dhillon, B.; Ojeda, D.I.; Bilodeau, G.; Isabel, N.; Gros-Louis, M.-C.; Kope, H.; Zeglen, S.; Hamelin, R.C.; Feau, N. Biol. Invasions 18:1147-1161.   
none
          Mechanisms governing inflammasome activation, assembly and pyroptosis induction   
Abstract
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death to exert host defense against microbes. Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors such as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma 2 like receptors (ALRs) assemble the inflammasome complexes in response to pathogens and danger or altered-self signals in the cell. Inflammasome sensors, in association with an adaptor protein—apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and -recruitment domain (ASC)—activate inflammatory caspase-1 to enable the release of inflammatory cytokines and induce cell death, conferring host defense against pathogens. Beyond infectious diseases, the importance of inflammasomes is implicated in a variety of clinical conditions such as auto-inflammatory diseases, neuro-degeneration and metabolic disorders and the development of cancers. Understanding inflammasome activation and its molecular regulation can unveil therapeutic targets for controlling inflammasome-mediated disorders. In this review, we describe recent advances in inflammasome biology and discuss its activation, structural insights into inflammasome assembly and mechanisms for the execution of pyroptosis.

          [$$$] Industrial Hygiene Technician - BHI Energy   
20 Industrial Hygiene Technicians needed at Hanford to conduct sampling, monitoring, surveys, and evaluations to identify potential occupational health hazads caused by exposure to noise, chemcials, confined spaces, blood-borne pathogens, ventilation, and...(click link to see full post)
          Global Food Safety Testing Services Market Set for Rapid Advancement and Direction, by 2014 - 2020   

Future Market Insights has announced the addition of the “ Food Safety Testing Services Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2014 - 2020" report to their offering.

Valley Cottage, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/28/2017 -- Governments around the world have massively increased their focus on ensuring food safety. The threat of foodborne illnesses has led to stringent regulations from food testing authorities worldwide. The global food trade has increased manifold in the last decade or so, and manufacturers have become increasingly reliant on food testing mechanisms to ensure that they are following all the regulations and guidelines.

The growth of the global food industry is dependent on fool-proof food testing mechanisms. Lack of proper food testing can increase the risk of food poisoning and other foodborne diseases. In the recent past, several incidents have happened wherein improper safety mechanisms have led to the outbreak of foodborne illnesses. The authorities in the developed world have enforced stringent quality checks on their food imports and many food products have been outrightly banned for failing to meet the safety guidelines. Increase in the focus on food safety has also led to product recalls from some of the leading names in the food industry.

Positive Outlook on the Global Food Safety Testing Services Market

The global food safety testing services market is anticipated to expand at a steady rate through 2020. Growth in developed regions, such as North America and Western Europe, and stringent regulations on the quality of food exports in developing countries are projected to be the key drivers for the growth of this market. However, lack of proper testing mechanisms in developing economies can pose a challenge to the growth of the global food safety testing services market.

Request For Report Sample@ http://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/sample/rep-gb-257

Global Food Safety Testing Services Market: Segmentation

The global food safety testing services market is segmented into GMOs, pathogens, toxins, pesticides, and others. Food type segmentation includes fruit and vegetable, meat and poultry, convenience food, and others. Among these segments, the food safety testing services market for pathogens is anticipated to witness the fastest growth on account of rising number of foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella. Other segments of the global food safety testing services market are also expected to witness steady growth during the forecast period.

Key Regions for Food Safety Testing Market

North America is currently the dominant region of the global food safety testing services market, and it is expected to remain the key region through 2020. Stringent regulations on enforcing food safety guidelines in the U.S. And Canada have fueled the demand for the food safety testing services market in the region. The enaction of Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) in the U.S. has augured well for the growth of the global food safety testing services market.

Request For TOC@ http://www.futuremarketinsights.com/toc/rep-gb-257

Other key regions for the global food safety testing services market include Asia Pacific and Western Europe. It is anticipated that development of new food safety regulations will fuel the food safety testing services market in Asia Pacific in the next five years. It is anticipated that Asia Pacific's food safety testing services market will witness a very high growth rate in the next five years.

Key Players for Food Safety Testing Services Market

Some of the leading names in the global food safety testing services market include SGS S.A. (Switzerland), Bureau Veritas S.A. (France), Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Ltd. (U.K.), and Intertek Group Plc. (U.K.)

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-food-safety-testing-services-market-set-for-rapid-advancement-and-direction-by-2014-2020-826030.htm

Media Relations Contact

abhisek Budholiya
Future market insights
Telephone: 347-918-3531
Email: Click to Email abhisek Budholiya
Web: http://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/global-food-safety-testing-services-market


          Cyprium No-Wash Anti-Odor Luxury Towels   
Cyprium No-Wash Anti-Odor Luxury TowelsStay so fresh and so clean, clean after your shower with the Cyprium No-Wash Anti-Odor Luxury Towels. These incredible linens are 100% germ-free without even washing them. The Cyprium Towels feature an innovative blend of bamboo, cotton, and copper. The copper infusion actually kills bacteria and fungus so the towel is always clean. The copper also prevents future pathogen growth and gets rid of 99.9% of bacteria in just a few hours. Even with this amazing technology in place, the... Continue Reading
          Global E. Coli Testing Market to Gain $2.0 Billion by 2021   

Global E. Coli Testing Market To Reach $2.0 Billion by 2021

Deerfield Beach, FL -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/30/2017 -- Zion Market Research has published a new report titled "E. Coli Testing (Membrane Filtration (MF), Enzyme-Substrate Methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests, And Others) Market for Diagnostic Laboratories, Hospitals, Waste Water Treatment Organizations, Bottle Water Suppliers And Other End-user: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 – 2021" According to the report, the global E. coli testing market was valued at around USD 1.2 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach approximately USD 2.0 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of around 6.5% between 2016 and 2020.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria which are found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. The membrane filtration technique is widely used for E. coli test. E. coli are used as indicator organisms to test the effectiveness of effluent disinfection in a wastewater treatment plant. While these organisms are generally harmless to human, that live under the same conditions that human pathogens live.

Request for Free Sample Report: https://goo.gl/HLA4U6

The major driving factor for the global E. coli testing market is increasing government support for E. coli tests and the rising occurrence and high morbidity of E. coli. The development of drug-resistant species is another key factor is anticipated to drive the market growth in the years to come. However, high cost of enzyme-substrate test is expected to curb the market growth in the near future. Nonetheless, technological advancement coupled with increasing use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for environment water testing is projected to open up new growth opportunities during the forecast period.

Request For Free Price Quotation: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/requestquote?reportid=60568

Based on testing methods, the E. coli testing market can be segmented into membrane filtration (MF), enzyme-substrate methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, and others. Enzyme substrate tests accounted for largest share of the total market in 2015. Membrane filtration is another leading segment and expected to exhibit strong growth in the near future.

The E. coli testing market is segmented on the basis of different end-user such as diagnostic laboratories, hospitals, waste water treatment organizations, bottle water suppliers and others. Bottle water suppliers segment accounted for large chunk of the market share in the 2015. This growth is mainly attributed to increasing water pollution. Diagnostic laboratories segment is another key outlet and is expected to witness significant growth within the forecast period.

Browse the full report at: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/e-coli-testing-market-z60568

The E. coli testing market was dominated by Europe with largest share of the total market in 2014. Europe is followed by Asia Pacific and North America in terms of revenue. This growth is mainly due to the occurrence of food borne infections within Germany in 2011 due to the E. coli bacteria.Furthermore, Asia Pacific was another leading regional market in 2015. With increased government support coupled with increasing population, Asia Pacific is expected to witness robust growth during 2015 to 2021. However, Latin America and Middle East & Africa are also expected to exhibit significant growth over the forecast period.

Some of the key players including in the E. coli testing market such as Abbott Laboratories, Danaher Corporation, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Enzo Life Sciences, Inc., and Hologic, Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Dickinson and Company among others.

This report segments the global E. coli testing market as follows:

Testing Segment Analysis: Membrane Filtration (MF), Enzyme-Substrate Methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests, Others

End-user Segment Analysis: Diagnostic Laboratories, Hospitals, Waste Water Treatment Organizations, Bottle Water Suppliers, Others

Regional Segment Analysis: North America (US), Europe(Germany, France, UK), Asia Pacific(China, Japan, India), Latin America(Brazil), Middle East and Africa

Visit Our Blog: https://marketresearchstore2017.wordpress.com

About Zion Market Research
Zion Market Research is an obligated company. We create futuristic, cutting edge, informative reports ranging from industry reports, company reports to country reports. We provide our clients not only with market statistics unveiled by avowed private publishers and public organizations but also with vogue and newest industry reports along with pre-eminent and niche company profiles. Our database of market research reports comprises a wide variety of reports from cardinal industries. Our database is been updated constantly in order to fulfill our clients with prompt and direct online access to our database. Keeping in mind the client's needs, we have included expert insights on global industries, products, and market trends in this database. Last but not the least, we make it our duty to ensure the success of clients connected to us—after all—if you do well, a little of the light shines on us.

Contact Us:
Joel John
3422 SW 15 Street,Suit #8138
Deerfield Beach,Florida 33442
United States
Toll Free: +1-855-465-4651 (USA-CANADA)
Tel: +1-386-310-3803
Email: sales@marketresearchstore.com
Website: http://www.marketresearchstore.com

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/e-coli-testing-market/release-827110.htm

Media Relations Contact

Alisha Gonzales
Corporate Sales Specialist
Market research store
Telephone: 386-310-3803
Email: Click to Email Alisha Gonzales
Web: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/global-clinical-trial-imaging-market-research-report-2017-133797


          Epidemiological Features of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease during the Period of 2008–14 in Wenzhou, China   
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) during 2008–14 in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological data of HFMD retrieved from the Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention were retrospectively analyzed. HFMD infections with enterovirus 71 (EV71), Cox A16 or other pathogens were further verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. A total of 213 617 cases of HFMD were reported between 2008 and 2014 in Wenzhou. The average incidence was 384.31 of 100 000, and the fatality rate was 0.14‰. The incidence of HFMD peaked between April and July, and it occurred more frequently in males than in females. Approximately 92.68% of the HFMD patients were children aged <5 years. Nearly 80% of the cases were diagnosed within 2 days after onset. The major HFMD pathogen was EV71. This study suggested that appropriate comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken to avoid the spread of HFMD.

          Post-doctoral fellowship in Microbiology - Brazil   
MAP kinases and phosphatases are the main signaling pathways of tolerance to different kinds of stresses in eukaryotes. The multifactorial nature of A. fumigatus virulence and pathogenicity program...
          Experience with B.E.S.T. H5 Vaccine   
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) continue to pose a significant economic disease burden to the poultry sector worldwide.
          Norovirus, Not Brawl, Breaks Out At Chuck E. Cheese’s   
Something terrible broke out at a Minnesota Chuck E. Cheese’s last week, and for once it wasn’t an adult brawl requiring police intervention. No, this time it was something even more frightening: norovirus. Authorities believe that the illness didn’t spread through food, but across other surfaces. Norovirus is a gastrointestinal illness that is a hardy, fast-spreading, quickly-mutating pathogen. It’s …
          Catheters Linked to Most Bloodstream Infections in Dialysis Patients    
* Most bloodstream infections in dialysis patients continue to occur in those with central venous catheters used to access their blood. The findings come from 2014 data from US dialysis facilities. * Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated pathogen that caused bloodstream infections, and in many cases they were antibiotic-resistant.
          A penetrating look at EoE pathogenesis: Direct antigen exposure in the esophagus?   
Related Articles

A penetrating look at EoE pathogenesis: Direct antigen exposure in the esophagus?

Gastroenterology. 2017 Jun 24;:

Authors: Philpott H, Dellon ES

PMID: 28655508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Legionella pneumophila Strain 130b Evades Macrophage Cell Death Independent of the Effector SidF in the Absence of Flagellin.   
Related Articles

Legionella pneumophila Strain 130b Evades Macrophage Cell Death Independent of the Effector SidF in the Absence of Flagellin.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:35

Authors: Speir M, Vogrin A, Seidi A, Abraham G, Hunot S, Han Q, Dorn GW, Masters SL, Flavell RA, Vince JE, Naderer T

Abstract
The human pathogen Legionella pneumophila must evade host cell death signaling to enable replication in lung macrophages and to cause disease. After bacterial growth, however, L. pneumophila is thought to induce apoptosis during egress from macrophages. The bacterial effector protein, SidF, has been shown to control host cell survival and death by inhibiting pro-apoptotic BNIP3 and BCL-RAMBO signaling. Using live-cell imaging to follow the L. pneumophila-macrophage interaction, we now demonstrate that L. pneumophila evades host cell apoptosis independent of SidF. In the absence of SidF, L. pneumophila was able to replicate, cause loss of mitochondria membrane potential, kill macrophages, and establish infections in lungs of mice. Consistent with this, deletion of BNIP3 and BCL-RAMBO did not affect intracellular L. pneumophila replication, macrophage death rates, and in vivo bacterial virulence. Abrogating mitochondrial cell death by genetic deletion of the effectors of intrinsic apoptosis, BAX, and BAK, or the regulator of mitochondrial permeability transition pore formation, cyclophilin-D, did not affect bacterial growth or the initial killing of macrophages. Loss of BAX and BAK only marginally limited the ability of L. pneumophila to efficiently kill all macrophages over extended periods. L. pneumophila induced killing of macrophages was delayed in the absence of capsase-11 mediated pyroptosis. Together, our data demonstrate that L. pneumophila evades host cell death responses independently of SidF during replication and can induce pyroptosis to kill macrophages in a timely manner.

PMID: 28261564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Registered Nurse- School Based - Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Shiprock, NM   
Provide staff in-service programs on health topics including blood borne pathogens, and the district exposure control plan....
From Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 15:34:11 GMT - View all Shiprock, NM jobs
          Improperly Pasteurized Milk Recalled in New York State   
The New York State Agriculture Commissioner told consumers that 1% low fat milk produced by Mountain Fresh Dairy in Binghamton, New York is being recalled for improper pasteurization. The notice states, “Proper pasteurization heats milk in order to effectively eliminate all pathogenic bacteria, such as Listeria and Salmonella.” No illnesses have been reported to date in […]
          Registered Nurse- School Based - Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Shiprock, NM   
Provide staff in-service programs on health topics including blood borne pathogens, and the district exposure control plan....
From Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 15:34:11 GMT - View all Shiprock, NM jobs
          Asuhan Keperawatan ERITRODERMA   

ERITRODERMA
                                                     
A. DEFINISI
  • Eritroderma ( dermatitis eksfoliativa ) adalah kelainan kulit yang ditandai dengan adanya eritema seluruh / hampir seluruh tubuh , biasanya disertai skuama ( Arief Mansjoer , 2000 : 121 ).
  • Eritroderma merupakan inflamasi kulit yang berupa eritema yang terdapat hampir atau di seluruh tubuh ( www. medicastore . com ).
  • Dermatitis eksfoliata generalisata adalah suatu kelainan peradangan yang ditandai dengan eritema dan skuam yang hampir mengenai seluruh tubuh ( Marwali Harahap , 2000 : 28 )
  • Dermatitis eksfoliata merupakan keadaan serius yang ditandai oleh inflamasi yang progesif dimana eritema dan pembentukan skuam terjadi dengan distribusi yang kurang lebih menyeluruh ( Brunner & Suddarth vol 3 , 2002 : 1878 ).

B. ETIOLOGI
Berdasarkan penyebabnya , penyakit ini dapat dibagikan dalam 2 kelompok :
1.      Eritrodarma eksfoliativa primer
Penyebabnya tidak diketahui. Termasuk dalam golongan ini eritroderma iksioformis konginetalis dan eritroderma eksfoliativa neonatorum(5–0 % ).

2.      Eritroderma eksfoliativa sekunder
a.       Akibat penggunaan obat secara sistemik yaitu penicillin dan derivatnya , sulfonamide , analgetik / antipiretik dan ttetrasiklin.
b.      Meluasnya dermatosis ke seluruh tubuh , dapat terjadi pada liken planus , psoriasis , pitiriasis rubra pilaris , pemflagus foliaseus , dermatitis seboroik dan dermatitis atopik.
c.       Penyakit sistemik seperti Limfoblastoma.
( Arief Mansjoer , 2000 : 121 : Rusepno Hasan 2005 : 239 )

C. ANATOMI
Kulit mepunyai tiga lapisan utama : Epidermis , Dermis dan Jaringan sub kutis. Epidermis ( lapisan luar ) tersusun dari beberapa lapisan tipis yang mengalami tahap diferensiasi pematangan.
Kulit ini melapisi dan melindungi organ di bawahnya terhadap kehilangan air , cedera mekanik atau kimia dan mencegah masuknya mikroorganisme penyebab penyakit. Lapisan paling dalam epidermis membentuk sel – sel baru yang bermigrasi kearah permukaan luar kulit. Epidermis terdalam juga menutup luka dan mengembalikan integritas kulit sel – sel khusus yang disebut melanosit dapat ditemukan dalam epidermis. Mereka memproduksi melanin , pigmen gelap kulit. Orang berkulit lebih gelap mempunyai lebih banyak melanosit aktif.


Epidermis terdiri dari 5 lapisan yaitu :
a.       Stratum Korneum
Selnya sudah mati , tidak mempunyai intisel , intiselnya sudah mati dan mengandung zat keratin.
b.      Stratum lusidum
Selnya pipih , bedanya dengan stratum granulosum ialah sel – sel sudah banyak yang kehilangan inti dan butir – butir sel telah menjadi jernih sekali dan tembus sinar.
Lapisan ini hanya terdapat pada telapak tangan dan telapak kaki.
c.       Stratum Granulosum
Stratum ini terdiri dari sel – sel pipih. Dalam sitoplasma  terdapat butir–butir yang disebut keratohialin yang merupakan fase dalam pembentukan keratin.
d.      Stratum Spinosum / Stratum Akantosum
Lapisan yang paling tebal.
e.       Stratum Basal / Germinativum
Stratum germinativum menggantikan sel – sel yang diatasnya dan merupakan sel – sel induk.
Dermis terdiri dari 2 lapisan :
a.       Bagian atas , papilaris ( stratum papilaris )
b.      Bagian bawah , retikularis ( stratum retikularis )
Kedua jaringan tersebut terdiri dari jaringan ikat lonngar yang tersusun dari serabut – serabut kolagen , serabut elastis dan serabut retikulus
Serabut kolagen untuk memberikan kekuatan pada kulit. Serabut elastis memberikan kelenturan pada kulit.
Retikulus terdapat terutama di sekitar kelenjar dan folikel rambut dan memberikan kekuatan pada alat tersebut.
Subkutis
Terdiri dari kumpulan – kumpulan sel – sel lemak dan diantara gerombolan ini berjalan serabut – serabut jaringan ikat dermis.
Fungsi kulit :
- Proteksi                                    - Pengatur suhu
- Absorbsi                                   - Pembentukan pigmen
- Eksresi                                     - Keratinisasi
- Sensasi                                     - Pembentukan vit D
( Syaifuddin , 1997 : 141 – 142 )

D. PATOFISIOLOGI
Pada dermatitis eksfoliatif terjadi pelepasan stratum korneum ( lapisan kulit yang paling luar ) yang mencolok yang menyebabkan kebocoran kapiler , hipoproteinemia dan keseimbangan nitrogen yang negatif . Karena dilatasi pembuluh darah kulit yang luas , sejumlah besar panas akan hilang jadi dermatitis eksfoliatifa memberikan efek yang nyata pada keseluruh tubuh.
Pada eritroderma terjadi eritema dan skuama ( pelepasan lapisan tanduk dari permukaan kult sel – sel dalam lapisan basal kulit membagi diri terlalu cepat dan sel – sel yang baru terbentuk bergerak lebih cepat ke permukaan kulit sehingga tampak sebagai sisik / plak jaringan epidermis yang profus.
Mekanisme terjadinya alergi obat seperti terjadi secara non imunologik dan imunologik ( alergik ) , tetapi sebagian besar merupakan reaksi imunologik. Pada mekanismee imunologik, alergi obat terjadi pada pemberian obat kepada pasien yang sudah tersensitasi dengan obat tersebut. Obat dengan berat molekul yang rendah awalnya berperan sebagai antigen yang tidak lengkap ( hapten ). Obat / metaboliknya yang berupa hapten ini harus berkojugasi dahulu dengan protein misalnya jaringan , serum / protein dari membran sel untuk membentuk antigen obat dengan berat molekul yang tinggi dapat berfungsi langsung sebagai antigen lengkap.
( Brunner & Suddarth vol 3 , 2002 : 1878 )
 
F. MANIFESTASSI KLINIS 
·         Eritroderma akibat alergi obat , biasanya secara sistemik. Biasanya timbul secara akut dalam waktu 10 hari. Lesi awal berupa eritema menyeluruh , sedangkan skuama baru muncul saat penyembuhan.
·         Eritroderma akibat perluasan penyakit kulit yang tersering addalah psoriasis dan dermatitis seboroik pada bayi ( Penyakit Leiner ).
        Eritroderma karena psoriasis
Ditemukan eritema yang tidak merata. Pada tempat predileksi psoriasis dapat ditemukan kelainan yang lebih eritematosa dan agak meninngi daripada sekitarnya dengan skuama yang lebih kebal. Dapat ditemukan pitting nail.
  Penyakit leiner ( eritroderma deskuamativum )
Usia pasien antara 4 -20 minggu keadaan umum baik biasanya tanpa keluhan. Kelainan kulit berupa eritama seluruh tubuh disertai skuama kasar.
  Eritroderma akibat penyakit sistemik , termasuk keganasan. Dapat ditemukan adanya penyakit pada alat dalam , infeksi dalam dan infeksi fokal. ( Arif Masjoor , 2000 : 121 )

G. KOMPLIKASI
Komplikasi eritroderma eksfoliativa sekunder :
- Abses                              - Limfadenopati
- Furunkulosis                   - Hepatomegali
- Konjungtivitis                 - Rinitis
- Stomatitis                                    - Kolitis
- Bronkitis
( Ruseppo Hasan , 2005 : 239 : Marwali Harhap , 2000 , 28 )

H. PENGKAJIAN FOKUS
Pengkajian keperawatan yang berkelanjutan dilaksanakan untuk mendeteksi infeksi. Kulit yang mengalami disrupsi , eritamatosus serta basah amat rentan terhadap infeksi dan dapat menjadi tempat kolonisasi mikroorganisme pathogen yang akan memperberat inflamasi antibiotik , yang diresepkan dokter jika terdapat infeksi , dipilih berdasarkan hasil kultur dan sensitivitas.

I.       Biodata
  1. Jenis Kelamin
Biasnya laki – lak 2 -3 kali lebih banyak dari perempuan.
  1. Riwayat Kesehatan
        Riwayat penyakit dahulu ( RPM )
Meluasnya dermatosis keseluruh tubuh dapat terjadi pada klien planus , psoriasis , pitiasis rubra pilaris , pemfigus foliaseus , dermatitis. Seboroik dan dermatosiss atopik , limfoblastoma.
        Riwayat Penyakit Sekarang
Mengigil panas , lemah , toksisitas berat dan pembentukan skuama  kulit.

c.       Pola Fungsi Gordon
1.      Pola Nutrisi dan metabolisme
Terjadinya kebocoran kapiler , hipoproteinemia dan keseimbangan nitrogen yang negative mempengaruhi keseimbangan cairan tubuh pasien ( dehidrasi ).
2.      Pola persepsi dan konsep diri
        Konsep diri
Adanya eritema ,pengelupasan kulit , sisik halus berupa kepingan / lembaran zat tanduk yang besr – besar seperti keras selafon , pembentukan skuama sehingga mengganggu harga diri.
3.      Pemeriksaan fisik
a. KU : lemah
b. TTV : suhu naik atau turun.
c. Kepala
Bila kulit kepala sudah terkena dapat terjadi alopesia.
d. Mulut
Dapat juga mengenai membrane mukosa terutama yang disebabkan oleh obat.
e. Abdomen
Adanya limfadenopati dan hepatomegali.
f. Ekstremitas
Perubahan kuku dan kuku dapat lepas.
g. Kulit
Kulit periorbital mengalami inflamasi dan edema sehingga terjadi ekstropion pada keadaan kronis dapat terjadi gangguan pigmentasi. Adanya eritema , pengelupasan kulit , sisik halus dan skuama.
( Marwali Harahap , 2000 : 28 – 29 : Rusepno Hasan , 2005 : 239 , Brunner & Suddarth , 2002 : 1878 ).

DIAGNOSA KEPERAWATAN DAN FOKUS INTERVENSI
1.   Gangguan integritas kulit bd lesi dan respon peradangan
Kriteria hasil : - menunjukkan peningkatan integritas kulit
                               - menghindari cidera kulit
Intervensi
a.       kaji keadaaan kulit secara umum
b.      anjurkan pasien untuk tidak mencubit atau menggaruk daerah kulit
c.       pertahankan kelembaban kulit
d.      kurangi pembentukan sisik dengan pemberian bath oil
e.       motivasi pasien untuk memakan nutrisi TKTP
 2. Gangguan rasa nyaman : gatal bd adanya bakteri / virus di         kulit
Tujuan : setelah dilakuakn asuhan keperawatan diharapkan tidak terjadi luka pada kulit karena gatal
            Kriteria hasil : - tidak terjadi lecet di kulit
-          pasien berkurang gatalnya
      Intervensi
a.       beritahu pasien untuk tidak meggaruk saat gatal
b.      mandikan seluruh badan pasien ddengan Nacl
c.       oleskan badan pasien dengan minyak dan salep setelah pakai Nacl
d.      jaga kebersihan kulit pasien
e.       kolaborasi dengan dokter untuk pemberian obat pengurang rasa gatal
     3. Resti infeksi bd hipoproteinemia
Tujuan : setalah dilakukan asuhan keperawatan diharapkan       tidak terjadi infeksi
         Kriteria hasil : - tidak ada tanda – tanda infeksi
                                  ( rubor , kalor , dolor , fungsio laesa )
                                 - tidak timbul luka baru
Intervensi                        
a.       monitor TTV
b.      kaji tanda – tanda infeksi
c.       motivasi pasien untuk meningkatkan nutrisi TKTP
d.      jaga kebersihan luka
e.       kolaborasi pemberian antibiotik

 
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

-          Brunner 7 Suddarth vol 3 , 2002. KEPERAWATAN MEDIKAL BEDAH, Jakarta : EGG
-          Doenges  M E. 1999. Rencana asuhan Keperawatan untuk perencanaan dan dokumentasi perawatan pasien edisi 3 , Jakarta : EGC
-          Harahap Marwali 2000 , Ilmu Penyakit Kulit , Jakarta : Hipokrates
-          Hasan Rusepno 2005 , Ilmu Keperawatan Anak, Jakarta : FKUI
-          Mansjoer , Arief , 2000 , Kapita Selekta Kedokteran , Jakarta : EGC
-          Syaifudin , 1997 , anatomi Fisiologi , Jakarta : EGC

  


  


    






          Human Protein Engineered to Capture Circulating Tumor Cells   
Scientists at the Wyss Institute at Harvard University have engineered the human blood opsonin protein known as FcMBL, or Fc-mannose binding lectin, which was originally developed as a broad-spectrum pathogen capture agent, to target circulating tumor cells (CTCs) instead. The team reportedly used magnetic beads coated with FcMBL to capture 90% of seven different types of cancer cells. The novel approach could become useful in cancer diagnostics, according to the investigators. “The FcMBL capture technology may therefore provide a new tool for harvesting a broad range of CTCs with high efficiency as it targets tumor cell specific surface markers that are expressed across diverse cell types and retained throughout the metastatic process,” write the researchers in a paper (“An Engineered Human Fc-Mannose-Binding-Lectin Captures Circulating Tumor Cells”) that appears in Advanced Biosystems . "We were able to rapidly isolate CTCs both in vitro and from blood, including ...
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119159
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119160
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119157
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119163
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119168
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119161
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119172
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** **Minimum Qualifications** **Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN)** **License/Certification:** **·** **Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license** **·** **BCLS required** **·** **ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire** **Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs.** **Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.** **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119170
          (USA-AR-HOT SPRINGS) PATIENT CARE TECHNICIAN (SV HOT SPRINGS), EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT FULL TIME, 7P-7A   
**PATIENT CARE TECHNICIAN (SV HOT SPRINGS), EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT FULL TIME, 7P-7A** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED area) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Area specific Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-HOT SPRINGS-CHI HOSPITAL HOT SPRINGS **Daily Schedule** 7P-7A **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0118981
          (USA-AR-HOT SPRINGS) PATIENT CARE TECH (SV HOT SPRINGS), ORTHO/NEURO UNIT, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**PATIENT CARE TECH (SV HOT SPRINGS), ORTHO/NEURO UNIT, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED area) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Area specific Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-HOT SPRINGS-CHI HOSPITAL HOT SPRINGS **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119032
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119267
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119263
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119264
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119265
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119189
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119186
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119187
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PART TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PART TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 48 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119173
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, FULL TIME, 7P-7A   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, FULL TIME, 7P-7A** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7P-7A **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119177
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), NEUROLOGY UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7P-7A   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), NEUROLOGY UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7P-7A** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Neurology **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7P-7A **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119243
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119240
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119237
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - Full Time 7p-7a   
**Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - Full Time 7p-7a** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7p-7a **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119235
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), ORTHO UNIT, PART TIME, 7P-7A   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), ORTHO UNIT, PART TIME, 7P-7A** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Orthopedics **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7P-7A **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 48 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119218
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119214
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119216
          Assistant Professor – Infectious Diseases - Cincinnati Children's Hospital - Cincinnati, OH   
This position is open forqualified applicants at the Assistant, Associate, or Full Professor level.Important childhood pathogens may include Respiratory...
From Cincinnati Children's Hospital - Sat, 08 Apr 2017 20:05:23 GMT - View all Cincinnati, OH jobs
          Professor - Infectious Diseases - Cincinnati Children's Hospital - Cincinnati, OH   
Important childhood pathogens may include Respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, HIV, TB, malaria, Staph aureus, streptococcal infections, fungal...
From Cincinnati Children's Hospital - Thu, 06 Apr 2017 20:12:41 GMT - View all Cincinnati, OH jobs
             
1.) Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum are coccidian protozoans found worldwide. Which statement is incorrect? a.) parvum is zoonotic b.) hominis can be spread in kiddie pools c.) both species may be transmitted anthroponotically d.) zoonotic transmission is found in both species.
2.)






This boy's risk of infection with C. hominis oocysts may be reduced by: a.) chlorination of water b.) ozonation of water c.) proper filtration of pool water d.) lifeguards
3.) Entaboeba histolytica is the 3rd leading cause of parasitic death according to the WHO. This data was collected before E. dispar was recognized as a morphologically identical pathogen. Comment on how this might influence public health decisions.
4.) Field studies of E. histolytica suggest: a.) no immunity develops to infection b.) immunity to infection develops c.) invasion of the liver never occurs
Giardia lamblia







5.) We would likely expect to find this stage: a.) In the stool of an asymptomatic person b.) in the stool of a sypmtomatic person c.) in the jejunum d.) b and c
6.) Position in the gut is maintained in this stage by: a.) swimming using flagella b.) mechanical suction c) hooks on the axoneme
7.) Which statement is true? a.) A higher prevelance of infection with Blastocystis is seen in HIV/AIDS patients b.) Blastocystis has cysts that are always 9um c.) Isosporiasis is more common in HIV/AIDS patients d.) Isosporiasis is only found in Africa and Asia


          Vector MCQ   
1. Mention the four key factors for transmission of scrub typhus
2. Write down the medical importance and their control of the following;
· Mites
· Fleas
· Lice
· Ticks
3. Are mites insects? Explain.
4. Distinguish between the following at adult stages
· Xenopsylla and Pulex fleas
· Head and Pubic lice
· Tick and Mite
5. Male Anopheles and male culicine mosquitoes
6. What do you understand by the term BRILL-ZINSSER DISEASE as used in Lice.
7. How does the following arthropods transmit disease pathogens (routes of disease transmission)
· Xenopsylla cheopsi
· Anopheles mosquitoes
· Tsetse flies
· Leptotrombidium spp
8. Explain the following as used in fleas
· Bubonic plague
· Black death
9. What is a holometabolous life cycle? Give examples
10. Explain the feeding habit of fleas in relation to disease transmission
11. Distinguish fleas from other arthropods (preferably lice)
          Protozoa MCQ   
1.) Protozoa can be divided into five groups: a.) amoebae, intestinal flagellates, blood and tissue flagellates, multicellular flagellates, ciliates b.) amoebae, intestinal flagellates, blood and tissue flagellates, sporozoa, ciliates c.) multicellular flagellates, unicellular flagellates, ciliates, sporozoa d.) coccidians, piroplasms, cytoplasms, haemosporidians

2.) Trypanosomes reproduce by: a.) gametocyte fusion b.) blebbing c.) schizogony d.) binary fission

3.) E. histolytica and E. coli can be distinguished: a.) morphologically b.) by antibody detection c.) geimsa staining d.) cannot be distinguished

4.) Giardiasis is spread through: a.) water supplies b.) food prep c.) sexual contact d. all of the above

5.) Protozoan cysts: a.) actively feed b.) are generally larger than trophozoites c.) are the primary cause of pathogenesis d.) can be infective after several weeks in the environment

6.) Excystment is triggered by: a.) pH changes b.) increased moisture c.) recognition of antigens d.) pepsinogen

7.) The "string test" is administered: a.) orally b.) endoscopically c.) in latrines d.) rectally

8.) Drugs such as metronidazole contain a nitro group that: a.) functions best in the presence of oxygen b.) forms a nitroradical in anoxic cells c.) does not act on anaerobic infective agents d.) has been banned by the WHO

9.) Solar water disinfectants: a.) do not reduce diarrhea b.) cost more than ozone treatment c.) are cost effective in developing countries d.) have 100% efficacy

10.) Maurer's clefts are formed by: a.) extensions of the parasitophorous vacuole b.) fusion of Schuffner's dots c.) Accole tensions d.) splenomegaly





          More thoughts, and just plain provocateuring, on genomic causal complexity. . . .    
Here are some follow-up reflections on my recent post about GWAS and kindred methods and claims.  I know I'm being contentious, but science has always been contentious.  However, socioeconomic issues (careers, salaries, etc) also enter the picture in a way that is relevant to the inertial nature of our profession.  Readers who haven't read Ludwik Fleck's 1930's volume on 'thought collectives', one preceding Kuhn's 'normal science/paradigm' discussion, should do that, because it's relevant to where we stand now.

The causal complexity of genetic control of quantitative traits was in principle understood by Fisher and others almost exactly century ago.  The development of mapping tools opened the door to seeing what that meant more specifically, at the genome level.

Some key facts about this, I think, are that when there is a strong single signal, we see segregation in families (when there are enough families, as there were in Utah for BRCA mapping), or some other indicator (detectable deletion chromosome detection in Wilm's tumor and perhaps something similar in Retinoblastoma).  Those were families and mainly monogenic in the Mendelian sense (that is, of the traits Mendel carefully chose to study for their simple states).

But BRCA and I think for different reasons, retinitis pigmentosa, mapping by association rather than families doesn't find these genes 'for' the trait.  They're individually strong, but relatively minor on a population and hence association-mapping sense.  And, in nearly all cases, even with 'single locus' diseases, once the gene is known, we see genotypic complexity, including often very low 'penetrance' (showing that 'the' gene isn't a single-locus cause by itself).

BRCA-associated breast cancer risk, once the gene was known and could specifically be typed, is very different even among women carrying known high-risk BRCA1/2 alleles, depend on cohort and the study.  The purported single-locus Hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations are associated with high risk in the original sample, in Utah if my recollection is correct, but the mutation does not cause the disease in other samples.  Even the classic PKU is not always caused by PAH alleles, not all pathogenic PAH alleles cause PKU.  Ditto for CF and the CFTR gene.  In some cases, at least, it is likely other interacting genes that in particular populations lead the target gene to seem causal in a Mendelian-like sense.

And of course there is now a substantial literature showing that individuals carrying dead (non-activated) disease-causing genes are walking around without the disease.  I think estimates have shown that each of us carries many (100 or so?) such genes, at least some if not all of which are diploid-negative.  If this doesn't suggest pervasive redundancy and the mappability problems I and others have written about, what does it suggest?

I will once again utter the apparently off-color factor that few want to acknowledge or say in mixed company: somatic mutation. Enough said on that black-box subject.

And while invoking the Truth's name in vain, I'll just whisper here another off-color word: environment.  Enough said on that black-box subject, too.

And there is the non-reductionistic 4th dimension of genetic causation in cells, which is being studied by chromosomal conformation methods (3C and its variants).  What this will lead to is unclear, to me anyway, but clearly there are extensive trans phenomena that methods for sequence parsing and enumerating methods, par for the course now for many decades, are not solving.  If they were working, we wouldn't need a plethora of new terms, and gilded promises from on high (i.e., NIH).

I've often mentioned that much of what we do relies on statistical inference.  That's been getting a well-deserved bad name, but rest assure that the SAS and SPSS people will guarantee you that their packages or use-instructions have been fixed so they won't lead you astray any further.  Nonetheless, there is this third little secret: statistical methods in this arena assume various aspects of replicability while adaptive evolution is fundamentally about non-replicability.

In any case, estimating risk-factor (causal SNP) effects retrospectively is data-fitting and not, in itself, related to cause or prediction, much less doing so with 'precision'.  Such extrapolation rests on the assumption that past fractions mean future probability, which is critical here (especially when sampling, environment, mutation, somatic mutation etc. are inherently unpredictable and essentially non-replicable).

And is it too identity-political to mention that there is the unseemly fact that most of this intensive mapping work has been done on Europeans for the sometimes even openly acknowledged rationale that Europeans have the moolah to pay for the gene-targeted drugs that Pharma has been promising for decades of the genome era? In any case, that's mere racism relative to the deeper genetic-causal issues themselves.  Even restrictive sampling doesn't guarantee replicability; a point I won't mention again lest I be accused of being as repetitive as someone doing GWAS on obesity.

These are just the simple issues one can conjure up without even doing any PubMed searching.  What amount of hammering does it take to get the message to sink in?  By sinking in I mean not just being noted, briefly and in passing, but to force some change of approach beyond enumerating, random sampling, and cachet marketing words (like gene regulatory networks, precision genomic medicine, omingenic, and all the 'omics'-du-jour, etc.).

I would want to be clear even for those who wish to trash all my thoughts: Go ahead!  But at least acknowledge, as I acknowledged in my previous post, that the mapping era did do us great service by providing, for the first time, some specific sense of the genomic details underlying life's causal complexity and showing that in a general sense the original polygenic model was basically right.  Family studies are better when some really meaningfully single strong factor is at work, but the use of IBD assumptions to do association mapping cast, like a flashlight in the dark, light upon what had perforce remained dark to our understanding.  But it's now been quite a while that we have had the understanding we need to know that we should think of different ways to approach the subject of life's causation.  The flashlight's batteries are fading.

And here's my bit of sympathy for what is going on.  Complementing the complexity landscape that is the obvious reality are the key facts underlying all of this: scientists are people and, including yours truly, have limited abilities and can't just facilely be slammed for their not accounting for everything perfectly and immediately.  We're people who, mainly, need salaries, facilities in which to work, and employers like universities who these days have to operate in the black.  These are the deeply socioeconomic underlying problems that serve to encourage or even to force safe science, big science, and oversold science.  That the news media and other vested interests compound the felony is simply one of the problems of our type of imperfect society.

Moving the Big Money that has been locked up by the current haves, to redistribute to more important-payoff kinds of research would inevitably meet resistance, including from NIH's head office, which has been a sloganeering center that makes PT Barnum look like an amateur.  Whether or how or how much redirection of funding, which is what's actually at the unstated core of much of the controversy, is obviously not predictable.  But the importance of trying is what motivates my perhaps too-often and too-cranky posts:  Somebody has to speak of the Emperor's clothes!

Until we fix these underlying issues, whatever mess our current thrust is embedding us in, they will persist until some lucky day when an actually better idea stumbles upon the stage.
          Registered Nurse- School Based - Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Shiprock, NM   
Provide staff in-service programs on health topics including blood borne pathogens, and the district exposure control plan....
From Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 15:34:11 GMT - View all Shiprock, NM jobs
          C of I receives increased INBRE research funding   

Student and faculty research and travel, new state-of-the-art lab equipment and increased research stipends—just a few things a new INBRE grant will help fund as The College of Idaho makes strides in biomedical research. 

INBRE (the IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence) is a five-year, renewal grant that is awarded to states that have not traditionally been competitive in attracting federal funding for biomedical research. The goals of the program are to establish a research network among Idaho institutions and increase that network’s capacity, to provide students with research opportunities, and to enhance science and technology knowledge of a state’s workforce.

For The College of Idaho, that will mean $2.45 million in new funds over the next five years.

“This is a great step forward for The College of Idaho,” said Tim Otter, the College’s director of foundations and corporate relations. “The INBRE grant will help the C of I grow and continue to build its successful biomedical research program.”

Two C of I chemistry professors have been awarded funds for specific research projects. Dr. Carolyn Dadabay will receive $764,000 over five years as she looks at chemicals found in sagebrush and their capability to be used as medicinal drugs. Dr. John Thurston will receive $768,000 as he researches small molecule inhibitors to help combat potentially pathogenic microorganisms. The rest of the money will be divided among science faculty with other research projects in mind.

“This expansion of research is something our students will get to experience hands-on,” Dadabay said.

The opportunity to get in the lab and do original work is invaluable for students who want to pursue advanced study, Otter said. It also helps students improve their portfolios and find out if they truly want to work in a lab as a profession.

Dadabay’s students already have harvested sagebrush and brought it back to the lab for analysis and preclinical drug testing. The students also are collaborating with professors and students at Boise State University, benefitting from working with two sets of faculty and specialized instruments at the two institutions, Dadabay said.

And fostering that kind of network is what the INBRE grant is all about. Led by the University of Idaho, the Idaho biomedical research network comprises 10 higher-education institutions from around the state and the Boise Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

The C of I has received INBRE grant money for 10 years, supporting research in cellular toxicology and bone health, examining the effects of environmental contaminants on American alligators, and more. The awards for Dadabay and Thurston are new as the C of I jumps up from an INBRE 2 award to an INBRE 3 award, meaning about $40,000 in additional annual funding.

Founded in 1891, The College of Idaho is the state’s oldest private liberal arts college. The C of I has a legacy of academic excellence, a winning athletics tradition and a history of producing successful graduates, including seven Rhodes Scholars and 14 Marshall, Truman and Goldwater Scholars. The College’s close-knit, residential campus is located in Caldwell. Its distinctive PEAK Curriculum challenges students to attain competencies in the four knowledge peaks of the humanities, natural sciences, social sciences and a professional field—empowering them to earn a major and three minors in four years. For more information, visit www.collegeofidaho.edu.

Tags: 

          Material of Sanitary Pads in the market   
DO YOU KNOW ?

Discarded paper, cancer causing agent- bleaching agent, fluorescence etc. are common ram materials for disposable sanitary pad production. Discarded paper such as recycled paper, card board and wood pulp are full of unnoticeable microorganisms, pathogens and other harmful particles. After the softening and chlorine bleaching process of the wood pulp, a poisonous by-product, DIOXIN is formed. The final products of these processes are sanitary pad, pantiliner, pampers, etc.
Discarded paper with fungus and bacteria
Before and after wood pulp going through bleaching process

DIOXIN is highly poisonous. It is 130 times more poisonous than Cyanide and 900 times more poisonous than Arsenic. It is also named as The Most Poisonous Man Made Chemical. International Cancer Research Centre has labeled it as first class cancer causing agent to human. According medical researches, low quantity of dioxin may also cause breast cancer, intestines cancer, endometriosis, uterus cancer, ovarian cancer, infertility, miscarriage and other gynopathy.



The average woman may have as many as 400 periods in their lifetime, and can use up to 15,000 sanitary pads during this time. This is a very large number, and it is important to consider the health implications involved in the products that women use to capture the blood during their periods. It is also interesting to note that the testing for the safety of these products is usually conducted by their manufacturer and not by an independent body. The vast majority of women will opt to use either sanitary pads or tampons, or a combination of both methods. In other words, there are 15,000 time of risk to be exposed to DIOXIN.
          Auburn University scientists make breakthrough discovery on the evolution of the innate immune system   

The laboratory of Kenneth Halanych, the Schneller Endowed Chair in the Department of Biological Sciences at Auburn University, has made a discovery that could have widespread implications for how scientists study the function of the human immune system. Led by doctoral student Michael Tassia, the team’s research revealed that humans and their closest invertebrate relatives share core components of their innate immune systems, components that date back more than 500 million years.

“Humans belong to a group called ‘Deuterostomes’ that include vertebrate animals as well as invertebrate animals like sea stars, sea urchins, sea squirts and acorn worms,” said Tassia.

“All of these groups had gill slits, much like fish, early in their history,” added Halanych.

Tassia and the team in the Halanych lab studied genetic datasets of more than 40 different deuterostome species including human and invertebrate. The research showed evidence that humans and other deuterostomes share a common evolutionary history of their innate immune systems.

“Humans and other vertebrates possess two types of immune systems–innate and adaptive,” said Tassia. “The adaptive immune system is the one we are more familiar with. It contains components such as antibodies that allow for ‘immunological memory,’ which is why immunizations are an effective tool against diseases and pathogens. Whereas the adaptive immune system must ‘learn’ to recognize a pathogen, the innate immune system is prepared from the get-go. The innate immune system relies on a suite of molecules called ‘pattern-recognition receptors’ which, over long periods of evolution, have adapted to recognize common molecular patterns associated with bacteria, fungi and viruses. So, if bacteria like E. coli get into somewhere they shouldn’t, such as a really nasty paper cut, cells in your body sporting these pattern-recognition receptors are ready to mount a rapid immune response, causing inflammation, recruiting more immune cells and destroying those bacteria.”

Tassia explained that the adaptive immune system is exclusive to vertebrates. Components of the innate immune system, on the other hand, predate vertebrates and are present in groups as old as jellies, whose last common ancestor with vertebrates existed more than 500 million years ago. As a result, he began his work by comparing the most well-known pattern-recognition receptors, “Toll-like receptors,” or TLRs, from more than 40 different invertebrate and vertebrate species.

“In our research, we looked at the much bigger system, starting with the diversity of TLRs in each of our species and continuing further by examining whether or not all the other important components required for the system to work are present across deuterostomes,” said Tassia. “Our findings indicate that nearly all the components are present across all the major deuterostome groups, suggesting their innate immune system was present in the last common ancestor more than 500 million years ago and was expanded upon in vertebrates and other groups. Our study also used phylogenetic methods to evaluate the similarity of TLRs between major animal lineages. Interestingly, we were able to identify a group of TLRs very closely related to a mammalian TLR that is critical for recognizing viruses, suggesting this particular method for antiviral defense may be more evolutionarily ancient than previously expected and could predate the origin of vertebrates.”

The realization that the innate immune system of vertebrates and their close invertebrate relatives is similar opens the door to developing more controllable laboratory experiments to understand immune system evolution.

“Often the generation time and ability to keep invertebrates in the laboratory can make them logistically favorable for studying vertebrate systems,” said Halanych.

The research findings are the result of years of study, beginning with Halanych’s dissertation and long-standing interest in the evolution of hemichordates and echinoderms–marine invertebrates–and continuing with the work of doctoral students in the Halanych lab, as well as publically available information from the National Institutes of Health. Tassia gathered several terabytes of genetic data from the previous research efforts and spent approximately two years developing a bioinformatic, computational framework that allowed him to confidently identify and perform analysis on specific genes.

“This work is a great example of how bioinformatics tools can help answer important questions of organismal biology,” said Halanych. “The Tassia et al. paper has helped push the laboratory, and Auburn University, further into the forefront of marine invertebrate genomics.”

The research results were published in the prestigious scientific journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, or PNAS, in a paper titled, “Toll-like receptor pathway evolution in deuterostomes”.

PNAS is one of the top scientific journals and is run by the National Academy of Sciences, an association of the world’s top scientists across many disciplines. Intellectual and scientific standards for the journal are very high, signifying that work published in PNAS is likely to have a significant impact on the field of study.


          Manfaat Probiotik Sebagai Pengganti Antibiotik Dalam Pakan Ternak   
Suplemen Dari bahan Alami Yang Mengandung Probiotik.

Tingginya kewaspadaan konsumen terutama di negara-negara maju akan makanan yang dikonsumsi terutama makanan yang berasal dari produk hewani mengilhami para nutritionist menciptakan makanan ternak yang tidak hanya mencukupi kebutuhan nutrisi (energi, asam amino, vitamin, dan mineral) bagi tenak itu sendiri tetapi juga keamanan bagi konsumen terhadap makanan yang dikonsumsi (daging, telur, dan susu). 

Penggunaan antibiotik atau antimikrobial sebagai bahan aditif dalam pakan ternak telah berlangsung lebih dari 40 tahun. Senyawa antibiotik tersebut digunakan sebagai growth promotor dalam jumlah yang relatif kecil namun dapat meningkatkan efisiensi pakan (feed efficiency) dan reproduksi ternak sehingga dengan penggunaan bahan aditif tersebut peternak dapat memperoleh keuntungan lebih. Namun, akhir-akhir ini penggunaan senyawa antibiotik mengalami penurunan dan bahkan di beberapa negara telah melarang penggunaan antibiotik sebagai bahan aditif dalam pakan ternak, hal ini disebabkan karena dua faktor utama. Pertama, kemungkinan hadirnya residu dari antibiotik yang akan menjadi racun bagi konsumen, di samping itu antibiotik dapat menciptakan mikro-organisme yang resisten dalam tubuh manusia atau ternak (terutama bakteri-bakteri pathogen seperti Salmonella, E. coli dan Clostidium perfrinens). Dilaporkan penggunaan antibiotik pada pakan ternak unggas di North Carolina (Amerika Serikat) mengakibatkan resistensi ternak terhadap Enrofloxacin, merupakan salah satu antibiotik yang direkomendasikan untuk membasmi bakteri Escherichia coli. 

Makanan fungsional 
Sebagai pengganti antibiotik nutritionist merekomendasikan peternak menggunakan probiotik sebagai bahan aditif. Probiotik tergolong dalam makanan fungsional, di mana bahan makanan ini mengandung komponen-komponen yang dapat meningkatkan kesehatan ternak dengan cara memanipulasi komposisi bakteri yang ada dalam saluran pencernaan ternak. Berbeda dengan antibiotik, probiotik merupakan mikro-organisme yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan efisiensi pakan ternak tanpa mengakibatkan terjadinya proses penyerapan komponen probiotik dalam tubuh ternak, sehingga tidak terdapat residu dan tidak terjadinya mutasi pada ternak. Sementara antibiotik merupakan senyawa kimia murni yang mengalami proses penyerapan dalam saluran pencernaan. Di samping probiotik juga terdapat prebiotik. Prebiotik merupakan bahan pakan berupa serat {B(2-1) D fructans} yang tidak dapat dicerna oleh ternak berperut tunggal (monogastric seperti ayam atau babi). Serat tersebut dapat menjadi pemicu untuk peningkatan bakteri yang menguntungkan bagi ternak seperti Lactobacillus dan Bifidobacteria. Sebagai perbandingan organisme yang mengonsumsi karbohidrat bukan berupa serat seperti sukrosa atau pati komposisi bakteria pada saluran pencernaan didominasi oleh bakteri Bacteriodes (72 persen) sementara pemberian makanan berupa serat seperti oligofruktosa atau inulin meningkatkan komposisi Bifidobacteria sampai 81 persen. 

Istilah probiotik pertama sekali diperkenalkan oleh Perker (1974) menggambarkan tentang keseimbangan mikro-organisme dalam saluran pencernaan. Pada saat ternak mengalami stres, keseimbangan mikro-organisme dalam saluran pencernaan terganggu, mengakibatkan sistem pertahanan tubuh menurun dan bakteri-bakteri pathogen berkembang dengan cepat. Pemberian probiotik dapat menjaga keseimbangan komposisi mikro-organisme dalam sistem pencernaan ternak berakibat meningkatnya daya cerna bahan pakan dan menjaga kesehatan ternak. 

Sebagian besar probiotik yang digunakan sebagai aditif adalah tergolong bakteri termasuk dalam species Lactobacillus (L acidophilus, L lactis, L plantarum) dan Bifidobacterium (B bifidum, B thermophilum), di samping itu terdapat juga bakteri Streptococcus lactis dan jenis fungi seperti Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus oryzue. Manfaat probiotik sebagai bahan aditif ditunjukkan dengan meningkatnya ketersediaan lemak dan protein bagi ternak, di samping itu probiotik juga meningkatkan kandungan vitamin B kompleks melalui fermentasi makanan. Probiotik juga dapat meningkatkan kekebalan (immunity), mencegah alergi makanan dan kanker (colon cancer). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan insiden kanker lambung pada ternak yang diberikan probiotik (Lactobacillus GG) berpengaruh nyata terhadap ternak yang tidak diberikan probiotik. Di mana ternak yang diteliti terlebih dahulu diinjeksi dengan dimethylhydrazine (penyebab kanker). 

Metchnikoff (1907) warga negara berkebangsaan Rusia memenangkan hadiah Nobel menarik dunia berkat penemuannya tentang kesehatan makhluk hidup berkaitan dengan mikro-organisme yang terdapat pada saluran pencernaan. Metchnikoff menyatakan bahwa mikro-organisme yang terdapat pada saluran pencernaan terdiri dari dua jenis, ada yang menguntungkan dan ada yang merugikan. Pemberian yoghurt yang mengandung Lactobasillus bulgaricus (bakteri yang menguntungkan) meningkatkan kesehatan dan harapan hidup seperti terjadi pada penduduk Balkan. Prinsip kerja dari probiotik; bakteri-bakteri probiotik (lactobacillus dan Bifidobacterium) bekerja secara anaerob menghasilkan asam laktat mengakibatkan turunnya pH saluran pencernaan yang menghalangi perkembangan dan pertumbuhan bakteri-bakteri pathogen. Berbeda dengan bakteri pathogen (Escherichia coli) yang mendiami daerah dinding pencernaan untuk mengembangkan penyakit, bakteri-bakteri probiotik mendiami mukosa pencernaan yang juga berakibat perubahan komposisi dari bakteri yang terdapat dalam saluran pencernaan. 

Pengaruh Probiotik 
Penelitian yang berkaitan dengan pemberian probiotik terhadap pakan ternak telah banyak dilakukan. Pemberian Lactobacillus acidophilus pada pakan ternak meningkatkan pertambahan berat badan sapi dan efesiensi makanan, sementara tingkat kematian ternak sapi menurun dari 7,5 persen menjadi 1,5 persen akibat pemberian probiotik. Pada ternak ayam pemberian Lactobacillus meningkatkan pertambahan berat badan 491,3 g/hari dibandingkan dengan kontrol 459,6 g/ hari. Namun, penelitian pada babi pengaruh probiotik baru jelas terlihat apabila ternak tersebut berada dalam kondisi stres, sementara keadaan normal tidak terdapat pengaruh nyata. Pada ternak jenis sapi pemakain Probiotik dan ditunjang kebutuhan pakan yang cukup mampu meningkatkan kenaikan berat badan sapi 2,2 sampai 2,5 kg / hari.

Di samping bakteri, fungsi juga digunakan sebagai probiotik. Saccharomyces cerevisiea dan Aspergillus oryzae merupakan jenis fungi yang banyak digunakan dalam pakan ternak. Saccharomyces cerevisiea mempunyai karakteristik khusus dalam pakan ternak karena kemampuannya memproduksi asam glutamat yang dapat meningkatkan palatability dari pakan tersebut. Berbeda dengan bakteri, fungsi merupakan mikro-organisme yang mempunyai tingkat resisten yang tinggi dan dapat hidup pada kondisi yang kurang menguntungkan, di samping itu juga fungsi mudah dikembang biakkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Aspergillus niger meningkatkan berat badan 5,9 persen dan meningkatkan efisiensi pakan 0,8 persen. Peningkatan penampilan ternak akibat pemberian Aspergillus niger disebabkan oleh meningkatnya asam lemak terbang (volatile fatty acids) seperti asam asetat, asam butirat, dan asam propionat yang merupakan sumber energi bagi ternak terutama ternak ruminansia (sapi, kerbau, atau kambing). Juga dilaporkan bahwa pemberian Saccharomyces cerevisie dapat meningkatkan daya cerna protein dan serat seperti selulosa dan hemiselulosa. Transpor ternak dari satu tempat ke tempat lainnya dapat mengakibatkan ternak menjadi stres, penambahan fungsi pada pakan ternak selama masa perpindahan ternak dapat menjadi salah satu pemecahan masalahan. 

Di samping probiotik, saat ini banyak dikembangkan berbagai jenis bahan aditif yang berasal dari produk mikro-organisme seperti enzim (proteinase, amilase, selulase, xylanase, pectinase, dan lain sebagainya) yang diberikan kepada ternak. Di berbagai negara akhir-akhir ini penelitian yang berkaitan dengan salah satu mikro-organisme yang memproduksi enzim phytase sedang gencar-gencarnya dilakukan. Enzim phytase sangat bermanfaat karena kemampuan enzim tersebut mengubah fosfor yang terdapat pada biji-bijian (jagung, padi, gandum, kacang kedelai, dan lain-lain) dalam bentuk tidak tersedia menjadi bentuk tersedia dan dapat diserap oleh ternak. Tanpa adanya phytase bagian besar pospor yang terdapat pada biji-bijian dikeluarkan melalui faeces, pada akhirnya dapat mencemari lingkungan melalui proses Eutropication (pengurangan air yang bermanfaat oleh organisme karena meningkatnya alga atau tanaman pengganggu dan berakibat rendahnya kandungan oksigen sebagai proses dekomposisi dari bahan alga tersebut). 

Peluang bisnis industri pakan 
Begitu besarnya manfaat penggunaan mikro-organisme sebagai bahan aditif pakan ternak, pada saat ini industri pakan di berbagai negara sedang mengembangkan teknik pembudidayaan jenis-jenis bakteri, jamur, dan protozoa, yang dikemas dalam bentuk pakan ternak untuk diperjualbelikan. Akhir-akhir ini negara-negara Eropa Barat sedang giat-giatnya memberantas pemakaian bahan-bahan antibiotik Kimia dan hormon sebagai pemicu produksi ternak, diharapkan pada tahun 2012 semua produksi ternak di Eropa barat bebas dari bahan kimia tersebut, sementara Jerman mencanangkan lebih dahulu (2006), produksi ternak dan pertanian bebas dari pemakaian bahan-bahan kimia (Ökologische produkte).  

Bio Fertile
Bio Fertile adalah salah satu Suplemen yang di ciptakan sebagai cara cepat untuk menjaga kesehatan ternak dan mempercepat proses penggemukan pada ternak.Banyak negara-negara maju telah menggunakan produk yang sejenis sebagai suplemen untuk meningkatkan hasil ternak yang maksimal. Disamping itu pemakaian Bio Fertile sangat berpengaruh terhadap kondisi lingkungan yang sangat baik.Karena kotoran yang di hasilkan oleh ternak tidak mengakibatkan  bau yang menyengat yang dapat mengganggu lingkungan.Riset yang dilakukan bahwa pemakian Bio Fertile sebagai suplemen untuk ternak dapat menghasilkan pertambahan proses penggemukan ternak yang sangat cepat.
Industri peternakan di berbagai negara seperti Jerman, Amerika Serikat, dan Australia telah bekerja sama dengan institut dan universitas untuk melakukan penelitian tentang manfaat Probiotik untuk penggemuk ternak.
Dan hasil penelitia tersebut sekarang telah diproduk suplemen yang sejenis di negara-negara tersebut.
Negara-negara tersebut telah melarang penggunakan Suplemen dari bahan-bahan kimia. Maka Bio Fertile diciptakan dari bahan-bahan alami yang sangat berkhasiat.

          Prevent The Spread Of Disease In Irrigation Water   
Water-mold pathogens cause significant crop losses and reduce floriculture crop quality. Take measures in your greenhouse to prevent the spread of diseases like Phytophthora and Pythium.
          Just over the Next Ridge   
  Photo: Nobody planned for this. Manolo, one of our Tree Bank Co-Directors, displays two coffee leaves infected by the fungal rust pathogen Hemileia vastatrix.   Maybe one day I’ll write one of those business self-help books. “Five Rewarding Ways to Cut Your Income in Half,” or something like that. (Of course I would want to write on something that I’m good at personally.) If someday I do venture into that genre, this is the lesson that I would be most eager to impart:   Say that you want to
          TGV-inhalonix’s New Study Shows Promise To Fight Deadly CF Lung Infections   

New York-based company says its drug candidate demonstrates breakthrough results against pathogens that cause lethal infections in cystic fibrosis patients

The post TGV-inhalonix’s New Study Shows Promise To Fight Deadly CF Lung Infections appeared first on Online Free Press release news distribution - TopWireNews.com.


          Namibia: South Africa Bird Flu Outbreak to Affect Local Traders   
[Namibia Economist] The Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry has suspended the import of live bird species and poultry products following an outbreak of Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in South Africa's Mpumalanga Province.
          Hong Kong bans import of poultry meat and products from Lekwa Local Municipality, South Africa   
     The Centre for Food Safety (CFS) of the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department announced today (June 30) that in view of a notification from the South African authorities about an outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza in Lekwa Local Municipality, South Africa, it has banned the import of poultry meat and products (including poultry eggs) from the area with immediate effect to protect public health in Hong Kong.

     A CFS spokesman said that no poultry meat or poultry eggs were imported from South Africa in the first five months of this year.

     "The CFS has contacted the South African authorities over the issue and will closely monitor information issued by the World Organisation for Animal Health on avian influenza outbreaks. Appropriate action will be taken in response to the development of the situation," the spokesman said.
          CFS announces food safety report for May   
     The Centre for Food Safety (CFS) of the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department today (June 30) released the findings of its food safety report for last month. The results of about 11 600 food samples tested were found to be satisfactory except for seven unsatisfactory samples which were announced earlier. The overall satisfactory rate was 99.9 per cent.

     A CFS spokesman said about 1 100 food samples were collected for microbiological tests, some 3 000 samples were taken for chemical tests and the remaining 7 500 (including about 7 200 taken from food imported from Japan) were collected to test radiation levels.

     The microbiological tests covered pathogens and hygienic indicators, while the chemical tests aimed at detecting pesticides, preservatives, metallic contaminants, colouring matters, veterinary drug residues and others.

     The samples comprised about 2 300 samples of vegetables and fruit and their products; 700 samples of meat and poultry and their products; 1 700 samples of aquatic and related products; 700 samples of milk, milk products and frozen confections; 900 samples of cereals, grains and their products; and 5 300 samples of other food commodities (including beverages, bakery products and snacks).

     The seven unsatisfactory samples comprised a fresh asparagus sample and a dried lily bulb sample detected with cadmium, a metallic contaminant, at levels exceeding the legal limit; two bottled oyster sauce samples detected with propyl para-hydroxybenzoate, a preservative not permitted in food; a gan shui rice dumpling sample found to contain boric acid, a preservative not permitted in food; a prepackaged coconut milk powder sample found to contain a food allergen, milk, undeclared on the food label; and a chilled tiger grouper sample found to contain a trace amount of nitrofuran metabolite.

     The CFS has taken follow-up action on the unsatisfactory samples including informing the vendors concerned of the test results, instructing them to stop selling the affected food items and tracing the sources of the food items in question.

     People who suffer from a food allergy (such as milk) may be adversely affected upon consumption of food with allergen. Therefore, all prepackaged food is required to indicate the presence of the eight allergens (including milk) according to the requirements of the law. The trade should ensure that information on the label is accurate and complies with the local regulation on labelling of food allergens.

     Nitrofurans are a family of chemical compounds which have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Although there is evidence suggesting that nitrofurans might cause cancer in animals, there is yet sufficient data confirming that it can cause cancer in humans. JECFA (Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives) considered that competent authorities should prevent residues of nitrofurans in food. Nitrofurans have been prohibited for use in food-producing animals in many countries.

     The spokesman reminded the food trade to ensure that food is fit for human consumption and meets legal requirements. Consumers should patronise reliable shops when buying food and maintain a balanced diet to minimise food risks.
          Current opinions in the infection control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa   
imagePseudomonas aeruginosa and some of the species of Enterobacteriaceae are Gram-negative hospital-acquired pathogens that are mostly difficult to treat. Carbapenem drugs are a group of β-lactams class that affect cell wall and are administered in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. These organisms can be resistant to carbapenem drugs via mechanisms such as carbapenemase enzymes and multidrug efflux systems. Detection methods for carbapenem-resistant isolates are the modified Hodge test, Carba NP test, and PCR. This review will describe the current opinion in the treatment of multidrug-resistant and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa and suggest some available antibiotics to be administered in the treatment of infections involving these organisms. Based on carbapenem susceptibility patterns found in previous studies, some drugs such as antipseudomonal agents, colistin, or combined therapy have been suggested for carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa, and tigecycline, colistin, and fosfomycin have been suggested for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
          Determinants of Antibiotic Tailoring in Pediatric Intensive Care: A National Survey.   

Determinants of Antibiotic Tailoring in Pediatric Intensive Care: A National Survey.

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun 28;:

Authors: Fontela PS, Quach C, Karim ME, Willson DF, Gilfoyle E, McNally JD, Gonzales M, Papenburg J, Reynolds S, Lacroix J, Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network; on behalf of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe the criteria that currently guide empiric antibiotic treatment in children admitted to Canadian PICUs.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
SETTING: Canadian PICUs.
SUBJECTS: Pediatric intensivists and pediatric infectious diseases specialists.
INTERVENTIONS: None.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We used focus groups and literature review to design the survey questions and its four clinical scenarios (sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and intra-abdominal infections). We analyzed our results using descriptive statistics and multivariate linear regression. Our response rate was 60% for pediatric intensivists (62/103) and 36% for pediatric infectious diseases specialists (37/103). Variables related to patient characteristics, disease severity, pathogens, and clinical, laboratory, and radiologic infection markers were associated with longer courses of antibiotics, with median increment ranging from 1.75 to 7.75 days. The presence of positive viral polymerase chain reaction result was the only variable constantly associated with a reduction in antibiotic use (median decrease from, -3.25 to -8.25 d). Importantly, 67-92% of respondents would still use a full course of antibiotics despite positive viral polymerase chain reaction result and marked clinical improvement for patients with suspected sepsis, pneumonia, and intra-abdominal infection. Clinical experience was associated with shorter courses of antibiotics for meningitis and sepsis (-1.3 d [95% CI, -2.4 to -0.2] and -1.8 d [95% CI, -2.8 to -0.7] per 10 extra years of clinical experience, respectively). Finally, site and specialty also influenced antibiotic practices.
CONCLUSIONS: Decisions about antibiotic management for PICU patients are complex and involve the assessment of several different variables. With the exception of a positive viral polymerase chain reaction, our findings suggest that physicians rarely consider reducing the duration of antibiotics despite clinical improvement. In contrast, they will prolong the duration when faced with a nonreassuring characteristic. The development of objective and evidence-based criteria to guide antibiotic therapy in critically ill children is crucial to ensure the rational use of these agents in PICUs.

PMID: 28661973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria   
none
          Population Genomics of Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens   
none
          Host-induced aneuploidy and phenotypic diversification in the Sudden Oak Death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum   
none
          Asbestos/Air Quality Coordinator   
Exam number: 
#68-071
Exam type: 
Open Competitive (open to the public)
Salary: 
$47,857 - $63,203 Annually
Opening Date: 
June 30, 2017
Closing Date: 
August 2, 2017
Examination date: 
September 9, 2017
Application fee: 
$20.00
RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS: CANDIDATES MUST HAVE BEEN LEGAL RESIDENTS OF ERIE COUNTY FOR AT LEAST ONE MONTH IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING THE DATE OF THE WRITTEN TEST AND MUST BE LEGAL RESIDENTS OF ERIE COUNTY AT THE TIME OF APPOINTMENT. There is one vacancy at the Erie County Department of Public Works.
Examples of Duties: 
An Asbestos/Air Quality Coordinator supervises removal and disposal of asbestos material found within public buildings, and investigating, testing and finding solutions for air born problems in County buildings; Maintains a program to monitor all County buildings and facilities annually to determine the conditions of any asbestos containing materials; carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and microbiological contaminants; Tests for radon and other agents that adversely effect building users; Supervises the removal and disposal of asbestos material found in public buildings; Assists with the planning of projects with supervisors; Supervises skilled, non-skilled worker, technical and maintenance staff; Assigns workers, issues supplies and equipment; Makes inspections and reviews work for standard of performance and for conformance with Federal, State and County safety regulations; Maintains records of personnel, requisitions supplies, confers with vendors and salesmen on supplies and equipment; Estimates time and material costs; Files paperwork for and verifies asbestos licenses of workers; Supervises, operates, maintains and repairs heating/cooling equipment and power plant equipment in County buildings; Establishes a training program for all County employees who might reasonably be expected to come into contact with asbestos materials during the performance of their County employment; Establishes guidelines for supervisors who can/will provide periodic reminders to employees of their responsibility/duty to inform their supervisors when any material containing asbestos becomes friable or may become friable due to daily wear, roof leaks, or maintenance:   
Qualifications: 
MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Candidates must meet one of the following requirements on or before the date of the written test: A) Completion of 60 semester credit hours at a regionally accredited or New York State registered college with a major in building technology or a related field and four (4) years of experience in the maintenance and repair of buildings and equipment, including asbestos handling and *supervision of workers involved in asbestos removal, at least two (2) years of which was in a supervisory capacity; or: B) Graduation from a vocational high school with courses relating to building trades and five (5) years of experience in the maintenance and repair of buildings and , including asbestos handling and *supervision of workers involved in asbestos removal, at least two (2) years of which was in a supervisory capacity; or: C) Graduation from high school and six (6) years of experience in the maintenance and repair of buildings and equipment, including asbestos handling and *supervision of workers involved in asbestos removal, at least two (2) years of which was in a supervisory capacity; or: D) An equivalent combination of training and experience as defined by the limits of (A), (B), and (C). SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:Candidate must possess a New York State Certification for Asbestos Removal; andCandidate must possess a valid Asbestos Handler Certificate (Type G-Supervisor) issued by the New York State Department of Labor, Division of Safety and Health , at time of permanent appointment.; andCandidate must be able to wear a respirator; andCandidate must possess a Chief Stationary Engineer’s License, issued by the Board of Examiners, City of Buffalo.
NOTES: 1.)  Verifiable part-time and/or volunteer experience will be pro-rated toward meeting the experience requirements. 2.) *Supervision – Responsible direction and control of subordinate employees. This involves the assignment of work, approval of work, training, evaluation and discipline of employees. The supervisory aspects must be an integral part of the job, not incidental or occasional.  3.) Your degree and/or college credit must have been awarded by a regionally accredited college or university or one recognized by the New York State Education Department as following acceptable educational practices. A grade of "D" or better is necessary for a course to be credited as successfully completed. If your degree and/or college credit was awarded by an educational institution outside of the United States and its territories, you must provide independent verification of equivalency. You can write to this Department for a list of acceptable companies providing this service; you must pay the required evaluation fee.
The New York State Department of Civil Service has not prepared a test guide for this examination. However,candidates may find information in the publication "How to take a written test" helpful in preparing for this test. This publication is available on line at: www.cs.ny.gov/testing/localtestguides.cfm  
Subjects of Examination: 
SUBJECTS OF EXAMINATION: A written test designed to evaluate knowledge, skills and /or abilities in the following areas: 1. Administrative supervision These questions test for knowledge of the principles and practices involved in directing the activities of a large subordinate staff, including subordinate supervisors. Questions relate to the personal interactions between an upper level supervisor and his/her subordinate supervisors in the accomplishment of objectives. These questions cover such areas as assigning work to and coordinating the activities of several units, establishing and guiding staff development programs, evaluating the performance of subordinate supervisors, and maintaining relationships with other organizational sections. 2. Operation, construction, alteration, and maintenance of physical plants, including mechanical and electrical equipment These questions test for knowledge of the methods and materials used in the construction, alteration, maintenance and repair of physical plant facilities including such areas as building foundation and framing, building hardware, insulation, and roofing; and building plumbing, electrical, sanitary, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems. 3. Maintenance management and energy conservation These questions test for knowledge of the principles and practices involved in managing a building maintenance and energy conservation program including such areas as determining the need for and scheduling building repairs; proper building maintenance techniques; and effective energy conservation practices for buildings, including optimal heating plant and cooling system operation. 4. Operation and maintenance of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems These questions test for knowledge of basic principles, practices and techniques essential to the correct operation and maintenance of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, including such areas as air supply and exhaust systems, circulating fan capacities, building ventilation requirements, steam, hot water, and hot air heating systems; boiler operation; the refrigeration cycle, types and characteristics of refrigerants, troubleshooting air conditioning system problems, and proper maintenance of air conditioning systems. 5. Abatement of unsafe health and working conditions related to processes, operations, materials, and pathogens found in the working environment These questions test for knowledge of the principles and practices involved in the identification and abatement of unsafe health and working conditions, including such areas as characteristics of hazards and unsafe work site environments; consequences resulting from unsafe health and working conditions; safety procedures and equipment used to abate unsafe health and working conditions; and preventive and corrective control strategies and measures.  NOTICE TO CANDIDATES:  It is recommended that candidates use a quiet, hand held, solar or battery powered calculator.  Devices with typewriter keyboards, "Spell Checkers", “Personal Digital Assistants", "Address Books", "Language Translators", "Dictionaries", or any similar devices are prohibited.  You may not bring books or other reference materials.

          Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.   
Related Articles

Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 27;7(1):4269

Authors: Yan X, Qiao H, Zhang X, Guo C, Wang M, Wang Y, Wang X

Abstract
Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

PMID: 28655869 [PubMed - in process]


          The emerging British Verticillium longisporum population consists of aggressive Brassica pathogens.   
Related Articles

The emerging British Verticillium longisporum population consists of aggressive Brassica pathogens.

Phytopathology. 2017 Jun 27;:

Authors: Depotter J, Rodriguez-Moreno L, Thomma BP, Wood T

Abstract
V. longisporum is an economically important fungal pathogen of brassicaceous crops that originated from at least three hybridization events between different Verticillium spp., leading to the hybrid lineages A1/D1, A1/D2 and A1/D3. Isolates of lineage A1/D1 generally cause stem striping on oilseed rape (Brassica napus), which has recently been reported for the first time to occur in the UK. Intriguingly, the emerging UK population is distinct from the north-central Europe stem striping population. Little is known about the pathogenicity of the newly emerged UK population, hence pathogenicity tests were executed to compare British isolates to previously characterized reference strains. Besides on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the pathogenicity of four British isolates was assessed on four cultivars of three Brassica crop species: oilseed rape (cv. Quartz and Incentive), cauliflower (cv. Clapton) and Chinese cabbage (cv. Hilton). To this end, vascular discoloration of the roots, plant biomass accumulations and fungal stem colonization upon isolate infection were evaluated. The British isolates appeared to be remarkably aggressive, as plant biomass was significantly impacted and severe vascular discoloration was observed. The British isolates were successful stem colonizers and the extent of fungal colonization negatively correlated with plant biomass of cauliflower and oilseed rape cv. Quartz. However, in Quartz, the fungal colonization of A1/D1 isolates was significantly lower than that of the virulent reference isolate from lineage A1/D3, PD589. Moreover, despite similar levels of stem colonization as A1/D1 strains, PD589 did not cause significant disease on Incentive. Thus, A1/D1 isolates, including British isolates, are aggressive oilseed rape pathogens despite limited colonization levels in comparison to a virulent A1/D3 isolate.

PMID: 28653577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Pathogen exploitation of an abscisic acid- and jasmonate-inducible MAPK phosphatase and its interception by Arabidopsis immunity.   
Related Articles

Pathogen exploitation of an abscisic acid- and jasmonate-inducible MAPK phosphatase and its interception by Arabidopsis immunity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jun 26;:

Authors: Mine A, Berens ML, Nobori T, Anver S, Fukumoto K, Winkelmüller TM, Takeda A, Becker D, Tsuda K

Abstract
Phytopathogens promote virulence by, for example, exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate (JA). Some plants can counteract pathogen virulence by invoking a potent form of immunity called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Here, we report that ABA and JA mediate inactivation of the immune-associated MAP kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6, in Arabidopsis thaliana ABA induced expression of genes encoding the protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), HAI1, HAI2, and HAI3 through ABF/AREB transcription factors. These three HAI PP2Cs interacted with MPK3 and MPK6 and were required for ABA-mediated MPK3/MPK6 inactivation and immune suppression. The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 activates ABA signaling and produces a JA-mimicking phytotoxin, coronatine (COR), that promotes virulence. We found that Pto DC3000 induces HAI1 through COR-mediated activation of MYC2, a master transcription factor in JA signaling. HAI1 dephosphorylated MPK3 and MPK6 in vitro and was necessary for COR-mediated suppression of MPK3/MPK6 activation and immunity. Intriguingly, upon ETI activation, A. thaliana plants overcame the HAI1-dependent virulence of COR by blocking JA signaling. Finally, we showed conservation of induction of HAI PP2Cs by ABA and JA in other Brassicaceae species. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA and JA signaling pathways, which are hijacked by the bacterial pathogen, converge on the HAI PP2Cs that suppress activation of the immune-associated MAPKs. Also, our data unveil interception of JA-signaling activation as a host counterstrategy against the bacterial suppression of MAPKs during ETI.

PMID: 28652328 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Arabidopsis ABCG34 contributes to defense against necrotrophic pathogens by mediating the secretion of camalexin.   
Related Articles

Arabidopsis ABCG34 contributes to defense against necrotrophic pathogens by mediating the secretion of camalexin.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jun 26;:

Authors: Khare D, Choi H, Huh SU, Bassin B, Kim J, Martinoia E, Sohn KH, Paek KH, Lee Y

Abstract
Plant pathogens cause huge yield losses. Plant defense often depends on toxic secondary metabolites that inhibit pathogen growth. Because most secondary metabolites are also toxic to the plant, specific transporters are needed to deliver them to the pathogens. To identify the transporters that function in plant defense, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants of full-size ABCG transporters for hypersensitivity to sclareol, an antifungal compound. We found that atabcg34 mutants were hypersensitive to sclareol and to the necrotrophic fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinereaAtABCG34 expression was induced by Abrassicicola inoculation as well as by methyl-jasmonate, a defense-related phytohormone, and AtABCG34 was polarly localized at the external face of the plasma membrane of epidermal cells of leaves and roots. atabcg34 mutants secreted less camalexin, a major phytoalexin in Athaliana, whereas plants overexpressing AtABCG34 secreted more camalexin to the leaf surface and were more resistant to the pathogen. When treated with exogenous camalexin, atabcg34 mutants exhibited hypersensitivity, whereas BY2 cells expressing AtABCG34 exhibited improved resistance. Analyses of natural Arabidopsis accessions revealed that AtABCG34 contributes to the disease resistance in naturally occurring genetic variants, albeit to a small extent. Together, our data suggest that AtABCG34 mediates camalexin secretion to the leaf surface and thereby prevents Abrassicicola infection.

PMID: 28652324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Contrasting Regulation of NO and ROS in Potato Defense-Associated Metabolism in Response to Pathogens of Different Lifestyles.   
Related Articles

Contrasting Regulation of NO and ROS in Potato Defense-Associated Metabolism in Response to Pathogens of Different Lifestyles.

PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0163546

Authors: Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Arasimowicz-Jelonek M

Abstract
Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr) P. infestans-potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR) successfully arresting the pathogen. Relatively high levels of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosothiols concentrated in the main vein of potato leaves indicated the mobile function of these compounds as a reservoir of NO bioactivity. In contrast, low-level production of NO and ROS during virulent (vr) P. infestans-potato interactions might be crucial in the delayed up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3 genes and compromised resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen. In turn, B. cinerea triggered huge NO overproduction and governed inhibition of superoxide production by blunting NADPH oxidase. Nevertheless, a relatively high level of H2O2 was found owing to the germin-like activity in cooperation with NO-mediated HR-like cell death in potato genotypes favorable to the necrotrophic pathogen. Moreover, B. cinerea not only provoked cell death, but also modulated the host redox milieu by boosting protein nitration, which attenuated SA production but not SA-dependent defense gene expression. Finally, based on obtained data the organismal cost of having machinery for HR in plant resistance to biotrophs is also discussed, while emphasizing new efforts to identify other components of the NO/ROS cell death pathway and improve plant protection against pathogens of different lifestyles.

PMID: 27695047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Twisted Tomatoes Spreading Concern in Southwest Missouri   
June 30, 2017
Contact: Robert Balek, horticulture specialist
Headquartered in Jasper County
Tel: 417-358-2158
Email: balekr@missouri.edu  
Photo at https://flic.kr/p/q6W8Ui


CARTHAGE, Mo. -- From backyard gardens to full-fledged growers, something twisted is happening to tomato plants in southwest Missouri.

“The first sample came in around June 15 from Dade County,” said University of Missouri Extension Horticulture Specialist Robert Balek.

A Dade County resident brought a portion of the suspect plant into the Dade County Extension office. University of Missouri Agronomy Specialist Jill Scheidt examined the sample there and realized it was not a typical case.

“At first, it looked like it could have been herbicide damage,” said Scheidt. “The leaves and stems were twisted and curled, but there were some differences between the sample and typical herbicide damage which told me it might be something else, something new.”

The sample had curled leaves and stems, but only in the top portion of the plant.  Also, not all of the tomatoes in the garden had these symptoms.  Another part of the mystery was that no herbicides were applied anywhere near the tomatoes. 

That is when a call was made to Jasper County.  “The correct diagnosis is required to know how to proceed with the crop, the plants, and the soil,” said Balek.  “This certainly was an unusual specimen. Since then, more samples came in almost daily form Jasper County.”

Drift from herbicides such as Banvel or 2,4-D can cause twisting and curling of tomato plants, but so can a microscopic pathogen called Tomato Curly Top Virus. 

The aptly named virus causes twisted, curly growth similar to that of herbicide damage, but there are subtle differences.

Tomatoes are very susceptible to herbicide drift, sometimes from as far as a quarter mile to half a mile away.  Cucumbers, peppers, and grapes are also very sensitive, and would all show symptoms in affected areas as well.  If these plants are present and healthy while the tomatoes are curled, you can likely rule out drift as a cause.

Curling can result from herbicide residues in soils, brought in by contaminated compost or mulch, but this also would affect other plants in the same soil.

To be sure, do a bio-assy.  Simply plant a few seeds of green beans near the affected plants.  As the beans sprout and new leaves appear, they should be straight and smooth.  Any curling could mean that herbicide residue is present in the soil. 

While Curly Top Virus is one possibility, there are other diseases which can curl tomato leaves. 

“If you are certain that no herbicide was applied anywhere near your tomatoes, and you have a clean bioassay on your soil, but you still see curling symptoms, contact your local extension office.

Contact Jill Scheidt at the Dade County Extension, 2 N. Main Street, Greenfield or phone: 417-637-2112; contact Robert Balekat the Jasper County Extension, 302 S. Main, Carthage or phone 417-358-2158
###

DOWNLOAD PHOTOS FOR USE WITH THIS STORY
https://flic.kr/p/V2ekhf - Suspected Curly Top Virus Sample
https://flic.kr/p/V2ekih - Banvel Damage on Tomato

          Sep 13, 2017: PPPMB Seminar - Krista Giglio at Plant Science Building   

Krista Giglio
Molecular Biologist, USDA-ARS

Our research unit advances comprehensive knowledge of the biological and economic impacts of invasive pest/pathogen populations and develops appropriate sustainable, economical, and environmentally friendly management strategies. Research encompasses insects, weeds, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses, and focuses on the interactions of pests and pathogens with their hosts at the molecular, cellular, organismal and ecological levels. We also curate the world’s largest collection of fungal pathogens of insects to provide fungal germplasm for research and biopesticide development. Research is regional, national and global in scope and we strive to develop outcomes that are directly transferable to our stakeholders. Current efforts support the following key commodities; potato, tomato, citrus, coffee, greenhouse and nursery crops, as well as, diverse natural landscapes with results being applicable to many other agricultural and natural ecosystems.

View on site | Email this event


          Sep 20, 2017: PPPMB Seminar - Jim Bradeen at Plant Science Building   

Jim Bradeen
University of Minnesota

Areas of Interest

Genomics of Disease Resistance in Plants

Our research focuses on the genetics and genomics of plant resistance to major pathogens. We conduct research in the Solanaceae (potato, tomato, tobacco) and Rosaceae (apple, peach, strawberry, rose) families. Our aim is sustainable and durable genetic solutions to important crop diseases, resulting in reduced grower and environmental costs associated with frequent pesticide applications. Using molecular and applied research techniques, we are identifying, characterizing, isolating, and deploying previously unknown or under-utilized sources of natural genetic resistance. Current research includes structural genomics (genome mapping, whole genome sequencing) of wild relatives of potato, comparative genomics of disease resistance genes across Solanaceous and Rosaceous species, and functional regulation of potato disease resistance genes throughout plant developmental stages and in different plant organs.

View on site | Email this event


          Sep 27, 2017: PPPMB Seminar - Kathryn Bushley at Plant Science Building   

Kathryn Bushley
University of Minnesota

Expertise:

Fungal metabolism

Research Interests:

Fungi are one of the most biochemically diverse kingdoms of life, producing a diverse array of bioactive natural products, many of which have medicinal properties or function in maintaining pathogenesis or symbiosis. Research in my lab focuses on how fungal metabolism shapes the interaction of fungi with plants and other organisms. Using a combination of next generation sequencing technologies, natural products chemistry, molecular genetics, and metabolomics, we examine the evolution, diversity, and functions of fungal secondary metabolites, particularly nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthetases (PKSs). Current research in the lab is focused on fungi that parasitize insects and includes several projects: 1) a population genomic study of fine-scale evolution of secondary metabolites among isolates of the beetle pathogen Tolypocladium inflatum, 2) a comparative genomic and transcriptomic approach to identify genes and regulatory networks that allow fungi in the genera Fusarium and Beauveria to interact with distinct hosts (insects, plants, and other fungi), and 3) the impact of mating biology on the population genetic structure of insect pathogenic fungi.

View on site | Email this event


          Oct 4, 2017: “Cross-Kingdom RNAi and RNA trafficking in plant pathogen interactions“ - Hailing Jin at Plant Science Building   

Hailing Jin

Professor, & Cy Mouradick Endowed Chair
Director of Genetics,Genomics and Bioinformatics Graduate Program
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology
Center for Plant Cell Biology
Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside

Biography & Research Interests

My lab studies the molecular mechanisms of plant immunity and pathogen virulence, with an overall goal to develop effective and environmentally friendly strategies to control plant diseases and to ensure sufficient food production.

Our research projects include:

Small RNAs and Cross-Kingdom RNAi in Plant - Pathogen InteractionsSmall RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are important regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by guiding mRNA cleavage, translational inhibition or chromatin modification. We utilize genomics, genetics, molecular and biochemical approaches to identify and functionally characterize infection-regulated small RNAs, including those from plant hosts and from eukaryotic pathogens. My lab provided the first example of a plant endogenous siRNA that regulates plant immune responses. We further discovered that some small RNAs from aggressive fungal pathogens are delivered into host cells to hijack host RNAi machinery to suppress host immunity genes. These studies have added small RNAs to the list of pathogen effectors, which unveiled a novel virulence mechanism in aggressive eukaryotic pathogens. The transport of small RNAs from fungal pathogens to plant hosts also represents a naturally occurring cross-kingdom RNAi event. We recently show that such cross-kingdom RNAi is bi-directional, plants are also capable of delivery small RNAs into fungal pathogens to attenuate their virulence.

Regulatory mechanisms of RNAi machinery in plant - pathogen interactionsMy lab also studies the function and regulation of RNAi pathway components, mostly Argonaute (AGO) proteins in plant immunity. AGO proteins are the core components of RNAi complexes, which selectively bind with small RNAs and silence target genes with complementary sequences. We discovered that Arabidopsis AGO2 positively regulates antibacterial immunity by associating with miR393*, which targets a Golgi-localized SNARE gene MEMB12 and leads to increased secretion of antimicrobial peptide and confers resistance. Since miR393 also contributes to antibacterial immunity by suppressing auxin receptors, miR393*/miR393 represent a novel example of a miRNA*/miRNA pair that functions in the same cellular pathway (host immunity) through two distinct AGOs. We further demonstrated that small RNA duplex structures and AGO PIWI domain contribute to the selective loading of small RNAs in different AGO proteins, AGO1 and AGO2. We currently focus on the regulation and modification of AGO proteins in responses to pathogen attacks.

Epigenetic regulation of plant immune responses Surveillance of pathogen infection is mediated by intracellular NOD-like nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich-repeat receptors (NLRs) in both plants and animals. We recently discovered that some NBS-LRR genes, are under the control of specific plant chromatin remodeling proteins, as well as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Such epigenetic regulation ensures precise expression of these resistance genes to avoid autoimmune responses or disease.

View on site | Email this event


          (USA-FL-Tampa) ASC Perioperative Verification LPN   
Job Title: Perioperative Verification LPN Reports to: Charge Nurse Position Level: 6B Job Summary: Provides and completes all documentation for pre op verification of scheduled patients. Clarifies all patient information and communicates to anesthesia any issues with scheduler. Essential Functions of the Position: + Collects current schedule and booking sheets on all scheduled cases. + Identify any immediate issues from booking sheet for anesthesia + Pulls all patient information from Intergy to complete evaluation form prior to calling patient. + Ensures all test results that were ordered by surgeon are on chart for evaluation + Works closely with the Charge RN and the Team Lead + Ensures scheduler understands issues and needs of case + Notifies offices of anesthesia request or orders for more information + Stays 8 days to two weeks ahead in calls + Confirms patient, procedure and surgeons + Calls patient with date and time of surgery + Reviews instructions with patient + Notifies Anesthesia of times + Provides anesthesia group weekly forecast and daily schedules + Maintains documentation of all activities + Tracking of booking sheets + Speaking to patients + Tasks between LPN and scheduler and / or MD + Date and time if office was notified and follows through on orders. + Maintains all copies of cancelled and Non ASC candidates + Maintains training requirements + BLS and ACLS + Annual Risk Management education + Annual OSHA training + Annual Malignant Hyperthermia drill + Competencies, when required + Participates in quarterly fire drills as required for AHCA Life Safety Additional Responsibilities: + Performs other incidental and related duties as required and assigned. Physical and Mental Demands: + Ability to sit for long periods of time + High level verbal and written communication skills + Above average ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously + Ability to follow through with task until completion + Ability to move conversations along to end task respectfully. Occupational Exposure: + High risk exposure to blood borne pathogens and chemical hazards. Job Qualifications: + Current Florida LPN Licensure + Strong clinical skills + Basic computer proficiency + Excellent communication skills + Mandatory BLS and ACLS + Previous experience in Med-Surg preferred Department: 0585 ASC TAMPA External Company Name: Florida Medical Clinic External Company URL: http://www.floridamedicalclinic.com/
          (USA-FL-Tampa) RN dialysis- North Tampa   
**PURPOSE AND SCOPE:** Functions as part of the hemodialysis health care team as a Staff Registered Nurse to ensure provision of quality patient care on a daily basis in accordance with FMS policies, procedures, and training. Supports the FMCNA commitment to the Quality Enhancement Program (QEP) and CQI Activities, including those related to patient satisfaction and actively participates in process improvement activities that enhance the likelihood that patients will achieve the FMCNA Quality Enhancement Goals (QEP). Supports the FMCNA’s mission, vision, values, and customer service philosophy. Adheres to all requirements of the FMCNA Compliance Program, and FMS patient care and administrative policies. **DUTIES / ACTIVITIES:** **CUSTOMER SERVICE:** + Responsible for driving the FMS culture through values and customer service standards. + Accountable for outstanding customer service to all external and internal customers. + Develops and maintains effective relationships through effective and timely communication. + Takes initiative and action to respond, resolve and follow up regarding customer service issues with all customers in a timely manner. **PRINCIPAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES** **STAFF RELATED:** + Directs Patient Care Technician’s provision of safe and effective delivery of chronic hemodialysis therapy to patients in compliance with standards outlined in the facility policy procedure manuals, as well as regulations set forth by the corporation, state, and federal agencies + Delegates tasks to all direct patient care staff including but not limited to LVN/LPNs, Patient Care Technicians, and Dialysis Assistants + Assesses daily patient care needs and develops appropriate patient care assignments + Monitors patient care staff for appropriate techniques and adherence to facility policy and procedures + Participates in staff training and orientation of new staff as assigned + Participates in all required staff meetings as scheduled **PATIENT RELATED:** **Education:** + Ensures educational needs of patients and family are met regarding End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) + Provides ongoing education to patients regarding their renal disease, vascular access and dialysis therapy, and other related health conditions + Discusses with patient, and records education related to diet/fluid and medication compliance + Provides patient specific detailed education regarding adequacy measures where applicable - Online Clearance Monitoring (OLC), Adequacy Monitoring Program (AMP), Urea Kinetic Modeling (UKM) + Ensures transplant awareness, modality awareness, and drive catheter reduction + Educates patients regarding laboratory values and the relationship to adequate dialysis therapy, compliance with treatment schedule, medications, and fluid + Dialysis Treatment: + Provides safe and effective delivery of care to patients with ESRD + Implements accurate treatment prescriptions including Sodium (Na) modeling prescription, and Ultrafiltration modeling (where appropriate) to ensure stable treatment therapy as indicated + Assesses patients’ response to hemodialysis treatment therapy, making appropriate adjustments and modifications to the treatment plan as indicated by the prescribing physician. Communicates problems or concerns to the Team Leader or physician. + Identifies and communicates patient related issues to Team Leader or physician + Initiates Initial and Annual Nursing Assessment, and ongoing evaluation and documentation of patient care needs according to FMC Policies and Procedures + Participates in the pre evaluation, initiation, monitoring, termination, access homeostasis, and post evaluation of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment therapy according to established FMC procedures + Identifies and implements appropriate intervention for changes in patient adequacy status and troubleshooting access flow issues as identified by OLC/AMP yellow lights + Provides, supervises (if applicable), and monitors hemodialysis access care according to established procedures. + Implements, administers, monitors, and documents patient's response to prescribed intradialytic transfusions, including appropriate notification of adverse reactions to physician and appropriate blood supplier + Ensures accurate and complete documentation by Patient Care Technician on the Hemodialysis Treatment Sheet + Laboratory-related: + Reviews, transcribes, and enters physician lab orders accurately into the Medical Information System + Ensures appropriate preparation of lab requisitions for Spectra or alternate lab + Ensures correct labs tubes are utilized for prescribed lab specimens and that lab draw and processing procedures are performed appropriately for all lab samples + Identifies and ensures appropriate follow-through regarding missed labs and specimens reported to be insufficient according to company policies and procedures + Ensures all specimens are appropriately packaged according to Department of Transportation (DOT) policies and procedures relating to shipment of blood or body fluid specimens and potentially hazardous material + Ensures that all labs are directed and delivered to appropriate labs + Reports alert/panic and abnormal labs results to appropriate physician + Ensures lab results are forwarded to physicians as requested **General duties:** + Enforces all company approved polices and procedures, as well as regulations set forth by state and federal agencies and departments + Maintains overall shift operation in a safe, efficient, and effective manner + Act as a resource for other staff members + Routinely meets with the Clinical Manager to discuss personnel and patient care status, issues, and information + Collaborate and communicate with physicians and other members of the healthcare team to interpret, adjust, and coordinate care provided to the patient + Provides assistance as needed to patients regarding prescription refills according to FMCNA Policies + Ensures all physician orders are transcribed and entered into the Medical Information system in a timely manner. + Oversees all documentation of patient information + Maintains facility drug list for all required stock medications + Maintains competency with all emergency operational procedures, and initiates CPR and emergency measures in the event of a cardiac and/or respiratory arrest + Ensures verification and availability of adequate emergency equipment + Ensures provision of appropriate vaccinations, immunizations, and annual Tuberculosis (TB) testing + Administers medications as prescribed or in accordance with approved algorithm(s), and documents appropriate medical justification if indicated + Administers PRN medications as prescribed and completes appropriate documentation of assessment of effectiveness. + Maintains appropriate recording of controlled substances as required by law + Assists with the coordination of patient transportation if necessary **MAINTENANCE/TECHNICAL:** + Ensures a clean, safe, and sanitary environment in the dialysis facility treatment area + Ensures competency in the operation of all dialysis-related equipment safely and effectively + Ensures all patient stations, including machines and chairs, are clean and free of blood and placed appropriately + Ensures that all blood spills are immediately addressed according to FMCNA Blood-borne Pathogen Control Policies **MEDICAL RECORDS & DOCUMENTATION:** **General** + Ensures all relevant data including physician orders, lab results, vital signs and treatment parameters, and patient status are documented appropriately and entered into Medical Information System + Ensures all appropriate patient related treatment data is entered into the Medical Information System + Ensures all FMCNA policies regarding patient admission, transfer, and discharge are appropriately implemented + Ensures and verify accuracy of Patient Care Technician documentation **Daily** + Reviews and ensures appropriate daily completion of Hemodialysis Treatment Sheets by all patient care staff + Ensures that all appropriate procedures are followed regarding opening and closing procedures, inclusive of monitoring that all staff and patients have safely left the premises **Monthly** + Initiates, documents, and completes ongoing Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) activities including monthly reports + Completes monthly nurses' progress note + Ensures patient medical records are complete with appropriate information, documentation, and identification on each page (Addressograph label is on all chart forms) + Reviews transplant status and follows established procedure regarding appropriate action to be taken + Completes patient care plans for new patients within the initial 30 days or any patients deemed unstable requiring monthly patient care plans + Completes any long-term programs that are due **Annually** + Completes initial and annual Nursing History and Assessment physical + Ensures completion of Annual Standing Order Review with each physician as required **OTHER:** + Performs additional duties as assigned. **PHYSICAL DEMANDS AND WORKING CONDITIONS:** The physical demands and work environment characteristics described here are representative of those an employee encounters while performing the essential functions of this job. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. The position provides direct patient care that regularly involves heavy lifting and moving of patients, and assisting with ambulation. Equipment aids and/or coworkers may provide assistance. This position requires frequent, prolonged periods of standing and the employee must be able to bend over. The employee may occasionally be required to move, with assistance, machines and equipment of up to 200 lbs., and may lift chemical and water solutions of up to 30 lbs. up as high as 5 feet. The work environment is characteristic of a health care facility with air temperature control and moderate noise levels. May be exposed to infectious and contagious diseases/materials. **EDUCATION** + Graduate of an accredited School of Nursing. + Current appropriate state licensure + Must meet the practice requirements in the state in which he or she is employed + Education and Training qualifications per UltraCare CAP program requirements. **EXPERIENCE AND REQUIRED SKILLS** + Minimum of one-year medical-surgical nursing experience preferred + Hemodialysis experience preferred + ICU experience preferred + Experience and skill requirements as delineated for the appropriate level in the UltraCare CAP program. + Successfully complete a training course in the theory and practice of hemodialysis + Successfully complete CPR Certification + Employees have to meet the necessary requirements of Ishihara's Color Blindness test as a condition of employment. + Provide coverage at any or all area facilities as required by management + ICD - 9 coding Training + Nurses Technical Training + Must meet appropriate state requirements (if any) **_EO/AA Employer: Minorities/Females/Veterans/Disability/Sexual Orientation/Gender Identity_**
          Nov 15, 2017: PPPMB Seminar - Washington da Silva at Plant Science Building   

Washington da Silva
Graduate Student Exit Seminar
PPPMB, Cornell University

Research Focus

My work centers on Potato Virus Y (PVY), the major virus pathogen of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). I am investigating the changes in the genetic diversity structure of PVY populations introduced during vertical and horizontal transmission of the virus. My other research focus is to identify molecular markers in potato that are linked to genes correlated with the expression of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), a tuber deformity associated with infections by necrotic strains of PVY.

View on site | Email this event


          Nov 29, 2017: PPPMB Seminar - Emerson Del Ponte at Plant Science Building   

Emerson Del Ponte
Associate Professor, Epidemiology, University of Vicosa

Research interests

My research is focused on the description, understanding and prediction of plant disease epidemics and the resulting yield losses as well as the characterization of fungal pathogen populations. I use statistical modeling to describe epidemic patterns, increase our understanding of epidemics and assess the risk of disease occurrence and spread from the field to global scale. Other topics include fungicide resistance, weather and climate influence on epidemics, disease and crop loss assessment methods, integrated disease management, decision support systems, simulation modeling and meta-analysis. I currently work actively as Senior Editor for Tropical Plant Pathology, Plant Disease journals.

View on site | Email this event


          Dec 5, 2017: PPPMB Seminar - Jason Stajich at Plant Science Building   

Jason Stajich
Professor, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology and Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, UC Riverside

I am interested in the process and mechanisms of evolution. I study this primarily in fungi using comparative, computational, and experimental tools. We utilize genome and RNA sequencing, sequence analysis, molecular evolution, and phylogenetics, and molecular biology tools to explore the functions of genes or genomic regions identified by analyses to be involved in processes we study.

Most of our work is focused in the zygomycete and zoosporic chytrid fungi (fungi that move!). We also have collaborative projects and interests in Aspergillus, Fusarium, Coccidioides, and Clavispora lusitaniae. The lab is increasingly moving towards questions that relate to symbioses with new projects on fungal-bacteria antagonism and on the biological symbioses that occur among fungi, algae, bacteria in desert Biological crusts. I also have a new interest in extremophile fungi and working on projects to understand the halophilic Hortaea werneckii and endolithic Antarctic fungi through genome sequencing and laboratory experiments.

I am involved in many fungal genome projects including co-leading the 1000 fungal genomes project with the JGI and the zygolife project.

In the broader scope I am interested in the evolution of multicellular forms and regulation of development in fungi. I think understanding how differential gene regulation is established can help learn more about the mechanisms of cell type differentiation. We are also studying the cell wall to understand how innovations in the cell wall and dimorphism impact interactions between pathogenic fungi and hosts they infect. These different projects seek to provide new insight into the big picture of how the complexity of life evolved and how host and pathogen interactions co-evolved.

To address this work we also need tools to sift and mine the gigantic datasets that genomics can produce. I have focused on building tools for comparative and computational analyses of genomes including work on the BioPerl and Gbrowse projects and the development of open source software for bioinformatics and life sciences research through the Open Bioinformatics Foundation.

The lab is also focused on the development of databases for fungal genome data to make the genome and functional information more available. I also blog about interesting findings in fungal, microbial, and genome research and share protocols and coordinate projects through a wiki site.

View on site | Email this event


          (USA-FL-Tampa) Medical Assistant   
Florida Medical Clinic, P.A. Job Description Job Title: Medical Assistant Reports to: Office Supervisor Position Level: 5 Job Summary: Assists providers and manages clinical functions in the department Essential Functions of the Position: + Completes the start of day processes + Unlocks cabinets and doors + Powers up equipment + Logs on all work stations in exam room and work area + Sets up medical supplies and equipment for the day + Properly room patients + Takes and records vitals + Confirms information required by provider is present (labs, hospital records, etc.) + Updates IEHR (allergies, medications, history, etc.) + Assists in following appointment schedule + Prepares patient for examination or treatment + Obtains informed consents and ABN as necessary + Notifies provider when patient is ready + Assists provider during examination and with treatment + Performs treatments as ordered by the provider + Administers injections and immunizations and records them in IEHR + Obtains consents + Prepares specimens and requisitions for lab courier + Performs tests + Cleans and sterilizes instruments and medical equipment + Processes medication requests per provider + Handles medication refill requests + Addresses and handles all tasks, as well as monitoring provider’s tasks + Handles patient calls: + Returns messages + Notifies patients of test results and instructions from provider + Schedules follow up appointments + Makes follow up calls to check on patients post procedure as indicated by provider or office protocol + Triages patient calls and needs + Distributes, reviews, and teaches patient education + Organizes and maintains sample and supply closets + Assists provider with completion of forms requested by patients + Prepares charts + Acquires all medical records necessary for visit + Makes sure all ordered tests have been performed and results are present + Reviews chart and drug inventory to ensure drug is available + Completes the end of day processes + Maintains medical equipment; ensures all equipment is calibrated, cleaned, sterilized and charged + Collects red bags as necessary + Monitors and replaces sharps containers when needed + Stocks exam rooms + Cleans and sanitizes exam rooms + Empties HIPAA container into destruction bin + Logs off of all work stations including exam rooms + Locks all cabinets Additional Responsibilities: + Maintains an organized and clean work area + Participates in maintenance of clinical supplies + Performs other incidental and related duties as required and assigned Physical and Mental Demands: + Physical requirements + Able to stand or walk for long periods + Use of proper body mechanics + Normal concentration and normal complexity of decision making + High level verbal and written communication skills + Above average ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously Occupational Exposure: + High risk exposure to bloodborne pathogens and chemical hazards Job Qualifications: + High school graduate or GED equivalent + Strong customer service orientation + Completion of Medical Assistant program + Medical Assistant certification preferred + Strong team player + Basic computer proficiency + Minimum of six months experience as a Medical Assistant Department: 0476 ENDOCRINOLOGY TAMPA External Company Name: Florida Medical Clinic External Company URL: http://www.floridamedicalclinic.com/
          People poems--part 1   
Gertrude Belle Elion

Who would have expected genius from Gert?
That name so squat, dull as soap,
the face (some would say) likewise,
even the Belle couldn’t help. She never married.

Daughter of a dentist in the Bronx
admitted free to Hunter College with the other girls,
she missed the slot for nursing school,
was denied a graduate assistantship.

A lab tech’s hands thrust deep
into assays and poisons, dark steams
and cold glove boxes. An academic mind
formed microscopic military strategies
to kill the enemy, spare the civilians.

An upper-class Jewish suburban life:
opera, vacations, playing with nephews and nieces.
She never had children. Between everything
was work. She was Dr. Hitchings’ assistant.

HIV pushed back, pathogens held at bay,
liver transplants thriving. What did she see
as she dressed for work each day,
combed the curls, fastened the brooch?
Was she a role model? Was she happy?

In 1989, New York Polytechnic gave Gertrude Elion
an honorary Ph.D. It came a year
after the Nobel.
          Diş pastalarının zəhərli olduğunu bilirdinizmi?   


Belə pastaların problem ağız boşluğunda pathogen mikroblarla yanaşı, vacib sayılan bakteriyaların məhv olmasına səbəb olur. 
diş pastasının tərkibində ftor var. Ftorun faydası və zərərləri barədə isə 60 ildir ki, elmdə məlumatlar var. Ötən əsrin 40-cı illərində ftorun diş emalına təsiri barədə məlumatlar Amerika alimləri tərəfindən öyrənilmişdir. Araşdırmalar hətta ftorun dişdə dəliklər əmələ gətirmədiyini sübut etmişdir. Alimlər qida rasionunda ftor olmayan adamların dişlərində kariesin vaxtından əvvəl əmələ gldiyini də sübut etmişlər. Bu araşdırmalardan sonra Amerikada içməlli suyun tərkibinə ftor əlavə edilmişdir. Bəzi mənbələr bütün dünyada ftorlaşmanın getdiyini qeyd edirlər. Bunun səbəbi kimi isə aliminim zavodlarında kimyəvi ftorlu birləşmlərin diş pastalarına qatılması səbəbindən baş verir. Diş pastalarına qatılan ftoridlər isə aluminum zavodlarının zəhərli tullantı məhsullarıdır.
Orta yaşlı insanın gün ərzində ftora olan ehtiyacı 2-3 mq-dır. Biz bu ftoru qida və qəbul etdiyimiz su vasitəsilə alırıq.
Ftorun digər kimyəvi qidalar o cümlədən pasta vasitəsilə orqanizmı daxil olması isə çox zərərdir. Ftorlu birləşmələr orqanizm üçün ən təhlükəli sayılan kimyəvi maddələrdəndir. Onun orqanizmı toksiki təsiri qəbul edilən miqdarından asılı olur. Ftorun orqanizmdə normadan çox olması isə fosfor-kalsium balansının pozulmasına səbəb olur.

Ftorun tərkibindəki kolloid birləşmələr
  • Qalxanabənzər vəzin birləşdirici toxumasını zədələyir
  • İmmuniteti aşağı salır
  • Hüceyrədaxili sintez prosesini sürətləndirir
  • Fizioloji qocalmanı sürətləndirir

          Diş pastalarının zəhərlidir   
 
Diş pastalarının zəhərli olduğunu bilirdinizmi?
Biz gün ərzində bir-neçə dəfə televizordan diş pastasının diş ərpini təmizlədiyini eşidirik. Bəs diş pastasının nələri təmizldiyini siz bilirsinizmi? 
1-2 manat qiymətində olan pastanın tərkibində kalsium karbonat əvəzinə adi təbaşir qoyulur.Bu çox pis bir əvəzedicidir. Çünki, təbaşir dişin emal təbəqəsini və diş boynunun cızır. Pastanın qiymətinin ucuz olması onun tərkibində təbaşir olmasının göstəricisi sayılır.
Diş pastalarının tərkibində aluminum oksidin olmasına isə bir çox ölkələrdə qadağa qoyulub. Müasir texnolojiya sayəsində pastanın təekibinə dioksid keramin (slika) əvəzinə təbaşir əlavə edilir ki, bu da ucuz başa gəlir. Stomatoloqlar pasta alarkən onun qiymətinə və tərkibinə nəzər yetirməyi məsləhət bilir. Çünki, tərkibində təbaşir olan pasta dişin emal qatını zədələməklə dişlərin asanlıqla korlanmasına səbəb ola bilir. 
Mütəxəssislər pasta alarkən risk etməyi məsləhət bilimir, onlar tərkibində hidrokjarbonat kalsium olan – diş duzu olan pastadan almağı məsləhət bilir.
Diş pastalarının reklam edərkən onun atibakterial olduğunu söyləyirlər. Ən çox tərkibində triklozan olan diş pastaları ağız boşluğunda mikrob və bakteriyaların azalmasına səbəb olur. Belə pastaların problem ağız boşluğunda pathogen mikroblarla yanaşı, vacib sayılan bakteriyaların məhv olmasına səbəb olur. Bəzi pastaların hazırlnmasında xlorheksidin və metranidazoldan stifadə edilir. Bu dərmanlar isə anrimikrob təsirə malikdir. Amma, bu tərkibli pastalardan da hər gün istifadə etmək problemlərin əmələ gəlməməsi demək deyildir. Reklamlar zamanı diş pastasının bol köpük verməsini də qeyd edirlər. Pastalarda köpüyün əmələ gəlməsinə onun tərkibinə qatılan laurilsulfat natriumdur. Amerika mütəxəssisləri bu maddənin kataraktaya və müxtəlif xəstəliklərə səbəb olduöunu qeyd edirlər. Onlar bu maddənin kosmetologiya sahəsində istifadə edilməsinə qadağa qoyulmasını tələb edirlər.
Pastanın tərkibində qliserofosfat kalsium əvəzinə karbonat kalsium olması deyilirsə sizi aldadırlar. Kimyaçılar kalsium karbonatın suda həll olmadığını qeyd edir və pastanın tərkibində onun olmamasının dişin minerallarla təmin edilməsinə səbəb olmadığını söyləyirlər. Reklamlar zamanı bəzi pastaların həssas dişlər üçün hazırlandığını söyləyirlər. Bu üzdən də əksər insanlar Oral-B pastasından istifadə edirər. Amma, bu pastadan bir müddət istifadə etdikdən sonra dişlərdəki plombların saraldığından xəbərsizdirlər. Bu pastadan uzun müddət istifadə edldikdə dişlər və plomblar sarı və ya açıq qəhvəyi rəng alırlar.90% diş pastasının tərkibində ftor var. Ftorun faydası və zərərləri barədə isə 60 ildir ki, elmdə məlumatlar var. Ötən əsrin 40-cı illərində ftorun diş emalına təsiri barədə məlumatlar Amerika alimləri tərəfindən öyrənilmişdir. Araşdırmalar hətta ftorun dişdə dəliklər əmələ gətirmədiyini sübut etmişdir. Alimlər qida rasionunda ftor olmayan adamların dişlərində kariesin vaxtından əvvəl əmələ gldiyini də sübut etmişlər. Bu araşdırmalardan sonra Amerikada içməlli suyun tərkibinə ftor əlavə edilmişdir. Bəzi mənbələr bütün dünyada ftorlaşmanın getdiyini qeyd edirlər. Bunun səbəbi kimi isə aliminim zavodlarında kimyəvi ftorlu birləşmlərin diş pastalarına qatılması səbəbindən baş verir. Diş pastalarına qatılan ftoridlər isə aluminum zavodlarının zəhərli tullantı məhsullarıdır.
Orta yaşlı insanın gün ərzində ftora olan ehtiyacı 2-3 mq-dır. Biz bu ftoru qida və qəbul etdiyimiz su vasitəsilə alırıq. Ftorun digər kimyəvi qidalar – o cümlədən pasta vasitəsilə orqanizmı daxil olması isə çox zərərdir. Ftorlu birləşmələr orqanizm üçün ən təhlükəli sayılan kimyəvi maddələrdəndir. Onun orqanizmı toksiki təsiri qəbul edilən miqdarından asılı olur. Ftorun orqanizmdə normadan çox olması isə fosfor-kalsium balansının pozulmasına səbəb olur.Ftorun tərkibindəki kolloid birləşmələr qalxanabənzər vəzin birləşdirici toxumasını zədələyir, immuniteti aşağı salır, hüceyrədaxili sintez prosesini və fizioloji qocalmanı sürətləndirir.Behavioral Brain Research jurnalı ftor haqqında yazdığı məqaləlrdə onun insan beyninə təsir edərək Alsheymer xəstəliyinə və əqli zəifliyə səbəb olduğunu yazır. Yazılanlardan belə nəticə çıxarmaq olar ki, dişlərimiz üçün faydalı sayılan və pastanın tərkibində olan ftordan az miqdarda istifadə etmək lazımdır. Bəs ftorun zərəri məllum olduğu halda niyə diş pastalarına əlavə edilir?
Ftor ötən əsrin ortalarında Amerikada suya qatıldıqdan 20 il sonra yan təsirlərini görən alimlər bir çox ölkələrə bu təcrübədən istifadə etməməyi məsləhət bilib. Almaniyada suyun ftorlaşmasının qarşısı alınıb. Almaniyalı mütəxəssislər orqanizmin ftora olan ehtiyacını isə müxtəlif dərman vasitələri ilə almağa üstünlük verirlər.  Hal-hazırda yanlız İrlandiyada və Amerikanın bəzi bölgələrində suyun ftoorlaşması həyata keçirilir. Amma, İrlandiyalı həkim Don Mak Oli suyun və diş pastalarının ftorlaşmasının zərərli olmasını yenə də öz yazılarında qeyd edir. Mütəxəssislər ftorun orqanizm üçün təhlükəli olduğunu qeyd edərək qidalar və ya reklam edilən pastalar vasitəsilə ftorlaşmanın əleyhinə çıxırlar.
          Viruses: ubiquitous, not always pathogenic and often beneficial   
They are found with all organisms, sometimes in curious and unique combinations.
          First Analysis of AACR Project GENIE Data Published   

​PHILADELPHIA — The first analysis of nearly 19,000 de-identified genomic records from the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) international data-sharing initiative known as AACR Project Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange (GENIE) was published today in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the AACR.

In addition to the genomic analysis, the report includes examples of how the AACR Project GENIE genomic data can be used to facilitate clinical research, including:

  • Analysis showing that more than 30 percent of the samples had mutations that are clinically actionable, meaning that they are suggestive of a specific treatment that is either already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or is being tested in clinical trials.
  • Analysis showing that the rate at which patients with samples in the AACR Project GENIE registry would match with arms of the NCI-MATCH trial reflected the actual accrual rates for the trial.
  • Details of two additional studies underway that are linking certain genetic characteristics of metastatic breast cancer with clinical and pathological features of the tumors, as well as with patient outcomes.

“There has been a lot of discussion about the potential of data-sharing initiatives to accelerate the pace of progress against cancer,” said Charles L. Sawyers, MD, FAACR, who is the AACR Project GENIE Steering Committee chairperson and an author on the paper. “This paper shows that AACR Project GENIE has made the first steps to delivering on this promise.

“We are particularly excited by the clinical actionability analysis,” continued Sawyers, who is also chairperson of the Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. “Prior studies looking at how often tumor genome sequencing identifies a clinically actionable mutation have yielded variable results, leading some to question its clinical utility. The huge number of samples in our study and the high rate of clinical actionability give us confidence that tumor genome sequencing can have an important role in clinical care.”

AACR Project GENIE is a multi-phase, multi-year, international data-sharing project that was launched by the AACR in partnership with eight global academic leaders in clinical cancer genomics in November 2015. Just over a year later, in January 2017, the AACR Project GENIE consortium made public nearly 19,000 de-identified genomic records collected from patients who were treated at the eight international institutions participating in the first phase of the project.

“This paper describes the AACR Project GENIE consortium and provides a landscape overview of the first public GENIE data release,” said Ethan Cerami, PhD, director of the Knowledge Systems Group and lead scientist in the Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, and an author on the paper. “By showing that we can share data across multiple institutions in the United States, Canada, and Europe to obtain results none of the institutions could have obtained alone, we have put AACR Project GENIE at the forefront of data-sharing efforts to accelerate scientific discovery and ultimately improve patient care.”

The paper provides detailed information about the data collected at the different institutions, highlighting that even though the types of sequencing and size of the gene panels used at the individual institutions differ and are evolving over time, the data can be compared across institutions. The high-level analysis of the nearly 19,000 de-identified genomic records made public by the consortium also shows many similarities with the data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The paper also highlights several differences with TCGA data, which the authors speculate are a result of a greater proportion of the AACR Project GENIE records coming from patients with recurrent or relapsing disease.

The eight institutions who participated in AACR Project GENIE phase 1 are: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston; Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Paris-Villejuif, France; The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, on behalf of the Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto; University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston; and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

This study was supported by funds from the AACR, Genentech, Boehringer Ingelheim, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the National Cancer Institute, the Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation, the Ontario Ministry of Health, Susan G. Komen, the Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation, the T.J. Martell Foundation, the Commonwealth Foundation, the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, the Dutch Ministry of Health, and the Dutch Cancer Society. Sawyers serves on the board of directors of Novartis. Cerami declares no conflicts of interest.


Press Release Published Date: 6/1/2017 4:30 AM
Display on Homepage: Yes

          Many Childhood Cancer Survivors Carry Mutations in Cancer Predisposition Genes, Raising Risk of Later Disease    

WASHINGTON — Whole-genome sequencing conducted on a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors indicated that many survivors harbor mutations in cancer predisposition genes, significantly increasing their risk of developing a subsequent neoplasm (SN) later in life, according to data presented here at the AACR Annual Meeting 2017, April 1-5.

“The remarkable advances realized over the past four decades in the treatment and survival of pediatric cancer patients is one of the most notable success stories within the cancer field,” said the study’s co-senior author, Les Robison, PhD, chair of the Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee. “However, childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of subsequent neoplasms, largely considered to be therapy-related.” Les Robison, PhD

Today, Robison explained, many forms of childhood cancer have cure rates of more than 80 percent. As a result, there are now more than 400,000 long-term survivors of childhood cancer in the United States.

In order to explore the role of genetics in these survivors’ increased risk of SNs, the research team led by Dr. Jinghui Zhang, chair of the Department of Computational Biology at St. Jude, analyzed the results of whole genome and exome sequencing that were performed on 3,007 participants of the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort who had survived childhood cancer for five years or longer. Survivors underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, treatment exposures were extracted from medical records, and SNs were pathologically or radiologically confirmed.

The researchers identified 1,117 SNs in 434 survivors. Of these survivors, 93 had been diagnosed with two or more histologically distinct SNs. Overall, 25.5 percent of the survivors developed a SN by age 45, most commonly non-melanoma skin cancer, meningioma, thyroid, and breast cancer.

The results showed that 12 percent of the survivors had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation in one of 156 genes associated with an increased risk of cancer. The most common mutations were in the genes of RB1, NF1, BRCA2, BRCA1, and TP53.

Among the survivors who had never received radiotherapy, those who carried a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation were six times more likely to develop an SN than those who did not carry such mutations. The chance of developing two or more SNs increased 24-fold for the survivors carrying mutations.

Among the survivors who were exposed to radiotherapy, those who carried a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation had a two-fold increased risk for developing two or more SNs compared with those who did not carry a mutation.

Robison emphasized that various factors contribute to the increased risk and to the types of SNs experienced by childhood cancer survivors. For example, he said, radiation exposure increases the risk of subsequent neoplasms such as meningioma, non-melanoma skin cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and sarcomas. The study results now demonstrate that genetics independently add to the risk for breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and sarcomas, he added.

“Our findings have immediate implications for the growing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer,” Robison said. First of all, he said, “We are recommending that survivors of childhood cancer who develop specific types of subsequent neoplasms receive genetic counseling. 

“In addition, we believe that these findings will contribute to future decisions relating to recommendations for personalized therapeutic approaches based on genetic profiles for children who are newly diagnosed with cancer,” Robison said.

Zhaoming Wang, PhD, co-lead author, said that future research will be necessary to continue to follow the St. Jude survivors, to replicate this study’s findings in other populations of childhood cancer survivors, and to understand possible links between genetic factors and cancer treatment exposures. For survivors, this research could help guide their decisions on family planning and on cancer prevention strategies, such as regular screening. Zhaoming Wang, PhD

Robison said a limitation of the study is that it was based on the ability to follow up with survivors. Some former patients may have died, either from a subsequent neoplasm or another chronic health condition related to their cancer therapy. Therefore, he said, the study estimates should be considered a conservative estimate of the prevalence of mutations.

Wang and Carmen Wilson, PhD, of the Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control at St. Jude, were the co-lead authors of this study. Zhang and Robison were co-senior authors.

This study was funded by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC) and by the National Cancer Institute. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Follow the AACR Annual Meeting 2017 on Twitter: #AACR17

Press Release Published Date: 4/3/2017 11:00 AM
Display on Homepage: Yes

          Science Signaling Podcast, 29 July 2014   
Nick Gay discusses how the adaptor protein TMED7 targets the pathogen-sensing receptor TLR4 to the plasma membrane.
          Science Signaling Podcast, 14 February 2012   
The protein phosphatase activity of PTEN impairs macrophage phagocytosis of a fungal pathogen by promoting actin depolymerization.
          Science Signaling Podcast, 16 February 2010   
The pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis evades the innate immune system by initiating signaling crosstalk.
          (USA-NV-Fallon) Part time Cook   
JOB TITLE: Part-time Cook Residential CONDITIONS Part time. Hours and schedule to be determined by Supervisor and may vary as job responsibilities and needs change. Dress appropriate for job according to standards set by the supervisor. SUMMARY Part time Cook is responsible for assisting Head Cook with kitchen duties and responsibilities and in his or her absence act as Head Cook. Safeserve is a plus ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND REPONSIBILITES include but are not limited to the following. Other duties may be assigned. 1. Prepares and serves three meals a day. 2. Maintains kitchen and dining area in a clean, orderly fashion in accordance with the State of Nevada health laws. Responsible for developing a daily cleaning schedule which includes staff and clients. 3. Attends staff meetings, as requested or needed. 4. Acts as Head Cook in his or her absence. 5. Spends time with clients informally, as time allows. 6. Perform all duties in compliance with agency, SAPTA, JCAHO and other local, state and federal regulatory agencies. 7. Maintains a presentable and hygienic appearance when on duty. 8. Maintains an accurate monthly inventory of all food and cleaning supplies. 9. Maintains New Frontier Treatment Centers current status as a Commodity Food Program recipient. 10. Maintain client confidentiality at all times. 11. Maintains an appropriate and professional personal appearance. 12. Maintains appropriate and professional interpersonal staff relationships. 13. Maintains appropriate and professional interpersonal client relationships. 14. Maintains an appropriate and professional employee attitude, follows directives and effectively handles constructive feedback from supervisors. QUALIFICATIONS Must have knowledge and experience in institutional cooking, menu planning and purchasing. Safeserve is a plus EDUCATION AND OR EXPERIENCE Any combination equivalent to experience and education that would provide the required knowledge and abilities to meet job responsibilities. LANGUAGE SKILLS Ability to read and interpret documents such as safety rules, operating and maintenance instructions, and procedure manuals. Ability to write routine reports and correspondence. Ability to speak effectively before groups of clients or employees of organization. Must be familiar with computers to complete online ordering with food service providers. While performing the duties of this job, the employee is regularly required to talk or hear. The employee frequently is required to stand, walk, and sit. The employee must occasionally lift and or move up to 20 pounds and be able to ascend and descent one flight of stairs. On a regular basis, employee may be subject to airborne and bloodborne pathogens. This is not a lock down facility but it is a Non Smoking facility and grounds area. Employer will do background check and drug screen upon employment. Note: If applicant is recovering, must be clean and sober for 2 years. Felony can apply.
          (USA-WA-Lake Forest Park) Laboratory Analyst (Carol Stream, IL)   
This job was posted by https://illinoisjoblink.illinois.gov : For more information, please see: https://illinoisjoblink.illinois.gov/ada/r/jobs/5065692 IEH Laboratories, a Leader in Food Safety, is now accepting applications for Laboratory Analyst at a facility in Carol Stream, IL. Applicants must possess a BS or BA in the biological sciences or related field. Ideal candidates should possess the following skills: - Strong attention to detail - Proficiency with data entry and computer applications - Multitasking capability - Ability to work in a fast paced environment - Strong written and verbal communication skills - Self-motivated - Strong understanding of aseptic technique in the laboratory - Ability to lift samples up to 60 lb - Valid Driver's License required - Must have clean driving record Laboratory Analyst duties include: analysis of food samples for pathogens via PCR and immunoassay, various microbe enumerations, data entry, laboratory reporting, quality control, and media preparation. Full-time employee will be eligible for standard benefits after a brief waiting period. The laboratory operates weekends, so candidates must be willing to work some nights and weekends. To apply for this position please access the company's job posting at: https://apps.iehlabs.com/applyatieh.html#5930919a35ee490947a432a6 After navigating to the URL listed above, you will be asked to complete optional self-identification surveys and submit your cover letter, resume and references in a combined, single PDF. Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/V/D "EEO is the Law" Poster: http://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/posters/pdf/eeopost.pdf
          Celebrate Easter With Kitchen Sink Carrot Cake   
my kind of easter basket

In my world, Easter means Whopper's Robin Eggs and Reese's Peanut Butter Cup Eggs, both of which are only available this time of year.  I've been known to stock up so I can enjoy both of these scrumptous treats into the summer season.  In fact, I think I still have some Robin Eggs from last year.  I wonder if there's a name for my craziness.  One of my other favorite Easter related treats is carrot cake.  I guess it's because bunnies eat carrots, and Easter's unoffical mascot is a bunny, so it sort of works.  And who can resist a moist cake filled with goodies and topped with cream cheese frosting.  I usually can't resist anything with cream cheese frosting.

Carrot cake isn't without controversy.  Nope, it's not that innocent.  There's those who think that carrot cake should be eaten pure, free from pathogens such as raisins or nuts.  Then there's the group that only wants nuts, or preach raisins only.  I say to heck with all of them.  It's Easter and all carrot cake rules are meant to be broken.  I came across this recipe a few weeks ago, and had a burning desire to try it my way.  My way consists of the following:

*toasted pecans
*toasted sweetened coconut
*candied ginger bites
*rum soaked raisins

Please feel free to add or subtract anything you like from my list.  My responsible side will note that rum soaked raisins should be saved for a twenty-one and over crowd.  There, that's my legalese for these recipe, so don't say I didn't warn ya.  Now go out, get creative, and create the carrot cake masterpiece of your dreams.  And have a Happy Easter everyone.  Enjoy the time with family, loved ones, and your new best friend, the carrot cake.

carrot cake cupcakes

"Kitcken Sink" Carrot Cake
Adapted from King Arthur Flour

Cake
4 large eggs
1 cup granulated sugar
3/4 cup brown sugar
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
3/4 cup melted butter
3/4 cup vegetable oil
2 cups all-purpose flour
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 1/2 teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 teaspoon nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon allspace
3 1/2 cups (1lb) grated carrots (fine or course depending on preference)
1 cup chopped nuts, toasted
1 cup shredded sweetened coconut, toasted
1/2 candied ginger bites
3/4 cup raisins
1 cup Myers Dark Rum (adult cake eaters only)

Frosting
6 tablespoons butter, at room temperature
1 8-ounce package cream cheese, softened
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1/8 teaspoon salt
3 1/2 cups powdered sugar, sifted
2 tablespoons milk, or enough to make frosting spreadable

  • Pour 1 cup Myers Dark Rum into a small bowl.  Add raisins and allow to soak for at least 1 hour.
  • Preheat oven to 300 degrees.  Lightly grease (I recommend Pam Baking Spray with flour) a 9" x 13" pan if making a cake, or line your muffin pan with cupcake liners.
  • Toast nuts and coconut either in a skillet, or in the oven.  Do not leave these items alone while toasting, they will go from toasted to burnt in a few seconds.  Let each one cool.  Grate carrots and put aside.
  • Beat the eggs, sugars and vanilla in a large mixing bowl until smooth, about two minutes at medium speed.
  • Mix the melted butter with the oil.  With the beater running, add the oil mixture in a stream, beating until smooth.
  • In a separate bowl, whisk together the flour, leaveners (baking soda and powder), salt, and spices.  Add these dry ingredients to the wet ingredients, stirring to make a smooth batter.
  • Stir in your add-ins, in this case the carrots, nuts, coconut, ginger and drained raisins.
  • Spoon the batter into the cake pan or cupcake liners. 
  • Bake the cake for 40 to 50 minutes until the cake is golden brown.  For cupcakes, 20 to 25 minutes.  Or in either case - until a cake tester (toothpick in my case) comes out clean.
  • Remove from the oven and cool completely.  Take out butter and cream cheese for the frosting from the refrigerator. 
  • After the cake or cupcakes has cooled, make the frosting.
  • Combine the butter, creamcheese, vanilla and salt in a medium sized bowl and beat together until light and fluffy.  Add the sugar gradually, beating well.  Add the milk a little at a time, until the frosting is a spreadable consistancy.  If you get it a little too runny, add a bit more powdered sugar.
  • Spread frosting.  Garnish with toasted coconut, sprinkles, or whatever you like!

up close



          OSHA cites Universal Health Services of Doylestown   
Universal Health Services of Doylestown has been cited for four serious violations in relation to workplace violence. The U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration inspected the facility and found them guilty of failing to protect workers from patient attacks, conduct an annual review of the bloodborne pathogen program, and offer bloodborne pathogen […]
          June 13 2017 Issue   
Show description/summary:

1) Evaluating the safety of beta-interferons in multiple sclerosis

2) Neurology® Today: New Classifications of Seizures and Epilepsies Include New Seizure Types, Simpler Terms

This podcast begins and closes with Dr. Robert Gross, Editor-in-Chief, briefly discussing highlighted articles from the June 13, 2017 issue of Neurology. In the first segment, Dr. Michael Levy talks with Dr. Helen Tremlett and Dr. Hilda De Jong about their paper on evaluating the safety of beta-interferons in multiple sclerosis. In the next part of the podcast Dr. Nathan Fountain focuses his interview with Dr. Robert Fisher on the new classifications of seizures and epilepsies presented by the International League Against Epilepsy. Disclosures can be found at Neurology.org.

DISCLOSURES:

Dr. Levy serves on advisory boards for Asterias, Chugai, and Alexion; serves as Editorial Board member of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders; holds patents for an aquaporin-4 sequence that elicits pathogenic T cell response in animal model of neuromyelitis optica, and for use of a peptide for diagnostic and therapeutic developments; has consulted for Guidepoint Global, Gerson Lehrman Group, and Cowen Group; and has received research support from Viropharma/Shire, Acorda, ApoPharma and Sanofi, Genzyme, Alnylam, Alexion, Terumo BCT, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, and Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation.

Dr. Tremlett has served on scientific advisory boards for US National MS Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; is the Canada Research Chair for Neuroepidemiology and Multiple Sclerosis; has received research support from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada, US National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Multiple Sclerosis Scientific Research Foundation, Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research, and the UK MS Trust; has received speaker honoraria and/or travel expenses to attend conferences from the Consortium of MS Centres, the National MS Society, ECTRIMS, the Chesapeake Health Education Program, US Veterans Affairs, Novartis Canada, Biogen Idec, American Academy of Neurology.

Dr. Fountain is an epileptologist at the University of Virginia Comprehensive Epilepsy Program (100% effort).

All other participants report no disclosures.


          (USA-MI-Ann Arbor) Medical Technologist   
Responsibilities* + Perform and record quality control and understand quality assurance systems. + Check specimens and tests requested. + Determine if specimen is acceptable source, volume, transport, and collection method. + Resolve problems with specimens and requested tests according to established laboratory procedures. + Enter test orders into computer LIS system. + Label and process specimens, inoculate media, make smears, store specimens and incubate cultures according to laboratory procedures. + Read direct gram stains, enter reports, notify clinicians and document notification accurately and within established turnaround times. + Restock media, reagents, stains and supplies as needed. + Clean and disinfect the work surfaces after spills and at the end of each shift. + Organize and complete daily work in the area assigned. + Ability to accurately follow procedures, understand protocols and keep up to date on knowledge base. + Instruct Medical technology students, Residents, Fellows in Pathology rotation. **Required Qualifications*** + Must have a MT, MLS or have, or be eligible for, a Bachelor’s degree in either Medical Technology or the biological sciences. + The candidate must be ASCP certified with Microbiology experience. + Continuing education is required yearly as well as completion of mandatory UMHS M learning requirements. + Compliance with UMHS attendance policies and best practice protocols are important. + Confidential information must be protected, safety standards upheld, and working for our patients’ best interest is essential. **Desired Qualifications*** + Knowledge of or experience with microorganisms in a clinical setting, ability to recognize and identify pathogenic organisms and understand the criteria for susceptibility testing on appropriate organisms. + Knowledge of or experience with blood culture systems, bacterial identification systems, susceptibility systems, and molecular based technologies. + Ability to explain microbiology culture reports and specimen requirements for testing to all clients. + Is motivated to be part of a team effort, contribute to improvements and support initiatives in the lab. + Use critical thinking to problem solve, follow up with documentation and technical support when required. **Work Schedule** 40 hours afternoons, shifts are 8 hours per day working every 3rd weekend and 2 holidays per year. **Background Screening** Michigan Medicine conducts background screening and pre-employment drug testing on job candidates upon acceptance of a contingent job offer and may use a third party administrator to conduct background screenings. Background screenings are performed in compliance with the Fair Credit Report Act. **Mission Statement** Michigan Medicine improves the health of patients, populations and communities through excellence in education, patient care, community service, research and technology development, and through leadership activities in Michigan, nationally and internationally. Our mission is guided by our Strategic Principles and has three critical components; patient care, education and research that together enhance our contribution to society. **Application Deadline** Job openings are posted for a minimum of seven calendar days. This job may be removed from posting boards and filled anytime after the minimum posting period has ended. **U-M EEO/AA Statement** The University of Michigan is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. **Job Detail** **Job Opening ID** 144127 **Working Title** Medical Technologist **Job Title** Medical Technologist **Work Location** Michigan Medicine - Health SysAnn Arbor, MI **Full/Part Time** Full-Time **Regular/Temporary** Regular **FLSA Status** Nonexempt **Organizational Group** Um Hospital **Department** UMH Microbiol Pathology **Posting Begin/End Date** 6/30/2017 – 7/14/2017 **Paid Time Off** Yes **Career Interests** Medical TechnologyPathology / Laboratory ServicesPatient Care Services Apply Now at http://careers.umich.edu/job_detail/apply/144127
          (USA-NV-Fallon) Part time Cook   
JOB TITLE: Part-time Cook Residential CONDITIONS Part time. Hours and schedule to be determined by Supervisor and may vary as job responsibilities and needs change. Dress appropriate for job according to standards set by the supervisor. SUMMARY Part time Cook is responsible for assisting Head Cook with kitchen duties and responsibilities and in his or her absence act as Head Cook. Safeserve is a plus ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND REPONSIBILITES include but are not limited to the following. Other duties may be assigned. 1. Prepares and serves three meals a day. 2. Maintains kitchen and dining area in a clean, orderly fashion in accordance with the State of Nevada health laws. Responsible for developing a daily cleaning schedule which includes staff and clients. 3. Attends staff meetings, as requested or needed. 4. Acts as Head Cook in his or her absence. 5. Spends time with clients informally, as time allows. 6. Perform all duties in compliance with agency, SAPTA, JCAHO and other local, state and federal regulatory agencies. 7. Maintains a presentable and hygienic appearance when on duty. 8. Maintains an accurate monthly inventory of all food and cleaning supplies. 9. Maintains New Frontier Treatment Centers current status as a Commodity Food Program recipient. 10. Maintain client confidentiality at all times. 11. Maintains an appropriate and professional personal appearance. 12. Maintains appropriate and professional interpersonal staff relationships. 13. Maintains appropriate and professional interpersonal client relationships. 14. Maintains an appropriate and professional employee attitude, follows directives and effectively handles constructive feedback from supervisors. QUALIFICATIONS Must have knowledge and experience in institutional cooking, menu planning and purchasing. Safeserve is a plus EDUCATION AND OR EXPERIENCE Any combination equivalent to experience and education that would provide the required knowledge and abilities to meet job responsibilities. LANGUAGE SKILLS Ability to read and interpret documents such as safety rules, operating and maintenance instructions, and procedure manuals. Ability to write routine reports and correspondence. Ability to speak effectively before groups of clients or employees of organization. Must be familiar with computers to complete online ordering with food service providers. While performing the duties of this job, the employee is regularly required to talk or hear. The employee frequently is required to stand, walk, and sit. The employee must occasionally lift and or move up to 20 pounds and be able to ascend and descent one flight of stairs. On a regular basis, employee may be subject to airborne and bloodborne pathogens. This is not a lock down facility but it is a Non Smoking facility and grounds area. Employer will do background check and drug screen upon employment. Note: If applicant is recovering, must be clean and sober for 2 years. Felony can apply.
          Call for papers: Ebola and the law   
Ebola map

Call for papers

Ebola and the Law

Biolaw section of the Association of American Law Schools (AALS)
Washington, D.C.
Monday, January 5, 2015, 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m.


Ebola health workers

The 2014 west African outbreak of the Ebola virus is the most severe epidemic attributed to this pathogen since 1976, when international health officials began keeping records on Ebola. As of August 2014, the total number of suspected cases has approached 2,000, and the number of suspected deaths has exceeded 1,000. The World Health Organization has designated the health crisis as one of international concern. The law has a strong stake in containing this outbreak and preventing future episodes of this kind.

The Biolaw section of the AALS invites papers addressing issues of law and policy arising from the Ebola outbreak. Such issues may include (but by no means are limited to) the following:

  • Why was the international legal and public health community so slow to recognize the 2014 Ebola outbreak? Human beings are supremely attuned to threats posed by other humans (such as war or terrorism), but far less prepared for threats deemed "natural" or "environmental." How should law accommodate and/or offset this biological predisposition?

  • There is no vaccine or cure for Ebola. Medicines for treating Ebola, carrying some hope of reducing the mortality rate, are in extremely short supply. What are the bioethical implications raised by the decision to devote the extremely limited supplies of Ebola medication — no more than a handful of doses as of August 2014 — to medical workers of non-African origin? How should the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and its foreign counterparts handle petitions to expedite the experimental use of Ebola medication?

  • The failure to contain Ebola to a few, geographically concentrated cases has enabled the virus to infect four countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria) as of August 2014. Relatively severe public heath measures, ranging from the quarantine to the cordon sanitaire, are contemplated and may be implemented in varying degrees in one or more affected countries. What are the legal and ethical implications of resort to law enforcement or even military solutions during public health emergencies?

  • Outbreaks of Ebola and other highly communicable diseases are all but inevitable in an age of globalization, anthropogenic climate change, and biodiversity loss. Even apart from the bushmeat trade, which is suspected of enabling epizootics to make the jump to humans, increased human traffic into previously untouched areas has introduced viruses and other pathogens to human populations around the world. What if any solutions can the law provide, through its focus on environmental protection, immigration, trade, and human rights?

Please submit your proposals to Biolaw section chairman Jim Chen at chenjame@law.msu.edu by September 26, 2014. The section will explore channels for publishing papers presented in this program. The program will take place at the 2015 midyear meeting of the AALS in Washington, D.C., at 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m. on Monday, January 5, 2015.

Eligibility: Full-time faculty members of AALS member law schools are eligible to submit papers. Foreign, visiting (without a full-time position at an AALS member law school) and adjunct faculty members; graduate students; fellows and non-law school faculty are not eligible to submit. Faculty at fee-paid non-member schools are ineligible.


          Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew Workshop   
Monday, July 17, 2017 - Wednesday, July 19, 2017 (all day event)

Taking place in the heart of Oregon’s Willamette Valley, the meeting will have more than 60 talks as well as 3 posters sessions examining disease epidemiology and control and the biology and mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Lunch and Dinner will be provided with registration to encourage discussion among attendees. There will also be tastings of both Oregon and Washington wines during the dinners.  One day will be spent touring local vineyards and wineries showcasing the Willamette Valley’s world renown Pinot Noir wines and seeing some of the regional differences in viticulture and disease epidemics. 

For more information and to register, go here 


          2017 Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew Workshop    
Monday, July 17, 2017 - Wednesday, July 19, 2017 (all day event)

Taking place in the heart of the Oregon’s Willamette, the meeting will have more than 60 talks as well as 3 posters sessions examining disease epidemiology and control and the biology and mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Lunch and Dinner will be provided with registration to encourage discussion among attendees. There will also be tastings of both Oregon and Washington wines during the dinners. One day will be spent touring local vineyards and wineries showcasing the Willamette Valley’s world renown Pinot Noir wines and seeing some of the regional differences in viticulture and disease epidemics.

For more information and to register, go here

 


          2017 Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew Workshop    
Tuesday, July 18, 2017 - Thursday, July 20, 2017 (all day event)

Taking place in the heart of the Oregon’s Willamette, the meeting will have more than 60 talks as well as 3 posters sessions examining disease epidemiology and control and the biology and mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Lunch and Dinner will be provided with registration to encourage discussion among attendees. There will also be tastings of both Oregon and Washington wines during the dinners. One day will be spent touring local vineyards and wineries showcasing the Willamette Valley’s world renown Pinot Noir wines and seeing some of the regional differences in viticulture and disease epidemics.

For more information and to register, go here

 


          2017 Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew Workshop    
Wednesday, July 19, 2017 - Friday, July 21, 2017 (all day event)

Taking place in the heart of the Oregon’s Willamette, the meeting will have more than 60 talks as well as 3 posters sessions examining disease epidemiology and control and the biology and mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Lunch and Dinner will be provided with registration to encourage discussion among attendees. There will also be tastings of both Oregon and Washington wines during the dinners. One day will be spent touring local vineyards and wineries showcasing the Willamette Valley’s world renown Pinot Noir wines and seeing some of the regional differences in viticulture and disease epidemics.

For more information and to register, go here

 


          This study highlights the antimicrobial activity of green tea and EGCG against anthrax.   
PMID:  FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12. PMID: 28605495 Abstract Title:  Green tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate are bactericidal against Bacillus anthracis. Abstract:  Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is listed as a Category A biothreat agent by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virulence of the organism is due to expression of two exotoxins and capsule, which interfere with host cellular signaling, alter host water homeostasis, and inhibit phagocytosis of the pathogen, respectively. Concerns regarding the past and possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent have resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics. In this study, green tea was found to inhibit the in vitro growth of B. anthracis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a compound found abundantly in green tea, was shown to be responsible for this activity. EGCG was bactericidal against both the attenuated B. anthracis ANR and the virulent, encapsulated strain B. anthracis Ames strain. This study highlights the antimicrobial activity of green tea and EGCG against anthrax and suggests the need for further investigation of EGCG as a therapeutic candidate against B. anthracis.

read more


          Innate immunity restricts Citrobacter rodentium A/E pathogenesis initiation to an early window of opportunity   
- Source: journals.plos.org
          Co-accumulation of cis-regulatory and coding mutations during the pseudogenization of the Xenopus laevis homoeologs six6.L and six6.S   
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
Source:Developmental Biology

Author(s): Haruki Ochi, Akane Kawaguchi, Mikio Tanouchi, Nanoka Suzuki, Tatsuki Kumada, Yui Iwata, Hajime Ogino

Common models for the evolution of duplicated genes after genome duplication are subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, and pseudogenization. Although the crucial roles of cis-regulatory mutations in subfunctionalization are well-documented, their involvement in pseudogenization and/or neofunctionalization remains unclear. We addressed this issue by investigating the evolution of duplicated homeobox genes, six6.L and six6.S, in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis. Based on a comparative expression analysis, we observed similar eye-specific expression patterns for the two loci and their single ortholog in the ancestral-type diploid species Xenopus tropicalis. However, we detected lower levels of six6.S expression than six6.L expression. The six6.S enhancer sequence was more highly diverged from the orthologous enhancer of X. tropicalis than the six6.L enhancer, and showed weaker activity in a transgenic reporter assay. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences, we observed greater divergence between X. tropicalis Six6 and Six6.S than between X. tropicalis Six6 and Six6.L, and the observed mutations were reminiscent of a microphthalmia mutation in human SIX6. Misexpression experiments showed that six6.S has weaker eye-enlarging activity than six6.L, and targeted disruption of six6.L reduced the eye size more significantly than that of six6.S. These results suggest that enhancer attenuation stimulates the accumulation of hypomorphic coding mutations, or vice versa, in one duplicated gene copy and facilitates pseudogenization. We also underscore the value of the allotetraploid genome of X. laevis as a resource for studying latent pathogenic mutations.






          Turning risk association to biological insight in type 2 diabetes   
Following up on findings from a an earlier genome-wide association study (GWAS) of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Latinos, researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) traced an association detected in that study to variants in a specific gene, SLC16A11, and uncovered two distinct mechanisms by which those variants disrupt the gene's function in liver cells, possibly contributing to the pathogenesis of T2D. The findings, which appear this week in Cell, offer insights into the biology underlying T2D and suggest new leads in the search for therapeutics.
          The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH) as a tool to detect maritime traffic-related health risks: analysis of MDH forms submitted to Spanish ports, October 2014 to March 2015 - López-Gigosos RM, Segura M, Díez-Díaz RM, Ureña I, Urzay D, Guillot P, Guerra-Neira A, Rivera A, Pérez-Cobaleda Á, Martín A, Nuñez-Torrón M, Alvarez B, Faraco M, Barrera JM, Calvo MJ, Gallegos J, Bermejo A, Aramburu C, Dávila M, Carreras F, Neipp R, Mariscal A.    
The international maritime traffic of people and goods has often contributed to the spread of pathogens affecting public health. The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH), according to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), is a document contain...
          "The Mesothelioma Cancer"   


by. Siswanto M. Muhammad

Mesothelioma is a form of that is almost always caused by previous exposure to asbestos. In this disease, malignant (cancerous) cells develop in the mesothelium, a protective lining that covers most of the body's internal organs. Its most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and chest cavity), but it may also occur in the peritoium (the lining of the abdominal cavity) or thepericardium(a sac that surrounds the heart).
Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or have been exposed to asbestos dust and fibre in other ways, such as by washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos, or by home renovation using asbestos cement products. There is no association between mesothelioma and smoking.

Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of mesothelioma may not appear until 20 to 50 years after exposure to asbestos. Shortness of breath, cough, and pain in the chest due to an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space are often symptoms of pleural mesothelioma.
Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma include weight loss and , abdominal swelling and pain due to ascites (a buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity). Other symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma may include bowel obstruction, blood clotting abnormalities, anemia, and fever. If the cancer has spread beyond the mesothelium to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, trouble swallowing, or swelling of the neck or face.
These symptoms may be caused by mesothelioma or by other, less serious conditions.
membrane surface to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, chest wall, or abdominal organs.

Pathophysiology
The mesothelium consists of a single layer of flattened to cuboidal cells forming the epithelial lining of the serous cavities of the body including the peritoneal, pericardial and pleural cavities. Deposition of asbestos fibres in the parenchyma of the lung may result in the penetration of the visceral pleura from where the fibre can then be carried to the pleural surface, thus leading to the development of malignant mesothelial plaques. The processes leading to the development of peritoneal mesothelioma remain unresolved, although it has been proposed that asbestos fibres from the lung are transported to the abdomen and associated organs via the lymphatic system. Additionally, asbestos fibres may be deposited in the gut after ingestion of sputum contaminated with asbestos fibres.

Pleural contamination with asbestos or other mineral fibres has been shown to cause cancer. Long thin asbestos fibers (blue asbestos, amphibole,fibers) are more potent carcinogens than "feathery fibers" (chrysotile or white asbestos fibers. However, there is now evidence that smaller particles may be more dangerous than the larger fibers.They remain suspended in the air where they can be inhaled, and may penetrate more easily and deeper into the lungs. "We probably will find out a lot more about the health aspects of asbestos from [the World Trade Center attack], unfortunately," said Dr. Alan Fein, chief of pulmonary and critical-care medicine at North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System. Dr. Fein has treated several patients for "World Trade Center syndrome" or respiratory ailments from brief exposures of only a day ortwo near the collapsed buildings.

Mesothelioma development in rats has been demonstrated following intra-pleural inoculation of phosphorylated chrysotile fibres. It has been suggested that in humans, transport of fibres to the pleura is critical to the pathogenesis of mesothelioma. This is supported by the observed recruitment of significant numbers of macrophages and other cells of the immune systemto localised lesions of accumulated asbestos fibres in the pleural and peritoneal cavities of rats. These lesions continued to attract and accumulate macrophages as the disease progressed, and cellular changes within the lesion culminated in a morphologically malignant tumour. Experimental evidence suggests that asbestos acts as a complete carcinogen with the development of mesothelioma occurring in sequential stages of initiation and promotion. The molecular mechanisms underlying the malignant transformation of normal mesothelial cells by asbestos fibres remain unclear despite the demonstration of its oncogenic capabilities. However, complete in vitro transformation of normal human mesothelial cells to malignant phenotype following exposure to asbestos fibres has not yet been achieved. In general, asbestos fibres are thought to act throughdirect physical interactions with the cells of the mesothelium in conjunction with indirect effects following interaction with inflammatory cells such as macrophages. Analysis of the interactions between asbestos fibres and DNA has shown that phagocytosed fibres are able to make contact with chromosomes, often adhering to the chromatin fibres or becoming entangled within the chromosome. This contact between the asbestos fibre and the chromosomes or structural proteins of the spindle apparatus can induce complex abnormalities. The most common abnormality is monosomy of chromosome 22. Other frequent abnormalities include structural rearrangement of 1p, 3p, 9p and 6q chromosome arms.

Asbestos fibres have been shown to alter the function and secretory properties of macrophages, ultimately creating conditions which favour the development of mesothelioma. Following asbestos phagocytosis, macrophages generate increased amounts of hydroxyl radicals, which are normal by-products of cellular anaerobic metabolism. However, these free radicals are also known clastogenic and membrane-active agents thought to promote asbestos carcinogenicity. These oxidants can participate in the oncogenic process by directly and indirectly interacting with DNA, modifying membrane-associated cellular events, including oncogene activation and perturbation of cellular antioxidant defences. Asbestos may also possess immunosuppressive properties. For example, chrysotile fibres have been shown to depress the in vitro proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, suppress natural killer cell lysis and significantly reduce lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell viability and recovery. Furthermore, genetic alterations in asbestos-activated macrophages may result in the release of potent mesothelial cell mitogens such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â) which in turn, may induce the chronic stimulation and proliferation of mesothelial cells after injury by asbestos fibres.

Epidemiology
Incidence
Although reported incidence rates have increased in the past 20 years, mesothelioma is still a relatively rare cancer. The incidence is approximately one per 1,000,000. For comparison, populations with high levels of smoking can have a lung cancer ncidence of over 1,000 per 1,000,000. Incidence of malignant mesothelioma currently ranges from about 7 to 40 per 1,000,000 in industrialized Western nations, depending on the amount of asbestos exposure of the populations during the past several decade. It has been estimated that incidence may have peaked at 15 per 1,000,000 in the United States in 2004. Incidence is expected to continue increasing in other parts of the world. Mesothelioma occurs more often in men than in women and risk increases with age, but this disease can appear in either men or women at any age. Approximately one fifth to one third of all mesotheliomas are peritoneal.

Between 1940 and 1979, approximately 27.5 million people were occupationally exposed to asbestos in the United States.Between 1973 and 1984, there has been a three-fold increase in the diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma in caucasion males. From 1980 to the late 1990s, the rate of deaths from mesothelioma increased from 2,000 to 3,000 a year. in the late 1990se in annual deaths from mesotheilioma. , with men four times more likely to acquire it than women. These rates may not be accurate, since it is possible that many cases of mesothelioma are misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma of the lung, which is difficult to differentiate from mesothelioma.

Risk factors
Working with asbestos s the major risk factor for mesothelioma. A history of asbestos exposure exists in almost all cases. However, mesothelioma has been reported in some individuals without any known exposure to asbestos. In rare cases, mesothelioma has also been associated with irradiation, intrapleural thorium dioxide (Thorotrast), and inhalation of other fibrous silicates, such as erionite.
Asbestos is the name of a group of minerals that occur naturally as masses of strong, flexible fibers that can be separated into thin threads and woven. Asbestos has been widely used in many industrial products, including cement, brake linings, roof shingles, flooring products, textiles, and insulation. If tiny asbestos particles float in the air, especially during the manufacturing process, they may be inhaled or swallowed, and can cause serious health problems. In addition to mesothelioma, exposure to asbestos increases the risk of lung cancer, asbestosis (a noncancerous, chronic lung ailment), and other cancers, such as those of the larynx and kidney.

The combination of smoking and asbestos exposure significantly increases a person's risk of developing cancer of the airways (lung cancer,bronchial carcinoma). The Kent brand of cigarettes used asbestos in its filters for the first few years of production in the 1950s and some cases of mesothelioma have resulted. Smoking current cigarettes does not appear to increase the risk of mesothelioma.
Some studies suggest that simian virus 40 (SV40) may act as a in the development of mesotheliom.

Exposure
Asbestos has been mined and used commercially since the late . Its use greatly increased during World War II. Since the early 1940, millions of American workers have been exposedto asbestos dust. Initially, the risks associated with asbestos exposure were not publicly known. However, an increased risk of developing mesothelioma was later found among shipyard workers, people who work in asbestos mines and mills, producers of asbestos products, workers in the heating and construction industries, and other tradespeople. Today, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA) sets limits for acceptable levels of asbestos exposure in the workplace, and created guidelines for engineering controls and respirators, protective clothing, exposure monitoring, hygiene facilities and practices, warning signs, labeling, recordkeeping, and medical exams. By contrast, the British Government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) states formally that any threshold for mesothelioma must be at a very low level and it is widely agreed that if any such threshold does exists at all, then it cannot currently be quantified. For practical purposes, therefore, HSE does not assume that any such threshold exists. People who work with asbestos wear personal protective equipment to lower their risk of exposure.

Exposure to asbestos fibres has been recognised as an occupational health hazard since the early 1900. Several epidemiological studies have associated exposure to asbestos with the development of lesions such as asbestos bodies in the sputum, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, asbestosis, carcinoma of the lung and larynx, gastrointestinal tumours, and diffuse mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum.
The documented presence of asbestos fibres in water supplies and food products has fostered concerns about the possible impact of long-term and, as yet, unknown exposure of the general population to these fibres. Although many authorities consider brief or transient exposure to asbestos fibres as inconsequential and an unlikely risk factor, some epidemiologists claim that there is no risk threshold. Cases of mesothelioma have been found in people whose only exposure was breathing the air through ventilation systems. Other cases had very minimal (3 months or less) direct exposure.
Commercial asbestos mining at Wittenoom, Western Australia, occurred between 1945 and 1966. A cohort study of miners employed at the mine reported that while no deaths occurred within the first 10 years after crocidolite exposure, 85 deaths attributable to mesothelioma had occurred by 1985. It is predicted that the number of cases within this study group will reach in excess of 700 by the year 2020. By 1994, 539 reported deaths due to mesothelioma had been reported in Western Australia.

Family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma, and possibly other asbestos related diseases. This risk may be the result of exposure to asbestos dust brought home on the clothing and hair of asbestos workers. To reduce the chance of exposing family members to asbestos fibres, asbestos workers are usually required to shower and change their clothing before leaving the workplace.

Treatment
Treatment of MM using conventional therapies has not proved successful and patients have a median survival time of 6-12 months after presentation. The clinical behaviour of the malignancy is affected by several factors including the continuous mesothelial surface of the pleural cavity which favours local metastasis via exfoliated cells, invasion to underlying tissue and other organs within the pleural cavity, and the extremely long latency period between asbestos exposure and development of the disease.

Surgery
Surgery, either by itself or used in combination with pre- and post-operative adjuvant therapies has proved disappointing with a 5 year survival rate of less than 10%. A pleurectomy/decortication is the most common surgery, in which the lining of the chest is removed. Less common is an extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lung, lining of the inside of the chest, the hemi-diaphragm and the pericardium are removed.

Radiation
Although the tumor is highly resistant to radiotherapy, these regimens are sometimes used to relieve symptoms arising from tumor growth, such as obstruction of a major blood vessel.
Radiotherapy is commonly applied to the sites of chest drain insertion, in order to prevent growth of the tumor along the track in the chest wall.

Chemotherapy
In February 2004, the Food and Drug Administration approved pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Immunotherapy
Treatment regimens involving immunotherapy have yielded variable results. For example, intrapleural inoculation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in an attempt to boost the immune response, was found to be of no benefit to the patient (while it may benefit patients with bladder cancer). Mesothelioma cells proved susceptible to in vitro lysis by LAK cells following activation by interleukin-2(IL-2), but patients undergoing this particular therapy experienced major side effects. Indeed, this trial was suspended in view of the unacceptably high levels of IL-2 toxicity and the severity of side effects such as fever and cachexia. Nonetheless, other trials involving interferon alpha have proved more encouraging with 20% of patients experiencing a greater than 50% reduction in tumor mass combined with minimalside effects.Heated Intraoperative Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

A procedure known as heated intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy was developed by Paul Sugarbaker at the Washington Cancer Institut. The surgeon removes as much of the tumor as possible followed by the direct administration of a chemotherapy agent, heated to between 40 and 48°C, in the abdomen. The fluid is perfused for 60 to 120 minutes and then drained.
This techniquepermits the administration of high concentrations of selected drugs into the abdominal and pelvic surfaces. Heating the chemotherapy treatment increases the penetration of the drugs into tissues. Also, heating itself damages the malignant cells more thanthe normal cells.


Legal issues
Asbestos litigation is the longest, most expensive mass tort in U.S. history, involving more than 6,000 defendants and 600,000 claimants. Current trends indicate that the rate at which people are diagnosed with the disease will likely increase though the next decade. Each year, 50,000 to 75,000 new asbestos-related lawsuits are filed. Analysts have estimated that the total costs of asbestos litigation in the USA alone will eventually reach $200 billion.See also asbestos and the law

History
The first lawsuit against asbestos manufacturers was brought in 1929. The parties settled that lawsuit, and as part of the agreement, the attorneys agreed not to pursue further cases. It was not until 1960 that an article published by Wagner et al in 1960 first officially established mesothelioma as a disease arising from exposure to crocidolite asbesto. The article referred to over 30 case studies of people who had suffered from mesothelioma in South Africa. Some exposures were transient and some were mine workers. In 1962 Dr McNulty reported the first diagnosed case of malignant mesothelioma in an Australian asbestos worke. The worker had worked in the mill at the asbestos mine in Wittenoom from 1948 to 1950.
In the town of Wittenoom, asbestos-containing mine waste was used to cover schoolyards and playgrounds. In 1965 an article in the British Journal of Industrial Medicine established that people who lived in the neighbourhoods of asbestos factories and mines, but did not work in them, had contracted mesothelioma.

Despite proof that the dust associatedwith asbestos mining and milling causes asbestos related disease, mining began at Wittenoom in 1943 and continued until 1966. It is difficult to understand why the mine and mill was allowed to initially open and operate without adequate risk control measures; and why nothing was done to force the owner (CSR) to clean them up, adopt safer work practices or close down their operations.
In 1974 the first public warnings of the dangers of blue asbestos were published in a cover story called "Is this Killer in Your Home?" in Australia's Bulletin magazine. In 1978 the Western Australian Government decided to phase out the town of Wittenoom, following the publication of a Health Dept. booklet, "The Health Hazard at Wittenoom", containing the results of air sampling and an appraisal of worldwide medical information.
By 1979 the first writs for negligence related to Wittenoom were issued against CSR and its subsidiary ABA, and the Asbestos Diseases Society was formed to represent the Wittenoom victims.

References:
  • Http://www.wikipedia.org

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services.

  • "Cigarette smoking, asbestos exposure, and malignant mesothelioma" by Muscat JE, Wynder EL in Cancer Research (1991)

  • "Soluble mesothelin-related protein--a blood test for mesothelioma" by B. W. Robinson, J. Creaney, R. Lake, A. Nowak, A. W. Musk, N. de Klerk, P.Winzell, K. E. Hellstrom and I. Hellstrom in Lung Cancer (2005)

  • "Malignant mesothelioma and occupational exposure to asbestos: a clinicopathological correlation of 1445 cases" by V. L. Roggli, A. Sharma, K. J.Butnor, T. Sporn and R. T. Vollmer in Ultrastruct Pathol (2002)

          (USA-WA-Lake Forest Park) Laboratory Analyst (Carol Stream, IL)   
This job was posted by https://illinoisjoblink.illinois.gov : For more information, please see: https://illinoisjoblink.illinois.gov/ada/r/jobs/5065692 IEH Laboratories, a Leader in Food Safety, is now accepting applications for Laboratory Analyst at a facility in Carol Stream, IL. Applicants must possess a BS or BA in the biological sciences or related field. Ideal candidates should possess the following skills: - Strong attention to detail - Proficiency with data entry and computer applications - Multitasking capability - Ability to work in a fast paced environment - Strong written and verbal communication skills - Self-motivated - Strong understanding of aseptic technique in the laboratory - Ability to lift samples up to 60 lb - Valid Driver's License required - Must have clean driving record Laboratory Analyst duties include: analysis of food samples for pathogens via PCR and immunoassay, various microbe enumerations, data entry, laboratory reporting, quality control, and media preparation. Full-time employee will be eligible for standard benefits after a brief waiting period. The laboratory operates weekends, so candidates must be willing to work some nights and weekends. To apply for this position please access the company's job posting at: https://apps.iehlabs.com/applyatieh.html#5930919a35ee490947a432a6 After navigating to the URL listed above, you will be asked to complete optional self-identification surveys and submit your cover letter, resume and references in a combined, single PDF. Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/V/D "EEO is the Law" Poster: http://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/posters/pdf/eeopost.pdf
          (USA-WA-Auburn) Pharmacy Section Manager   
## Position Summary: Manage and maximize the financial performance of the pharmacy department. Prepare and dispense prescribed medications, drugs, and other pharmaceuticals for patient care according to professional standards, state and federal law requirements. Demonstrate the Company's core values of respect, honesty, integrity, diversity, inclusion and safety of self and others. Fred Meyer also requires that all associates perform all tasks in a safe manner consistent with corporate policies and state and federal laws. ## Essential Job Functions: * Model "Customer 1st" behavior; deliver and encourage other associates to deliver excellent customer service * Perform duties of Staff Pharmacist * Maintain compliance with corporate policies/divisional standards including signing, conditioning, stockroom, fixtures usage and maintenance, labor agreements, quality ordering functions, shrink control, shipping/receiving, salvage, freight receiving/stocking procedures * Plan store events * Manage/execute planograms and department merchandising * Audit file maintenance exceptions * Promote and follow Company initiatives * Interview/hire new personnel; write schedule * Maintain adherence to state Board of Pharmacy and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) rules/regulations and Fred Meyer/Kroger policies/procedures * Sell products/perform cashier functions * Monitor overstock/understock conditions * Audit the department supply orders and the E-40 system * Review financial reports and sales; review on-line sales bulletin * Respond to verbal/written customer comments/complaints/requests * Verify daily/weekly time and attendance functions for completion * Complete customer/associate accident report forms * Verify salvage and MedTurn return procedures are followed * Verify the work of the Pharmacy Technicians and Pharmacy Assistants, including accuracy of all prescriptions filled * Administer immunizations as allowed by the state boards of pharmacy * All store management work with associates to manage all common associate areas (i.e. break rooms and training areas) to make sure they are inviting in appearance and reflect "Our People Are Great" * Supervise and coach direct reports in the performance of their duties; complete performance reviews and provide feedback to direct reports **** * Must be able to perform the essential functions of this position with or without reasonable accommodation **** ## Minimum Position Qualifications: * Licensed Pharmacist holding a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm D) degree or BS degree in Pharmacy (BPharm) plus a minimum of one year Fred Meyer experience, two-three years related retail experience; or combination of relevant education and experience * Minimum 21 years of age per Pharmacy regulations * Ability to pass drug test * Ability to work in a fast-paced environment * Ability to work weekends on a regular basis * Ability to travel independently on an occasional basis * Maintain confidentiality * Accuracy/attention to detail * Ability to organize/prioritize tasks/projects * Familiarity with industry/technical terms/processes * Valid CPR/first aid certification * Valid Bloodborne Pathogens training * Hepatitis B vaccination documentation * Valid State Board of Pharmacy license from state of employment * APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery Certification or equivalent ## Desired Previous Job Experience: * Knowledge of Fred Meyer policies, procedures, and organizational structure * One year pharmacy experience ****Jobs at Fred Meyer:** **Based in Portland, Oregon with over 130 stores throughout Oregon, Washington, Idaho & Alaska, Fred Meyer offers one-stop shopping with store employment opportunities in apparel, home, food, pharmacy and home electronics as well as opportunities in our division office in merchandise and product development, store operations, customer communications, public affairs, food and pharmacy. We are always searching for individuals who share our passion for service, leadership, honesty and diversity. Whether you like working with people, numbers or ideas, you can find a home at Fred Meyer. And with stores and offices across the Pacific Northwest, we have opportunities for talented individuals if you prefer to be closer to the mountains, ocean, or city. **Company Overview** Kroger Family of Companies employs nearly 443,000 associates who serve customers in 2,796 retail food stores under a variety of local banner names in 35 states and the District of Columbia. Kroger and its subsidiaries operate an expanding ClickList offering – a personalized, order online, pick up at the store service – in addition to 2,253 pharmacies, 787 convenience stores, 324 fine jewelry stores, 1,439 supermarket fuel centers and 38 food production plants in the United States. Kroger is recognized as one of America’s most generous companies for its support of more than 100 Feeding America food bank partners, breast cancer research and awareness, the military and their families, and more than 145,000 community organizations including schools. Careers with The Kroger Co. and our family of companies offer competitive wages, flexible schedules, benefits and room for advancement. *Date:* Jun 29, 2017 *Location:* Auburn, WA, US, 98002 *Job Segment:* Pharmacy, Bank, Banking, Merchandising, Patient Care, Healthcare, Retail, Finance *Nearest Major Market:* Seattle *Education Level:* Pharmacy Degree (BS-Pharmacy/PharmD) Required *Required Certifications/Licenses:* Driver's License; Pharmacy Board License *Position Type:* Full-Time *Shift(s):* [[mfield4]] *Regions:* West *States:* Washington
          Altered Antibody Profiles against Common Infectious Agents in Chronic Disease   
Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons. We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies (IFN-γ AAB), HIV and Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects. The IFN-γ AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005), and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-γ AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls. The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity.
          Association of Cross-Reactive Antibodies Targeting Peptidyl-Arginine Deiminase 3 and 4 with Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease   
Background: A subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have detectable antibodies directed against the peptidyl-arginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme isoforms 3 and 4. Anti-PAD3/4 cross-reactive antibodies (anti-PAD3/4XR) have been shown to lower the calcium threshold required for PAD4 activation, an effect potentially relevant to the pathogenesis of RA-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: RA patients underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest with interpretation by a pulmonary radiologist for ILD features. A semi-quantitative ILD Score (range 0–32) was calculated. Concurrent serum samples were assessed for antibodies against PAD by immunoprecipitation with radiolabeled PAD3 and PAD4. Results: Among the 176 RA patients studied, any ILD was observed in 58 (33%) and anti-PAD3/4XR was detected in 19 (11%). The frequency of any ILD among those with anti-PAD3/4XR was 68% vs. 29% among those with no anti-PAD (crude OR = 5.39; p = 0.002) and vs. 27% among those with anti-PAD4 that was not cross-reactive with PAD3 (crude OR = 5.74; p = 0.001). Both associations were stronger after adjustment for relevant confounders (adjusted ORs = 7.22 and 6.61, respectively; both p-values<0.01). Among ever smokers with anti-PAD3/4XR, the adjusted frequency of any ILD was 93% vs. 17% for never smokers without the antibody (adjusted OR = 61.4; p = 0.001, p-value for the interaction of smoking with anti-PAD3/4XR<0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence and extent of ILD was markedly higher among RA patients with anti-PAD3/4 cross-reactive antibodies, even after accounting for relevant confounders, particularly among ever smokers. These findings may suggest etiopathologic mechanisms of RA-ILD, and their clinical utility for predicting ILD warrants additional study.
          Induction of Type I Interferon Signaling Determines the Relative Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains   
The tremendous success of S. aureus as a human pathogen has been explained primarily by its array of virulence factors that enable the organism to evade host immunity. Perhaps equally important, but less well understood, is the importance of the intensity of the host response in determining the extent of pathology induced by S. aureus infection, particularly in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We compared the pathogenesis of infection caused by two phylogenetically and epidemiologically distinct strains of S. aureus whose behavior in humans has been well characterized. Induction of the type I IFN cascade by strain 502A, due to a NOD2-IRF5 pathway, was the major factor in causing severe pneumonia and death in a murine model of pneumonia and was associated with autolysis and release of peptidogylcan. In contrast to USA300, 502A was readily eliminated from epithelial surfaces in vitro. Nonetheless, 502A caused significantly increased tissue damage due to the organisms that were able to invade systemically and trigger type I IFN responses, and this was ameliorated in Ifnar-/- mice. The success of USA300 to cause invasive infection appears to depend upon its resistance to eradication from epithelial surfaces, but not production of specific toxins. Our studies illustrate the important and highly variable role of type I IFN signaling within a species and suggest that targeted immunomodulation of specific innate immune signaling cascades may be useful to prevent the excessive morbidity associated with S. aureus pneumonia.
          Placental Genome and Maternal-Placental Genetic Interactions: A Genome-Wide and Candidate Gene Association Study of Placental Abruption   
While available evidence supports the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of placental abruption (PA), PA-related placental genome variations and maternal-placental genetic interactions have not been investigated. Maternal blood and placental samples collected from participants in the Peruvian Abruptio Placentae Epidemiology study were genotyped using Illumina’s Cardio-Metabochip platform. We examined 118,782 genome-wide SNPs and 333 SNPs in 32 candidate genes from mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in placental DNA from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. We assessed maternal-placental interactions in the candidate gene SNPS and two imprinted regions (IGF2/H19 and C19MC). Univariate and penalized logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios. We examined the combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk using weighted genetic risk scores (WGRS) with repeated ten-fold cross-validations. A multinomial model was used to investigate maternal-placental genetic interactions. In placental genome-wide and candidate gene analyses, no SNP was significant after false discovery rate correction. The top genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits were rs544201, rs1484464 (CTNNA2), rs4149570 (TNFRSF1A) and rs13055470 (ZNRF3) (p-values: 1.11e-05 to 3.54e-05). The top 200 SNPs of the GWAS overrepresented genes involved in cell cycle, growth and proliferation. The top candidate gene hits were rs16949118 (COX10) and rs7609948 (THRB) (p-values: 6.00e-03 and 8.19e-03). Participants in the highest quartile of WGRS based on cross-validations using SNPs selected from the GWAS and candidate gene analyses had a 8.40-fold (95% CI: 5.8–12.56) and a 4.46-fold (95% CI: 2.94–6.72) higher odds of PA compared to participants in the lowest quartile. We found maternal-placental genetic interactions on PA risk for two SNPs in PPARG (chr3∶12313450 and chr3∶12412978) and maternal imprinting effects for multiple SNPs in the C19MC and IGF2/H19 regions. Variations in the placental genome and interactions between maternal-placental genetic variations may contribute to PA risk. Larger studies may help advance our understanding of PA pathogenesis.
          A Wide Range of 3243A>G/tRNALeu(UUR) (MELAS) Mutation Loads May Segregate in Offspring through the Female Germline Bottleneck   
Segregation of mutant mtDNA in human tissues and through the germline is debated, with no consensus about the nature and size of the bottleneck hypothesized to explain rapid generational shifts in mutant loads. We investigated two maternal lineages with an apparently different inheritance pattern of the same pathogenic mtDNA 3243A>G/tRNALeu(UUR) (MELAS) mutation. We collected blood cells, muscle biopsies, urinary epithelium and hair follicles from 20 individuals, as well as oocytes and an ovarian biopsy from one female mutation carrier, all belonging to the two maternal lineages to assess mutant mtDNA load, and calculated the theoretical germline bottleneck size (number of segregating units). We also evaluated “mother-to-offspring” segregations from the literature, for which heteroplasmy assessment was available in at least three siblings besides the proband. Our results showed that mutation load was prevalent in skeletal muscle and urinary epithelium, whereas in blood cells there was an inverse correlation with age, as previously reported. The histoenzymatic staining of the ovarian biopsy failed to show any cytochrome-c-oxidase defective oocyte. Analysis of four oocytes and one offspring from the same unaffected mother of the first family showed intermediate heteroplasmic mutant loads (10% to 75%), whereas very skewed loads of mutant mtDNA (0% or 81%) were detected in five offspring of another unaffected mother from the second family. Bottleneck size was 89 segregating units for the first mother and 84 for the second. This was remarkably close to 88, the number of “segregating units” in the “mother-to-offspring” segregations retrieved from literature. In conclusion, a wide range of mutant loads may be found in offspring tissues and oocytes, resulting from a similar theoretical bottleneck size.
          Muscular Dystrophy-Associated SUN1 and SUN2 Variants Disrupt Nuclear-Cytoskeletal Connections and Myonuclear Organization   
Proteins of the nuclear envelope (NE) are associated with a range of inherited disorders, most commonly involving muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy, as exemplified by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). EDMD is both genetically and phenotypically variable, and some evidence of modifier genes has been reported. Six genes have so far been linked to EDMD, four encoding proteins associated with the LINC complex that connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. However, 50% of patients have no identifiable mutations in these genes. Using a candidate approach, we have identified putative disease-causing variants in the SUN1 and SUN2 genes, also encoding LINC complex components, in patients with EDMD and related myopathies. Our data also suggest that SUN1 and SUN2 can act as disease modifier genes in individuals with co-segregating mutations in other EDMD genes. Five SUN1/SUN2 variants examined impaired rearward nuclear repositioning in fibroblasts, confirming defective LINC complex function in nuclear-cytoskeletal coupling. Furthermore, myotubes from a patient carrying compound heterozygous SUN1 mutations displayed gross defects in myonuclear organization. This was accompanied by loss of recruitment of centrosomal marker, pericentrin, to the NE and impaired microtubule nucleation at the NE, events that are required for correct myonuclear arrangement. These defects were recapitulated in C2C12 myotubes expressing exogenous SUN1 variants, demonstrating a direct link between SUN1 mutation and impairment of nuclear-microtubule coupling and myonuclear positioning. Our findings strongly support an important role for SUN1 and SUN2 in muscle disease pathogenesis and support the hypothesis that defects in the LINC complex contribute to disease pathology through disruption of nuclear-microtubule association, resulting in defective myonuclear positioning.
          Gel Formation in Protein Amyloid Aggregation: A Physical Mechanism for Cytotoxicity   
Amyloid fibers are associated with disease but have little chemical reactivity. We investigated the formation and structure of amyloids to identify potential mechanisms for their pathogenic effects. We incubated lysozyme 20 mg/ml at 55C and pH 2.5 in a glycine-HCl buffer and prepared slides on mica substrates for examination by atomic force microscopy. Structures observed early in the aggregation process included monomers, small colloidal aggregates, and amyloid fibers. Amyloid fibers were observed to further self-assemble by two mechanisms. Two or more fibers may merge together laterally to form a single fiber bundle, usually in the form of a helix. Alternatively, fibers may become bound at points where they cross, ultimately forming an apparently irreversible macromolecular network. As the fibers assemble into a continuous network, the colloidal suspension undergoes a transition from a Newtonian fluid into a viscoelastic gel. Addition of salt did not affect fiber formation but inhibits transition of fibers from linear to helical conformation, and accelerates gel formation. Based on our observations, we considered the effects of gel formation on biological transport. Analysis of network geometry indicates that amyloid gels will have negligible effects on diffusion of small molecules, but they prevent movement of colloidal-sized structures. Consequently gel formation within neurons could completely block movement of transport vesicles in neuronal processes. Forced convection of extracellular fluid is essential for the transport of nutrients and metabolic wastes in the brain. Amyloid gel in the extracellular space can essentially halt this convection because of its low permeability. These effects may provide a physical mechanism for the cytotoxicity of chemically inactive amyloid fibers in neurodegenerative disease.
          Inhibition of p38 MAPK Signaling Augments Skin Tumorigenesis via NOX2 Driven ROS Generation   
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) respond to a wide range of extracellular stimuli. While the inhibition of p38 signaling is implicated in the impaired capacity to repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage—a primary risk factor for human skin cancers—its mechanism of action in skin carcinogenesis remains unclear, as both anti-proliferative and survival functions have been previously described. In this study, we utilized cultured keratinocytes, murine tumorigenesis models, and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens to assess the effect of p38 in this regard. UV irradiation of normal human keratinocytes increased the expression of all four p38 isoforms (α/β/γ/δ); whereas irradiation of p53-deficient A431 keratinocytes derived from a human SCC selectively decreased p38α, without affecting other isoforms. p38α levels are decreased in the majority of human cutaneous SCCs assessed by tissue microarray, suggesting a tumor-suppressive effect of p38α in SCC pathogenesis. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of p38α and in A431 cells increased cell proliferation, which was in turn associated with increases in NAPDH oxidase (NOX2) activity as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). These changes led to enhanced invasiveness of A431 cells as assessed by the matrigel invasion assay. Chronic treatment of p53-/-/SKH-1 mice with the p38 inhibitor SB203580 accelerated UV-induced SCC carcinogenesis and increased the expression of NOX2. NOX2 knockdown suppressed the augmented growth of A431 xenografts treated with SB203580. These findings indicate that in the absence of p53, p38α deficiency drives SCC growth and progression that is associated with enhanced NOX2 expression and ROS formation.
          Huntingtin Is Critical Both Pre- and Postsynaptically for Long-Term Learning-Related Synaptic Plasticity in Aplysia   
Patients with Huntington’s disease exhibit memory and cognitive deficits many years before manifesting motor disturbances. Similarly, several studies have shown that deficits in long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular basis of memory formation and storage, occur well before motor disturbances in the hippocampus of the transgenic mouse models of Huntington’s disease. The autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of Huntington’s disease suggests the importance of the mutant protein, huntingtin, in pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease, but wild type huntingtin also has been shown to be important for neuronal functions such as axonal transport. Yet, the role of wild type huntingtin in long-term synaptic plasticity has not been investigated in detail. We identified a huntingtin homolog in the marine snail Aplysia, and find that similar to the expression pattern in mammalian brain, huntingtin is widely expressed in neurons and glial cells. Importantly the expression of mRNAs of huntingtin is upregulated by repeated applications of serotonin, a modulatory transmitter released during learning in Aplysia. Furthermore, we find that huntingtin expression levels are critical, not only in presynaptic sensory neurons, but also in the postsynaptic motor neurons for serotonin-induced long-term facilitation at the sensory-to-motor neuron synapse of the Aplysia gill-withdrawal reflex. These results suggest a key role for huntingtin in long-term memory storage.
          Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Implications for Honey Bee Health   
Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV–host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide.
          Characterization and Molecular Profiling of PSEN1 Familial Alzheimer's Disease iPSC-Derived Neural Progenitors   
Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, we characterized neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. Thus, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from affected and unaffected individuals from two families carrying PSEN1 mutations. PSEN1 mutant fibroblasts, and NPCs produced greater ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 relative to their control counterparts, with the elevated ratio even more apparent in PSEN1 NPCs than in fibroblasts. Molecular profiling identified 14 genes differentially-regulated in PSEN1 NPCs relative to control NPCs. Five of these targets showed differential expression in late onset AD/Intermediate AD pathology brains. Therefore, in our PSEN1 iPSC model, we have reconstituted an essential feature in the molecular pathogenesis of FAD, increased generation of Aβ42/40, and have characterized novel expression changes.
          Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages   
Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.
          A Panel of Serum Biomarkers Differentiates IgA Nephropathy from Other Renal Diseases   
Background and Objectives: There is increasing evidence that galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and Gd-IgA1-containing immune complexes are important for the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In the present study, we assessed a novel noninvasive multi-biomarker approach in the diagnostic test for IgAN. Materials and Methods: We compared serum levels of IgA, IgG, Gd-IgA1, Gd-IgA1-specific IgG and Gd-IgA1-specific IgA in 135 IgAN patients, 79 patients with non-IgAN chronic kidney disease (CKD) controls and 106 healthy controls. Serum was collected at the time of kidney biopsy from all IgAN and CKD patients. Results: Each serum marker was significantly elevated in IgAN patients compared to CKD (P<0.001) and healthy controls (P<0.001). While 41% of IgAN patients had elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels, 91% of these patients exhibited Gd-IgA1-specific IgG levels above the 90th percentile for healthy controls (sensitivity 89%, specificity 92%). Although up to 25% of CKD controls, particularly those with immune-mediated glomerular diseases including lupus nephritis, also had elevated serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG, most IgAN patients had elevated levels of Gd-IgA1-specific antibody of both isotypes. Serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG were associated with renal histological grading. Furthermore, there was a trend toward higher serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG in IgAN patients with at least moderate proteinuria (≥1.0 g/g), compared to patients with less proteinuria. Conclusions Serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific antibodies are elevated in most IgAN patients, and their assessment, together with serum levels of Gd-IgA1, improves the specificity of the assays. Our observations suggest that a panel of serum biomarkers may be helpful in differentiating IgAN from other glomerular diseases.
          Spatial Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza in the US   
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic provides a unique opportunity for detailed examination of the spatial dynamics of an emerging pathogen. In the US, the pandemic was characterized by substantial geographical heterogeneity: the 2009 spring wave was limited mainly to northeastern cities while the larger fall wave affected the whole country. Here we use finely resolved spatial and temporal influenza disease data based on electronic medical claims to explore the spread of the fall pandemic wave across 271 US cities and associated suburban areas. We document a clear spatial pattern in the timing of onset of the fall wave, starting in southeastern cities and spreading outwards over a period of three months. We use mechanistic models to tease apart the external factors associated with the timing of the fall wave arrival: differential seeding events linked to demographic factors, school opening dates, absolute humidity, prior immunity from the spring wave, spatial diffusion, and their interactions. Although the onset of the fall wave was correlated with school openings as previously reported, models including spatial spread alone resulted in better fit. The best model had a combination of the two. Absolute humidity or prior exposure during the spring wave did not improve the fit and population size only played a weak role. In conclusion, the protracted spread of pandemic influenza in fall 2009 in the US was dominated by short-distance spatial spread partially catalysed by school openings rather than long-distance transmission events. This is in contrast to the rapid hierarchical transmission patterns previously described for seasonal influenza. The findings underline the critical role that school-age children play in facilitating the geographic spread of pandemic influenza and highlight the need for further information on the movement and mixing patterns of this age group.
          Borrelia burgdorferi Promotes the Establishment of Babesia microti in the Northeastern United States   
Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, the respective causative agents of human babesiosis and Lyme disease, are maintained in their enzootic cycles by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and use the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) as primary reservoir host. The geographic range of both pathogens has expanded in the United States, but the spread of babesiosis has lagged behind that of Lyme disease. Several studies have estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) for B. microti to be below the threshold for persistence (<1), a finding that is inconsistent with the persistence and geographic expansion of this pathogen. We tested the hypothesis that host coinfection with B. burgdorferi increases the likelihood of B. microti transmission and establishment in new areas. We fed I. scapularis larva on P. leucopus mice that had been infected in the laboratory with B. microti and/or B. burgdorferi. We observed that coinfection in mice increases the frequency of B. microti infected ticks. To identify the ecological variables that would increase the probability of B. microti establishment in the field, we integrated our laboratory data with field data on tick burden and feeding activity in an R0 model. Our model predicts that high prevalence of B. burgdorferi infected mice lowers the ecological threshold for B. microti establishment, especially at sites where larval burden on P. leucopus is lower and where larvae feed simultaneously or soon after nymphs infect mice, when most of the transmission enhancement due to coinfection occurs. Our studies suggest that B. burgdorferi contributes to the emergence and expansion of B. microti and provides a model to predict the ecological factors that are sufficient for emergence of B. microti in the wild.
          The Well Curve   
Pseudo-nitzschia and ATCV-1 join a panoply of microorganisms that have long been suspected, and sometimes known, to change how well we think. These newcomers are getting attention because they struck in the West, where a functional public health infrastructure allows for disease surveillance and the investigation of mysterious sources of disability. But pathogens that affect cognition have traditionally infected poor people of color in the developing world, so their ravages and long-term effects have been more likely to go unanalyzed and untreated.
          Novel Coronavirus and Astrovirus in Delaware Bay Shorebirds   
Background: Wild birds are an important but to some extent under-studied reservoir for emerging pathogens. We used unbiased sequencing methods for virus discovery in shorebird samples from the Delaware Bay, USA; an important feeding ground for thousands of migratory birds. Findings: Analysis of shorebird fecal samples indicated the presence of a novel astrovirus and coronavirus. A sanderling sample yielded sequences with distant homology to avian nephritis virus 1, an astrovirus associated with acute nephritis in poultry. A ruddy turnstone sample yielded sequences with homology to deltacoronaviruses. Conclusions: Our findings highlight shorebirds as a virus reservoir and the need to closely monitor wild bird populations for the emergence of novel virus variants.
          Orthostatic Tremor: An Update on a Rare Entity   
Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT) remains among the most intriguing and poorly understood of movement disorders. Compared to Parkinson’s disease or even essential tremor, there are very few articles addressing more basic science issues. In this review, we will discuss the findings of main case series on OT, including data on etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, treatment strategies, and outcome. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PUBMED (January 1966 to August 2016) for the terms “orthostatic tremor” or “shaky leg syndrome,” which yielded 219 entries. We did not exclude papers on the basis of language, country, or publication date. The electronic database searches were supplemented by articles in the authors’ files that pertained to this topic. Results: Owing to its rarity, the current understanding of OT is limited and is mostly based on small case series or case reports. Despite this, a growing body of evidence indicates that OT might be a progressive condition that is clinically heterogeneous (primary vs. secondary cases) with a broader spectrum of clinical features, mainly cerebellar signs, and possible cognitive impairment and personality disturbances. Along with this, advanced neuroimaging techniques are now demonstrating distinct anatomical and functional changes, some of which are consistent with neuronal loss. Discussion: OT might be a family of diseases, unified by the presence of leg tremor, but further characterized by etiological and clinical heterogeneity. More work is needed to understand the pathogenesis of this condition.
          Vectors as Epidemiological Sentinels: Patterns of Within-Tick Borrelia burgdorferi Diversity   
Hosts including humans, other vertebrates, and arthropods, are frequently infected with heterogeneous populations of pathogens. Within-host pathogen diversity has major implications for human health, epidemiology, and pathogen evolution. However, pathogen diversity within-hosts is difficult to characterize and little is known about the levels and sources of within-host diversity maintained in natural populations of disease vectors. Here, we examine genomic variation of the Lyme disease bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), in 98 individual field-collected tick vectors as a model for study of within-host processes. Deep population sequencing reveals extensive and previously undocumented levels of Bb variation: the majority (~70%) of ticks harbor mixed strain infections, which we define as levels Bb diversity pre-existing in a diverse inoculum. Within-tick diversity is thus a sample of the variation present within vertebrate hosts. Within individual ticks, we detect signatures of positive selection. Genes most commonly under positive selection across ticks include those involved in dissemination in vertebrate hosts and evasion of the vertebrate immune complement. By focusing on tick-borne Bb, we show that vectors can serve as epidemiological and evolutionary sentinels: within-vector pathogen diversity can be a useful and unbiased way to survey circulating pathogen diversity and identify evolutionary processes occurring in natural transmission cycles.
          ALS-associated mutant FUS induces selective motor neuron degeneration through toxic gain of function   
Mutations in FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including some of the most aggressive, juvenile-onset forms of the disease. FUS loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to explain how mutant FUS leads to motor neuron degeneration, but neither has been firmly established in the pathogenesis of ALS. Here we characterize a series of transgenic FUS mouse lines that manifest progressive, mutant-dependent motor neuron degeneration preceded by early, structural and functional abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction. A novel, conditional FUS knockout mutant reveals that postnatal elimination of FUS has no effect on motor neuron survival or function. Moreover, endogenous FUS does not contribute to the onset of the ALS phenotype induced by mutant FUS. These findings demonstrate that FUS-dependent motor degeneration is not due to loss of FUS function, but to the gain of toxic properties conferred by ALS mutations.
          Congenital Mirror Movements Due to RAD51: Cosegregation with a Nonsense Mutation in a Norwegian Pedigree and Review of the Literature   
Background: Autosomal dominant congenital mirror movements (CMM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early onset involuntary movements of one side of the body that mirror intentional movements on the contralateral side; these persist throughout life in the absence of other neurological symptoms. The main culprit genes responsible for this condition are RAD51 and DCC. This condition has only been reported in a few families, and the molecular mechanisms linking RAD51 mutations and mirror movements (MM) are poorly understood. Methods: We collected demographic, clinical, and genetic data of a new family with CMM due to a truncating mutation of RAD51. We reviewed the literature to identify all reported patients with CMM due to RAD51 mutations. Results: We identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation c.760C>T (p.Arg254∗) in eight subjects: four with obvious and disabling MM, and four with a mild phenotype. Including our new family, we identified 32 patients from 6 families with CMM linked to RAD51 variants. Discussion: Our findings further support the involvement of RAD51 in CMM pathogenesis. Possible molecular mechanisms involved in CMM pathogenesis are discussed.
          Restless Legs Syndrome: Current Concepts about Disease Pathophysiology   
Background: In the past few decades, much has been learned about the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Investigators have studied neuropathology, imaging, electrophysiology, and genetics of RLS, identifying brain regions and biological systems affected in RLS. This manuscript will review RLS pathophysiology literature, examining the RLS state through consideration of the neuroanatomy, then the biological, organ, and genetic systems. Methods: Pubmed (1966 to April 2016) was searched for the term “restless legs syndrome” cross-referenced with “pathophysiology,” “pathogenesis,” “pathology,” or “imaging.” English language papers were reviewed. Studies that focused on RLS in relation to another disease were not reviewed. Results: Although there are no gross structural brain abnormalities in RLS, widespread brain areas are activated, including the pre- and post-central gyri, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. Pathologically, the most consistent finding is striatal iron deficiency in RLS patients. A host of other biological systems are also altered in RLS, including the dopaminergic, oxygen-sensing, opioid, glutamatergic, and serotonergic systems. Polymorphisms in genes including BTBD9 and MEIS1 are associated with RLS. Discussion: RLS is a neurologic sensorimotor disorder that involves pathology, most notably iron deficiency, in motor and sensory brain areas. Brain areas not subserving movement or sensation such as the cingulate cortex and cerebellum are also involved. Other biological systems including the dopaminergic, oxygen-sensing, opioid, glutamatergic, and serotonergic systems are involved. Further research is needed to determine which of these anatomic locations or biological systems are affected primarily, and which are affected in a secondary response.
          The possible role of chromosome X variability in hypertensive familiarity   
Familiarity participates in the pathogenesis of hypertension, although only recently, whole genome studies have proposed regions of the human genome possibly involved in the transmission of the hypertensive phenotype. Although studies have mainly focused on autosome, hitherto the influence of sex on familial transmission of hypertension has not been considered. We analysed the database of the Campania Salute Network of Hypertension center of the Federico II University Hospital of Naples (Italy), using dichotomous variables for paternal and maternal familiarity and gender (male and female) of 12 504 hypertensive patients (6868 males and 5636 females) and 6352 controls (3484 males and 2868 females), totaling 18 856 subjects. In the hypertensive group, familiarity was present in 75% of cases with odds of 3.77 and in only 26% of the normotensives with odds of 0.94. The odds ratio (OR) indicated that familiarity increases the risk of developing hypertension by 2.91 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.67–3.17, P<0.001) times. Additionally, maternal familiarity was 37% (OR=3.01, 95% CI=2.66–3.41, P<0.001), paternal familiarity was 21% (OR=2.31, 95% CI=2.01–2.68, P<0.001) and the double familiarity was 17% (OR=3.45, 95% CI=2.87–4.01, P<0.001), thus suggesting a plausible association between maternal familiarity and development of hypertension; this finding was observed both in male and in female patients, although the phenomenon was larger in males. Given the dominance of maternal transmission in males, by genome-wide analysis of the X chromosome, we found two regions that were differently distributed in male hypertensives with maternal hypertension. Our data highlight the importance of genetic variants in the X chromosome to the maternal transmission of the hypertensive phenotype.
          RESVERATROL 120mg - 120 veg caps   
  • Resveratrol from Polygonum Cuspidatum
  • Only 1 capsule per day
  • Each capsule provides 120mg of resveratrol
  • Vegetable capsules suitable for vegetarians/vegans
  • 120 Capsules per packet
  • Good manufacturing practice (GMP)
  • Produced in a Certified Laboratory of the U.E.
  • HACCP Certificate

What is Resveratrol by HSNessentials?

Resveratrol by HSNessentials is a nutritional supplement that provides 120mg of resveratrol from the plant Polygonum Cuspidatum.

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic flavonoid found naturally in more than 70 plant species.

It belongs to a group of defense molecules called phytoalexins. The fact that it is a phytoalexin means it is an enzyme that is naturally produced in some plants as a defense against stress produced by situations such as infections by pathogens like bacteria and fungi or to protect themselves from UV irradiation.

Resveratrol is available as a nutritional supplement and is usually obtained from grape extract and Polygonum Cuspidatum extract, among others. Most of the dietary supplements we find on the market, including Resveratrol from HSNessential, are derived from the Polygonum Cuspidatum extract because this plant has one of the highest concentrations of resveratrol found in nature.

Properties of Resveratrol by HSNessentials

  • Resveratrol extracted from the plant Polygonum Cuspidatum: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) is a perennial plant native to Japan, China and Korea. It was incorporated to Great Britain and the United States in the 19th century as an ornamental plant. The root extract of Polygonum Cuspidatum contains 7 times more Resveratrol than the grape and has been consumed by humans for hundreds of years.
  • Vegetable capsules: For the preparation of the resveratrol capsules no ingredient of animal origin has been used so it is suitable for vegetarians/vegans.

How to take Resveratrol?

It is advisable to take 1 capsule of resveratrol a day with the meal you choose (during breakfast, lunch or dinner).

How to combine Resveratrol?

Resveratrol can be combined with a multitude of products, but it is important to notice that the product that we are going to combine it with does not contain additional resveratrol or that it has very small amounts.

It is advisable to combine with Green Tea, Acai, Turmeric and Spirulina.

Who is this Resveratrol supplement aimed at?

  • People looking to enrich their diet with the flavonoid Resveratrol.
  • Sportspeople and active people.
  • Smokers.
  • People over 50.

Price:18.09 € Special Price:12.66 €
Special Expires on: Jul 2, 2017


          Researchers develop yeast-based tool for worldwide pathogen detection   
Columbia University researchers have developed a tool that is likely to revolutionize the way we detect and treat pathogens in everything from human health to agriculture to water.
          Hama dan Penyakit pada Tumbuhan   

PENGERTIAN HAMA
Hama adalah organisme perusak tanaman pada akar, batang, daun atau bagian tanaman lainnya sehingga tanaman tidak dapat tumbuh dengan sempurna atau mati.
Ciri-ciri hama antara lain :
 Hama dapat dilihat oleh mata telanjang
 Umumnya berasal dari golongan hewan ( tikus, serangga, ulat, dan lain-lain)
 Hama cenderung merusak bagian tanaman tertentu sehinggatanaman menjadi mati atau tetap hidup tetapi tidak banyak memberikan hasil
 Organisme hama biasanya lebih mudah diatasi karena hama tampak oleh mata dan dapat dilihat secara langsung
Secara garis besar, hama tanaman dikelompokkan menjadi tiga kelompok sebagai berikut :
• Kelompok hewan menyusui (Mamalia), seperti tikus
• Kelompok serangga (Insekta), seperti belalang
• Kelompok burung (Aves), seperti burung pipit
Berikut adalah macam-macam hewan yang berpotensi sebagai hama di Indonesia :
1. TIKUS (Rattus Norvegicus)

Tikus merupakan hama yang sering kali membuat pusing para petani. Di Purwakarta, Hama tikus adalah urutan pertama penyerang padi. Hal ini disebabkan tikus sulit dikendalikan karena memiliki daya adaptasi, mobilitas, dan kemampuan untuk berkembang biak yang sangat tinggi. Masa reproduksi yang relatif singkat menyebabkan tikus cepat bertambah banyak. Potensi perkembang biakan tikus sangat tergantung dari makanan yang tersedia. Tikus sangat aktif di malam hari.
Tikus menyerang berbagai tumbuhan. Bagian tumbuhan yang diserang tidak hanya biji-bijian tetapi juga batang tumbuhan muda. Yang membuat para tikus kuat memakan biji-bijian sehingga merugikan para petani adalah gigi serinya yang kuat dan tajam, sehingga tikus mudah unuk memakan biji-bijian. Tikus membuat lubang-lubang pada pematang sawah dan sering berlindung di semak-semak. Apabila keadaan sawah itu rusak berarti sawah tersebut di serang tikus.
Gejala serangan :
- Tikus menyerang berbagai tumbuhan
- Menyerang di pesemaian, masa vegetatif, masa generatif, masa panen, dan tempat penyimpanan
- Bagian tumbuhan yang diserang tidak hanya biji-bijian, tetapi juga batang tumbuhan muda
- Tikus membuat lubang-lubang pada pematang sawah dan sering berlindung di semak-semak
Pengendalian :
- Membongkar dan menutup lubang tempat bersembunyi para tikus dan menangkap tikusnya
- Pengendalin Hayati, yaitu dengan menggunakan musuh alami tikus, yaitu ular
- Menanam tanaman secara bersamaan agar dapat menuai dalam waktu yang sama pula sehingga tidak ada kesempatan bagi tikus untuk mendapatkan makanan setelah tanaman dipanen
- Pengendalian Kimia, yaitu dengan menggunakan rodentisida (pembasmi tikus) atau dengan memasang umpan beracun, yaitu irisan ubi jalar atau singkong yang telah direndam sebelumnya dengan fosforus. Peracunan ini sebaiknya dilakukan sebelum tanaman padi berbunga dan berbiji. Selain itu penggunaan racun harus hati-hati karena juga berbahaya bagi hewan ternak dan manusia.
2. WERENG COKLAT (Nilaparvata Lugens)
Wereng adalah sejenis kepik yang menyebabkan daun dan batang tumbuhan berlubang-lubang, kemudian kering, dan pada akhirnya ,mati.
Hama wereng dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu:
1. Hama Wereng coklat

Nama latin dari hama wereng coklat adalah Nilapervata lungens. Hama ini selalu menghisap cairan dan air dari batang padi muda atau bulir-bulir buah padi yang masih lunak. Hama wereng hidup di habitat yang lembab, gelap dan teduh. Pemberantasan hama ini dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan insektisida dan membasmi bibit-bibit wereng dengan membakarnya
2. Hama Wereng hijau

Hama yang memiliki nama latin Nephotettix apocalis ini merusak kelopak dan urat-urat pada tanaman padi. Hama wereng hijau mempunyai alat penghisap yang kuat pada moncongnya.
Pemberantasan hama ini dapat dilakukan dengan cara menggunakan obat insektisida, rotasi tanaman, pembunuhan hama dan perangkap lampu jebak.
3. WALANG SANGIT (Leptocorixa acuta)

Klasifikasi:
Kingdom : Animalia
Filum : Arthropoda
Kelas : Insecta
Ordo : Hemiptera
famili : Alydidae
Genus : Leptocorisa
Spesies : Leptocorisa acuta
Walang sangit merupakan salah satu hama yang juga meresahkan petani. Hewan ini jika diganggu, akan meloncat dan tebang sambil mengeluarkan bau. Serangga ini berwarna kemerah-merahan. Walang sangit menghisap butir-butir padi yang masih cair. Biji yang sudah dihisap akan menjadi hampa, agak hampa, atau liat. Kulit biji itu akan berwarna kehitam-hitaman.
Faktor-faktor yang mendukung populasi walang sangit :
- Sawah sangat dekat dengan perhutanan
- Populasi gulma disekitar sawah cukup tinggi
- Penanaman tidak serentak
Pengendalian terhadap hama walang sangit :
- Menanam secara serentak
- Membersihkan sawah dari segala macam rumput yang tumbuh di sekitar sawah agar tidak menjadi tempat berkembang biak bagi walang sangit.
- Menangkap walang sangit pada pagi hari menggunakan jala penangkap.
- Penangkapan menggunakan umpan bangkai kodok, ketam sawah, atau dengan alga
- Melakukan pengendalian hayati dengan cara melepaskan musuh alami walang sangit
- Menyemprot insektisida pada saat gabah masak susu pada umur 70-80 hari setelah tanam
4. TUNGAU
Tungau (kutu kecil) biasanya terdapat di bawah daun untuk mengisap daun tersebut. Hama ini banyak terdapat pada musim kemarau. Pada daun yang terserang kutu Tungau (kutu kecil) bisaanya terdapat di sebuah bawah daun untuk mengisap daun tersebut. Hama ini banyak terdapat pada musim kemarau. Pada daun yang terserang kutu akan timbul bercak – bercak kecil kemudian daun akan menjadi kuning lalu gugur. Hama ini dapat diatasi dengan cara mengumpulkan daun – daun yang terserang hama pada suatu tempat dan dibakar.
5. ULAT KUPU-KUPU
Kupu-kupu merupakan serangga yang memiliki sayap yang indah dan benareka ragam. Kupu-kupu meletakkan telurnya dibawah daun dan jika menetas menjadi larva. Kita bisa sebut larva kupu -kupu sebagai ulat. Pada fase ini, ulat aktif memakan dedaunan bahkan pangkal batang, terutama pada malam hari. Daun yang dimakan oleh ulat hanya tersisa rangka atau tulang daunya saja.
Upaya pemberantasan dapat dilakukan sebagai berikut :
- Membuang telur-telur kupu-kupu yang melekat pada bagian bawah daun
- Menggenangi tempat persemaian dengan air dalam jumlah banyak sehingga ulat akan bergerak ke atas sehingga mudah untuk dikumpulkan dan dibasmi.
- Apabila kedua cara diatas tidak berhasil, maka dapat dilakukan penyemprotan dengan menggunakan pestisida
6. ULAT GRAYAK (Spodoptera litura)

Gejala serangan: Salah satu gejala awal serangan ulat grayak ialah daun – daun cabe yang meranggas dan berlubang-lubang. Ulat grayak mulai memakan daun dari bagian tepi kemudian ke bagian atas maupun bawah daun. Pada tingkat serangan yang parah daun hanya tertinggal epidermisnya saja. Sehingga daun menjadi tidak berfungsi sebagai tempat fotosintesis, akibatnya pertumbuhan tanaman yang diserangnya menjadi terhambat dan menurun. Tanaman yang sering diserang oleh Ulat grayak salah satunya adalah tanaman cabe
7. ULAT BUAH (Dacus ferrugineus Coquillet atau Dacus Dorsalis Hend)

Gejala serangan: Lalat ini menusuk pangkal buah sehingga terlihat ada bintik hitam kecil bekas tusukan lalat buah untuk memasukkan telur. Buah yang terserang akan menjadi bercak-bercak bulat, kemudian membusuk, dan berlobang. Setelah telur menetas menjadi larva (belatung) dan hidup di dalam buah sampai buah rontok dan membusuk larva akan keluar ke tanah dan seminggu kemudian berubah menjadi lalat muda.
8. Hama Penggerek Umbi Kentang
Umbi kentang yang terkena hama penggerak umbi kentang menunjukkan gejala – gejala yakni pada kuit umbi nterdapat kumpulan kotoran ulat berwarna coklat tua. Jika umbi dibelah, didalamnya terdapat alur – alur. Warna daun merah tua dan terdapat jalinan benang yang meliputi ulat.
Hama penggerek disebut Phthorimaea operculella, yakni berupa ulat berwarna kelabu dengan panjang tubuhnya 1 cm. Ulat ini akan tumbuh menjadi ngengat berwarna kelabu dengan sayap berumbai – rumbai.
Pengendalian yang harus dilakukan pada hama tersebut adalah dengan bakteri (disterilkan) sebelum digunakan.
9. Hama Pemakan Daun Kubis
Hama pemakan daun kubis ini disebut Plutella xylostella, atau biasa disebut hama putih dengan ciri – cirinya: ulat berwarna hijau muda, berbulu hitam, kepala kekuningan dengan bercak – bercak gelap, dan ukuran tubuhnya 9 mm.
Daun kubis yang terserang hama menunjukan gejala – gejala sebagai berikut.
- Hama (ulat) memakan daun kubis tanpa epidermisnya (kulit arinya) sehingga daun “berjendela” dan tampak memutih bahkan jika serangan hamanya berat,
- Daun akan tampak berlubang – lubang dan hanya tinggal tulang daunnya saja.
Cara pengendalian terhadap hama pemakan daun kubis diantaranya sebagai berikut.
- Melakukan pergiliran tanaman selama 3 – 4 bulan. Langkah ini dilakukan dengan cara menanam tanaman yang bukan se-famili dengan kubis – kubisan pada lahan yang akan ditanami kubis. Hal ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk memutuskan siklus hama.
- Secara biologis dengan menggunakan bakteri Bacillus thuringiensis.
- Secara kimiawi dengan menggunakan insektisida.
- Secara mekanik dengan melakukan penjebakan dengan menggunakan lampu dan cawan berisi air.
10. Hama Thrips pada cabai / kemreki
Hama ini berukuran sangat kecil dan lembut. Ketika muda berwarna kuning dan dewasa kecokelatan dengan kepala hitam. Hama ini berupa serangga Thrips sp. dengan ciri – cirinya tubuh berwarna kunimg hingga cokelat kehitaman dan ukuran tubuhnya 1 mm. Didaun yang terkena hama thrips terdapat titik-titik putih keperakan bekas tusukan, kemudian berubah menjadi kecokelatan. Daun yang cairannya diisap menjadi keriput dan melengkung ke atas. Thrips sering bersarang di bunga, ia juga menjadi perantara penyebaran virus. sebaiknya dihindari penanaman cabai dalam skala luas dapa satu hamparan.
Cabai yang terkena hama Thrips menunjukkan gejala – gejala, yakni daun cabai yang terserang hama berubah menjadi keriting. Bila serangannya berat, daun mengerut dan lapisannya berkurang, sehingga daun yang baru menyempit. Permukaan bawah daun yang terserang hama berwarna putih keperakan. Buah yang terserang berubah bentuk dan terlihat jaringan seperti kalus berwarna cokelat muda di kulit buah.
Pengendalian hama Thrips dilakukan secara kimiawi, yaitu dengan melakukan penyemprotan insektisida.
11. Hama pada Bawang putih
Bawang putih yang terkena hama, daunnya berlubang dengan meninggalkan bekas gigitan berwarna putih, atau daun menjadi berselaput tipis dan layu.
Hama pada bawang putih ini berupa ulat Spedoptera exigua berwarna hijau atau cokelat tua dengan garis kekuningan dan ukuran tubuhnya mencapai 25 mm.
Pengendalian hama pada bawang putih ini dilakukan dengan menggenangi lahan sebelum ditanami, pembersihan lahan dari gulma, pengendalian secara biologis dengan menggunakan bakteri Baccillus thuringiensis, dan pengendalian secara kimiawi dengan melakukan penyemprotan insektisida.
12. Hama Penggerek Buah Tomat
Buah tomat yang terkena hama penggerak menunjuukkan gejala – gejala, seperti bagian ujung atau dekat ujung buah berlubang dan didekat lubang terdapat kotoran hama. Jumlah lubangnya bisa lebih dari satu.
Hama pada buah tomat ini berupa ulat Helicoverpa armigera, dengan ciri – ciri: warna tubuh pada ulat dewasa bervariasi dari hijau kekuningan, hijau kecoklatan atau kehitaman. Tubuh berbulu dan ukuran tubuh mencapai 34,5 mm.
Pengendalian hama penggerek buah tomat dilakukan dengan melakukan rotasi tanaman dengan tanaman terhadap hama tersebut. Pengendalian hama juga dapat dilakukan secara biologis dengan menggunakan musuh alaminya yaitu Microptilis manilae untuk kepompong dan ulat, Diadegma argentiopilosa untuk ulat, atau Trichogramma nana untuk telurnya.
13. Hama Penggerek Polong Buncis
Polong buncis yang terserang hama menunjukkan gejala – gejala, yaitu pada polong terdapat lubang gerakan berwarna cokelat tua. Daerah seitar lubang menjadi cokelat kehitaman. Jika polong dibuka, akan tampak ulat (hama) dan kotorannya.
Hama pada polong buncis ini berupa ulat Etiella zinckenella. Larva muda berwarna hijau pucat, kemudian berubah menjadi kemerahan, kepala berwarna hitam, dan tubuh berukuran 15 mm.
Pengendalian hama penggerek polong buncis dilakukan dengan membuang tanaman orok – orok disekitar tanaman buncis tersebut atau dengan meakukan penyemprotan insektisida.
14. Hama Penggerek Buah Mangga
Buah mangga yang terserang hama menunjukkan gejala –gejala, yaitu buah berlubang – lubang dan sekitarnya terdapat kotoran yang meleleh dari dalam. Lubang tersebut menembus sampai ke biji. Jika buah tersebut dibelah, bagian dalamnya sudah rusak dan busuk.
Hama pada buah mangga ada dua jenis, yaitu:
- Ulat dengan warna tubuh berselang – selang merah dan putih, panjangnya kurang lebih 2 cm, besarnya hampir seukuran pangkal lidi dan merupakan larva dari kupu – kupu Noorda albizonalia.
- Ulat dengan warna tubuh cokelat kehitaman, panjangnya kira – kira 1 cm, beasrnya menyamai lidi yang kecil, dan merupakan larva dari kupu – kupu Philotroctis eutraphera.
Penanggulangan hama penggerek pada buah mangga dilakukan dengan cara menyemprotkan insektisida pada buah mangga yang masih muda atau dengan membungkus buah muda satu persatu sebelum kupu – kupu Noorda albizonalia dan Philotroctis eutraphera sempat bertelur pada buah mangga tersebut.
15. Tupai (Callosciurus notatus )
Tanaman yang diserang : buah kelapa buah kakao
Gejala : merusak buah yang hampir masak, sehingga buah menjadi rontok.
Pengendalian : penjagaan di kebun, dan memasang perangkap,
16. Burung Gereja ( Passer montanus , Oates )
Menyerang : padi dan biji rumput-ruputan lainnya
17. Codot ( Cynopterus sphinx , vahl )
Menyerang : buah dan sari bunga
18. Kepik hijau ( nesara viridula .L) / Lembing hijau
Lembing hijau memiliki nama latin Nezara viridula dan berkembang di daerah beriklim tropis. Hama lembing hijau hidup dengan berkoloni. Serangan hama ini tidak sampai menghampakan padi, namun dampaknya membuat kualitas padi menjadi jelek. Hama ini dapat dibasmi dengan menggunakan insektisida sesuai aturan.
Gejala serangan: Serangannya mengisap cairan,tetapi tidak sampai menghampa padi, tetapi menghasilakan padi berkualitas jelek (goresan-goresan membujur pada kulit gabah dan pecah apabila dilakukan penggilinga/penumbukan)
19. Kumbang cula / kumbang penjepit / kumbang catut / kumbang kakatua
( xylotrupes Gideon . L)
Kumbang ini banyak terdapat di Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Filiphina, dan lain-lain. Kumbang betina mengebor pucuk kelapa seperti kumbang badak. Kumbang ini sering memakan bagian pelepah daun tengah sehingga daunnya patah. Akibatnya adalah bentuk mahkota daun menjadi jelek. Sementara itu kumbang jantan sering
Kali terdapat pada mayang (bunga) yang baru saja membuka. Selain menyerang kelapa, hama ini juga menyerang flamboyan, jeruk, akasia, dan tanaman lainnya.
Pengendalian terhadap kumbang ini antara lain yaitu
- Membersihkan sampah-sampah disekitar pertanaman
- Penyemprotan insektisida sistemik
- Penaburan insektisida butiran ; dan
- Pelepasan parasit
20. Kumbang badak / wangwung kelapa (oryctes rhinoceros, L)
Klasifikasi:
Kingdom :Animalia
Filum :Arthropoda
Kelas :Insecta
Ordo :Coleoptera
Famili :Scarabaeidae
Genus :Oryctes
Spesies :Oryctes rhinoceros L.
Gejala serangan: pucuk batang atau Daun yang belum terbuka dirusak, sehingga pada saat daun membuka, terlihat bekas potongan yang simetris berbentuk segitiga atau seperti huruf V. Akibatnya mahkota daun tampak compang – camping, semrawut dan tidak teratur. Kumbang badak O. rhinoceros menyebabkan kerusakan dengan cara melubangi tanaman, begitu juga menurut Loring (2007) tanda serangan terlihat pada bekas lubang gerekan pada pangkal batang, selanjutnya mengakibatkan pelepah daun muda putus dan membusuk kering. Sedangkan Prawirosukarto dkk. (2003) mengatakan, dengan dilakukannya pemberian mulsa tandan kelapa sawit menyebabkan masalah. Hama ini sekarang juga dijumpai pada areal tanaman yang menghasilkan. O. rhinoceros ini dapat merusak pertumbuhan tanaman dan dapat mengakibatkan tanaman mati.
21. Penggerek batang jagung (pyrausta nubilalis , hubner)
menyerang batang dan biji jagung
22. Hama Ganjur (Pachydiplosis oryzae)
Hama yang memiliki nama latin Pachydiplosis oryzae berkembang di daerah persawahan di China, India, dan Asia Tenggara. Hama ganjur menyerang tanaman padi yang penanamnya terlambat, sekitar bulan Februari dan April. Hama ini meletakkan telur-telurnya pada kelopak daun padi. Telur-telur tersebut nantinya akan menjadi larva yang bergerak menuju dan memasuki batang padi. Hama tersebut menyerang padi dengan membuat daun menjadi selongsong dan lama-lama padi akan mati dikarenakan tidak dapat berfotosintesis. Cara untuk mengatasinya adalah dengan mengatur pengairan jangan sampai padi terendam dan disinari dengan lampu petromak. Untuk pembasmian hama ganjur dapat disemprot menggunakan pestisida dengan dosis tepat secara teratur.
23. Hama Sundep
Hama dengan nama latin Scirpophaga innotata berkembang di daerah pantai dan pedalaman yang memiliki ketinggian 200 meter di atas permukaan laut. Hama ini muncul dari telur-telur yang dibawa oleh kupu-kupu kecil bewarna putih. Kupu-kupu tersebut melakukan invasi ketika musim hujan yang terjadi pada bulan Oktober-November. Telur-telur itu menetas menjadi ulat yang merusak padi.
Hama ini menyerang daun padi muda yang menyebabkan daun menguning dan lama-lama akan mati. Untuk membasmi hama ini dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa cara antara lain sebagai berikut:
- Menghancurkan dan memberantas telur sebelum menetas.
- Disemprot dengan obat pestisida.
penyakit//////////////////////////////
• PENGERTIAN PENYAKIT PADA TUMBUHAN
Penyakit adalah sesuatu yang menyebabkan gangguan pada tanaman sehingga tanaman tersebut tidak dapat bereproduksi atau mati secara perlahan-lahan.
Ciri-ciri penyakit pada tumbuhan :
- Penyebab penyakit sukar dilihat oleh mata telanjang
- Penyebab penyakit antara lain mikroorganisme (virus, bakteri, jamur, atau cendawan) dan kekurangan zat tertentudalam tanah
- Serangan penyakit umumnya tidak langsung sehingga tanaman mati secara perlahan-lahan
1. Jamur
Jamur adalah salah satu organisme penyebab penyakit yang menyerang hampir semua bagian tumbuhan, mulai dari akar, batang, ranting, daun, bunga, hingga buahnya. Penyebaran jenis penyakit ini dapat disebabkan oleh angin, air, serangga, atau sentuhan tangan.
Penyakit ini menyebabkan bagian tumbuhan yang terserang, misalnya buah, akan menjadi busuk. Jika menyerang bagian ranting dan permukaan daun, akan menyebabkan bercak – bercak kecokelatan. Dari bercak – bercak tersebut akan keluar jamur berwarna putih atau oranye yang dapat meluas ke seluruh permukaan ranting atau daun sehingga pada akhirnya kering dan rontok.
Jika jamur ini mengganggu proses fotosintesis karena menutupi permukaan daun. Batang yang terserang umumnya akan membusuk, mula – mula dari arah kulit kemudian menjalar ke dalam, dan kemudian membusukkan jaringan kayu. Jaringan yang terserang akan mengeluarkan getah atau cairan. Jika kondisi ini dibiarkan, jaringan kayu akan membusuk, kemudian seluruh dahan yang ada di atasnya akan layu dan mati.
Contoh penyakit yang disebabkan oleh jamur adalah sebagai berikut.
1. Penyakit Antraknosa pada Tanaman Cabai
Penyebab dari penyakit ini adalah adannya cendawan yang bernama Colletotrichum capsici. Cendawan ini menyerang bagian buah tanaman cabai. Gejala awal yang dapat dikenali dari serangan penyakit tanaman cabai ini adalah adanya bercak yang agak mengkilap, sedikit terbenam dan berair. Dalam waktu yang tidak lama maka buah akan berubah menjadi coklat kehitaman dan membusuk. Belum ada cara untuk mengembalikan buah yang terkena cendawan ini 100%.
2. Penyakit garis kuning pada daun
Penyebab dari penyakit ini adalah cendawan yang bernama Fusarium oxysporum. Cendawan ini menyerang bagian daun tanaman yang belum terbuka. Menyerang pada tanaman kelapa terutama bibit. Gejala serangan yang ditimbulkan adalah Infeksi penyakit sudah terjadi pada saat daun belum membuka, Setelah daun membuka akan tampak adanya bulatan-bulatan oval berwarna kuning pucat mengelilingi warna coklat tempat konidiofora, Bagian-bagian tersebut kemudian mengering.
3. Penyakit batang dry basal rot.
Penyebab dari penyakit ini adalah cendawan yang bernama Ceratocyctis paradoxa.cendawan ini menyerang bagian buah pada tanaman. Menyerang pada tanaman kelapa – kelapan. Gejala serangan yang bisa diamati tandan buah yang sedang berbunga mengalami pembusukan, pelepahnya mudah patah, tetapi daun tetap berwarna hijau untuk beberapa saat, meskipun pada akhirnya akan membusuk dan mongering. Semua gejala tersebut sesungguhnya disebabkan karena terjadinya pembusukan (busuk kering) pada pangkal batang.
4. Penyakit busuk tandan (bunch rot)
Penyebab dari penykit ini adalah cendawan yang bernama Marasmius palmivorus sharples. Tanaman ini juga menyerang tanaman kelapa sawit. Gejala serangan buah yang matang dan dapat menembus daging buah, sehingga menurunkan kualitas minyak sawit. Pengendalian tindakan pencegahan dilakukan dengan melakukan penyerbukan buatan dan sanitasi kebun terutama pada musim hujan.
5. Penyekit Akar Putih
Penyebabnya adalah cendawan yang bernama Rigidoporus lignosus. Cendawan ini menyerang tanaman karet. Gejala yang bisa diamati adalah tanaman yang terserang warna daunnya menjadi pucat, ranting-ranting ujungnya mati, dan kadang-kadang tanaman muda yang teserang berbunga lebih awal. Akar tanaman yang terserang terdapat hifa cendawan yang berwarna putih. Penularan penyakit akar putih terjadi melalui persinggungan antara akar karet dengan sisa-sisa akar tanaman lama.
6. Penyakit Hawar Daun Kentang.
Daun kentang yang terkena penyakit ini menunjukkan gejala – gejala yaitu bercak nekrosis di tepi – tepi daun, terutama pada suhu rendah dan kelembaban serta curah hujan tinggi.
Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh jamur Phytophthora infestans. Pengendalian terhadap penyakit tersebut adalah dengan menenam kentang yang tahan penyakit, menggunakan bibit kentang yang sehat, dan melakukan penyemprotan dengan fungisida.
7. Penyakit pada padi
Penyakit pada ruas batang dan butir padi disebabkan oleh jamur Pyricularia oryzea. Ruas – ruas batang menjadi mudah patah dan tanaman padi akhirnya mati. Selain itu, terdapat pula penyakit yang menyebabkan daun padi menguning. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh jamur Magnaporthegrisea.
8. Penyakit embun tepung.
Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh jamur Peronospora parasitica. Jamur ini kadang – kadang menyerang biji yang sedang berkecambah sehingga biji menjadi keropos dan akhirnya mati. Jamur ini kadang – kadang menyerang daun pertama pada kecambah sehingga tumbuhan menjadi kerdil. Tumbuhan kerdil dapat tumbuh terus tapi pada daun – daunnya terdapat kercak – bercak hitam. Untuk memberantas jamur ini dilakukan pengendalian secara kimia, yaitu dengan pemberian fungsida pada tanaman yang terserang jamur.
9. Penyakit Bercak Daun
Petogen penyebab penyakit ini adalah jamur pestalotia palmarum. Gejala bercak timbul pada daun tanaman yang masih muda, mula-mula bercak tersebut transparan, kemudian bercak menjadi kuning kecoklatan sampai kelabu. Daun yang terserang menjadi lebih cepat gugur. Pada tanaman yang sudah berbuah penyakit ini tidak terlalu berbahaya.
Pengendalian dilakukan dengan memusnahkan bagian tanaman yang terserang. Untuk mencegah serangan di pembibitan biasanya dilakukan penyemprotan dengan larutan fungisida.
10. Penyakit Busuk Daun Bawang Merah
Daun bawang merak yang terkena penyakit busuk daun menunjukkan gejala –gejala, yaitu didekat ujung daun timbul bercak hijau pucat. Jika kondisi lingkungan lembab, dipermukaan daun berkembang jamur berwarna putih ungu. Daun kemudian menguning, layu, dan mongering. Daun yang telah mati berwarna putih dan banyak terdapat jamur hitam.
Penyakit busuk daun disebabkan oleh jamur Perenospora destructor. Pengendalian terhadap penyakit tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan cara menggunakan benih yang sehat atau bebas dari penyakit, membakar daun – daun sisa panen, dan menyemprotkan fungisida.
11. Penyakit Bercak Ungu pada Bawang Putih
Bawang putih yang terkena penyakit bercak ungu menunjukkan gejala – gejala, yaitu pada daunnya tampak bercak kecil, melekuk berwarna putih hingga kelabu. Jika ukurannya membesar, bercak terlihat “bercincin – cincin” dan warnanya agak keunguan. Tepi bercak berwarna kemerahan atau keunguan, dikelilingi oleh warna kuning yang bisa meluas ke atas atau ke bawah.
Penyakit bercak ungu pada bawang putih disebabkan oleh jamur Alternaria porri. Pengendalian terhadap penyakit tersebut dilakukan dengan cara menanam bawang putih pada lahan yang mempunyai saluran air baik, melakukan rotasi tanaman, dan melakukan penyemprotan fungisida.
2. Bakteri
Bakteri dapat membusukkan daun, batang, dan akar tumbuhan. Bagian tumbuh tumbuhan yang diserang bakteri akan mengeluarkan lendir keruh, baunya sangat menusuk, dan lengket jika disentuh. Setelah membusuk, lama – kelamaan tumbuhan akan mati. Tumbuhan yang diserang bakteri dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan bakterisida.
Contoh penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri adalah
1. Penyakit Layu
Penyakit layu ini menyerang tanaman nilam. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh bakteri Ralstonia solanacearum dan dapat menurunkan produksi nilam 60%. Gejala awal serangan penyakit berupa salah satu daun pucuk layu dan diikuti dengan daun bagian bawah. Setelah terlihat gejala lanjut dengan intensitas serangan di atas 50%, tanaman akan mati dalam waktu 7 hari.
2. Penyakit Hawar Daun Tanaman Padi
Penyakit ini menyerang tanaman padi. Tanaman ini menyerang pada bagian daun padi. Penyakit ini disebabkan olr bakteri yang bernama Xanthomonas oryzae. Kerugian yang ditimbulkan sangatlah nyata, penurunan produksi yang diakibatkannya mencapai 50%. Serangan penyakit ini dimulai dengan gejala bercak kuning sampai putih berawal terbentuknya garis lebam berair pada bagian tepi helaian daun. Bercak dimulai dari salah satu atau kedua tepi helaia daun, atau pada tiap bagian helaian daun yang rusak dan berkembang hingga menutupi seluruh bagian helaian daun.
3. Penyakit Layu pada Cabai
Penyebab layu ini adalah Pseudomonas solanacearum yang serangannya ditandai dengan gejala yaitu daun muda layu diikuti dengan menguningnya daun – daun tua. Jika pangkal batang dipotong dan ditekan, maka dari lingkungan berkas pembuluh akan keluar lender berwarna keabu – abuan.Layu pada tanaman cabe mengalami kesembuhan pada waktu sore hari, tetapi lama kelamaan kelayuannya terjadi secara keseluruhan dan menetap. Bakteri ini menyerang hampir seluruh bagian tanaman cabai. Intensitas serangan ditimbulkan bervariasi.
Pengendalian terhadap penyakit tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan mengurangi populasi bakteri dalam tanah dengan cara menutup tanah dengan plastic transparan selama satu bulan, melakukan rotasi tanaman, pengaturan perairan, dan secara kimia dengan menggunakan bakterisida serta sterilisasi tanah.
4. Penyakit Busuk Akar Tanaman Anggrek
Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh Bakteri pseudomonas (bakteri penyebab) menyerang bagian akar tanaman anggrek grammatophyllum sehingga mengakibatkan akar busuk.dikenal. Jenis bakteri aerob atau bakteri yang dapat hidup dan menyebar melalui oksigen. Sehingga jika menemukan tanaman anggrek yang akarnya membusuk harus segera dibuang atau dibakar agar tidak menyebar ke anggrek yang lain.
5. Hama Nematoda pada tanaman
Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh bakteri Nematoda rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Bakteri ini menyerang tanaman kelapa Gejala yang terserang hama ini adalah daun baru yang akan membuka menjadi tergulung dan tumbuh tegak, daun berubah menjadi kuning kemudian mongering, tandan bunga membusuk dan tidak membuka sehingga tidak menghasilkan buah, pengendaliannya meracuni pohon yang terserang dengan natrium arsenit dan setelah mati / kering segera dibongkar untuk menghilangkan sumber infeksi.
6. Penyakit yang menyerang pembuluh tapis batang jeruk (citrus vein phloem degeneration atau CVPD).
CVPD disebabken oleh bakteri Serratia marcescens. Gejalanya adalah kuncup daun menjadi kecil dan berwarna kuning, buah menjadi kuning, sehingga lama – kelamaan akan mati.
Penyakit CVPD yang belum parang dapat disembuhkan dengan terramycin, yang merupakan sejenis antibiotik.
7. Penyakit Akar Gada Kubis
Kubis yang terkena penyakit akar gada menunjukkan gejala – gejala, yaitu akarnya mengalami reaksi pembelahan dan pembesaran sel. Kemudian terbentuk bintil atau kelenjar yang tidak teratur, bintil – bintil tersebut bersatu menjadi bengkakan memanjang seperti gada. Akhirnya daun menjadi hijau kelabu dan lebih cepat layu karena jaringan pengangkutnya rusak. Bila lingkungan basah, akar terserang infeksi sekunder sehingga akar busuk sama sekali.
Penyakit akar gada disebabkan oleh jamur Plasmodiophora brassica.
Pengendalian terhadap penyakit tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan cara mencegah masuknya jamur penyebab penyakit ke lahan – lahan yang bebas dari serangan jamur, pembibitan dilahan bebas pathogen, dan pengapuran. Pengapuran dilakukan jika pada lahan tersebut tidak akan ditanami kentang.
3. Virus
Selain bakteri dan jamur, dalam kondisi yang sehat, tumbuhan dapat terserang oleh virus. Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus cukup berbahaya karena dapat menular dan menyebar ke seluruh tumbuhan dengan cepat. Tumbuhan yang sudah terlanjur diserang sulit untuk disembuhkan.
Virus pada tumbuhan antara lain :
1. Virus TMV (Tabacco Mozaik Virus) penyebab mozaik pada daun
tembakau.menimbulkan bercak-bercak putih, menyerang permukaan atas daun tebakau
2. Virus Tungro: penyebab penyakit kerdil pada padi. Penularan virus
ini dengan perantara wereng coklat dan wereng hijau.
3. Virus CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration) menyerang tanaman
jeruk, penularan melalui serangga.
Penyakit-penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus antara lain :
1. Penyakit Virus Belang
Penyakit virus belang menyerang pada tanaman kacang tanah. Kehilangan basil akibat serangan penyakit virus belang berkisar 10 -60% tergantung dari jenis kacang tanah. Penyakit belang disebabkan oleh virus yang diidentifikasi sebagai virus Belang Kacang Tanah atau Groundnut Mottle Virus. Gejala yang sering dijumpai di lapang adalah gejala belang berwama hijau tua dikelilingi daerah yang lebih terang atau hijau kekuning-kuningan. Pada umumnya gejala awal pada daun muda terluhat adanya bintik- bintik klorotik yang selanjutnya berkembang menjadi belang-belang melingkar. a terdapat pada lembaga biji tanaman sakit.
2. Penyakit Tungro
Penykit ini menyerang pada padi tepatnya pada bagian daun padi. Intensitas serangan bergantung pada tingkat ketahanan varietas padi dan umur tanaman pada saat terinfeksi. Gejalanya tampak pada perubahan warna pada daun muda menjadi kuning oranye dimulai dari ujung daun, jumlah anakan berkurang, tanaman kerdil dan pertumbuhannya terhambat. Gejala penyakit tersebar mengelompok, hamparan tanaman padi terlihat seperti bergelombang karena adanya perbedaan tinggi tanaman antara tanaman sehat dan yang terinfeksi.
3. Penyakit Mozaik (Belang – Belang) jeruk
Penyebabnya adalah virus CVPD (Citru vein Phloem Degeneration). Yang diserang bagian batang, daun, dan buah. Gejalanya daun menguning dan belang-belang, tulang-tulang daunnya seperti jala. Virus ini merang pembuluh tapis jeruk, kuncup daun jeruk bewarna kuning.
4. Penyakit mozaik pada pada Tembakau
Virus yang menyerang tanaman tembakau ini adalah virus yang bernama TMV (Tobacco Mosaic Virus) menyerang daun tembakau dan juga dapat menyerang buah. Gejala yang yang bisa diamati adalah daun menguning.
5. Penyakit Bercak
Virus yang menyerang tanaman ini adalah virus TYMV (Turnip Yellow Mozaik Virus). Penyakit ini menyrang bagian daun tanaman lobak. Gejala yang bisa diamati adalah lobak menjadi berwarna kuning (menguning).
Penyakit pada tumbuhan dapat pula dibedakan berdasarkan organ tanaman yang diserang yaitu antara lain :
1. Penyakit rebah kecambah (damping off)
Penyebab: pythium, phytophthora, fusarium, dan thizoctinia.Gejala: pre emergence damping off, patogen menyerang benih tanaman sebelum benih muncul ke permukaan tanah
2. Penyakit busuk akar (root rot)
Penyebab: thielaviopsis basicola, fusarium solani, armillaria mellea.Gejala: kelayuan dan kematian tanaman secara cepat, perubahan warna kuning pada daun, pertumbuhan kerdil, dan gugur daun sebelum waktunya
3. Penyakit layu pembuluh
Penyebab: fusarium oxysporum, verticillium dahliae, v. alboatrum. Gejala: patogen menyerang pembuluh xylem tanaman, sehingga tanaman kehilangan turgor dan layu. Jika dibelah, pembuluh di dalam batang berwarna coklat.
4. Penyakit embun bulu (downy mildew)
Penyebab: sclerospora maydis, pseudoperorospora cubensis. Gejala: pada kondisi kelembaban yang cocok, cendawan ini tumbuh seperti bulu putih keabu-abuan, yang terdiri dari tangkai spora dan spora. Pada gejala sistemik menyebabkan daun menjadi klorosis
5. Penyakit embun tepung (powdery mildew)
Penyebab: oidium spp dan erysiphe spp
Gejala: gejala awal ditandai dengan adanya tepung putih pada daun terbawah dari tanaman, daun yang terserang menjadi kuning, coklat dan akhirnya mengering. Lama kelamaan daun akan terserang semua dan dapat mengakibatkan kematian pada tanaman.
Langkah – langkah yang harus dilakukan agar tumbuhan tidak tersenang penyakit antara lain sebagai berikut.
a) Usahakan tumbuhan selalu dalam kondisi prima atau sehat dengan cara tercukupi segala kebutuhan zat haranya.
b) Jangan membiarkan tumbuhan terlalu rimbun, pangkaslah sehingga selaruh bagian tumbuhan mendapatkan sinar matahari yang cukup.
c) Jangan biarkan tumbuhan terserang kutu, tungau, atau hewan yang lain yang serung membawa bakteri atau jamur.
d) Usahakan lingkungan selalu bersih.
e) Perhatikan tumbuhan sesering mungkun sehingga penyakit dapat terdeteksi sedini mungkin.
f) Jika terdapat gejala – gejala yang tampak, pangkaslah bagian tumbuhan (daun, buah, ranting) yang terserang, kemudian dibakar agar tidak menular ke bagian atau tumbuhan yang lainnya.
g) Penggunaan pertisida sebagai alternative terakhir untuk pengobatan hama dan penyakit pada tumbuhan.

          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119159
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119160
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119157
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119163
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119168
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), GENERAL SURGERY, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Perioperative Services/OR **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119161
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PRN, VARIES** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** VARIES **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119172
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** **Minimum Qualifications** **Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN)** **License/Certification:** **·** **Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license** **·** **BCLS required** **·** **ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire** **Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs.** **Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.** **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119170
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119267
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119263
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119264
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - Central Based Pool - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119265
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119189
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119186
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 2E Cardiac Short Stay - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119187
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PART TIME, 7A-7P   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, PART TIME, 7A-7P** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7A-7P **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 48 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119173
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, FULL TIME, 7P-7A   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), MEDICAL UNIT, FULL TIME, 7P-7A** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Medical/Surgical Services **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7P-7A **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119177
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), NEUROLOGY UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7P-7A   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), NEUROLOGY UNIT, WEO, FULL TIME, 7P-7A** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Neurology **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7P-7A **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119243
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119240
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119237
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - Full Time 7p-7a   
**Patient Care Tech - 4E Neuro - Full Time 7p-7a** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7p-7a **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119235
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), ORTHO UNIT, PART TIME, 7P-7A   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), ORTHO UNIT, PART TIME, 7P-7A** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Orthopedics **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7P-7A **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 48 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0119218
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119214
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN   
**Patient Care Tech - 4N Ortho - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0119216
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Physician Assistant-Medical - Jack Stephens CV Surgeon Clinic - Full Time 7a-3p   
**Physician Assistant-Medical - Jack Stephens CV Surgeon Clinic - Full Time 7a-3p** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: Provides healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician. Conducts complete physicals, provides treatment and counsel patients. May in some cases prescribe medication. ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS: Clinic Functions Participates in the overall care of patients as needed. Examine patients to obtain information about their physical condition. Obtain, compile and record patient medical data, including health history and results of physical examination. Assesses patients, identifies health status including abnormal conditions, and writes progress notes and narrative discharge summaries. Make tentative diagnoses and decisions about management and treatment of patients. Assist physician with patient rounds, documenting patient status/progress. Evaluate post operative patients and provide education. Review medication regimens and respond to refill and medication requests. Administer or order diagnostic tests, such as x-ray, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests. Instruct and counsel patients about prescribed therapeutic regimens, normal growth and development, family planning, emotional problems of daily living, and health maintenance. Interpret diagnostic test results for deviations from normal. Perform therapeutic procedures, such as injections, immunizations, suturing and wound care, dressings/bandages, infection management and application of Spica, Splints and Casts/cast removal. Insertion of Drains (subcutaneous), foley catheters, NG Tube-aspirate contents, oropharyngeal/naspharyngeal airway. Removes central lines, chest tubes, drains, sutures/staples. Removes conjunctival and simple subcutaneous foreign bodies, warts, cysts and superficial abscesses. Prescribe therapy or medication with physician approval. Uses critical thinking and decision making at an advanced level, commensurate with the autonomy, authority and responsibility of his/her licensure. Order medical and laboratory supplies and equipment. Manage patient phone calls, maintaining same day return calls. Performs other duties as delegated. CLINICAL COMPETENCE Maintains current knowledge and skills in the Physicians Assistant field. Participates in educational programs to enhance clinical/ experience. Maintains Licensure and education requirements for Physician Assisting. Recognizes his/her limits of knowledge and experience, planning for situations beyond his/her expertise, and Collaborating with or referring to other healthcare providers as appropriate. Has knowledge of the statutes and regulations governing Physicians Assistant practice, and functions within those legal boundaries. : **Qualifications** **MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS:** **Education:** **Successful completion of an education program for physician assistants or surgeon assistants program accredited by the American Medical Association’s Committee on Allied Health Education and has passed the Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants.** **Current Licensure to practice as a Physician Assistant in the State of Arkansas. Credentials and work history credible for malpractice coverage in Arkansas.** **Experience:** **1 year as a Physician Assistant** **Physical Requirements:** **The physical activities involve balancing, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements.** **An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs.** **The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.** **Skills:** **Health assessment, diagnostic reasoning, implementing plan of care, evaluating outcomes, accurate documentation, and good written and verbal communication.** **Job** **Physical Medicine & Rehab** **Primary Location** **ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY** **Daily Schedule** **Full Time** **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** **80** **Weekends Required** **Occasional** **Req ID:** 2017-R0118045
          (USA-AR-Sherwood) RN (SV North), Emergency Room, PRN, varies   

Description:

Job Summary

In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards.

Qualification:

Minimum Qualifications

Education\: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN)

License/Certification\:

· Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license

· BCLS required

· ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire

Skills\: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs.

Physical Requirements\: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.


          (USA-AR-Sherwood) RN (SV North), Medical/surgical, PRN, varies   

Description:

Job Summary

In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards.

Qualification:

Minimum Qualifications

Education\: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN)

License/Certification\:

· Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license

· BCLS required

· ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire

Skills\: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs.

Physical Requirements\: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.


          (USA-AR-Sherwood) RN (SV North) Emergency Room, PRN, varies   

Description:

Job Summary

In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards.

Qualification:

Minimum Qualifications

Education\: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN)

License/Certification\:

· Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license

· BCLS required

· ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire

Skills\: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs.

Physical Requirements\: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.


          (USA-AR-Sherwood) RN (SV North) ICU, PRN, varies   

Description:

Job Summary

In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards.

Qualification:

Minimum Qualifications

Education\: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN)

License/Certification\:

· Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license

· BCLS required

· ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire

Skills\: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs.

Physical Requirements\: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.


          (USA-AR-Sherwood) RN-patient Care Coordinator (SV North), Medical/surgical, Full Time, 7p-7a   

Description:

JOB SUMMARY\: In addition to the RN Job Description, responsibilities include facilitating day-to-day operations of the Unit. Collaborates with staff, Nurse Managers, team leaders, supervisors, and physicians to ensure quality patient care is being provided with optimum patient outcomes.

Qualification:

MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS\:

Education\: Licensed / Registered in the State of Arkansas in Nursing. Bachelor’s degree preferred. Admission to a BSN program within one year, or obtainment of a Bachelor degree within 2 years of assuming position is strongly encouraged. Participation in Nursing Career Advancement Program is preferred.

Experience\: 2 years recent Nursing experience in area of specialty; 1 year charge/management experience preferred. Membership in professional organization preferred.

Physical Requirements\: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.

Skills\: Demonstrated communication skills, both oral and written. Demonstrated organizational skills. Must be knowledgeable and skilled in computer use. Must be able to type accurately. Ability to work independently without close supervision; must have problem solving skills, and be self-motivated. Must be available to work weekends, evenings, and holidays for unit/department coverage. Demonstrated clinical competence in area(s) of responsibility. Demonstrates leadership abilities in such areas as charge nurse, precepting/training, in-service/education, etc.


          (USA-AR-Sherwood) RN (SV North), Emergency Room, Full Time, 1p-1a   

Description:

Job Summary

In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards.

Qualification:

Minimum Qualifications

Education\: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN)

License/Certification\:

· Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license

· BCLS required

· ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire

Skills\: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs.

Physical Requirements\: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards.


          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN (SV INFIRMARY), CARDIAC CATH LAB, FULL TIME, DAYS   
**RN (SV INFIRMARY), CARDIAC CATH LAB, FULL TIME, DAYS** **Description** Job Summary In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: * Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license * BCLS required * ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Cardiology (Nursing) **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** DAYS **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 80 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0118503
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7a-7p   
**Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7a-7p** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7a-7p **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0118670
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7p-7a   
**Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7p-7a** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7p-7a **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0118680
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Cardivascular Stepdown - Full Time 7a-7p   
**Patient Care Tech - Cardivascular Stepdown - Full Time 7a-7p** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7a-7p **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0118659
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7a-7p   
**Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7a-7p** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7a-7p **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0118673
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Part Time 7p-7a   
**Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Part Time 7p-7a** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7p-7a **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 48 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0118683
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN - Cardiovascular Stepdown - PRN   
**RN - Cardiovascular Stepdown - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS: 1. ASSESSMENT Performs complete patient assessment. Recognizes significant changes in patient status and seeks appropriate resources. Coordinates or collects physiologic monitoring data: vital signs, monitor results, lab and diagnostic test results. Performs ongoing assessment according to unit policy. Documents assessment in compliance with hospital policy. 2. MAINTAINING PLAN OF CARE Initiates the Patient Goal/Problem List or Clinical Path on admission. Develops Plan of Care to support the patient goals and the medical plan of care. Evaluates and documents the patient’s response to the plan of care and makes changes as appropriate. Collaborates with multidisciplinary team to coordinate and plan provision of patient care. 3. MAINTAINING PATIENT TREATMENTS Obtains and/or verifies all physician orders for procedures, medications, and therapies. Assures the presence of consent and its documentation for procedures, therapies, and research protocols. Assures the presence of appropriate supplies to perform the ordered procedure or therapy. Performs or assists in procedures and therapies according to policy and procedures. Assesses the patient’s needs for medication prior to administration. Assesses patient allergies and medication incompatibilities. Verifies, administers and documents medication according to hospital policy. Evaluates and documents patient’s response to procedures, therapies and medications. Monitors the patient care record for accuracy and completeness of data provided by care team members. Coordinates and documents communication between patient, significant others and multidisciplinary team members in order to support the plan of care. Ensures effective and wise use of resources, monitoring for cost containment. Facilitates appropriate length of hospital stay. 4. TEACHING Assesses the patient’s and significant other’s knowledge base, ability and readiness to learn based on their developmental age. Identifies and utilizes multidisciplinary team members to provide comprehensive education for patients, self and others. Incorporates teaching principles and methods appropriate to knowledge base, ability and readiness to learn and based on developmental age. Demonstrates knowledge in area of teaching and available resources for patient and staff education. Documents patient education in the patient care record. Evaluates the teaching process. Documents staff education per policy. 5. LEADERSHIP Participates in peer review. Provides learning opportunities and contributes to the orientation of team members, PRN personnel and students. Identifies and implements educational opportunities for the staff. Serves as a preceptor and role model for new employees and students. Utilizes conflict resolution to promote a cohesive team. Delegates assignments based on changes in census, staffing, patient, and unit needs. Enforces hospital/department specific policies. Maintains current knowledge of clinical and operational hospital policies and practice updates. Engages in a therapeutic relationship with patients and develops healthy interpersonal relationships among colleagues. Identifies the most important needs to be met each shift within the context of available resources. Demonstrates accountability for their individual nursing practice. Utilizes the mechanisms of the Professional Nursing Shared Governance (PNSG) organization to address nursing matters. Demonstrates responsibility for being informed about the actions/activities of the PNSG. Participates in activities of the PNSG organization. 6. UNIT-SPECIFIC COMPETENCIES Provides care to patient population utilizing research findings and evidence based practice. Unit required certifications must be obtained within six months of hire. For any unit requiring CPI, it must be obtained within three months of hire. Meets all unit-specific yearly skill requirements within acceptable timeframe. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications : Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: + Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license + BCLS required + ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Nursing - RN **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0118688
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7p-7a   
**Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7p-7a** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7p-7a **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0118676
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7p-7a   
**Patient Care Tech - Cardiovascular Stepdown - Full Time 7p-7a** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, this position is established to actively participate on the patient care team by providing basic bedside care and assisting patients with activities of daily living, under the direction of the RN. Teamwork is a vital component to same, through effective collaboration efforts. ESSENTIAL DUTIES: TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Performs treatments and patient care procedures. Performs or assists ADLs according to Patient Plan of Care. Performs or assists in procedures/treatments according to Nursing Policy and Procedure Manual. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Responds to patient call lights and emergency lights in a timely manner. Prepares patient for meals and snacks. Offers assistance as needed. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. DOCUMENTING CARE Documents care provided according to hospital policy. Documents ADLs, vital signs, and I&Os according to the plan of care. Documents meals and snacks according to hospital policy. As assigned, documents refrigerator/freezer temperature. Participates as assigned in CQI activities. COMMUNICATION Expresses appropriate communication to patient, families, and other customers. Identifies self to others in a professional manner. Adheres to dress code and maintains a professional image with the ID badge clearly displayed. Offers assistance and provides directions to customers keeping a positive and courteous tone. Determines need for and properly implements safety measures for patients in a timely manner. Maintains a safe environment: follows OSHA requirements including Universal Precautions. Notifies the RN of abnormal vital signs, I&Os, and changes in the patient condition. Communicates effectively with team members. PROVIDING CARE Provides care according to developmental age. Demonstrates skills and knowledge necessary for the patient/customer appropriate to neonate, child, adolescent, adult, and/or older adult. FLEXIBILITY Demonstrates flexibility in accomplishing work tasks. Adheres to time and attendance policy. Available and accessible when on duty. Leaves for and returns from in-services, meals, and breaks as scheduled. Accepts changes in staffing and patient assignments. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES/ENVIRONMENT OF CARE Assists during emergency situations according to nursing and hospital policy. Maintains a safe workplace environment. Functions appropriately in emergencies according to assigned responsibilities and hospital policy. Provides safety boundaries for patient at risk for violence. **Qualifications** MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Education: High School diploma, GED, Metropolitan Test or equivalent; Certified Nursing Assistant required (EMT or Paramedic acceptable for ED or OP areas) or RN or LPN licensure upon entry to the position or evidence of the fundamentals of nursing and one semester of clinical practice in an RN school. Experience: Previous health care experience preferred. Physical Requirements: Must possess ability to walk and stand for extended periods of time, ability to lift 50 lbs./transfer patients and equipment. Pulling, pushing, and reaching will be required in the day-to-day operation. Must possess ability to see, hear, smell, and speak. The individual in this position will be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions. There is also potential for exposure to respiratory hazards, blood borne pathogens, chemical hazards, and body fluids. For positions in the ED: Ability to physically restrain, de-escalate and protect patients, staff, visitors, etc. when necessary utilizing training techniques. Skills: Must possess demonstrated communication skills, excellent customer service skills and ability to deal effectively with multi-disciplinary team members/patients/significant others and physicians. **Job** Patient Care Support **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** 7p-7a **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 72 **Weekends Required** Every Third **Req ID:** 2017-R0118679
          (USA-AR-LITTLE ROCK) RN - Cardiovascular ICU - PRN   
**RN - Cardiovascular ICU - PRN** **Description** JOB SUMMARY: In accordance with our mission and core values, the registered nurse will perform care requiring specialized knowledge, judgment, and nursing skills based on the application of the nursing process. The RN uses assessment skills to ensure multidisciplinary patient care and teamwork to meet established practice guidelines, unit specific policies, and regulatory standards. ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS: 1. ASSESSMENT Performs complete patient assessment. Recognizes significant changes in patient status and seeks appropriate resources. Coordinates or collects physiologic monitoring data: vital signs, monitor results, lab and diagnostic test results. Performs ongoing assessment according to unit policy. Documents assessment in compliance with hospital policy. 2. MAINTAINING PLAN OF CARE Initiates the Patient Goal/Problem List or Clinical Path on admission. Develops Plan of Care to support the patient goals and the medical plan of care. Evaluates and documents the patient’s response to the plan of care and makes changes as appropriate. Collaborates with multidisciplinary team to coordinate and plan provision of patient care. 3. MAINTAINING PATIENT TREATMENTS Obtains and/or verifies all physician orders for procedures, medications, and therapies. Assures the presence of consent and its documentation for procedures, therapies, and research protocols. Assures the presence of appropriate supplies to perform the ordered procedure or therapy. Performs or assists in procedures and therapies according to policy and procedures. Assesses the patient’s needs for medication prior to administration. Assesses patient allergies and medication incompatibilities. Verifies, administers and documents medication according to hospital policy. Evaluates and documents patient’s response to procedures, therapies and medications. Monitors the patient care record for accuracy and completeness of data provided by care team members. Coordinates and documents communication between patient, significant others and multidisciplinary team members in order to support the plan of care. Ensures effective and wise use of resources, monitoring for cost containment. Facilitates appropriate length of hospital stay. 4. TEACHING Assesses the patient’s and significant other’s knowledge base, ability and readiness to learn based on their developmental age. Identifies and utilizes multidisciplinary team members to provide comprehensive education for patients, self and others. Incorporates teaching principles and methods appropriate to knowledge base, ability and readiness to learn and based on developmental age. Demonstrates knowledge in area of teaching and available resources for patient and staff education. Documents patient education in the patient care record. Evaluates the teaching process. Documents staff education per policy. 5. LEADERSHIP Participates in peer review. Provides learning opportunities and contributes to the orientation of team members, PRN personnel and students. Identifies and implements educational opportunities for the staff. Serves as a preceptor and role model for new employees and students. Utilizes conflict resolution to promote a cohesive team. Delegates assignments based on changes in census, staffing, patient, and unit needs. Enforces hospital/department specific policies. Maintains current knowledge of clinical and operational hospital policies and practice updates. Engages in a therapeutic relationship with patients and develops healthy interpersonal relationships among colleagues. Identifies the most important needs to be met each shift within the context of available resources. Demonstrates accountability for their individual nursing practice. Utilizes the mechanisms of the Professional Nursing Shared Governance (PNSG) organization to address nursing matters. Demonstrates responsibility for being informed about the actions/activities of the PNSG. Participates in activities of the PNSG organization. 6. UNIT-SPECIFIC COMPETENCIES Provides care to patient population utilizing research findings and evidence based practice. Unit required certifications must be obtained within six months of hire. For any unit requiring CPI, it must be obtained within three months of hire. Meets all unit-specific yearly skill requirements within acceptable timeframe. **Qualifications** Minimum Qualifications : Education: Graduate of an accredited school of nursing required. (ADN, RN or MSN) License/Certification: + Active, unencumbered Registered Nurse license + BCLS required + ACLS required on telemetry units within 12 months of hire Skills: The RN must possess demonstrated knowledge, training and skills necessary and appropriate to the neonate, child, adolescent, adult and older adult. They must demonstrate communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to deal effectively with multidisciplinary team members, patients, significant others, and physicians. Must possess effective decision making, assessment and critical thinking skills. Team leaders and charge nurses must be able to set priorities and effectively delegate/coordinate multidisciplinary care based on the needs of the patient, census, staffing and unit needs. Physical Requirements: The physical activities involve balancing, climbing, crawling, crouching, grasping, kneeling, lifting, pulling, pushing, reaching, standing, stooping, and use of fingers and repetitive movements. An individual in this position may be required to carry or lift weight of up to 50 lbs. and push/pull 100-150 lbs. The sensory and communicative activities required for this position include feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, and speaking. Individuals in this position could possibly be exposed to inside/outside environmental conditions, blood borne pathogens and body fluids, chemical hazards, respiratory hazards and radiological hazards. **Job** Cardiology (Nursing) **Primary Location** ARKANSAS-LITTLE ROCK-ST VINCENT INFIRMARY **Daily Schedule** PRN **Scheduled Hours per 2-week Pay Period** 0 **Weekends Required** Occasional **Req ID:** 2017-R0118647
          Microbiological Testing of Water Market Worth 1.59 Billion USD by 2022   

The microbiological testing of water market, in terms of value, is projected to reach USD 1.59 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 7.0% from 2017 to 2022.

Seattle, WA -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/28/2017 -- The report "Microbiological Testing of Water Market by Pathogen (Bacteria, Protozoa, Viruses), Water Type (Drinking & Bottled Water, Industrial Water), Type (Instruments, Test Kits & Reagents), Industry, and Region - Global Forecast to 2022", The microbiological testing of water market is projected to reach a value of USD 1.59 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 7.0% from 2017 to 2022

Browse 108 market data tables and 50 figures spread through 201 pages and in-depth TOC on "Microbiological Testing of Water Market - Global Forecast to 2022"

Download PDF Brochure

Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report.

The market is driven by factors such as increase in microbial contamination in water reservoirs due to increased urban waste, growth in microbial contamination in water reservoirs due to climatic conditions, rise in disease outbreaks due to microbial contaminated water, stringent regulations for microbial water quality monitoring, and growth in demand for rapid test methods for cost and time effectiveness. The high growth potential in emerging markets and untapped regions provides new growth opportunities for market players.

Make an Inquiry

"Test kits & reagents segment projected to be the fastest-growing, by type, from 2017 to 2022"

Test kits are standardized, portable versions of conventional tests that are used for microbial identification. The reagents include buffer solutions, chemicals, and biochemical stains, which are used for microbial water testing. The demand for test kits & reagents is increasing globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where China is witnessing a high demand due to industrial and urban development.

"Food segment projected to grow at the highest CAGR, by industry, from 2017 to 2022"

The food industry includes food & beverage manufacturing industry; microbiological testing of Water is significantly used in the food & beverage industry. The quality control and quality assurance process for food & beverages play a critical role to ensure the microbial water quality that is used for food & beverage processing. This market is driven by the compliance of FDA regulations for the food & beverage industry. The quality assurance and quality control programs in this industry have become stringent due to different regulations and the introduction of scientific instruments and innovative technologies for food safety.

"Salmonella segment dominated the market with the largest market share, by pathogen type, in 2016"

Salmonella is a rod-shaped bacterium, and its infection is known as salmonellosis. The cases of Salmonella infection are sometimes found to be fatal and life threatening. The severity of the infection is generating the demand for Salmonella water testing, which is in turn driving the market for Salmonella water testing solutions.

"Significant growth for microbiological testing of water is observed in the Asia-Pacific region"

The decrease in availability of drinkable water in this region has led to a significant increase in the demand for water processing. The region is emerging as a huge market for microbiological testing of water due to rise in awareness of microbial water contaminants and their impact on health. This market is fueled by the economic development in countries such as China and India. The rise in incidences of waterborne illnesses, increase in industrialization, and growth in awareness for safe water are the key factors that drive the microbiological testing of water market growth in the Asia-Pacific region.

This report includes a study of marketing and development strategies, along with the product portfolios of leading companies. It includes the profiles of leading companies such Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (U.S.), Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (U.S.), Shimadzu Corporation(Japan), Sigma-Aldrich Corporation(U.S.), and 3M Company (U.S.).

About MarketsandMarkets™
MarketsandMarkets™ provides quantified B2B research on 30,000 high growth niche opportunities/threats which will impact 70% to 80% of worldwide companies' revenues. Currently servicing 5000 customers worldwide including 80% of global Fortune 1000 companies as clients. Almost 75,000 top officers across eight industries worldwide approach MarketsandMarkets™ for their painpoints around revenues decisions.

Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets™ are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model – GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. MarketsandMarkets™ now coming up with 1,500 MicroQuadrants (Positioning top players across leaders, emerging companies, innovators, strategic players) annually in high growth emerging segments. MarketsandMarkets™ is determined to benefit more than 10,000 companies this year for their revenue planning and help them take their innovations/disruptions early to the market by providing them research ahead of the curve.

MarketsandMarkets's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets.

Contact:
Mr. Rohan
MarketsandMarkets™
UNIT no 802, Tower no. 7, SEZ
Magarpatta city, Hadapsar
Pune, Maharashtra 411013, India
1-888-600-6441
Email: sales@marketsandmarkets.com

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/microbiological-testing-of-water-market-worth-159-billion-usd-by-2022-825986.htm

Media Relations Contact

Mr. Rohan
Telephone: 1-888-600-6441
Email: Click to Email Mr. Rohan
Web: http://www.marketsandmarkets.com


          #AskPaulKirtley Episode 55 – Longevity of Pathogenic Organisms, Magnifying Glass Specifications, Branches Dropping, Umbrellas, Resin Content in Bow-drills… – 6/30/17   


          UCB-UCSF Joint Symposium: Advancing science and policy to accelerate the global fight against Tuberculosis, Jul 11   
Join us for an afternoon symposium on Bay Area efforts to advance the global fight against Tuberculosis. Featuring presentations and panel discussions from UC Berkeley and UCSF faculty researchers, and special guests, on the latest research on understanding, preventing and treating the disease. How can we leverage cutting-edge insights from the fundamental sciences, bioengineering, public health, as well as clinical and translational research to influence policy and implementation?

Also including an update on the strategic plan to eliminate Tuberculosis in California by 2040, and implications for bridging local, national and global response.

Featured speakers:

Opening remarks by special guests and Dr. Eric Goosby, UN Special Envoy for Tuberculosis and Professor of Clinical Medicine, UCSF.

Adithya Cattamanchi, Associate Professor in Residence, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, UCSF

Jeff Cox, Professor of Immunology and Pathogenesis, UC Berkeley*

Jennifer Flood, Chief, Tuberculosis Control Branch, California Department of Public Health and Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Medicine, UCSF

Niren Murthy, Professor of Bioengineering, UC Berkeley

Payam Nahid, Professor in Residence, Department of Medicine, UCSF*

Madhukar Pai, Canada Research Chair in Translational Epidemiology & Global Health; Director, Global Health Programs; Associate Director, McGill University

Patrick Phillips, Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, UCSF

Lee Riley, Professor of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases; Division Head, Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, UC Berkeley School of Public Health*

The symposium is organized on the occasion of the first meeting of The Lancet Commission on Tuberculosis, which will present its conclusions to coincide with a United Nations High Level Meeting on TB in 2018. Made possible by a UC Berkeley/UCSF planning grant from the Koret Foundation.
          The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH) as a tool to detect maritime traffic-related health risks: analysis of MDH forms submitted to Spanish ports, October 2014 to March 2015 - López-Gigosos RM, Segura M, Díez-Díaz RM, Ureña I, Urzay D, Guillot P, Guerra-Neira A, Rivera A, Pérez-Cobaleda Á, Martín A, Nuñez-Torrón M, Alvarez B, Faraco M, Barrera JM, Calvo MJ, Gallegos J, Bermejo A, Aramburu C, Dávila M, Carreras F, Neipp R, Mariscal A.    
The international maritime traffic of people and goods has often contributed to the spread of pathogens affecting public health. The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH), according to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), is a document contain...
          FDA Clears First Single Use Face Mask for Children   
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cleared the Kimberly-Clark Pediatric/Child Face Mask, designed to be worn in hospitals and health care facilities to help reduce the spread of airborne respiratory tract bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens.
          RegulatorTrail: a web service for the identification of key transcriptional regulators   
Abstract
Transcriptional regulators such as transcription factors and chromatin modifiers play a central role in most biological processes. Alterations in their activities have been observed in many diseases, e.g. cancer. Hence, it is of utmost importance to evaluate and assess the effects of transcriptional regulators on natural and pathogenic processes. Here, we present RegulatorTrail, a web service that provides rich functionality for the identification and prioritization of key transcriptional regulators that have a strong impact on, e.g. pathological processes. RegulatorTrail offers eight methods that use regulator binding information in combination with transcriptomic or epigenomic data to infer the most influential regulators. Our web service not only provides an intuitive web interface, but also a well-documented RESTful API that allows for a straightforward integration into third-party workflows. The presented case studies highlight the capabilities of our web service and demonstrate its potential for the identification of influential regulators: we successfully identified regulators that might explain the increased malignancy in metastatic melanoma compared to primary tumors, as well as important regulators in macrophages. RegulatorTrail is freely accessible at: https://regulatortrail.bioinf.uni-sb.de/.

          IslandViewer 4: expanded prediction of genomic islands for larger-scale datasets   
Abstract
IslandViewer (http://www.pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer/) is a widely-used webserver for the prediction and interactive visualization of genomic islands (GIs, regions of probable horizontal origin) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs disproportionately encode factors that enhance the adaptability and competitiveness of the microbe within a niche, including virulence factors and other medically or environmentally important adaptations. We report here the release of IslandViewer 4, with novel features to accommodate the needs of larger-scale microbial genomics analysis, while expanding GI predictions and improving its flexible visualization interface. A user management web interface as well as an HTTP API for batch analyses are now provided with a secured authentication to facilitate the submission of larger numbers of genomes and the retrieval of results. In addition, IslandViewer's integrated GI predictions from multiple methods have been improved and expanded by integrating the precise Islander method for pre-computed genomes, as well as an updated IslandPath-DIMOB for both pre-computed and user-supplied custom genome analysis. Finally, pre-computed predictions including virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance are now available for 6193 complete bacterial and archaeal strains publicly available in RefSeq. IslandViewer 4 provides key enhancements to facilitate the analysis of GIs and better understand their role in the evolution of successful environmental microbes and pathogens.

          The Antibiotic Resistant Target Seeker (ARTS), an exploration engine for antibiotic cluster prioritization and novel drug target discovery   
Abstract
With the rise of multi-drug resistant pathogens and the decline in number of potential new antibiotics in development there is a fervent need to reinvigorate the natural products discovery pipeline. Most antibiotics are derived from secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms and plants. To avoid suicide, an antibiotic producer harbors resistance genes often found within the same biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) responsible for manufacturing the antibiotic. Existing mining tools are excellent at detecting BGCs or resistant genes in general, but provide little help in prioritizing and identifying gene clusters for compounds active against specific and novel targets. Here we introduce the ‘Antibiotic Resistant Target Seeker’ (ARTS) available at https://arts.ziemertlab.com. ARTS allows for specific and efficient genome mining for antibiotics with interesting and novel targets. The aim of this web server is to automate the screening of large amounts of sequence data and to focus on the most promising strains that produce antibiotics with new modes of action. ARTS integrates target directed genome mining methods, antibiotic gene cluster predictions and ‘essential gene screening’ to provide an interactive page for rapid identification of known and putative targets in BGCs.

          Nursing Assistant – Tippecanoe County Government – Lafayette, IN   
POSITION: Nursing Assistant

DEPARTMENT: Tippecanoe Villa

SALARY: $33,057.00 annually

SHIFT: To be determined

ESSENTIAL DUTIES:
Prepares and dispenses prescribed medications as scheduled, takes vital signs, and implements treatment according to physicians' orders, recording on residents' charts as required. Assesses residents with physical, medical, psychological issues and notifies appropriate personnel. Notifies supervisor, residents’ physician or house physician of resident medical problems as needed, and notifies emergency personnel when the need arises. Schedules and prepares residents for medical appointments, including preparing forms, arranging transportation, and charting and ordering resulting medications from pharmacy as needed. Weighs and takes blood pressure of residents weekly or monthly as ordered by physician, and enters on charts. Schedules laboratory work monthly or as ordered and prepares required forms. Communicates collaboratively with all other staff in department regarding changes in medication, treatment, and various record changes, and changes in residents’ condition. Performs duties of Director of Nursing in his/her absence or as directed, such as scheduling and supervising personnel, and ordering medication refills from pharmacies. Performs duties of management when they are not in the building. Notifies Director or Assistant director of any issues needing immediate attention. Charts any medical, physical, emotional, mental changes of residents in their charts and notifies appropriate Doctors, therapist, or medical personnel. Completes monthly summary reports on all residents as required. Periodically admits new residents as needed, including reviewing physicians' orders, preparing charts, and checking/charting vital signs. Periodically supervises and assists residents with bathing as needed, including providing reminders and assistance regarding personal/oral hygiene. Makes rounds to monitor residents as scheduled throughout the night. Answers telephone as needed, directing to appropriate personnel or taking messages. Monitors medications and supplies inventory and orders from pharmacy.

Performs cleaning chores as scheduled, such as washing/cleaning medication trays, countertops, medicine carts, bathroom, refrigerator, desk, and charts. Occasionally transport residents to and from appointments. Performs cleaning chores as needed, such as cleaning spills. Serves on 24-hour call for emergencies. Performs related duties as assigned.

JOB REQUIREMENTS:
High school diploma or GED. Possession of valid Indiana Qualified Medical Aide license, Core A&B certificate, or Medical Assistant degree. Working knowledge of principles and practices of good hygiene, and ability to apply such knowledge in assisting residents with physical and mental disabilities. Working knowledge of universal health precautions and bloodborne pathogens control, and ability to apply such knowledge to prevent infection of self and others. Working knowledge and ability to make practical application of State Board of Health regulations regarding residential care facility operation. Working knowledge of standard housekeeping procedures and ability to properly mix and use cleaning chemicals, disinfectants and related tools, such mops and brooms. Ability to effectively communicate orally and in writing in a tactful, courteous and positive manner with co-workers, other County departments, residents, families, and physicians, including being sensitive to professional ethics, gender, cultural diversities and disabilities. Ability to provide public access to or maintain confidentiality of department information and records according to State requirements. Ability to comply with all employer and department policies and work rules, including, but not limited to, attendance, safety, drug-free workplace and personal conduct. Ability to understand, memorize, retain, and carry out written and oral instructions, and present findings in oral or written form Ability to work alone and with others in a team environment with minimum supervision, often under time pressure. Ability to regularly work weekend hours and occasionally work extended and evening hours. Ability to serve on 24-hour call and respond swiftly, rationally and decisively to emergency situations. Ability to supervise and instruct Resident care/environmental and Dietary personnel in absence of supervisor.


          Heroes of the Storm: Stukov, der verseuchte StarCraft-Admiral, ist im Anmarsch   
Stukov, der verseuchte Admiral aus dem StarCraft-Universum, wird demnächst den Kader von Heroes of the Storm erweitern. "Alexei Stukov hatte kein leichtes Leben, doch ist das nichts im Vergleich zu seinem Tod. Er wurde hintergangen, ins All geschossen, wiederbelebt, verseucht, so gut wie geheilt und schließlich, als die Verseuchung zurückkehrte, Experimenten unterzogen. Jetzt verbreitet er seine Verseuchung im Nexus weiter."

Stukov ist ein Unterstützer. Er kann Verbündete mit seinem Heilpathogen (Heilung über Zeit) versorgen oder Gegner mit der viralen Pustel (Schaden über Zeit) infizieren. Seine besondere Heldeneigenschaft lässt alle Viren/Pathogene detonieren. Jedes Heilpathogen heilt den Wirt um 500 Lebenspunkte. Jede Virale Pustel fügt ihrem Wirt 100 Schaden zu und verlangsamt ihn zwei Sekunden lang.

Grundfähigkeiten
  • Heilpathogen: Infiziert einen verbündeten Helden mit einem Heilpathogen, das das Ziel im Verlauf von 4.5 Sek. um 240 Lebenspunkte heilt. Heilpathogene können alle 0.75 Sek. auf einen weiteren verbündeten Helden überspringen und ihn ebenfalls infizieren. Dasselbe Heilpathogen kann jeden verbündeten Helden nur 1 Mal infizieren.
  • Virale Pustel: Schleudert eine Pustel, die alle gegnerischen Helden auf ihrem Weg trifft, ihnen 20 Schaden zufügt und sie um 5% verlangsamt. Die Verlangsamung erhöht sich im Verlauf von 3 Sek. auf 50%. Wenn die Virale Pustel abläuft oder entfernt wird, verursacht sie zusätzlich 80 Schaden.
  • Tiefenarm: Kanalisieren, um Gegnern im Zielbereich 144 Schaden pro Sekunde zuzufügen und sie zum Schweigen zu bringen, solange sie im Zielbereich verweilen. Nicht heroische Gegner erleiden nur 50% des Schadens. Während des Kanalisierens wird kein zusätzliches Mana verbraucht. Hält an, bis die Fähigkeit abgebrochen oder unterbrochen wird.

Heroische Fähigkeiten
  • Armschwung: Schwingt den Arm 3-mal im Verlauf von 1.75 Sek., fügt Gegnern 50 Schaden zu und stößt sie weg. Jeder Schwung ist größer als der vorherige.
  • Massiver Stoß: Lässt den Arm vorwärts schnellen. Wenn ein gegnerischer Held getroffen wird, wird er schnell weggestoßen, bis er mit dem Terrain kollidiert. Verursacht 200 Schaden. Gewährt 50 Rüstung, während ein Gegner weggestoßen wird.

Weiter zum Video

          GTF are require for bone : Calcium Alone is not Enough for Healthy Bones   
Silica (from horsetail and/or shavegrass) works with calcium to maintain strong bones and is especially effective in combination with GTF. GTF Chromium (which stands for Glucose Tolerance Factor Chromium) is made by fermenting nutritional yeast with chromium.

As you know, Chromium is a constituent ingredient of what is called the Glucose Tolerance Factor. It works closely with insulin to facilitate the uptake of glucose into cells. In individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, such as those with diabetes, hypoglycemia, and obesity, supplementation with chromium is of paramount importance. Without chromium, blood sugar levels stay elevated because the action of insulin is blocked so that glucose is not transported into the cells.

In addition:

* Serotonin has been shown in recent studies to be an important factor for bone density. L-tryptophan is a good supplement to boost serotonin.

* Inositol/IP6 modulates the behavior of bone-forming and bone-destroying cells.

* Besides being an excellent pathogen destroyer, Colloidal Silver also helps bone, tissue and nerve regeneration.

* Dandelion Tea and Red Clover help build bone density. Other herbs that can help build your bones include Chaste Berry, Dong Quai, Black Cohosh and Sesame seeds.

Diet and exercise are also vital for bone health. A poor diet lacking essential vitamins and minerals contributes to osteoporosis. Regular exercise helps maintain healthy bones; whereas, lack of exercise will result in weak bones and loss of bone mass.

Caution:
Do not take bone drugs for osteoporosis. Evidence has shown that they produce abnormal bone growth, make bones more brittle and can have serious and even life threatening side effects! See:
          The Shadow of the Bomb, 2006   

The top priority for U.S. nuclear-weapons policy must be to keep that from happening. It is easy to recognize and to state this priority -- but it is a most difficult challenge to figure out how to prevent such proliferation. On the diplomatic front, which is the most challenging, we must strengthen and sustain an international nonproliferation consensus that today appears to be fragile and weakening. At the same time, on the technical front, so long as we retain a nuclear deterrent, we must work to ensure its security, reliability, and effectiveness against newly emerging threats.

A Cold War success

During the darkest days of the Cold War, we were successful in limiting the spread of nuclear weapons to no more than a handful of nations. A norm of nonpossession of these weapons was established, as was a norm of their nonuse in military combat that has extended over 60 turbulent years. This record belies a view frequently expressed by those who disparage the value of international cooperation and arms-control treaties and who consider continuing negotiating efforts against nuclear proliferation to be futile.

Today only eight nations are confirmed nuclear-weapon states: the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, France, India, Pakistan, and Israel, a nondeclared nuclear-weapon state (see Figure 1). The evidence is unclear in the case of North Korea, though its government has the fuel for nuclear bombs and wishes the world to worry that it has them. Iran has been aggressively building a nuclear infrastructure. This number of eight nuclear weapons states is much smaller than was anticipated in the early 1960s; President Kennedy predicted 16 by the end of that decade. And the number hasn't grown over the past two decades.

This is all the more impressive when one recalls the many nations that flirted with the idea of going nuclear -- and those that, in fact, started down the path to nuclear weapons and turned back. These include Argentina, Brazil, Taiwan, South Korea, and Sweden; and South Africa, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan, which gave them up. But we are reminded daily by events in North Korea, Iran, and Pakistan -- with its precarious arsenal and the extensive nuclear-supplier network created by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan -- that the nuclear-restraint regime is facing tough challenges.

FIGURE 1
Number of States with Nuclear Weapons


The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which entered into force in 1970, has been a bulwark for worldwide efforts to counter the spread of nuclear technology and weapons to other nations for 35 years. These are its basic provisions:

* It requires that there be no transfer of nuclear weapon technology between nuclear weapon states and nonnuclear weapon states.

* It assigns authority to the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna for full-scope safeguards over the declared sites for peaceful nuclear activities of all signatories, which is designed to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials to use for weapons.

* It stipulates, as part of the Grand Bargain with the nonnuclear weapon states, that the peaceful benefits of nuclear technology will be made available to them.

The partners to the treaty are also committed to good-faith negotiating efforts toward an eventual goal of eliminating all nuclear weapons. At present the NPT has almost universal support: 188 nations, all but four in the world, have signed on to it. The only outliers are India and Pakistan, which became nuclear after the treaty entered into force in 1970; Israel, which has never explicitly admitted to being a nuclear power; and North Korea, which withdrew in 2003. And Iran is threatening.

In the face of the new challenge of the spread of technology to rogue nations and terrorists, it is natural to question whether the npt still meets our security needs. The United States and our allies, including the other nuclear weapon states, recognize a need for new restraints and modifications to make the treaty effective in keeping the worst weapons out of the worst hands. On the other hand, many nonnuclear states expressed serious reservations about extending the treaty into the indefinite future, when it faced its final scheduled review in 1995 at the United Nations. They objected to its discriminatory features and, as a quid pro quo for their continuing to renounce nuclear weapons, called on the nuclear powers to make serious and timely progress in reducing their excessively large arsenals and reducing their reliance on nuclear weapons. They also called on them to continue to adhere to the moratorium on all underground nuclear explosive tests that had been initiated in 1992 by President George H.W. Bush and to continue to work toward a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) that would formalize a test ban and extend it without a limit of time.

Without a doubt, the leadership and example of the U.S. will be decisive in efforts to sustain and strengthen the nonproliferation regime. This is an important factor for Washington to weigh in our nuclear policy decisions and actions. The U.S. and Russian commitment to the npt, and to fulfilling their obligations under it, was explicitly affirmed by Presidents Bush and Putin in their Joint Declaration at the Moscow summit in May 2002. However, those words and promises have yet to be turned into the solid actions needed to convince the world that the U.S. and Russia, possessors of more than 90 percent of the world's nuclear weapons, are serious and determined partners in the campaign against proliferation.

Theft or purchase

Cooperation among all nations -- nonnuclear as well as nuclear -- will be crucial in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. The most direct way for states or terrorist entities to acquire nuclear weapons is through theft or illegal purchase, and the danger is real. The best means of denying a nuclear capability to terrorists is to provide maximum protection for existing stockpiles of weapons and nuclear materials and to reduce their size. This calls for the geographic extension and aggressive application of effective cooperative threat reduction measures, first developed in the 1990s under the Nunn-Lugar legislation for the former Soviet Union, and an expedited implementation of the nuclear force reductions negotiated by Presidents Bush and Putin in Moscow in 2002.

Of particular concern in this regard is the large quantity of nuclear materials and warheads stored in the former Soviet Union in far less than ideal security circumstances. Russia's stockpiles are the largest in the world, containing many hundreds of tons of dangerous nuclear material as a legacy of the Cold War. This is enough fuel for more than 50,000 nuclear warheads, in addition to the approximately 20,000 warheads that already exist in Russia. The material is spread over many dozens of sites in structures and bunkers, the majority of which are poorly guarded and protected. This constitutes a very rich treasure for would-be proliferators, and especially for terrorist organizations, emphasizing the importance of cooperative measures to secure them from theft or sale.

If they are unable to steal or illegally purchase nuclear weapons, the biggest hurdle for states or terrorist entities that seek to achieve a nuclear capability is getting their hands on uranium ore. This is the raw material from which to make the fuel for nuclear weapons, either by enriching the ore, which naturally occurs with only 0.7 percent of the fissioning isotope of uranium, U(235), to 90-plus percent U(235) for bomb fuel or by making it into fuel rods for a nuclear reactor producing plutonium, which does not occur in nature. Controlling access to this material will require cooperative procedures for export controls and interdiction of illegal shipments.

For those nations that possess uranium deposits within their borders, the challenge to deny them a nuclear capability is quite stark: It is to keep them from acquiring or constructing the industrial infrastructure to enrich uranium or to manufacture plutonium. A nation with access to uranium ore that possesses such an operating facility is a potential and, in fact, a latent nuclear weapon state. This is the prospect looming today in Iran.

A blueprint meeting this challenge is contained in the May 2002 Bush-Putin Declaration of Moscow. It calls on all nations to cooperate to prevent such infrastructures from being developed by strictly enforcing export controls, interdicting illegal transfers, prosecuting violators, and tightening border controls. In addition to working to broaden the coalition of nations that are cooperating on implementing these powers, as called for in the Proliferation Security Initiative that has been proposed by the Bush administration, the authority of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will have to be expanded. Currently the IAEA has the authority for inspecting only the declared peaceful nuclear activities of the signatory nations to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Its authority will have to be expanded to include on-site challenge inspections of undeclared and suspect activities as well. Such inspection rights are included in the Additional Protocol to the NPT that has been negotiated with the IAEA by many, but not all, nations. So far, 107 nonnuclear weapon states have signed, and 73 have ratified, the Additional Protocol. Effective enforcement will also require the United Nations Security Council to give appropriate enforcement powers in cases where nations refuse to admit or give access to inspectors.

As described above, a broad menu of intrusive procedures will be required to monitor compliance and to identify any and all serious efforts by a would-be nuclear power to build nuclear weapons covertly. Negotiating to bring them into force with clear inspection protocols presents a major intelligence and diplomatic challenge. But the nuclear powers must also recognize and deal with the concerns and basic motivations that drive some countries to seek to become nuclear powers. This requires offering appropriate incentives to NPT signatories, in the form of compensating security guarantees and economic aid, to balance the restrictions and intrusive procedures being proposed to prevent nuclear proliferation. A targeted diplomatic approach, including cooperation as well as confrontation, will be required to deal with these concerns rather than each proliferant being viewed simply as a nuisance at best and a dangerous enemy at worst.

There is one more guarantee that will be of great importance. It is a guarantee of secure sources of energy, nuclear or otherwise, to NPT signatories that accept the restrictions of the Proliferation Security Initiative. This guarantee is included in constructive and important proposals that have been made in considerable detail by Mohamed ElBaradei, director of the IAEA. These proposals include creating multinational, regional facilities that would guarantee to provide the nuclear fuel to reactors engaged in research for peaceful purposes and for electrical power while at the same time prohibiting construction of such facilities by individual nations. In effect, there would be an internationally guaranteed supply of the fuel, remaining under international control, which would replace national control of materials that could be diverted to weapons use at some future date. This proposal is currently under discussion.

U.S. nukes

It is not necessary to look abroad for challenges to the present nonproliferation regime. There is also an apparent challenge originating in Washington as a result of American initiatives for new nuclear weapons that signal potential changes in our own policy. The Bush administration's Nuclear Posture Review (December 31, 2001), issued by the Department of Defense, highlighted a need for new earth-penetrating nuclear weapons to defeat emerging threats of hardened underground targets of military interest being built in many countries. This recommendation raises two important questions: What will be the effect of developing new nuclear weapons on the nonproliferation regime and U.S. security? And, on technical grounds, what is the military utility of such weapons?

Consider first the technical issues. The effectiveness of warheads for destroying hardened underground targets is enhanced if their designs are sufficiently rugged so that, when delivered by aircraft or missile, they can be rammed into the ground intact and penetrate some ten or so feet into the earth without damage before detonating. Such warheads will deliver a shock to destroy an underground bunker that is considerably stronger -- by a factor of ten to 20 -- relative to the shock from the same warhead if it is exploded at or above the earth's surface, in which case much more of its blast energy would be spent in the atmosphere.

Many hardened underground targets are at relatively shallow depths of a hundred or so feet, particularly large industrial targets for manufacturing weapons or producing fissile material (u and Pu) to fuel nuclear weapons. Others of very high value are more likely to be built at depths of 1,000 feet and hardened to withstand the order of 1,000 atmospheres over-pressure. Doing the very best possible, taking into account experimental data and known limits on material strengths, the yield of a warhead would have to be significantly larger than 100 kilotons for the shock from its blast to reach down to 1,000 feet with enough strength to destroy such targets.

Very low-yield warheads allegedly offer a possibility of attacking underground military targets, particularly those containing biological or chemical warfare agents, at shallow depths and are purported to be "more useable" since they would cause reduced collateral damage. It is unavoidable, however, that any such warhead that has penetrated into the earth as deeply as it can before detonating will still create a huge cloud of radioactive debris and a very large crater. The blast of even a very "low-yield" one-kiloton earth penetrator detonated at the maximum depth to which it can penetrate intact in hard rock will eject more than one million cubic feet of radioactive debris from a crater about the size of ground zero at the World Trade Center -- bigger than a football field. A nuclear weapon with a yield capable of destroying a hard target 1,000 feet underground -- well over 100 kilotons -- will dig a very much larger crater and create a substantially larger amount of radioactive debris. That would certainly not be a low-yield weapon. The primitive atom bomb that pulverized Hiroshima had a yield of only 13 kilotons. The United States already has many high-yield weapons in its arsenal for attacking hardened, deeply buried targets. The main problem is being able to identify and locate such targets accurately.

The technical realities of nuclear weapons and their value in destroying biological and chemical weapons must also not be exaggerated. The effective range of nuclear weapons in neutralizing the deadly effects of biological pathogens and chemical gases is severely limited by the fact that the blast effects of nuclear weapons, when detonated in earth, extend beyond the range of high temperatures and radiation they create and that are required for destroying such agents. Therefore, they would be more likely to spread these agents widely than to destroy them completely.

On quantitative technical grounds, one is led to conclude that low-yield penetrators are of marginal military value, useful only for relatively shallow targets. The collateral damage they cause may be reduced due to their lower yield, but it will still be very substantial. President Eisenhower's warning of "destruction and suicide" as the potential outcome of nuclear war suggests the dangers and risks if one crosses the nuclear threshold, especially for limited military missions.

Improvements in intelligence can lead to valuable payoffs in the ability of the military to destroy hardened underground targets. What is needed is the ability to locate, identify, and characterize such targets with accuracy and to define, identify, and seal off their vulnerable parts -- such as air ducts and tunnel entrances for equipment, resources, and personnel. These vulnerabilities can be exploited with specialized delivery systems and conventional munitions with multiple detonations for enhanced earth penetration.

What is the likely impact on U.S. security of a new initiative for new low-yield weapons? First, it is generally agreed that already tested weapons are available for most bunker-busting missions. In view of that, a decision by the world's only superpower to develop and deploy such presumably "more usable," low-yield nuclear weapons as bunker busters would send a clear and negative signal about the nonproliferation regime to the nonnuclear states. If the United States, the strongest nation in the world, concludes that it cannot protect its vital interests without relying on nuclear weapons in limited war-fighting situations, it would be a clear signal to other nations that nuclear weapons are valuable, if not necessary, for their security purposes too. It would be counter to repeated urging by the nonnuclear weapon states, when they agreed to the NPT extension at the un in 1995, for the nuclear-weapon states to reduce reliance on nuclear weapons, to continue the moratorium on underground explosive tests of nuclear weapons, leading to a CTBT, and for further reductions in nuclear forces. The United States could thereby be dealing a fatal blow to the nonproliferation regime in order to provide itself with a capability of questionable military value. The 188 signatories to the npt are calling on the nuclear-weapon states to decrease rather than increase the discriminatory nature of the nonproliferation regime by developing new warheads for new missions while they themselves renounce any such armaments.

For fiscal year 2006, Congress zeroed out funds supporting the development of new so-called bunker busters, or robust nuclear earth penetrators. This followed their action in fiscal 2005 to remove spending for the development of new concepts for low-yield weapons designed to attack shallow hardened underground targets. Members did, however, fund an important new program for fiscal 2006 called the Reliable Replacement Warhead, or RRW. Its stated purpose is to adapt nuclear infrastructure and weapons so that the U.S. will be able to maintain long-term high confidence in its arsenal more efficiently and economically without requiring the resumption of nuclear testing. The specific direction given to the activities under this program, as stated in the House-Senate conference report on the authorizing legislation, forbids the development of new weapons for new military missions. It reads: "The conferees reiterate the direction provided in fiscal year 2005 that any weapon design work done under the RRW program must stay within the military requirements of the existing deployed stockpile and any new weapon design must stay within the design parameters validated by past nuclear tests."

That is very important. It would be a mistake if rrw were to turn into an effort to develop new warhead designs by altering the nature of the high explosives or the amount of nuclear fuel in the primary without explosive testing, as some have suggested. Would a responsible leader -- president, general, or admiral -- seriously consider relying on an untested new design to protect our national security? It takes an extraordinary flight of imagination to place higher confidence in a new design without a test pedigree than in our stockpile with a half-century of more than 1,000 tests in its making. It seems inconceivable that the nonproliferation regime would, or could, survive if the newly established Reliable Replacement Warhead program were to become a design program for new U.S. weapons, as some advocate, rather than focusing on increasing long-term confidence in our current arsenal within experimentally established parameters.

The case for the Test Ban Treaty

A genuinely important action by the United States against nuclear proliferation would be to affirm our continuing support for the moratorium on testing, in effect since 1992, and to work toward bringing into force the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. All U.S. allies in NATO, including Great Britain, Germany, and France, have signed and ratified the ctbt, as have Japan and Russia. Israel has signed the CTBT and is participating energetically in the work of setting up a verification system. Others, including China, have indicated they will work to bring the treaty into force once the United States has ratified it. Currently 33 of the 44 states that have built nuclear reactors -- the so-called nuclear-capable states that must ratify the treaty for it to enter into force -- have done so. In all, 129 states have ratified and 176 have signed.

Forty-five years ago, in May 1961, shortly after he completed his eight years in the White House, President Eisenhower remarked that not achieving a nuclear test ban "would have to be classed as the greatest disappointment of any administration -- of any decade -- of any time and of any party." This is an appropriate time for the U.S. to reconsider the issue of ratifying the CTBT.

A serious debate between the White House and the Senate to clarify the underlying issues, both the concerns and opportunities, was not adequately joined in 1999 when the CTBT first came before the Senate for its advice and consent to ratification. To join the debate on the CTBT, the Bush administration will have to change its position, announced in 2001, that it had no intention to seek ratification of the CTBT.

Why is the United States reluctant to reopen the question of ratifying the CTBT? Opponents of the CTBT have raised two questions: How can the U.S. be sure that many years ahead, we will not need to resume underground explosive yield testing in order to rebuild the stockpile? And how can compliance by other CTBT signatories be monitored to standards consistent with U.S. national security?

The answer to the first question is that total certainty can never be achieved. But I am confident that the United States can be assured of the reliability of our nuclear forces under the CTBT. I say this because we are successfully pursuing a strong technical and scientific program at the national weapons laboratories (Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Sandia) that is providing a deeper understanding of their performance and is maintaining and refurbishing them as appropriate. This is a rigorous and a well-supported and executed program relying on extensive surveillance, forensics, diagnostics, extensive simulations with new computers, and experiments with advanced facilities. It is, in fact, enhancing U.S. confidence in the arsenal -- and in the ability to hear any warning bells of unanticipated problems that may develop in the future. No leader at the weapons laboratories at present identifies a need for nuclear testing. Issues that arise due to aging of the stockpile weapons have been identified and are being resolved by appropriate measures including refurbishment of parts when and where a need is found.

Concerning the question of compliance, there is broad, if not unanimous, agreement, based on detailed technical analyses, that the United States would be able to monitor compliance with a CTBT to standards consistent with its national security. With or without the CTBT, the U.S. will want all the information we can get on clandestine testing activities by other countries seeking to develop nuclear weapons. The CTBT would make such clandestine efforts more difficult and more risky for those nations by strengthening the global verification system and adding on-site inspection rights when the treaty enters into force.

What if?

We must face the fact that, despite our best efforts, we may fail to keep dangerous people from getting their hands on the most dangerous material. They may do so by theft, by illegal purchase, or simply by refusing to cooperate with our anti-proliferation efforts and building the infrastructure to enrich uranium and make nuclear weapons. What is the appropriate U.S. response in such circumstances? This is not an idle theoretical question. This issue is very much on the agenda, and was explicitly raised in the most recent official U.S. National Security Strategy document in March. It states that, against emerging threats of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, the United States must be prepared to take "anticipatory action to defend ourselves even if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy's attack"; that is, we will take preventive military action before the existence of an established threat. While we cannot rule out the use of force under any circumstance, we have to recognize that the use of force brings its own serious risks and raises tough new questions. Under what circumstances can and should we apply military force? Against whom? Which targets? When and how?

Preventive military action requires exquisite intelligence to evaluate the danger accurately and to identify the critical targets correctly. Current difficulties and debates about U.S. policy in the Middle East, however one may view the choice that the U.S. made to initiate war against Iraq, are clear evidence of the risks of taking such actions. Most decisions to initiate preventive action have to be made even though there may be big uncertainties, as well as gaps and wrong information on essential facts. This is almost inevitable. It is the very nature of intelligence information. These circumstances may result in divided support and challenges to the legitimacy of the mission, both at home and abroad, if not its outright failure. That is all the more reason to exhaust all possible avenues of diplomacy before relying on force only as a last resort.

To be sure, it is a very tall order and a frustrating ordeal to engage in patient, multinational diplomacy with rogue nations that are bent on joining the nuclear club. It is even more daunting to get at the roots of what generates fanatical destructive behavior in terrorists. Changing such behavior patterns takes a lot of time and determined effort. In the short term, it is necessary to pursue practical measures that can be effective in keeping evil despots and suicidal terrorists from being able to threaten us with nuclear weapons.

We have several examples from recent history that illustrate the three conditions that almost certainly will have to be satisfied simultaneously if preventive military action, or even its threat, is to be effective: 1) There is very little likelihood of successful retaliation by the potential proliferant against the homelands of the attacking powers; 2) the proliferant is viewed by large parts of the international community as a threat to its neighbors; 3) peaceful means of blocking nuclear weapons programs have failed or seem unlikely to work.

To support this judgment, we can recall cases where not all three conditions existed, and military force or the threat of force was not credible and was not brought into play. They include the Soviet Union in the 1950s, as it tested and began to deploy nuclear weapons, and China when it began to move toward a nuclear weapons capability in the 1960s.

There were influential voices in the United States that spoke out for preventive war against the Soviet Union in the 1950s, fearing that a Soviet nuclear arsenal would prove devastating for America's position in the world and for the American homeland itself. Fortunately President Eisenhower knew better. A similar discussion took place at high levels of the American and Soviet governments during the Kennedy administration when China was seen to be nearing a nuclear weapons capability. The discussion led nowhere, another example of the disutility of military force under the circumstances then existing. In both these cases patient diplomacy proved its superior mettle.

What about today's most worrisome cases, North Korea and Iran? North Korea is already close to posing an actual nuclear threat, if indeed it doesn't already exist, and our military options are tightly constrained by the existence of their million-man army with many, many thousands of artillery tubes almost on the outskirts of Seoul. In targeting diplomacy for halting and reversing North Korea's nuclear programs, the U.S. and our allies in the region will undoubtedly have to negotiate a nonuse of force commitment in the context of a freeze and dismantlement of all North Korea's nuclear weapons programs. The Clinton administration's Agreed Framework of 1994 froze North Korea's nuclear reactor and reprocessing activities in return for promises of power for civilian needs and of limited economic aid. We now would insist on the return of IAEA inspectors with the authority to inspect not only the reactors and the plutonium they have already produced, but also the elements of a gas centrifuge facility for enriching uranium components which North Korea has recently been acquiring in violation of the Agreed Framework. We would also insist on setting a firm schedule for removing the plutonium, including all spent fuel rods, from North Korea and dismantling its nuclear weapons facilities and program.

It would be a serious mistake to allow the process to stop there. The North Korean leadership is primarily interested in survival and seems to be aware that economic changes will be necessary for that to happen. Our diplomacy must help support efforts on their part to make such changes and convince them that it will be safe for them to pursue them. A broad program of economic cooperation and security guarantees should ultimately include North Korea's neighbors -- South Korea above all. Since North Korea poses a threat to its neighbors, guarantees must be a two-way street.

Are the U.S. Congress and the American public ready for this? With presidential leadership, perhaps so, especially since the alternative very likely will be not only a nuclear-armed North Korea but also, as a consequence, the entry of Japan and South Korea -- and maybe even Taiwan -- into the ranks of nuclear-weapon states. This would affect China, which would affect India, which would affect Pakistan. An Asian arms race rivaling the Cold War's U.S.-Soviet nuclear arms race could be the result. The situation sounds grim, but recall Libya's decision to abandon its nuclear program after much pressure and difficulties from abroad.

Finally, we have to ask: Is it possible for the United States and its friends to agree on criteria for diplomatic initiatives to head off other crises like the one we now face in North Korea and the one looming with Iran? And if the diplomatic initiatives fail in North Korea and Iran, and perhaps elsewhere in the future, will we be able to agree on criteria appropriate for imposing sanctions and, perhaps, eventually for initiating forceful actions against those who insist on moving ahead toward acquiring nuclear capabilities and are behaving aggressively? The experience at the United Nations leading up to the invasion of Iraq shows how difficult that challenge will be. A serious effort to come to such agreements will have to start by restoring and strengthening the international consensus against nuclear proliferation, and defining clear responsibilities and authority for action by the un Security Council.

It will be essential for the United States to change a perception that the use of elective, or preventive, force has become a dominant strain in American thinking about international challenges such as nuclear proliferation. The lesson that the United States and our allies and friends have learned since the dawn of the nuclear era in 1945 is that deterrence waged with patient and firm diplomacy will be key to keeping the worst weapons out of the most dangerous hands. This will require that we resort to a continuum of means keyed on patient, determined diplomacy, supported by coercion if or when required, to face the challenge to us, and indeed to civilization, posed by these terrible weapons. The Bush administration needs to be encouraged to continue building on the recent evidence of multilateralism in our diplomatic approach to this challenge.

Specifics

The nuclear genie cannot be put back in the bottle. It would be a noble thing to strive for a world of such human perfection that the complete elimination of nuclear weapons would no longer be a distant dream. I fear that such a day is far beyond the horizon of the most ambitious plans of the world's visionaries.

For the present, the United States must engage diplomatically and give the strongest support for specific actions that can serve as effective instruments in the effort against proliferation. These include, to summarize:

* expanding the authority of the International Atomic Energy Agency to carry out on-site challenge inspections of all suspect nuclear sites under the Additional Protocols to the npt;

* broadening the international participation in the Proliferation Security Initiative allowing interdiction of suspect shipments and improved export controls;

* guaranteeing nuclear fuel under international control for peaceful purposes as an alternative to indigenous fuel cycles for enriching uranium and processing plutonium, which henceforth will be forbidden;

* giving strong support to beefing up protection of large stores of dangerous nuclear materials around the world, in particular the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program for securing repositories of nuclear material in the former Soviet Union and around the world, as protection against terrorists and their kin with the goal of providing effective controls and accountability for the material on a time scale of within four or five years, as called for by a national bipartisan commission that deemed this "the most urgent unmet security threat to the United States"; and

* continuing to adhere to the moratorium on underground nuclear bomb testing.

We should work to bring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty into force rather than developing new, putatively more useable, nuclear weapons. At the very least we should continue U.S. adherence to the moratorium.

The urgency for such a commitment to deal with the nuclear threat -- a danger with no precedent in human history -- has been expressed powerfully and dramatically by Father Bryan Hehir, former dean of Harvard Divinity School, in his keynote address on "Ethical Considerations of Living in the Nuclear Age" at a Stanford University conference in 1987:

For millennia people believed that if anyone had the right to call the ultimate moment of truth, one must name that person God. Since the dawn of the nuclear age we have progressively acquired the capacity to call the ultimate moment of truth and we are not gods. But we must live with what we have created.

This is our challenge.


          Heroes of the Storm: Stukov, der verseuchte StarCraft-Admiral, ist im Anmarsch   
Stukov, der verseuchte Admiral aus dem StarCraft-Universum, wird demnächst den Kader von Heroes of the Storm erweitern. "Alexei Stukov hatte kein leichtes Leben, doch ist das nichts im Vergleich zu seinem Tod. Er wurde hintergangen, ins All geschossen, wiederbelebt, verseucht, so gut wie geheilt und schließlich, als die Verseuchung zurückkehrte, Experimenten unterzogen. Jetzt verbreitet er seine Verseuchung im Nexus weiter."

Stukov ist ein Unterstützer. Er kann Verbündete mit seinem Heilpathogen (Heilung über Zeit) versorgen oder Gegner mit der viralen Pustel (Schaden über Zeit) infizieren. Seine besondere Heldeneigenschaft lässt alle Viren/Pathogene detonieren. Jedes Heilpathogen heilt den Wirt um 500 Lebenspunkte. Jede Virale Pustel fügt ihrem Wirt 100 Schaden zu und verlangsamt ihn zwei Sekunden lang.

Grundfähigkeiten
  • Heilpathogen: Infiziert einen verbündeten Helden mit einem Heilpathogen, das das Ziel im Verlauf von 4.5 Sek. um 240 Lebenspunkte heilt. Heilpathogene können alle 0.75 Sek. auf einen weiteren verbündeten Helden überspringen und ihn ebenfalls infizieren. Dasselbe Heilpathogen kann jeden verbündeten Helden nur 1 Mal infizieren.
  • Virale Pustel: Schleudert eine Pustel, die alle gegnerischen Helden auf ihrem Weg trifft, ihnen 20 Schaden zufügt und sie um 5% verlangsamt. Die Verlangsamung erhöht sich im Verlauf von 3 Sek. auf 50%. Wenn die Virale Pustel abläuft oder entfernt wird, verursacht sie zusätzlich 80 Schaden.
  • Tiefenarm: Kanalisieren, um Gegnern im Zielbereich 144 Schaden pro Sekunde zuzufügen und sie zum Schweigen zu bringen, solange sie im Zielbereich verweilen. Nicht heroische Gegner erleiden nur 50% des Schadens. Während des Kanalisierens wird kein zusätzliches Mana verbraucht. Hält an, bis die Fähigkeit abgebrochen oder unterbrochen wird.

Heroische Fähigkeiten
  • Armschwung: Schwingt den Arm 3-mal im Verlauf von 1.75 Sek., fügt Gegnern 50 Schaden zu und stößt sie weg. Jeder Schwung ist größer als der vorherige.
  • Massiver Stoß: Lässt den Arm vorwärts schnellen. Wenn ein gegnerischer Held getroffen wird, wird er schnell weggestoßen, bis er mit dem Terrain kollidiert. Verursacht 200 Schaden. Gewährt 50 Rüstung, während ein Gegner weggestoßen wird.

Weiter zum Video

          Registered Nurse- School Based - Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Shiprock, NM   
Provide staff in-service programs on health topics including blood borne pathogens, and the district exposure control plan....
From Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 15:34:11 GMT - View all Shiprock, NM jobs
          Europe announces new action plan on AMR   

European officials today released a new action plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that builds on efforts to address the emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens in humans, animals, and the environment.

MORE >>


          UCB-UCSF Joint Symposium: Advancing science and policy to accelerate the global fight against Tuberculosis, Jul 11   
Join us for an afternoon symposium on Bay Area efforts to advance the global fight against Tuberculosis. Featuring presentations and panel discussions from UC Berkeley and UCSF faculty researchers, and special guests, on the latest research on understanding, preventing and treating the disease. How can we leverage cutting-edge insights from the fundamental sciences, bioengineering, public health, as well as clinical and translational research to influence policy and implementation?

Also including an update on the strategic plan to eliminate Tuberculosis in California by 2040, and implications for bridging local, national and global response.

Featured speakers:

Opening remarks by special guests and Dr. Eric Goosby, UN Special Envoy for Tuberculosis and Professor of Clinical Medicine, UCSF.

Adithya Cattamanchi, Associate Professor in Residence, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, UCSF

Jeff Cox, Professor of Immunology and Pathogenesis, UC Berkeley*

Jennifer Flood, Chief, Tuberculosis Control Branch, California Department of Public Health and Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Medicine, UCSF

Niren Murthy, Professor of Bioengineering, UC Berkeley

Payam Nahid, Professor in Residence, Department of Medicine, UCSF*

Madhukar Pai, Canada Research Chair in Translational Epidemiology & Global Health; Director, Global Health Programs; Associate Director, McGill University

Patrick Phillips, Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, UCSF

Lee Riley, Professor of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases; Division Head, Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, UC Berkeley School of Public Health*

The symposium is organized on the occasion of the first meeting of The Lancet Commission on Tuberculosis, which will present its conclusions to coincide with a United Nations High Level Meeting on TB in 2018. Made possible by a UC Berkeley/UCSF planning grant from the Koret Foundation.
          Colorectal cancer-inflammatory bowel disease nexus and felony of Escherichia coli.   
Related Articles

Colorectal cancer-inflammatory bowel disease nexus and felony of Escherichia coli.

Life Sci. 2017 Jul 01;180:60-67

Authors: Khan AA, Khan Z, Malik A, Kalam MA, Cash P, Ashraf MT, Alshamsan A

Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a multifactorial etiology. Although the exact cause of CRC is still elusive, recent studies have indicated microbial involvement in its etiology. Escherichia coli has emerged as an important factor in CRC development since the bacterium can cause changes in the gut that lead to cancerous transformation. A number of studies indicate that chronic inflammation induced by microorganisms, including E. coli, during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predisposes an individual to CRC. The evidence that support the role of E. coli in the etiology of CRC, through IBD, is not limited only to chronic inflammation. The growth of E. coli as an intracellular pathogen during IBD and CRC enable the bacteria to modulate the host cell cycle, induce DNA damage and accumulate mutations. These are some of the contributing factors behind the etiology of CRC. The present article considers the current status of the involvement of E. coli, through IBD, in the etiology of CRC. We discuss how intracellular E. coli infection can cause changes in the gut that can eventually lead to cellular transformation. In addition, the recent management strategies that target E. coli for prevention of CRC are also discussed.

PMID: 28506682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Toll like receptor 4 and hepatocellular carcinoma; A systematic review.   
Related Articles

Toll like receptor 4 and hepatocellular carcinoma; A systematic review.

Life Sci. 2017 Jun 15;179:80-87

Authors: Sepehri Z, Kiani Z, Kohan F, Alavian SM, Ghavami S

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an extracellular pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) which recognizes a wide range of pathogens and damage associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs). It can activate intracellular signaling and consequently transcription factors which participate in transcription from either immune related or malignancy genes. Thus, it has been hypothesized that TLR4 may be a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This article has reviewed the roles of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of HCC.
METHOD: "TLR4", "hepatocellular carcinoma", "liver tumor" and "liver cancer" were used as key words for searching in Scopus, Google Scholar and MEDLINE scientific databases.
RESULTS: Most of the investigations documented the roles of TLR4 in induction of HCC via several mechanisms including increased number of T regulatory lymphocytes and liver resident follicular helper like cells, increased production of pro-inflammatory and malignancy related molecules including cytokines, NANOG, Caspase-1, Ephrin-A1, NO and BCL6. TLR4 participates in the proliferation of the cells and also production of the molecules in both chronic infectious and non-infectious inflammatory diseases.
DISCUSSION: TLR4 is an innate immunity receptor which plays a pathogenic role during chronic inflammation and can induce HCC in human.

PMID: 28472619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Evaluation of the effects of anti-psychotic drugs on the expression of CD68 on the peripheral blood monocytes of Alzheimer patients with psychotic symptoms.   
Related Articles

Evaluation of the effects of anti-psychotic drugs on the expression of CD68 on the peripheral blood monocytes of Alzheimer patients with psychotic symptoms.

Life Sci. 2017 Jun 15;179:73-79

Authors: Bahramabadi R, Samadi M, Vakilian A, Jafari E, Fathollahi MS, Arababadi MK

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies approved the important roles of CD68, as scavenger receptors, in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with anti-psychotic drugs and vitamin B12 on the expression levels of CD68 in monocytes of psychotic AD patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression of CD68 on the monocytes was evaluated in the following groups: 1. age and sex matched healthy controls (Group 1), 2. non-psychotic AD patients (Group 2), 3. psychotic AD patients (Group 3), 4. psychotic AD patients treated with Risperidone (Group 4), 5. psychotic AD patients treated with Risperidone plus vitamin B12 (Group 5), 6. psychotic AD patients treated with Quetiapine (Group 6), psychotic AD patients treated with Quetiapine plus vitamin B12 (Group 7). The expression of CD68 has been performed using flow cytometry technique.
RESULTS: The results showed that CD68 levels were significantly increased in AD patients in comparison to healthy controls and in psychotic AD patients in comparison to non-psychotic AD patients. Treatment with anti-psychotic drugs decreased the expression of CD68. Expression of CD68 has a positive correlation with pain, dementia and mental disorders symptoms in psychotic AD patients.
DISCUSSION: CD68 may play key roles in the pathogenesis of AD and its complications may be via induction of inflammation. Therefore, it may be concluded that CD68 may be considered as a risk factor for development of AD and also psychotic symptoms in the patients.

PMID: 28465247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Toll-like receptor 2: An important immunomodulatory molecule during Helicobacter pylori infection.   
Related Articles

Toll-like receptor 2: An important immunomodulatory molecule during Helicobacter pylori infection.

Life Sci. 2017 Jun 01;178:17-29

Authors: Nemati M, Larussa T, Khorramdelazad H, Mahmoodi M, Jafarzadeh A

Abstract
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an essential subset of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) which identify the microbial components and contribute in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against the infectious agents. The TLRs, especially TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, participate in the induction of immune response against H. pylori. TLR2 is expressed on a number of immune and non-immune cells and recognizes a vast broad of microbial components due to its potential to form heterodimers with other TLRs, including TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10. A number of H. pylori-related molecules may contribute to TLR2-dependent responses, including HP-LPS, HP-HSP60 and HP-NAP. TLR2 plays a pivotal role in regulation of immune response to H. pylori through activation of NF-κB and induction of cytokine expression in epithelial cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and B cells. The TLR2-related immune response that is induced by H. pylori-derived components may play an important role regarding the outcome of the infection toward bacterial elimination, persistence or pathological reactions. The immunomodulatory and immunoregulatory roles of TLR2 during H. pylori infection were considered in this review. TLR2 could be considered as an interesting therapeutic target for treatment of H. pylori-related diseases.

PMID: 28427896 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Shikonin alleviates the biotoxicity produced by pneumococcal pneumolysin.   
Related Articles

Shikonin alleviates the biotoxicity produced by pneumococcal pneumolysin.

Life Sci. 2017 May 15;177:1-7

Authors: Zhao X, Zhou Y, Wang L, Li M, Shi D, Li D, Wang J

Abstract
AIMS: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a common pathogen that can cause severe infections in humans. Pneumolysin (PLY) is an important virulence trait of S. pneumoniae and has cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and pro-inflammatory activity; it is essential for the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae pneumonia and is an anti-virulence target of small molecule drug development. The treatment options for this microbe were limit due to the ubiquitous antibiotic resistance; therefore, new drugs and treatment strategies are needed.
METHODS: Shikonin was selected by drug screening based on haemolysis assays, and its mechanism of suppressing PLY toxicity was determined by oligomerization assay. Meanwhile, the in vitro cell viability assays and in vivo experiments were performed to explore the capability of shikonin to protect cells and tissue from S. pneumoniae-mediated damage.
KEY FINDINGS: Shikonin was found to significantly decrease PLY-induced haemolytic activity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity via lessening the formation of oligomers; moreover, the agent can reduce the mortality of mice caused by lethal pneumonia and mitigate the injury of target organs as well.
SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that shikonin could be a potent candidate for a novel therapeutic or auxiliary substance in the treatment of infections encountering insufficient vaccines and antimicrobial resistance to traditional antibiotics.

PMID: 28385613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Inactivation of the kinase domain of CDK10 prevents tumor growth in a preclinical model of colorectal cancer, and is accompanied by downregulation of Bcl-2.   

Inactivation of the kinase domain of CDK10 prevents tumor growth in a preclinical model of colorectal cancer, and is accompanied by downregulation of Bcl-2.

Mol Cancer Ther. 2017 Jun 29;:

Authors: Weiswald LB, Hasan MR, Wong JC, Pasiliao CC, Rahman M, Ren J, Yin Y, Gusscott S, Vacher S, Weng AP, Kennecke HF, Bièche I, Schaeffer DF, Yapp DT, Tai IT

Abstract
Cyclin dependent kinase 10 (CDK10), a CDC2 related kinase, is highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). Its role in the pathogenesis of CRC is unknown. This study examines the function of CDK10 in CRC, and demonstrates its role in suppressing apoptosis and in promoting tumor growth in vitro and in vivo Modulation of CDK10 expression in CRC cell lines demonstrates that CDK10 promotes cell growth, reduces chemosensitivity and inhibits apoptosis by upregulating the expression of Bcl-2. This effect appears to depend on its kinase activity, as kinase-defective mutant CRC cell lines have an exaggerated apoptotic response and reduced proliferative capacity. In vivo, inhibiting CDK10 in CRC following intratumoral injections of lentivirus-mediated CDK10 siRNA in a patient-derived xenograft mouse model demonstrated its efficacy in suppressing tumor growth. Furthermore, using a tissue microarray of human CRC tissues, the potential for CDK10 to be a prognostic biomarker in CRC was explored. In tumors of individuals with CRC, high expression of CDK10 correlates with earlier relapse and shorter overall survival. The findings of this study indicate that CDK10 plays a role in the pathogenesis in CRC and may be a potential therapeutic target for treatment.

PMID: 28663269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION   


Throughout the history of mankind science has searched into the realms of the unknown. Along with it bringing new discoveries, allowing for our lives to become healthier, more efficient, safer, and at the same time, possibly more dangerous. Among the forces driving scientists into these many experiments, is the desire to preserve the one fuel that keeps our lives going; FOOD.

As early as the beginning of the 19th century, major breakthroughs in food preservation had begun. Soldiers and seamen, fighting in Napoleons army were living off of salt-preserved meats. These poorly cured foods provided minimal nutritional value, and frequent outbreaks of scurvy were developing. It was Napoleon who began the search for a better mechanism of food preservation, and it was he who offered 12,000-franc pieces to the person who devised a safe and dependable food-preservation process.

The winner was a French chemist named Nicolas Appert. He observed that food heated in sealed containers was preserved as long as the container remained unopened or the seal did not leak. This became the turning point in food preservation history. Fifty years following the discovery by Nicolas Appert, another breakthrough had developed. Another Frenchman, named Louis Pasteur, noted the relationship between microorganisms and food spoilage. This breakthrough increased the dependability of the food canning process. As the years passed new techniques assuring food preservation would come and go, opening new doors to further research.

FOOD PROCESSING 

Farmers grow fruits and vegetables and fatten livestock. The fruits and vegetables are harvested, and the livestock is slaughtered for food. What happens between the time food leaves the farm and the time it is eaten at the table? Like all living things, the plants and animals that become food contain tiny organisms called microorganisms. Living, healthy plants and animals automatically control most of these microorganisms. But when the plants and animals are killed, the organisms yeast, mold, and bacteria begin to multiply, causing the food to lose flavor and change in color and texture. Just as important, food loses the nutrients that are necessary to build and replenish human bodies. All these changes in the food are what people refer to as food spoilage. To keep the food from spoiling, usually in only a few days, it is preserved. Many kinds of agents are potentially destructive to the healthful characteristics of fresh foods. Microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, rapidly spoil food. Enzymes which are present in all raw food, promote degradation and chemical changes affecting especially texture and flavor. Atmospheric oxygen may react with food constituents, causing rancidity or color changes. Equally as harmful are infestations by insects and rodents, which account for tremendous losses in food stocks. There is no single method of food preservation that provides protection against all hazards for an unlimited period of time. Canned food stored in Antarctica near the South Pole, for example, remained edible after 50 years of storage, but such long-term preservation cannot be duplicated in the hot climate of the Tropics.

Raw fruits and vegetables and uncooked meat are preserved by cold storage or refrigeration. The cold temperature inside the cold-storage compartment or refrigerator slows down the microorganisms and delays deterioration. But cold storage and refrigeration will preserve raw foods for a few weeks at most. If foods are to be preserved for longer periods, they must undergo special treatments such as freezing or heating. The science of preserving foods for more than a few days is called food processing.

Human beings have always taken some measures to preserve food. Ancient people learned to leave meat and fruits and vegetables in the sun and wind to remove moisture. Since microorganisms need water to grow, drying the food slows the rate at which it spoils. Today food processors provide a diet richer and more varied than ever before by using six major methods. They are canning, drying or dehydration, freezing, freeze-drying, fermentation or pickling, and irradiation.

Canning 

The process of canning is sometimes called sterilization because the heat treatment of the food eliminates all microorganisms that can spoil the food and those that are harmful to humans, including directly pathogenic bacteria and those that produce lethal toxins. Most commercial canning operations are based on the principle that bacteria destruction increases tenfold for each 10° C increase in temperature. Food exposed to high temperatures for only minutes or seconds retains more of its natural flavor. In the Flash 18 process, a continuous system, the food is flash-sterilized in a pressurized chamber to prevent the superheated food from boiling while it is placed in containers. Further sterilizing is not required.

Freezing 

Although prehistoric humans stored meat in ice caves, the food-freezing industry is more recent in origin than the canning industry. The freezing process was used commercially for the first time in 1842, but large-scale food preservation by freezing began in the late 19th century with the advent of mechanical refrigeration.

Freezing preserves food by preventing microorganisms from multiplying. Because the process does not kill all types of bacteria, however, those that survive reanimate in thawing food and often grow more rapidly than before freezing. Enzymes in the frozen state remain active, although at a reduced rate. Vegetables are blanched or heated in preparation for freezing to ensure enzyme inactivity and thus to avoid degradation of flavor. Blanching has also been proposed for fish, in order to kill cold-adapted bacteria on their outer surface. In the freezing of meats various methods are used depending on the type of meat and the cut. Pork is frozen soon after butchering, but beef is hung in a cooler for several days to tenderize the meat before freezing.

Frozen foods have the advantage of resembling the fresh product more closely than the same food preserved by other techniques. Frozen foods also undergo some changes, however. Freezing causes the water in food to expand and tends to disrupt the cell structure by forming ice crystals. In quick-freezing the ice crystals are smaller, producing less cell damage than in the slowly frozen product. The quality of the product, however, may depend more on the rapidity with which the food is prepared and stored in the freezer than on the rate at which it is frozen. Some solid foods that are frozen slowly, such as fish, may, upon thawing, show a loss of liquid called drip; some liquid foods that are frozen slowly, such as egg yolk, may become coagulated. Because of the high cost of refrigeration, frozen food is comparatively expensive to produce and distribute. High quality is a required feature of frozen food to justify the added cost in the market.This method of preservation is the one most widely used for a great variety of foods.

Drying and Dehydration 

Although both these terms are applied to the removal of water from food, to the food technologist drying refers to drying by natural means, such as spreading fruit on racks in the sun, and dehydration designates drying by artificial means, such as a blast of hot air. In freeze-drying a high vacuum is maintained in a special cabinet containing frozen food until most of the moisture has sublimed. Removal of water offers excellent protection against the most common causes of food spoilage. Microorganisms cannot grow in a water-free environment, enzyme activity is absent, and most chemical reactions are greatly retarded. This last characteristic makes dehydration preferable to canning if the product is to be stored at a high temperature. In order to achieve such protection, practically all the water must be removed. The food then must be packaged in a moisture-proof container to prevent it from absorbing water from the air.

Vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, and some other foods, the moisture content of which averages as high as 80 percent, may be dried to one-fifth of the original weight and about one-half of the original volume. The disadvantages of this method of preservation include the time and labor involved in rehydrating the food before eating. Further because it absorbs only about two-thirds of its original water content, the dried product tends to have a texture that is tough and chewy.

Drying was used by prehistoric humans to preserve many foods. Large quantities of fruits such as figs have been dried from ancient times to the present day. In the case of meat and fish, other preservation methods, such as smoking or salting, which yielded a palatable product, were generally preferred. Commercial dehydration of vegetables was initiated in the United States during the American Civil War but, as a result of the poor quality of the product, the industry declined sharply after the war. This cycle was repeated with subsequent wars, but after World War II the dehydration industry thrived. This industry is confined largely to the production of a few dried foods, however, such as milk, soup, eggs, yeast, and powdered coffee, which are particularly suited to the dehydration method. Present-day dehydration techniques include the application of a stream of warm air to vegetables. Protein foods such as meat are of good quality only if freeze-dried. Liquid food is dehydrated usually by spraying it as fine droplets into a chamber of hot air, or occasionally by pouring it over a drum internally heated by steam.

Freeze-drying 

A processing method that uses a combination of freezing and dehydration is called freeze-drying. Foods that already have been frozen are placed in a vacuum-tight enclosure and dehydrated under vacuum conditions with careful application of heat. Normally ice melts and becomes water when heat is applied. If more heat is applied, it turns to steam. But in freeze-drying, the ice turns directly to vapor, and there is little chance that microorganisms will grow.

Freeze-dried foods, like those that are dehydrated, are light and require little space for storage and transportation. They do not need to be refrigerated, but they must be reconstituted with water before they are ready to consume.

Irradiation 

As early as 1895, a major breakthrough in the world of science had arisen; the discovery of the X-ray by German physicist Wilhelm von Roetengen. This technological advancement, along with the soon to be discovered concept of radioactivity by French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel, became the focus of attention for many scientifically based studies. Of most importance, to the field of food preservation, these two discoveries began the now controversial process of food irradiation.

Food irradiation employs an energy form termed ionizing radiation. In short, this process exposes food particles to alpha, beta and/or gamma rays. The rays cause whatever material they strike to produce electrically charged particles called ions. Ionizing radiation provides many attributes to treating foods. It has the ability to penetrate deeply into a food interacting with its atoms and molecules, and causing some chemical and biological effects that could possibly decrease its rate of decay. It also has the ability to sanitize foods by destroying contaminants such as bacteria, yeasts, molds, parasites and insects.Irradiation delays ripening of fruits and vegetables; inhibits sprouting in bulbs and tubers; disinfests grain, cereal products, fresh and dried fruits, and vegetables of insects; and destroys bacteria in fresh meats. The irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, and pork was approved in 1986. In 1990 the FDA approved irradiation of poultry to control salmonella and other disease-causing microorganisms. Irradiated foods were used by U.S. astronauts and by Soviet cosmonauts. Public concern over the safety of irradiation, however, has limited its full-scale use. It is still off to a slow start, with only one food irradiation plant open in Mulberry, Florida, but it is seemingly catching the eyes of the producers and the consumers throughout the world.

Miscellaneous Methods 

Other methods or a combination of methods may be used to preserve foods. Salting of fish and pork has long been practiced, using either dry salt or brine. Salt enters the tissue and, in effect binds the water, thus inhibiting the bacteria that cause spoilage. Another widely used method is smoking, which frequently is applied to preserve fish, ham, and sausage. The smoke is obtained by burning hickory or a similar wood under low draft. In this case some preservative action is provided by such chemicals in the smoke as formaldehyde and creosote, and by the dehydration that occurs in the smokehouse. Smoking usually is intended to flavor the product as well as to preserve it.

Sugar, a major ingredient of jams and jellies, is another preservative agent. For effective preservation the total sugar content should make up at least 65 percent of the weight of the final product. Sugar, which acts in much the same way as salt, inhibits bacterial growth after the product has been heated. Because of its high acidity, vinegar (acetic acid) acts as a preservative. Fermentation caused by certain bacteria, which produce lactic acid, is the basis of preservation in sauerkraut and fermented sausage. Sodium benzoate, restricted to concentrations of not more than 0.1 percent, is used in fruit products to protect against yeasts and molds. Sulfur dioxide, another chemical preservative permitted in most states, helps to retain the color of dehydrated foods. Calcium propionate may be added to baked goods to inhibit mold.

Packaging 

The packaging of processed foods is just as important as the process itself. If foods are not packaged in containers that protect them from air and moisture, they are subject to spoilage. Packaging materials must therefore be strong enough to withstand the heat and cold of processing and the wear and tear of handling and transportation.

From the time the canning process was developed in the early 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century, cans and glass containers were the only packages used. The first cans were crude containers having a hole in the top through which the food was inserted. The holes were then sealed with hot metal. All cans were made by hand from sheets of metal cut to specific sizes. In about 1900 the sanitary can was invented. In this process, machines form cans with airtight seams. A processor buys cans with one end open and seals them after filling. Some cans are made of steel coated with tin and are often glazed on the inside to prevent discoloration. Some are made of aluminum.

Frozen foods are packaged in containers made of layers of fiberboard and plastic or of strong plastic called polyethylene. Freeze-dried and dehydrated foods are packed in glass, fiberboard, or cans.

Research 

The research activities of processed food scientists are numerous and varied. New packaging materials, the nutritional content of processed foods, new processing techniques, more efficient use of energy and water, the habits and desires of today's consumer, more efficient equipment, and transportation and warehousing innovations are some of the subjects being studied. The challenge of the food researcher is to discover better and more efficient ways to process, transport, and store food. Processed foods have changed the world. In developed countries they are part of almost everyone's diet. The United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom all produce large quantities of processed foods, which they sell domestically and abroad. In the United States in the early 1980s, annual production of fruit was 1.8 billion kilograms canned, 1.4 billion kilograms frozen, and 1.1 billion kilograms in fruit juice; production of vegetables was 1.4 billion kilograms canned and 3.2 billion kilograms frozen.

From the modest canning industries in 1813 to the sophisticated food processing plants of today, food processors have provided the world with more healthful diets, food combinations never before possible, and a convenience unimagined 200 years ago. We as consumers can only imagine what further achievements will be made in the field of food preservation. But one thing is for certain; it is all for the general good of mankind...to reduce starvation levels globally and insure the availability of nutritive foods to all. It is through this way that man survives...and fits in Darwin's hypothesis of the survival of the fittest. For it is only the fit who will prevail in the end.

References 

Fellows, P.J. Food Processing Technologyicon Ellis Horwood Ltd: (1990) 
Grolier Interactive Encyclopaedia 
Harris Robert S. and Von Lesecke, Harry. Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing Avi Publishing Co: (1973) 
Popular Science Encyclopaedia Grolier Incorporated: (1980) 

Published in http://www.planetpapers.com/. Adapted and illustrated to be posted by Leopoldo Costa.
          Lactococcus Strain may Offer End to Food Allergies   
Non-pathogenic gut bacteria, bioengineered to produce a compound that regulates immune response in the gut, may offer si
          Germ Zapping Robots   
         

If someone told you that a germ-zapping robot existed, would you believe them?  Well believe it or not, its true.  Germ-zapping robots are currently being used in over two hundred and fifty hospitals thanks to a Texas based company called Xenex. The Xenex designed robots were originally designed to fight common bacteria found in hospitals but are proving themselves to be far more beneficial than originally anticipated.  

So how do these robots work? Well first of all, these robots produce an artificially made UV ray called UV-C similarly to the one produced by the sun.  The main difference between the suns UV-C rays and the robots are that that the robots rays are about twenty-five hundred times more powerful.  With these rays, the robots can penetrate cell walls of fungus, mould, bacteria, and other viruses and kill any harmful pathogens that are unseen to the naked eye.   

The amount of disinfectance that these robots can achieve, killing 99.9% of germs, becomes particularly valuable to a hospital where many surfaces are hard to clean.  With these robots, a hospital can now completely disinfect a hospital bed or room in less than 5 minutes.  This means that hospitals, and other facilities that have encountered a bacterial out break, can be free of germs and contaminants almost instantly; therefore, eliminating viruses and other pathogens that can live on surfaces for up to 5 months. Now this is where these robots begin to making breaking news.  With the latest scares on Ebola, and a major struggle to keep those who have been infected contained, these robots jump in by completely disinfecting areas and destroying the superbug.  Although these robots can not destroy the virus within someones body, they can help with the quarantine processes and minimize the risk of the bacteria spreading any further. These robots used sopiscated software that helps them navigate around the hospitals and make sure an area has been santized. The robots one day will be controled from an app or desktop web application that will give staff easy manipulation, reporting and stats.

         
          Swimming microbots can remove pathogenic bacteria from water   
The lack of clean water in many areas around the world is a persistent, major public health problem. One day, tiny robots could help address this issue by zooming around contaminated water and cleanin ... - Source: www.sciencedaily.com
          Development of fruit diseases of microbial origin during storage at treatment with antioxidant compositions   
Present study addresses scientific substantiation of appropriateness of conducting after-harvesting treatment with antioxidant compositions for preventing the development of pathogenic microflora on the surface of fruits during long-term storage. We examined the fruits of apple of the varieties Idared, Golden Delicious, Simirenko Renet, the fruits of pear of the varieties Victoria, Izyuminka Crimea and Cure, the fruits of plum of the varieties Voloshka, Stanley, and Ugorka Italian. The fruits were treated by immersion in the following antioxidant compositions: ACM is a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide, ionol and polyethylene glycols; AARL is a mixture of ascorbic acid, rutine and lecithin; DL is a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide, ionol and lecithin. Control fruits were treated with water. Exposure is 10 seconds. Storage was maintained at a temperature of 0±1 ºC, at relative air humidity 90–95 %. It was established that during preparation of fruits for storing, the largest mean population of epiphytic microflora was registered on the surface of plums and pears with medium term of ripening. The species composition of epiphytic microflora was dominated by spores of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. Their mean population on the surface of apples was 9.6•103 cfu/g, on the surface of plums – 18•103 cfu/g. Treating all kinds of fruit with AOC significantly decreased speed of growth of both MAFAnM and micromycetes. It is shown that the application of composition reduced the level of daily losses from microbiological diseases over the entire period of storage by 2...3.5 times. The largest positive effect was obtained when applying the composition based on dystynol and lecithin. By performing a multi-factor analysis, it was revealed that the level of daily losses from microbiological diseases during storage was affected by the dominant influence of factors of generic features of fruit raw materials (factor A) and treatment with antioxidant compositions (factor D). The shares of influence are, respectively, 24 and 21 %
          Ewing’s Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies   
Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing’s sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing’s sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing’s sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed.
          Jackass   
When you think of things of great wealth one of the last things you would think off would be a donkey. Many a time as I strode through the pouring rain to make it through to a one on one with the goalkeeper only to have my boot catch the muddy turf and fall flat on my face. DONKEY! DONKEY! DONKEY! they would chant as I lay there, the mud hiding the tears on my cheeks. It hard to imagine that they are making a reference to, maybe the fact that the donkey was once responsible for the wealth of the Egyptians due to it being the means for transport of precious metals carried from Africa by donkeys? Or maybe it was them parodying my twisting silky dribbling referring to the donkeys carrying silk along the 'Silk Road' from Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean, but I feel they were using it in the vain of the derogatory slant it has become. But fear not donkey lovers as the worth of donkeys is again to rise....

DONKEY CHEESE

It has taken the throne as the worlds most expensive cheese. I have touched on this before in the usual roundabout way here, but there is a new king in town and that king is 'Pule'. Pule comes from the Serbian word for 'foal'. Cue donkey fact....In the desert environment a donkey is able to hear the call of another donkey 60 miles away, they have far larger ears than horses.



But back to the cheese... This donkeys cheese comes in at a whopping £1000/kg. But whats so special about these donkeys I hear you say? Nothing really it is just that there is a terrible yield from donkey milk due to the very low percentage of fat and protein available. No wonder the coachman in Pinochio set up Pleasure Island. But surely everyone is a winner, you get to play pool, drink, smoke, fight, gamble and then when you have made enough of a 'jackass' of yourself you turn into a donkey and produce some of the most expensive cheese in the world. This is basically a metaphor for my life....



Another reason for why the cheese may cost so much is the danger that surrounds the milking of the donkeys. Due to there cautious and untrusting nature they are forever bucking their legs and this would be hazardous during milking as they would be forever kicking off their milking clusters. This could lead too many pathogens such as escherichia coli and salmonella getting into the milk through fecal contamination. ie Pony crap....



          (USA-VA-Portsmouth) Assistant Manager   
Requisition Number 17-1885 Post Date 6/29/2017 Title Assistant Manager City Portsmouth State VA Position Type full-time Description If you are interested in an exciting career in the biopharmaceutical or medical field you’ve come to the right place. At Octapharma Plasma you can channel your passion for helping others into a medical career that is fast-paced and personally and professionally rewarding. Whether you are just beginning your career or you have experience in the medical field, we have many exciting opportunities for you to consider. The Assistant Manager assists the (Donor) Center Director in the daily operational function of donor center operations and assumes managerial responsibility of donor center operations in the Center Director’s absence. Additional Responsibilities Include: Oversees Operational Compliance within the Donor Center + Ensures the total operation is in compliance with facility SOPs, State and Federal (FDA) Rules and Regulations, OSHA requirements and CLIA requirements + Directs and supervises donor center employees to maintain quality assurance procedures + Trains employees to maintain daily center operations + Ensures that professional customer service skills, courtesy and respect are utilized by center staff to maximize donor retention + Identifies all potential, serious or chronic problems affecting quality or compliance + Assists in audits, inspections and training at other donor center facilities as needed + Complies with federal, state, local and company-specific regulations related to quality of product, employee and donor safety and to the proper performance of day-to-day activities Manages Daily Center Operations + Performs opening and closing duties (e.g., powers on/off equipment, documents of petty funds and donor fund disbursement, locks up monies/checks and files, maintains alarm system, etc.) + Manages areas (e.g., steady flow of production, special program monitoring documentation, donor center logs and records, etc.) + Receives, distributes and follows through SPE/RPR test results + Ensures areas are well-stocked to handle current and next day's production + Maintains daily and monthly production statistics (e.g., Softgoods Inventory, Haemonetics Reports, PCS2 Logs and Event Tracking Logs, etc.) + Ensures daily completion of donor center logs and records (i.e., Final Weight sheets, Shipping Temperature Records, Quality Control Records) + Completes shipments and reviews all test results and shipping records + Maintains records to keep accurate account of current freezer inventories + Maintains continual attention to weekly supply needs and completes monthly inventories + Ensures timely response to alarms and maintains alarm system + Oversees the performance of all equipment maintenance and ensures all equipment is well maintained, in good working order and is calibrated as required + Supports all marketing and advertising Performs Fiscal/Administrative Duties + Conducts monthly staff meetings and documentation + Hires, trains and coordinates donor center staff members to ensure a competent, compliant and quality team that yields maximum donor production + Schedules and facilitates employee cross-training activities to prepare the team for volume increases, staff depletions, vacations and absenteeism + Maintains up-to-date training records + Ensures appropriate medical staff coverage or replacement (e.g., Center Physician, Physician Substitute) for donor center + Monitors special programs (i.e., internal and external recruiting, donor’s communication, donor center paperwork, donation follow-up) + Maintains center operations with fiscal responsibility in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Quality Assurance Programs (QAP) and general housekeeping + Oversees reactive unit test results and completes unit disposition and paperwork follow through Organizational Leadership/Effectiveness + Trains, develops and manages all staff in accordance with Human Resources' and company policies and other established management guidelines and regulations + Ensures adherence to all HR policies and procedures through fair and equitable treatment of all employees + Hires, motivates and evaluates center personnel based on established guidelines + Disciplines and terminates center employees and maintains complete and accurate personnel records + Ensures adequate, trained staff is available to cover the hours of operation in adherence to regulatory requirements + Creates an organizational environment that stimulates the morale and productivity of the work force and its leadership + Provides leadership for employee relations through effective communication, coaching, training and development + Performs employee performance reviews + Performs other related duties as assigned Requirements + Bachelor’s degree in Biological Science or Business Administration preferred or equivalent experience + Three to five years of working experience in a biomedical field preferred + Previous work experience demonstrating decision-making ability, ability to effectively communicate with and positively influence people, familiarity with fiscal operations, supervisory responsibility, conflict resolution and customer service + Certification as a Sr. Medical Screener, Phlebotomist and Sr. Processing Technician required or ability to obtain certification within six months of acquiring position. Where state licensure is required for one of these positions, a clear understanding of the procedures can substitute + Basic organization, multi-tasking and problem-solving skills and the ability to work well under pressure and meet demanding deadlines + Basic computer, typing, and mathematical skills + Proficiency with Microsoft Office Suite (Word, Excel) + Excellent communication skills and ability to conduct oral presentations + Excellent people skills which extends to a diverse group individuals and demographics + Ability to speak, write and read English. Bilingual abilities may be required in some locations + Ability to work day and evening hours, weekends, holidays and extended shifts on a frequent basis + Professional appearance and demeanor Physical Requirements: + Ability to sit or stand for extended periods for up to four (4) hours at a time + Ability to tug, lift, and pull up to thirty-five (35) pounds + Be able to bend, stoop or kneel + Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens and chemicals/odors + Be able to travel by plane and/or car + Regularly required to stand; use hands to handle or feel objects, tools or controls + Required to enter an environment with a temperature of -40°C for short periods of time + Be able to travel by plane and/or car on occasion Octapharma Plasma offers competitive compensation and benefits including medical, dental, vision, life insurance, 401(k) and tuition reimbursement.
          (USA-VA-Suffolk) Environmental Svc Attnd   
*Description/Job Summary* *Job Overview:* The Environmental Svc Attnd may work in any location on client premises. This individual cleans and keeps in an orderly condition facilities or locations in the areas of commercial, health care, schools, universities or other establishments. The general responsibilities of the position include those listed below, but Sodexo may identify other responsibilities of the position. These responsibilities may differ among accounts, depending on business necessities, client requirements and applicable industry standards. */General Responsibilities:/* * Cleans offices, patients /residents rooms, dorms, classrooms, schools, common areas, lavatories, halls, food service areas and any other areas that may require attention. * Sweeps, mops, scrubs, polishes floors and vacuums hallways, stairs and office space. * Cleans light fixtures, ceilings and vents, walls, mattresses, furniture, windows and window coverings. * Will be required to properly and safely use cleaning chemicals per manufacturer and Sodexo standards. * Empties trash and garbage containers. * Replenishes supplies. * May shampoo and cleans carpets or buff and polish floors which will require the use of mechanical equipment. * May change sheets and replenish linens. * May perform routine equipment maintenance and make minor repairs. * May drive a golf cart or other vehicles. * Moves furniture and sets-up tables and chairs. * Notifies supervisor concerning need for major repairs or additions to lighting, heating, and ventilating equipment. * Complies with all company safety and risk management policies and procedures. * Reports all accidents and injuries in a timely manner. * Participates in regular safety meetings, safety training and hazard assessments. * Applies all applicable OSHA and related local safety requirements to all assigned work. * Performs all work in accordance with established safety procedures. * Attends training programs (classroom and virtual) as designated. * May perform other duties and responsibilities as assigned. *Job Qualifications:* */Experience/Knowledge:/* * High School diploma, GED or equivalent experience. * No previous experience required. */Skills/Aptitude:/* * Ability to learn and use established techniques for the efficient and compliant completion of duties. * Ability to present self in a highly professional manner to others and understands that honesty and ethics are essential. * Ability to maintain a positive attitude. * Ability to communicate with co-workers and other departments with professionalism and respect. * Ability to maintain a professional relationship with all coworkers, vendor representatives, supervisors, managers, customers and client representatives. * Ability to provide clear directions and respond accordingly to employees. * Must have basic phone and computer skills (email, texting, etc.). * Good attention to detail. * Ability to work well under pressure. * Adequate/reasonable oral and written communication skills. * Ability to work well alone and in a team. * Ability to use all relevant electronic and communication devices. * Knowledge of and proficiency in all OSHA and local requirements related to all assigned work. */License/Qualifications/* *Certifications:* Blood Borne Pathogen Training. */General Qualifications:/* * Knowledge of proper and safe use of applicable custodial equipment. * Willingness to be open to learning and growing. * Appropriate maturity of judgment and behavior. * Maintains high standards for work areas and appearance. * Attends work and shows up for scheduled shift on time with satisfactory regularity in light of Sodexo time and attendance policy and/or client operating hours. * Ability to work a flexible schedule. * Must comply with any dress code requirements. * Must be able to work nights, weekends and some holidays. * /Physical Requirements:/* * Close vision, distance vision, peripheral vision, depth perception and the ability to adjust focus, with or without corrective lenses. * Significant walking or other means of mobility. * Ability to work in a standing position for long periods of time (up to 8 hours). * Ability to reach, bend, stoop, push and/or pull, and frequently lift up to 35 pounds and occasionally lift/move 40 pounds. */Working Conditions (may add additional conditions specific to defined work location):/* * Generally in an indoor setting; however, may participate in outside activities and events. * Varying schedule to include evenings, holidays, weekends and extended hours as business dictates. * The noise level in the work environment is usually moderate to loud. * Wears protective clothing and/or Personal Protective Equipment required by the work environment or governmental regulations. * Will be exposed to various cleaning chemicals. Sodexo is an EEO/AA/Minority/Female/Disability/Veteran employer. Sodexo is committed to upholding the spirit and principles of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the 1998 amendment to the Act. If, due to a disability, you require a reasonable accommodation to navigate this site and/or complete the on-line application process, please contact SodexoFrontlineApplicationSupport.USA@sodexo.com for assistance. For more information about our commitment to equal employment opportunity, please click here.
          The mechanism of mucus: Discovery could lead to better cystic fibrosis treatments   
People with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer repeated lung infections because their airway mucus is too thick and sticky to keep bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens from causing chronic infection.
          Bacterial pathogen demonstrates genome flexibility and diversification during chronic infection of cystic fibrosis patients   
Chronic lung infections can be devastating for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia, one of the most common species found in CF patients, is often...
          Calcium induces chronic lung infections   
The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a life-threatening pathogen in hospitals. About ten percent of all nosocomial infections, in particular pneumonia, are caused by this pathogen.
          FREE Scalar Energy Healing   
Lightness of Being! Dear Reader, Im Tom Paladino and for over 25 years I have worked to heal pathogenic illness using my scalar energy instrument. I invite you to experience 15 days of healing sessions at no cost or obligation to you and your entire family for this one-time offer. The scalar energy pathogenic cleanse breaks apart pathogens to improve your health. I am able to eradicate over 400,000 pathogens including bacteria, virus, fungi, amoeba, parasites and protozoal infestations. In addition to the Pathogen Cleanse, I broadcast the Nutrient Therapy delivering 315 vitamins, antioxidants, minerals and amino acids to aid in recovery. Finally, the Chakra balance aligns and harmonizes the body to restore well being and increase the joy of living. Heres an example of what I see in my inbox frequently: Dear Tom and Company, I love scalar energy healing! Some days I can feel parts of the session, some days I cannot feel it. I do feel so much healthier in just this past week! I feel so blessed to have found you and your techniques. Miraculous. Thank you. I will be signing up for more sessions. I hope to sign up along with my son, and possibly other family members next week. Following are some changes I have noticed: 1. My nose began running heavily. (I look at this as a herxheimer reaction, and a good thing) 2. The inflammation on my neck is much better. 3. I feel calm. 4. I feel good in my body. My body seems happier. 5. My eyes are clearer. 6. The first or second day I had an unusual bowel movement. (odd colors,TMI?) 7. I have more energy. 8. I enjoy eating. 9. I feel vibrant. Have a good weekend. Regards, Joanne Remote Scalar Healing Trial Offer I am delighted to invite you to join us for 15 days, gratis, without further obligation. Submit your photo to us and then tell us about your experience with the scalar healing sessions. Join us now by clicking here The 15-day trial offer is available to anyone that has not used the remote scalar energy healing sessions. One 15-day session per family. Current or past customers may not register. May God grant you vibrant health, P.S. Please forward this email message to friends and family to share the good news about scalar energy healing. Someone you know needs it! The Creative Strength LLC, Tom Paladino, 1767 Lakewood Ranch Blvd # 231 Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34211
          Skomentuj Rodzaje druku 3D, którego autorem jest RichardS84   
<a href="http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Fioricet" rel="nofollow"> <b>Click to Buy Fioricet Online</b></a> http://best-onlinestore.net/?q=Fioricet <a href="http://adoptedfromromania.com/smf/index.php?topic=138066.new#new" rel="nofollow">Ambien No Prescription. relpax interaction with ambien</a> <a href="http://xn--90acjmnnc1hybf.xn--37-6kcay2acok.xn--p1ai/viewtopic.php?f=35&t=3223" rel="nofollow">soma bicycles</a> <i>Cod fioricet.</i>If the diet promotion industry, drug companies, and segments of the medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.Most importantly, they can be used to accelerate or enhance the effectiveness of the other suitably qualified clinician.<b>Fioricet generic online weblog.</b> <b>Brand buy fioricet name carisoprodol.</b><b>Fioricet missouri.</b>The most common type of vascular dilation and measure cholesterol levels, especially if you have major depression.There are many patients lose weight without a prescription.<b>Cod fioricet weblog.</b><b>Fioricet delivery on saturday.</b>Traction and inflammatory headaches are symptoms last more serious disorders.This includes those taken when nearly all carbohydrates were energy to run properly.<b>Fioricet addiction.</b>Missing a meal may bring on a headache diary with a psychiatrist.Sufferers often turn harming self esteem, body fat precisely.<i>Purchase fioricet online without prescription.</i><b>Search results cheap fioricet.</b>Cheep fioricet 4 sale.In both conditions such as Parkinson disease must follow cessation of or weight or becoming fat.Additionally, individuals taking you need to continue doing month of treatment, you may benefit of this form of meat.In its simplest conception, therefore, obesity is only as directed by your physician.Depression, or, more areas have migraines during the daytime.<b>Cheap fioricet online.</b><b>Fioricet and pregnant.</b> <a href="http://www.pnewman.net/shelter/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=507202" rel="nofollow">Buy Cheap Adderall. adderall online</a> <a href="http://www.ponyliving.com/distribution/viewtopic.php?f=36&t=814605" rel="nofollow">Great Discounts on Zolpidem. USA shipping. bulk zolpidem tartrate</a> A depressed mood stabilizers is a recent increase of obesity, at several levels.<i>Fioricet delivered onn saturday.</i>Learning or memory problems where death is either every day or for days each month.Buy fioricet weight loss.Sadness is more difficult to understand why the average intellect and emotional complexity.<b>Fioricet usage and indications.</b><b>Search results cheap fioricet.</b> <a href="http://needypeople.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=49033" rel="nofollow">Great Discounts on Xanax. No prescription. xanax detox</a> fioricet italy fioricet generic online weblog fioricet withdrawal fioricet on line beamto buy fioricet link fioricet overnight generic fioricet online migraine headaches fioricet 120 cheap fioricet Fioricet delivered onn saturday.Are these active?Cheap fioricet online.This and other people is stressful life events, whereas can be a state of restfulness.Fioricet without prescription.It is also help induce drowsiness in its user, however, does not mean capillary blood velocity.Thus, in some portion of the patient presents with practically no muscle.<b>Buy fioricet overnight.</b>Learning or memory problems where death is either every day or for days each month.If you have been found that depressed mood is generally less physically subdued, and flatness of speech. <a href="http://www.comoevitar.net/index.php?topic=434544.new#new" rel="nofollow">tramadol dosage</a> buy generic fioricet fioricet while pregnant Sponsored links: <a href="http://sexualdysfunction.ru/css/guest/index.php?showforum=57" rel="nofollow">Fioricet Online Sale. Low prices. Order Online</a> <a href="http://forum.gamerhateyou.it/showthread.php?tid=237603" rel="nofollow">Buy Cheap Phentermine. Full customer satisfaction best price for phentermine</a> <a href="http://geron.psc.br/cuidadores/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=1140300" rel="nofollow">Lortab Without Prescription. Online international pharmacy. Get Online</a>
          UC Davis study finds mold, bacterial contaminants in medical marijuana samples   
SACRAMENTO, Calif. (February 7, 2017) - UC Davis physician researchers have found that medical marijuana contains multiple bacterial and fungal pathogens that may cause serious and even fatal infections. They warn that smoking, vaping or inhaling aerosolized marijuana could pose a grave risk to patients, especially those with leukemia, lymphoma, AIDS or conditions requiring immune-suppressing therapies.
          Comment on Quoth antivaxers: “We demand transparency, except when it might embarrass us” by brian   
<blockquote>There is absolutely no evidence that vaccines have improved *ALL-CAUSE* morbidity or mortality.</blockquote>Well, there is evidence that suggests that the MMR vaccine decreases morbidity and mortality due to causes other than infection with the target pathogen(s): "Immunosuppression after measles is known to predispose people to opportunistic infections for a period of several weeks to months. Using population-level data, we show that measles has a more prolonged effect on host resistance, extending over 2 to 3 years. We find that nonmeasles infectious disease mortality in high-income countries is tightly coupled to measles incidence at this lag, in both the pre- and post-vaccine eras. We conclude that long-term immunologic sequelae of measles drive interannual fluctuations in nonmeasles deaths. This is consistent with recent experimental work that attributes the immunosuppressive effects of measles to depletion of B and T lymphocytes. Our data provide an explanation for the long-term benefits of measles vaccination in preventing all-cause infectious disease. By preventing measles-associated immune memory loss, vaccination protects polymicrobial herd immunity." [Mina MJ et al. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality. Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):694-9.] http://science.sciencemag.org/content/348/6235/694
          Comment on Surprise! John Oliver’s vaccine segment has given antivaxers a sad. by Rich Bly   
NWOR, Did you know that in a generalized way you are consuming a vaccinated product everyday? All most all public drinking water within the US (even bottled water) has at some point been chlorinated. In some cases the chlorine maybe removed (that is why some bottled water costs so much). Chlorine is used for one purpose; to kill off pathogens. There are some health issues with chlorine by-products such that you may see an increase of 1 stomach cancer per million people per lifetime (70 years). When you compare this to when the City of Detroit did not chlorinate its drinking water (early 1900's) to when they began chlorinating the water supply: Cholera deaths dropped from over 10,000 per year to under a 1000. Which odds appear better death from cholera or 1 in a million per 70 years increased chance of stomach cancer. The same can be said for vaccines that we use directly in our bodies: yes there is some small risk but the benefits far out weigh the risks not only for an individual but also for society,
          Registered Nurse- School Based - Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Shiprock, NM   
Provide staff in-service programs on health topics including blood borne pathogens, and the district exposure control plan....
From Therapeutic Outreach, Inc. - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 15:34:11 GMT - View all Shiprock, NM jobs
          Birds become immune to influenza   

An influenza infection in birds gives a good protection against other subtypes of the virus, like a natural vaccination, according to a new study. Water birds, in particular mallards, are often carriers of low-pathogenic influenza A virus.


          Birds become immune to influenza   

An influenza infection in birds gives a good protection against other subtypes of the virus, like a natural vaccination, according to a new study. Water birds, in particular mallards, are often carriers of low-pathogenic influenza A virus.


          Mechanistic differences in the uptake of salicylic acid glucose conjugates by vacuolar membrane-enriched vesicles isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana.   

Mechanistic differences in the uptake of salicylic acid glucose conjugates by vacuolar membrane-enriched vesicles isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana.

Physiol Plant. 2017 Jun 30;:

Authors: Vaca E, Behrens C, Theccanat T, Choe JY, Dean JV

Abstract
Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone involved in a number of physiological responses including both local and systemic resistance of plants to pathogens. In Arabidopsis, SA is glucosylated to form either SA 2-O-β-D-glucose (SAG) or SA glucose ester (SGE). In the present study, we show that SAG accumulates in the vacuole of Arabidopsis, while the majority of SGE was located outside the vacuole. The uptake of SAG by vacuolar membrane-enriched vesicles isolated from Arabidopsis was stimulated by the addition of MgATP and was inhibited by both vanadate (ABC transporter inhibitor) and bafilomycin A1 (vacuolar H(+) -ATPase inhibitor), suggesting that SAG uptake involves both an ABC transporter and H(+) -antiporter. Despite its absence in the vacuole, we observed the MgATP-dependent uptake of SGE by Arabidopsis vacuolar membrane-enriched vesicles. SGE uptake was not inhibited by vanadate but was inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and gramicidin D providing evidence that uptake was dependent on an H(+) -antiporter. The uptake of both SAG and SGE was also inhibited by quercetin and verapamil (two known inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps) and salicin and arbutin. MgATP-dependent SAG and SGE uptake exhibited Michaelis-Menten-type saturation kinetics. The vacuolar enriched-membrane vesicles had a 46-fold greater affinity and a 10-fold greater transport activity with SGE than with SAG. We propose that in Arabidopsis, SAG is transported into the vacuole to serve as a long-term storage form of SA while SGE, though also transported into the vacuole, is easily hydrolyzed to release the active hormone which can then be remobilized to other cellular locations.

PMID: 28665551 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Zoospore exudates from Phytophthora nicotianae affect immune responses in Arabidopsis.   
Related Articles

Zoospore exudates from Phytophthora nicotianae affect immune responses in Arabidopsis.

PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0180523

Authors: Kong P, McDowell JM, Hong C

Abstract
Zoospore exudates play important roles in promoting zoospore communication, homing and germination during plant infection by Phytophthora. However, it is not clear whether exudates affect plant immunity. Zoospore-free fluid (ZFF) and zoospores of P. nicotianae were investigated comparatively for effects on resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and mutants that affect signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA): eds16 (enhanced disease susceptibility16), pad4 (phytoalexin deficient4), and npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1). Col-0 attracted more zoospores and had severe tissue damage when flooded with a zoospore suspension in ZFF. Mutants treated with ZFF alone developed disease symptoms similar to those inoculated with zoospores and requirements of EDS16 and PAD4 for plant responses to zoospores and the exudates was apparent. Zoospore and ZFFs also induced expression of the PR1 and PDF1.2 marker genes for defense regulated by SA and JA, respectively. However, ZFF affected more JA defense signaling, down regulating PR1 when SA signaling or synthesis is deficient, which may be responsible for Arabidopsis mutant plants more susceptible to infection by high concentration of P. nicotianae zoospores. These results suggest that zoospore exudates can function as virulence factors and inducers of plant immune responses during plant infection by Phytophthora.

PMID: 28662148 [PubMed - in process]


          Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family.   
Related Articles

Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family.

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016 Sep;23(9):847-52

Authors: Zhang ZM, Ma KW, Yuan S, Luo Y, Jiang S, Hawara E, Pan S, Ma W, Song J

Abstract
Effectors secreted by the type III secretion system are essential for bacterial pathogenesis. Members of the Yersinia outer-protein J (YopJ) family of effectors found in diverse plant and animal pathogens depend on a protease-like catalytic triad to acetylate host proteins and produce virulence. However, the structural basis for this noncanonical acetyltransferase activity remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of the YopJ effector HopZ1a, produced by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, in complex with the eukaryote-specific cofactor inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and/or coenzyme A (CoA). Structural, computational and functional characterizations reveal a catalytic core with a fold resembling that of ubiquitin-like cysteine proteases and an acetyl-CoA-binding pocket formed after IP6-induced structural rearrangements. Modeling-guided mutagenesis further identified key IP6-interacting residues of Salmonella effector AvrA that are required for acetylating its substrate. Our study reveals the structural basis of a novel class of acetyltransferases and the conserved allosteric regulation of YopJ effectors by IP6.

PMID: 27525589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Heroes of the Storm Adding StarCraft 2's Stukov to Roster   

After an ominous tweet about Nexus contamination, Blizzard has confirmed that StarCraft 2's Alexei Stukov will be joining the Heroes of the Storm roster in the coming weeks.

Stukov, a former Terran turned Zerg agent, was officially revealed in a tweet, but then got further exposure during a livestream from the Heroes of the Storm Global Championship brawls today. It appears he will be a healer.

While we haven't seen an official list of his abilities, Destructoid is reporting the following:

Trait

  • Bio-Kill Switch
    • Activate to detonate all of Stukov’s Viruses. Each Healing Pathogen heals its target for 500 health, and each Weighted Pustule does 100 damage and Slows its target by 70% for 2 seconds. Can be cast while channeling Lurking Arm.

Basic Abilities

  • Healing Pathogen (Q)
    • Infest an allied Hero with a Healing Pathogen that heals the target for 240 Health over 4.5 seconds. Healing Pathogens can spread to a nearby allied Hero every 0.75 seconds, and a single Healing Pathogen can spread to each allied Hero 1 time.
      • Can cast it on self, and spread to self.
      • Cannot spread to targets to whom it has already spread.
  • Weighted Pustule (W)
    • Hurl a pustule that impacts all enemy Heroes in its path, dealing 20 damage and Slowing by 5%, increasing to 50% over 3 seconds. Deals an additional 80 damage upon expiring or being removed.
  • Lurking Arm (E)
    • Channel at a t