Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic    
Article Berge, J. , Daase, M. , Renaud, P. E. , Ambrose, W. G. , Darnis, G. , Last, K. S. , Leu, E. , Cohen, J. H. , Johnsen, G. , Moline, M. A. , Cottier, F. , Varpe, Ø. , Shunatova, N. , Bałazy, P. , Morata, N. , Massabuau, J. C. , Falk-Petersen, S. , Kosobokova, K. , Hoppe, C. J. M. , Węsławski, J. M. , Kukliński, P. , Legeżyńska, J. , Nikishina, D. , Cusa, M. , Kędra, M. , Włodarska-Kowalczuk, M. , Vogedes, D. , Camus, L. , Tran, D. , Michaud, E. , Gabrielsen, T. M. , Granovitch, A. , Gonchar, A. , Krapp, R. and Callesen, T. A. (2015) Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic , Current Biology, 25 (19), pp. 2555-2561 . doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.024 , hdl:10013/epic.46295
          Glenn Loury & Bret Weinstein   
Bret’s work in evolutionary biology ... Bret’s inside take on the turmoil at Evergreen State College ... Attempts to limit faculty autonomy at Evergreen ... The problem of self-censorship ... Bret explains why he went on Tucker Carlson’s show ... The clash with the “Patriot Prayer” group at Evergreen ... How protestors targeted Bret ...
          크래미디어문   

크래미디어문

크래미디어문(Chlamydiae)이란, 그램 음성 세균이다.협의로는 척추동물을 주로 여관 주인으로 하는 크래미디어과등의 「병원성 크래미디어」를 크래미디어라고 부르지만(최협의로는 크래미디어속만), 광의로는 파라크라미지아과등의 아메바를 주된 여관 주인으로 하는 「환경 크래미디어」를 포함한 크래미디어문전체를 크래미디어라고 부르는 일이 있다.

크래미디어문
ChlamydiaTrachomatisEinschlusskorperchen.jpg
분류
드메

: 진정 세균 Bacteria
: 크래미디어문Chlamydiae
학명
"Chlamydiae" Garrity and Holt 2012
하위 분류(밧줄)
  • 크래미디어밧줄
    • 크래미디어눈

주로 척추동물아메바등의 원생 생물을 여관 주인으로 하는 세포내 기생 생물이다.ATP/ADP 트란스로카제등의 각종 수송체를 가지고 있어 여관 주인으로부터 에너지나 영양을 취득해 생육하고 있다.이 때문에 세포외에서는 완전히 증식 하지 못하고, 환경안으로는 감염성이 있는 기본 작은 몸의 형태를 취한다.의학적으로 중요한 세균군이지만, 인공 배양지에서 배양할 수 없기 때문에 배양은 배양 세포나 계란을 사용할 필요가 있어, 연구가 어려운 그룹이다.

프란크트미케스문 등에 근친으로, 똑같이 페프치드그리칸을 결손해, FtsZ를 가지고 있지 않다.PVC군에게 들어간다고 보여지고 있다.

참고 문헌

  • Gupta RS, Bhandari V and Naushad HS (2012) Molecular signatures for the PVC clade (Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Lentisphaerae) of bacteria provide insights into their evolutionary relationships. Frontiers in evolutionary and genomic microbiology.
  • [1]

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           Selflessness is sexy : reported helping behaviour increases desirability of men and women as long-term sexual partners    
Moore, David, Wigby, Stuart, English, Sinead, Wong, Sonny, Székely, Tamás and Harrison, Freya. (2013) Selflessness is sexy : reported helping behaviour increases desirability of men and women as long-term sexual partners. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13 (1). 182. ISSN 1471-2148
           ThermoPhyl : a software tool for selecting phylogenetically optimized conventional and quantitative-PCR taxon-targeted assays for use with complex samples    
Oakley, Brian B., Dowd, Scot E. and Purdy, Kevin J.. (2011) ThermoPhyl : a software tool for selecting phylogenetically optimized conventional and quantitative-PCR taxon-targeted assays for use with complex samples. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Vol.77 (No.1). pp. 17-27. ISSN 1574-6941
          Global Synthetic Biology Market (Products, Technologies, Applications and Geography) - Reports and Intelligence   

Global Synthetic Biology Market (Products, Technologies, Applications and Geography) - Size, Share, Global Trends, Company Profiles, Demand, Insights, Analysis, Research, Report, Opportunities, Segmentation and Forecast, 2013 - 2020

Portland, OR -- (ReleaseWire) -- 09/03/2014 -- Synthetic biology is a novel field that finds its origin at the intersection of biology and engineering. It's a multidisciplinary effort made by scientists to understand the functioning of biological organisms, cells & genes and implementation of artificial genetic processes to give specific characteristics to an organism. It can even be used to develop a completely new biological system. Global synthetic biology market was valued at $3.0 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach $38.7 billion by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 44.2% during the forecast period.

Get full report at: http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/synthetic-biology-market

Synthetic Biology Technology market is segmented into enabling technology and enabled technology. Synthetic Biology Enabling technologies segment is growing at a faster rate, and growing at a CAGR of 48.6% during the forecast period.

Synthetic Biology Application market is segmented into research & development, chemicals, agriculture, pharmaceuticals & diagnostics, biofuels and others (biotechnology and biomaterials). Biofuels is the fastest growing segment at a CAGR of 85.2% during the forecast period.

Request for Sample Report at: http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/request-sample/18079

Synthetic Biology product market is segmented into enabling products, enabled products and core products. Enabling product is the fastest growing segment at a CAGR of 53.7% during the forecast period.

Assistance from government and private organizations, rising number of entities conducting research and declining cost of DNA sequencing and synthesizing are key driving factors of the market. Governments are providing funds to research organizations, assisting them to find novel applications of synthetic biology. Bio-safety & bio-security issues, ethical issues and regulations are key retraining factors of the market. The fact that synthetic biology can be misused has raised concerns all around the world. Further, there are possibilities of accidental release of pathogens or genetically modified organisms into free atmosphere.

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          UVM Faculty Win $300,000 NSF Grant to Explore “Making” of a Bio Major   
What can universities learn from the maker movement about teaching biology to undergraduate students? Can the world of making help universities get more creative students excited about careers in biology? The National Science Foundation has awarded a $300,000 grant to a team of faculty at the University of Vermont to find out.
          Hemp, Inc. to Expand The Hemp University After Its 3rd Successful Symposium   

SPRING HOPE, NC--(Marketwired - Jun 29, 2017) - Hemp, Inc. (OTC PINK: HEMP) is pleased to announce the huge success of its 3rd Hemp University educational symposium held this past weekend which focused on The Art and Science of CBD Greenhouse Growing. The educational symposium was held at Louisburg College in Louisburg, North Carolina. A team of experts engaged attendees through the greenhouse and indoor growing process from cultivation to harvest and from processing to distribution. Dr. Robert Bruck, Dean of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics and Distinguished Professor of Environmental Science at Louisburg College, was The Hemp University's special guest who lectured on soil microbiology during the symposium. Attendees were able to spend half of the course at Hemp, Inc.'s 70,000 square-foot Industrial Hemp Hub, in a 3,000 square-foot cloning room. There, attendees had the opportunity to experience a more hands-on learning approach.

          QC Microbiology Associate   
TX-Austin, Job Title: QC Microbiology Specialist Department: Quality Control General Purpose of Job:The primary role of the QC Microbiology Specialist is to provide microbiology laboratory support of clinical and commercial biopharmaceutical manufacturing operations, including sterility assurance, bioburden testing, environmental and personnel monitoring, clean utilities sampling/testing, media qualification
          Veative Launches Educational VR Headset with Interactive Controller   
VR Learn currently offers more than 500 content modules in biology, chemistry, physics and math. The company expects to bring the number of available modules to 700 by mid-2017 and 1,100 by the end of the year.
          This interactive woven canopy at MoMA PS1 changes colors as the sun sets   
Designed by Jenny Sabin Studio and debuting to the public June 29, Lumen is the winner of The Museum of Modern Arts and MoMA PS1’s 18th edition of the Young Architects Program and will serve as the setting for the 20th season of the Warm Up outdoor concert series this summer. The project integrates various disciplines, including biology, materials science, mathematics, engineering and design, to produce an artistic micro-climate that is both environmentally responsive and beautiful. RELATED:...
          IITK Molecular Cell Biology Project Scientist Openings    

          IISR Kozhikode Molecular Biology/Bioinformatics Project Walk INs    

          Secretary - Biology - Denton, TX   
Performs clerical duties in a variety of University settings. Schedules appointments and assists students, faculty, staff, or the general public with department... $2,155 a month
From Texas Woman's University - Thu, 04 May 2017 22:46:11 GMT - View all Denton, TX jobs
          Author George J. Holland, PhD’s New Book “Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Quality Aging” Examines the Biology of Aging and Prevention of Chronic Lifestyle Diseases   

Recent release “Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Quality Aging” from Page Publishing author George J. Holland, Phd is a comprehensive presentation of the effects of diet, exercise, tobacco, and alcohol on changes in the body during the aging process. The book finally integrates all the major concepts regarding the physiology of aging and the latest applications of nutritional and physical activity interventions to assist readers in planning for an enduring and qualitative life journey.

(PRWeb July 06, 2017)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2017/07/prweb14475120.htm


          Science and Technology Analyst   
OH-Columbus, Job Description Headway Workforce Solutions is currently seeking a Science and Technology Analyst for a 3 to 6 month contract opportunity in Columbus, OH with our partner, one of the nation's largest producers and transporters of energy. Our client’s Applied Genomics and Biology Business Line is currently seeking a Science and Technology Contractor to provide support involving the evaluation and a
          Chemists discover biology’s version of the Friedel-Crafts alkylation   
Newly detected enzyme alkylates aromatic rings during biosynthesis of cylindrocyclophanes

          Research Associate - University of British Columbia - Okanagan, BC   
The Soil Microbial Ecology group within the Department of Biology, at the University of British Columbia's Okanagan campus, invites applications for a Research...
From University of British Columbia - Tue, 20 Jun 2017 12:51:32 GMT - View all Okanagan, BC jobs
          Excavations unearth a new narrative to Megalithic era    
The recent discoveries by the Department of Archaeology and Museums after the Megalithic excavations in Jangaon and Siddipet districts in Telangana will provide a unique and new dimension to the narrative of that period in the state.
Two simultaneous excavations started in March this year - Narmetta in Jangaon and Palamakula in Siddipet - are not just rare but also have several ‘firsts’ to the department’s credit. The excavation from the Megalithic period - 1500 BC to 500 AD - throw light on the artistic and aesthetic sense of that era. The excavation in Narmetta, that is widely popular for the Kolanupaka temple, a religious destination of the Jains, led to the finding of what is being considered as the biggest capstone ever discovered in South India, according to the Department officials. “It is the biggest and also unique as it was arranged in an anthropomorphic manner where only the body weighs 42 tonnes. Another piece of the capstone is in the form of a human head. This is the first time in the Department’s history that we have unearthed something like this,” informed NR Visalatchy, director.
This apart, over 22 stone pieces, the highest till date, which are predicted to have been dismantled from a neck piece, were also excavated. The consistency of these diamond-shaped pieces in their precise and uniform cutting points to the artistic sense of people of that era, said the director. Fire stands, uniquely heavy bottomed and with holes to let out smoke, were also discovered at Narmetta.
Meanwhile, the discovery of a cist grave, made out of four stone slabs, with another cist within, at Palamakula village reiterates the belief of life after death of the Megalithic people.
Bones and a human skull were found buried in it.  “The careful arrangement of a cist within a cist and bone remnants is also a first time discovery and it signifies that extra care was taken in case of the burial,” pointed the director.
Pre-mended pottery, where broken pots stuck together with some kind of adhesive and buried back again, were also excavated. While all of these belong to the Megalithic period, the Department has sent samples for scientific dating to the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology.

          40th Internatonal Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society   
Describes the above-named upcoming conference event. May include topics to be covered or calls for papers.
          Exosomes as way to make 'personalized medicine' easier and more precise   
image description
Today, doctors can tailor a drug therapy to your unique genetic profile, giving you the full benefits of a drug while reducing unwanted side effects -- all in harmony with the blueprints of your biology. But problems remain in the push toward "individualized medicine." For instance, genetics alone d...
          As if we needed more reasons   


          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Quality Control Technician - Chemistry   
**Job Description** **Company Information** **About Us** Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (NYSE: TMO) is the world leader in serving science, with revenues of $18 billion and approximately 57,000 employees in 50 countries. Our mission is to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. We help our customers accelerate life sciences research, solve complex analytical challenges, improve patient diagnostics and increase laboratory productivity. Through our premier brands – Thermo Scientific, Applied Biosystems, Invitrogen, Fisher Scientific and Unity Lab Services – we offer an unmatched combination of innovative technologies, purchasing convenience and comprehensive support. All of our employees share a common set of values - Integrity, Intensity, Innovation and Involvement. Our ability to grow year after year is driven by our ability to attract, develop and retain world-class people who will thrive in our environment and share in our desire to improve mankind by enabling our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. If you share in our values and if you're looking for an employer who is strongly committed to developing talent and rewarding achievement, come grow with us at Thermo Fisher Scientific. **Division Summary:** The Anatomical Pathology Division (APD) provides laboratories with the broadest portfolio of instrument and consumable solutions, from specimen collection and grossing to advanced staining and cover slipping. The Division generates $400MM in annual revenue and has 1,500 employees in 13 countries. The anatomical pathology product line includes Richard Allan Scientific, Erie Scientific, Microm, Shandon, and Lab Vision. **Position Summary:** The Lead Quality Control Chemistry Technician will assist in laboratory work for testing of raw materials, in-process samples (bulks / batches) and finished goods. The Lead QC Chemistry Technician will test samples using gas-chromatography (GC), UV-VIS spectrophotometry (UV-VIS), pH, Karl-Fisher titration, standard titration, and other analytical methods. The QC Chemistry Technician must document results with accuracy in electronic databases and in paper records. The Lead QC Chemistry Technician should be familiar with cGLP / cGMP / cGDP. He / she will partner with colleagues in the laboratory and in manufacturing to optimize production and to troubleshoot quality concerns. **Key Responsibilities:** + Follow site Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Work Instructions (WI) + Analyze chemical raw material samples. + Analyze chemical bulk solution and finished goods samples for product release. + Maintain laboratory records (data integrity). + Maintain laboratory instruments. + Ability to work overtime and weekends to support manufacturing + Responsible for contributing to the continual quality & reliability improvement of APD products and services. + Ensuring policies, procedures and practices are in compliance with global quality & regulatory requirements and meet the needs of our customers & Quality Policy. + Responsible for performing tasks to support the quality system and quality policy as directed by QA/RA management. **Minimum Requirements/Qualifications:** + Bachelor’s Degree in a science related field (i.e. chemistry or biology) + Experience in an analytical chemistry laboratory preferred + Excellent communication and attention to detail + Ability to work independently and as part of a team, self-motivation, adaptability and a positive attitude + Must demonstrate strong organizational skills and be able to handle multiple assignments simultaneously + Must be willing to work with and around hazardous chemicals. + Must possess strong organizational skills. + Experience of working with FDA regulated products desired (Medical Device/IVD preferred) (pharmaceutical, dietary supplement or food experience is acceptable). + Knowledge of ISO13485 / FDA QSR 21 CFR Part 820 / 803 requirements preferred, 21 CFR Part 110, 111 or 211 is acceptable. + Excellent interpersonal skills + Excellent communication skills both written & oral + Excellent computer skills, particularly spreadsheets/graphical software tools (e.g. Excel) + Less than 5% travel (US & International) **Non-Negotiable Hiring Criteria:** + Bachelor’s Degree in a science related field (i.e. chemistry or biology) + Minimum 1 year of experience working in a laboratory setting Thermo Fisher Scientific is an EEO/Affirmative Action Employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, protected veteran status, disability or any other legally protected status.
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Senior Scientist   
Zoetis Veterinary Medicine Research and Development (VMRD) seek an enthusiastic colleague for a challenging and fast-paced position in research and development of veterinary medicines in Kalamazoo, Michigan. As an integral member of research and development project teams, the candidate will design and implement RD programs to demonstrate formulation performance and analyte stability in Type B and C medicated articles. The candidate will collaborate extensively with analytical, formulation, clinical, and regulatory scientists as part of a multidisciplinary team. Responsibilities include: * Developing study designs and protocols for feed mixing and stability studies. * Placing studies and monitoring feed manufacture and sampling at feed mills, Contract Research Organizations (CROs), and other sites. * Coordinating logistics and communication for multisite studies (feed, analytical, statistics, etc.). * In partnership with analytical scientists, transferring feed assays to Contract Research Organizations. Actively monitor quality and progress through the final data reporting stage. * Writing or contributing to study reports and regulatory submissions. * Rapid response to regulatory, manufacturing, and product support queries (globally). * Opportunity for participation in industry working groups. * Occasional travel: ca 15% depending upon nature and stage of project work. Minimum skills, education, attributes: * BS, MS, or PhD/DVM in animal science, animal nutrition, chemistry, biochemistry, biology, pharmacyharmaceutics, or a related field. * At least 3 years of post-graduate experience (PhD/DVM) or 10 years of experience (BS or MS), preferably in the veterinary pharmaceutical or agricultural/food industry. * Demonstrated skill in scientific writing (protocols, reports, journal articles) and presenting data and study summaries to project and leadership teams. * Excellent organizational and communication abilities (verbal and written English). * Ability to work in a collaborative and dynamic team environment in a global company. * Other attributes/competencies: passion for problem solving, judgment, flexibility, perseverance, planning, and adaptability. Desirable skills, education, attributes: * General understanding of manufacturing practices and facilities used by feed mills for medicated feeds. * Familiar in principle with methods for analyzing drug levels in animal feeds. * Experience in collecting representative samples from different feed matrices. * Knowledge of requirements (VICH and country/regional/state) for development of veterinary pharmaceuticals. * Experience in writing or contributing to technical sections/dossiers for regulatory submissions. Full time Regular Colleague Zoetis is committed to equal opportunity in the terms and conditions of employment for all employees and job applicants without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, age, gender identity or gender expression, national ori
          Adjunct Instructor, Instructional Faculty   
TN-Cumberland Gap, Instructional Faculty, Adjunct Instructor of Biology Lincoln Memorial University (LMU) invites applications for the position of Instructional Faculty, Adjunct Instructor of Biology. The Adjunct Instructor of Biology reports directly to the Department of Biology Chair. This person is responsible to teach General Biology and Introductory Biology Laboratories for qualified undergraduate students at t
          (USA-MI-Kalamazoo) Laboratory Technician 2   
A career at Pfizer offers opportunity, ownership and impact.All over the world, Pfizer colleagues work together to positively impact health for everyone, everywhere. Our colleagues have the opportunity to grow and develop a career that offers both individual and company success; be part of an ownership culture that values diversity and where all colleagues are energized and engaged; and the ability to impact the health and lives of millions of people. Pfizer, a global leader in the biopharmaceutical industry, is continuously seeking top talent who are inspired by our purpose to innovate to bring therapies to patients that significantly improve their lives.Pfizer is committed to equal opportunity in the terms and conditions of employment for all employees and job applicants without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, age, gender identity or gender expression, national origin, disability or veteran status. Pfizer also complies with all applicable national, state and local laws governing nondiscrimination in employment as well as work authorization and employment eligibility verification requirements of the Immigration and Nationality Act and IRCA.Pfizer is an E-Verify employer.Colleagues who are issued an Incident Final Warning (IFW) on or after January 1, 2016, are not eligible to post and compete for a position for a period of 12-months from the date an IFW is issued.Using standardized testing procedures, the candidate will conduct a variety of microbiological analyses on finished products and/or raw materials. The tests and assays are performed as a function of a high output microbiological testing laboratory. In addition to performance of routine testing, the candidate will assist in the overall operation of the laboratory including: development of standard operating procedures, stocking and ordering of laboratory supplies, routine maintenance of equipment and overall lab upkeep. Microbiological testing of blood/blood products may also be performed periodically. Primarily First Shift: 7:00am - 3:30pm. Weekend, Holiday, and Overtime hours may be required in order to meet business and/or customer needs.Execution of microbiological release testing on in-coming materials and finished product dosage forms using approved test plans. Recognizes atypical results and notifies management appropriately. Can troubleshoot issues independently.Scheduling of daily laboratory activities.Entry, review, and approval of data in LIMS system.Has basic understanding of equipment ; facilitates timely laboratory maintenance.Ordering and maintenance of laboratory supplies.May participate on interdepartmental teams, projects, and initiatives.Good oral, written and interpersonal communication skills are required. Basic computer skills such as data entry with a high level of attention to detail are also required. The successful candidate will also posess a demonstrated ability to organize time independently, be able to perform several tasks concurrently (ability to multi-task), and be able to meet objectives in a flexible, team-oriented environment. Preferred candidate would have previous laboratory experience, including a basic understanding of microbiology and aseptic technique.High school diploma (or equivalent) required. BS in Microbiology, Bacteriology, Immunology, or related specialized biological sciences preferred.Preferred candidate has 1 - 3 years experience in a GLP/GMP laboratory environment. PHYSICAL/MENTAL REQUIREMENTS Long periods of standing and working in glove ports/half-suit of an isolator may be needed. Occasional lifting (less than 35 lbs.), and reaching may be required. Extended time working at a computer terminal, as well as periodic weekend work, is also required. NON-STANDARD WORK SCHEDULE, TRAVEL OR ENVIRONMENT REQUIREMENTS Weekend, Holiday, and Overtime hours may be required in order to meet business and/or customer needs.A career at Pfizer offers opportunity, ow
          Top 10 discoveries about waves    

Gravitational radiation reminds science of its debts to the physics of waves

Context
surfer on a wave

CATCH A WAVE Physicists are the surfers of science, with a long history of fascination with waves.

Physics fans are a lot like surfers. Both think waves are really fun.

For surfers, it’s all about having a good time. For physicists, it’s about understanding some of nature’s most important physical phenomena. Yet another detection of gravitational waves, announced June 1, further reinvigorates the world’s science fans’ excitement over waves.

Waves have naturally always been a topic of scientific and mathematical interest. They play a part in an enormous range of physical processes, from heat and light to radio and TV, sonograms and music, earthquakes and holograms. (Waves used to even be a common sight in baseball stadiums, but fans got tired of standing up and down and it was really annoying anyway.)

Many of science’s greatest achievements have been discoveries of new kinds of waves or new insights into wave motion. Identifying just the Top 10 such discoveries (or ideas) is therefore difficult and bound to elicit critical comments from cult members of particular secret wave societies. So remember, if your favorite wave isn’t on this list, it would have been No. 11.

10.  Thomas Young: Light is a wave.

In the opening years of the 19th century, the English physician Young tackled a long-running controversy about the nature of light. A century earlier, Isaac Newton had argued forcibly for the view that light consisted of (very small) particles. Newton’s contemporary Christiaan Huygens strongly disagreed, insisting that light traveled through space as a wave.

Through a series of clever experiments, Young demonstrated strong evidence for waves. Poking two tiny holes in a thick sheet of paper, Young saw that light passing through created alternating bands of light and darkness on a surface placed on the other side of the paper. That was just as expected if light passing through the two holes interfered just as water waves do, canceling out when crest met trough or enhancing when crests met “in phase.” Young did not work out his wave theory with mathematical rigor and so Newton’s defenders resisted, attempting to explain away Young’s results.

But soon Augustin Jean Fresnel in France worked out the math of light waves in detail. And in 1850, when Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault showed that light travels faster in air than water, the staunchest Newton fans had to capitulate. Newton himself would have acknowledged that light must therefore consist of waves. (Much later, though, Einstein found a way that light could in fact consist of particles, which came to be called photons.)

9. Michelson and Morley: Light waves don’t vibrate anything.

Waves are vibrations, implying the need for something to vibrate. Sound vibrated molecules in the air, for instance, and ocean waves vibrated molecules of water. Light, supposedly, vibrated an invisible substance called the ether.

In 1887, Albert A. Michelson and his collaborator Edward Morley devised an experiment to detect that ether. Earth’s motion through the ether should have meant that light’s velocity would depend on its direction. (Traveling with the Earth’s motion, light’s speed wouldn’t be the same as traveling at right angles to the direction of motion.) Michelson and Morley figured they could detect that difference by exploiting the interference phenomena discovered by Young. But their apparatus failed to find any ether effect. They thought their experiment was flawed. But later Einstein figured out there actually wasn’t any ether.

8. James Clerk Maxwell: Light is an electromagnetic wave.

Maxwell died in 1879, the year Einstein was born, and so did not know there wasn’t an ether. He did figure out, though, that both electricity and magnetism could be explained by stresses in some such medium.

Electric and magnetic charges in the ether ought to generate disturbances in the form of waves, Maxwell realized. Based on the strengths of those forces he calculated that the waves would travel at the fantastic speed of 310 million meters per second, suspiciously close to the best recent measurements of the speed of light (those measurements ranged from 298 million to 315 million meters per second). So Maxwell, without the benefit of ever having watched NCIS on TV, then invoked Gibbs’ Rule 39 (there’s no such thing as a coincidence) and concluded that light was an example of an electromagnetic wave.

“It seems we have strong reason to conclude that light itself (including radiant heat, and other radiations if any) is an electromagnetic disturbance in the form of waves propagated through the electromagnetic field,” he wrote in 1864. His “other radiations, if any” turned out to be an entire spectrum of all sorts of cool waves, from gamma radiation to radio signals.

7. Heinrich Hertz: Radio waves.

Not very many people took Maxwell seriously at first. A few, though, known as the Maxwellians, promoted his ideas. One physicist who had faith in Maxwell, or at least in his equations, was Hertz, who performed experiments in his lab in Karlsruhe, Germany, that successfully produced and detected radio waves, eventually to be exploited by propagandists to spread a lot of illogical nonsense on talk radio.

His success inspired much more respect for the equations in Maxwell’s theory, which Hertz found almost magical: “It is impossible to study this wonderful theory without feeling as if the mathematical equations had an independent life and an intelligence of their own, as if they were wiser than ourselves,” Hertz said. His prime experimental success came in 1887, the same year that Michelson and Morley failed to detect the ether. Hertz died in 1894, long before his discovery was put to widespread use.

6. John Michell: Seismic waves.

Michell, an English geologist and astronomer, was motivated by the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 to investigate the cause of earthquakes. In 1760 he concluded that “subterraneous fires” should be blamed, noting that volcanoes — “burning mountains” — commonly occur in the same neighborhood as frequent earthquakes.

Michell noted that “the motion of the earth in earthquakes is … partly propagated by waves, which succeed one another sometimes at larger and sometimes at smaller distances.” He cited witness accounts of quakes in which the ground rose “like the sea in a wave.” Much later seismologists developed a more precise understanding of the seismic waves that shake the Earth, using them as probes to infer the planet’s inner structure.

5. Wilhelm Röntgen: X-rays.

Roentgen's first x-ray of his wife's handWhen Hertz discovered radio waves, he knew he was looking for the long-wavelength radiation foreshadowed in Maxwell’s equations. But a few years later, in 1895, Röntgen found the radio wave counterpart of the opposite end of the electromagnetic spectrum — by accident.

Mysterious short-wavelength rays of an unknown type (therefore designated X) emerged when Röntgen shot cathode rays (beams of electrons) through a glass tube. Röntgen suspected that his creation might be a new kind of wave among the many Maxwell had anticipated: “There seems to exist some kind of relationship between the new rays and light rays; at least this is indicated by the formation of shadows,” Röntgen wrote. Those shadows, of course, became the basis for a revolutionary medical technology.

Besides providing a major new tool for observing shattered bones and other structures inside the body, X-rays eventually became essential tools for scientific investigation in astronomy, biology and other fields. And they shattered the late 19th century complacency of physicists who thought they’d basically figured everything out about nature. Weirdly, though, X-rays later turned out to be particles sometimes, validating Einstein’s ideas that light had an alter ego particle identity. (By the way, it turned out that X-rays aren’t the electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths — gamma rays can be even shorter. Maybe they would be No. 11.)

4. Epicurus: The swerve.

Not exactly a wave in the ordinary sense, the swerve was a deviation from straight line motion postulated by the Greek philosopher Epicurus around 300 B.C. Unlike Aristotle, Epicurus believed in atoms, and argued that reality was built entirely from the random collisions of an infinite number of those tiny particles. Supposedly, he thought, atoms would all just fall straight down to the center of the universe unless some unpredictable “swerve” occasionally caused them to deviate from their paths so they would bounce off each other and congregate into complex structures.

It has not escaped the attention of modern philosophers that the Epicurean unpredictable swerve is a bit like the uncertainty in particle motions introduced by quantum mechanics. Which has its own waves. 

3. Louis de Broglie: Matter waves.

In the early 1920s, de Broglie noticed a peculiar connection between relativity and quantum physics. Max Planck’s famous quantum formula related energy to frequency of a wave motion. Einstein’s special relativity related energy to the mass of a particle. De Broglie thought it would make a fine doctoral dissertation to work out the implications of two seemingly separate things both related to energy. If energy equals mass (times the speed of light squared) and energy equals frequency (time Planck’s constant), then voilà, mass equals frequency (times some combination of the constants). Therefore, de Broglie reasoned, particles (of mass) ought to also exist as waves (with a frequency).

That might have seemed wacky, but Einstein read de Broglie’s thesis and thought it made sense. Soon Walter Elsasser in Germany reported experiments that supported de Broglie, and in America Clinton Davisson and coworkers demonstrated conclusively that electrons did in fact exhibit wave properties.

De Broglie won the physics Nobel Prize in 1929; Davisson shared the 1937 Nobel with George Thomson, who had conducted similar experiments showing electrons are waves. Which was ironic, because George’s father, J.J. Thomson, won the 1906 Nobel for the work that revealed the existence of the electron as a particle. Eight decades later Ernst Ruska won a Nobel for his design of a powerful microscope that exploited the electron’s wave behavior.

2. Max Born: Probability waves.

De Broglie’s idea ignited a flurry of activity among physicists trying to figure out how waves fit into quantum theory. Niels Bohr, for instance, spent considerable effort attempting to reconcile the dual wave-particle nature of both electrons and light. Erwin Schrödinger, meanwhile, developed a full-fledged “wave mechanics” to describe the behavior of electrons in atoms solely from the wave perspective. Schrödinger’s math incorporated a “wave function” that was great for calculating the expected results of experiments, even though some experiments clearly showed electrons to be particles.

Born, a German physicist and good friend of Einstein’s, deduced the key to clarifying the wave function: It was an indicator of the probability of finding the particle in a given location. Combined with Werner Heisenberg’s brand-new uncertainty principle, Born’s realization led to the modern view that an electron is wavelike in the sense that it does not possess a definite location until it is observed. That approach works fine for all practical purposes, but physicists and philosophers still engage in vigorous debates today about the true physical status of the wave function.

1. LIGO: Gravitational waves.

graph of gravitational wave detectionSoon after he completed his general theory of relativity, Einstein realized that it implied the possibility of gravitational radiation — vibrations of spacetime itself.  He had no idea, though, that by spending a billion dollars, physicists a century later could actually detect those spacetime ripples. But thanks to lasers (which maybe would have been No. 11), the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory — two huge labs in Louisiana and Washington state — captured the spacetime shudders emitted from a pair of colliding black holes in September 2015.

That detection is certainly one of the most phenomenal experimental achievements in the history of science. It signaled a new era in astronomy, providing astronomers a tool for probing the depths of the universe that are obscured from view with Maxwell’s “other radiations, if any.” For astronomy, gravitational radiation is the wave of the future. 

Follow me on Twitter: @tom_siegfried


          Tom Wolfe’s denial of language evolution stumbles over his own words    

New book attacking Darwin, Chomsky substitutes smugness for substance

Context
two babies chatting

Babies are born with the ability to learn and use language, a feature of human behavior that, like other behavioral capabilities, emerged from eons of biological evolution — a scientific explanation that author Tom Wolfe rejects in his new book, The Kingdom of Speech

Language is a tricky thing to write about. You’re using it while dissecting it. That sort of recursion can trip you up. As a philosopher friend of mine once said, a zoologist studying tigers, while riding on the back of a tiger, should be very careful.

Of all the writers who’ve ever taken on the task of writing about language, nobody of any consequence has ever tripped himself up quite so much as Tom Wolfe. His new book, The Kingdom of Speech, has been widely denigrated (deservedly) by scientists who have encountered it. Wolfe has taken it upon himself to explain various aspects of science — having to do with biological evolution, linguistics, psychology and cognitive neuroscience — to scientists, in the process disparaging titans in their fields such as Charles Darwin and Noam Chomsky. It’s kind of like Brad Pitt or Angelina Jolie trashing George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Wolfe pontificates about language without realizing that he’s riding on the back of a linguistic tiger.

It’s difficult to criticize him, though, without lapsing into the same sort of abominable adhominemism with which he assaults Darwin and Chomsky. It’s not enough just to assert disagreement with Darwin’s views on how language evolves or Chomsky’s theory that evolution endowed all human babies with a built-in hardwired “universal grammar.” Wolfe attacks their character.

He presents Chomsky as a demon, a bully, a knave. When criticizing another’s research, Chomsky “pulls out a boning knife and goes to work,” Wolfe writes; he refers to Chomsky’s “audacity” and accuses him of “double talk.” He calls him “an angry god raining fire and brimstone.” He lambastes Chomsky for attacking his critics as liars, charlatans and frauds. In short, Wolfe attacks Chomsky for using against others the same linguistic strategy that Wolfe uses against Chomsky. Riding on a tiger.

Wolfe gives the impression of being jealous of Chomsky’s fame, which seems odd for a writer so famous himself. As for Darwin, Wolfe presents the greatest biologist in history as a petty thief who stole credit for the theory of evolution by natural selection from Alfred Russell Wallace, who was (Wolfe alleges) screwed over by the British gentlemen’s club conspirators who rigged the system to give Darwin credit for priority. And then Wolfe ridicules Darwin for reporting observations on the behavior of his dog.

But the poverty of Wolfe’s intellectual rhetoric does not cement the case against him. Just as belittling Darwin and Chomsky personally does not really rebut their science, condemning Wolfe’s rhetorical juvenility does not confront the substance of his thesis — that humans invented speech (and subsequent forms of language derived from it) — and that evolution had nothing to do with it. And that speech, and speech virtually alone, makes humans superior to other animals.

Somehow Wolfe manages to claim that he and he alone has figured out what no one else (at least, “no licensed savant”) ever thought of, that speech is the “cardinal distinction between man and animal.” It did not evolve. “Man, man unaided, created language,” Wolfe says. Language is a system of mnemonics, based on sounds that represent meaning, enabling people to remember, think and plan. And humans invented that system. Yes, invented it!!! (That’s how Wolfe writes: his rhetoric would collapse if denied the use of italics and exclamation points.) In any case, the question is not whether Wolfe dismisses Darwin and Chomsky unfairly, but rather whether he marshals sufficient factual evidence to support his central claim.

But facts are not Wolfe’s strong suit. On page 5, for instance, he announces that Watson and Crick discovered DNA. How unfair to Friedrich Mieschler, who discovered the molecule deoxyribonucleic acid in 1869. Watson and Crick discovered its double helix structure. Given such a weak grasp of such an elementary fact, Wolfe’s subsequent assertions on subtle points of evolutionary theory warrant suspicion.

There’s more. In one of his book’s most tweeted passages, he asserts that evolution fails all the tests of what makes “science”:

“Had anyone observed the phenomenon…? Could other scientists replicate it? Could any of them come up with a set of facts that, if true, would contradict the theory (Karl Popper’s ‘falsifiability’ test)? Could scientists make predictions based on it? Did it illuminate hitherto unknown or baffling areas of science?”
To which questions Wolfe answers “no … no … no … no … and no.” But to which any long-time reader of Science News would have responded “yes, yes, yes, yes and yes” (as would any knowledgeable scientist, as biologist Jerry Coyne, among others, has pointed out).

Wolfe’s citing of Popper is especially lame; although in early writings Popper criticized natural selection, in his later years he assented that natural selection could be posed in testable terms (he even thought that it failed the test under certain circumstances).

Nonetheless it is true that ideas about the evolutionary origin of language are difficult to test. Wolfe, in fact, anchors his argument with two recent papers (2014), each with Chomsky as a coauthor, asserting that “the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever.” Evidence on this issue is either “inconclusive or irrelevant,” Chomsky and colleagues wrote in Frontiers in Psychology. Evidence of Neandertal ability to produce speech does not help trace the beginnings of language, he and collaborators wrote in PLOS Biology. Speech ability “is undoubtedly a necessary condition for the expression of vocally externalized language,” but “is not a sufficient one, and … is evidently no silver bullet for determining when human language originated.”

Others would disagree on how well the evidence illuminates language’s origins, just as some experts in linguistics have disagreements with Chomsky on many other points. But even if you acknowledge a lack of “conclusive” evidence, that’s not the same thing as saying there is “no evidence” — as Wolfe repeatedly alleges.

Of course, both papers clearly state that language did, in fact, evolve — it’s just that science can not yet say exactly how. And it’s true that the origin of speech is among the most stubborn of mysteries. So are the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of baseball. Science has not yet fully understood the causes of Alzheimer’s disease, either (and certainly has found no cure); the logical conclusion is not that man just decided to get Alzheimer’s disease. Research continues on the premise that its biological basis might yet be discovered.

Boiled down to its essentials, Wolfe’s case amounts to a fairly sparse syllogism: Science has not been able to establish how human language originated and evolved. Therefore, it did not evolve. And furthermore, I (Wolfe) know how it originated. Humans invented it.

Wolfe apparently doesn’t seem to care that his major premise is based on two papers that assert that language did in fact evolve. Or that his argument against language evolution hinges on a lack of testable evidence, while he declares that he knows how language originated — without any testable evidence. Tigers.

And Wolfe certainly missed the irony of one sentence in the paper in PLOS Biology he cites. “Evolutionary analysis of language is often plagued by popular, naïve, or antiquated conceptions of how evolution proceeds,” Chomsky and collaborators wrote. As in Wolfe’s book.

Follow me on Twitter: @tom_siegfried


          MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST, GENERALIST   
MD-Olney, Job Details: Must be able to work all areas of the Laboratory to include Hematology, Chemistry, Blood Bank and limited Microbiology. MLS/MT/MLT (ASCP) registry equivalent, or eligible. All new hires will be required to submit documentation of completed education. Shift: Full time, nights Will consider relocation bonus HR Use Only: mnst
          Hardly a 'hit piece'   
State auditors find disturbing practices at Delta College

By The Record
November 16, 2008 6:00 AM

In the words of a San Joaquin Delta College spokesman: "It's a hit piece."

More precisely, a politically motivated hit piece, according to spokesman Greg Greenwood, reacting to yet another highly critical assessment of how the college has handled the $250 million bond approved four years ago.

And our response: So?

Who cares if the audit was politically motivated (it came at the urging of state Sen. Michael Machado, D-Linden)? What district taxpayers should care about is what state auditors say they found. And they found plenty, just like county grand jurors did last summer.

In pushing Measure L, Delta officials made pie-in-the-sky promises about satellite campuses and sprucing up the main campus. What did college officials do? They built athletic fields and bought electronic message boards - check them out the next time to drive by the campus on Pershing or Pacific avenues - instead of fixing leaking roofs, faulty electrical wiring, upgrading existing buildings or building new ones.

The excuse offered up earlier by Delta President Raul Rodriguez: "It was important for people to see the visual results of bond spending."

Huh? Really? They didn't even start pushing dirt around for the new athletic facilities until last year, three years after Measure L was passed. And the idea that most district voters associate improving higher education at a community college by building athletic fields is absurd on its face.

To most people, especially those who for years will be paying off the $250 million bonds, what comes to mind are things like biology labs and classrooms and updated library facilities and more classes available to the far-flung reaches of the college district.

There's not a lot to show for $250 million, not a lot of "visual results".

State Controller's Office auditors did find that in addition to spending millions on athletic fields and message boards, the college also spent $283,382 in bond on a new financial information system that included sending college staffers to 18 campuses around the nation.

Only later were those expenses shifted out of the bond account and to the college's general account.

"Not one penny has been charged to the bond," Greenwood said, adding that there has been "an enormous amount of scrutiny on this (bond) money."

Not everyone agrees, especially state auditors who called the Citizens Oversight Committee "passive, perfunctory and ineffective." At least one member of that panel argues that auditors didn't understand the committee's job, and besides its authority is limited by state law.

And the question that statement begs is: if true, why have an oversight committee?

College officials promised a point-by-point rebuttal to the audit, and last week the 10-page answer was sent to Jeffrey V. Brownfield, the chief of the division of audits in the Controller's Office.

The college's response was somewhat similar to its answer to the blistering grand jury report last summer.

Among other things, jurors said the college had essentially lost about $30 million in bond money on its Mountain House campus project in the south county by delays and plain old bad decisions.

The district's answer to jurors: yeah, we could have done better.

The district's answer to state auditors: on five specific points auditors raised, the college disagreed with four, and agreed with one (that the college could have done better retaining oversight committee members).

The college awaits the auditors' final report, to which the district rebuttal will be attached.

Before that, college officials will face Dr. Brian King, head of the recent accreditation team that visited Delta College earlier and placed the college on warning status. He will be at Delta on Monday for a follow-up and plans a public town hall meeting in the Tillie Lewis Theatre at 3 p.m.

Accreditation is imperative. Without it Delta College becomes a high school with fees. Students wanting to transfer to four year colleges will have more trouble.

This storm of reports and continued controversy goes a long way toward explaining why two long-term trustees did not seek re-election Nov. 4 year and two others were thrown out of office by voters.

A new board majority is promising a new attitude, more oversight of the taxpayers' money and more engagement with district residents.

No matter how energetic this new crop of trustees they can't get back the millions squandered and the time wasted.

They can set in motion the actions to see that things change, that it doesn't happen again.

Source
          Genetic evidence from the South Caucasus region shows surprising long-term stability   
The South Caucasus -- home to the countries of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan -- geographically links Europe and the Near East. The area has served for millennia as a major crossroads for human migration, with strong archaeological evidence for big cultural shifts over time. And yet, surprisingly, ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence reported in Current Biology finds no evidence of any upheaval over the last 8,000 years. Human...

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          On This Day in Math - July 1   

Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty
a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, 
without appeal to any part of our weaker nature,
without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, 
yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show. 
 The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, 
the sense of being more than Man, 
which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, 
is to be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry.
--BERTRAND RUSSELL,


The 182nd day of the year; there are 182 connected bipartite graphs with 8 vertices. *What's So Special About This Number

The 182nd prime (1091) is the smaller of a pair of twin primes (the 40th pair, actually) *Math Year-Round ‏@MathYearRound(Students might convince themselves that it was not necessary to say it was the smaller of the pair.)

Language time:
182 is called a pronic, promic, or heteromecic and even an oblong number. Pronic Numbers are numbers that are the product of two consecutive integers; 2, 6, 12, 20, ..(doubles of triangular numbers).  Pronic seems to be a misspelling of promic, from the Greek promekes, for rectangular, oblate or oblong. Neither pronic nor promic seems to appear in most modern dictionaries. Richard Guy pointed out to the Hyacinthos newsgroup that pronic had been used by Euler in series one, volume fifteen of his Opera, so the mathematical use of the "n" form has a long history.

Oblong is from the Latin ob (excessive) + longus (long). The word oblong is also commonly used as an alternate name for a rectangle. In his translation of Euclid's "Elements", Sir Thomas Heath translates the Greek word eteromhkes[hetero mekes - literally "different lengths"] in Book one, Definition 22 as oblong. . "Of Quadrilateral figures, a square is that which is both equilateral and right-angled; an oblong that which is right angled but not equilateral...". (note that with this definition, a square is not a subset of rectangles.)


EVENTS

1349 Sometimes, a little astronomical knowledge can be a dangerous thing, even to those who possess it. A tale from medieval England is passed down from the chronicles of the scholar Thomas Bradwardine of a witch who attempted to force her will on the people through knowledge of an impending eclipse. Bradwardine, who had studied astronomical predictions of Arabian astronomers, saw through the ruse, and matched the prediction of the July 01, 1349 A.D. lunar eclipse with a more precise one of his own. No word survives as to the fate of the accused, but one can only suspect banishment or worse.*listosaur.com

1694 Opening of the University of Halle in Germany. Georg Cantor later taught there. *VFR

1770 – Lexell's Comet passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 a.u. *OnThisDay & Facts ‏@NotableHistory discovered by astronomer Charles Messier

1798 Napoleon’s fleet reached Alexandria, bearing Monge and Fourier.*VFR

1819 William George Horner’s (1786–1837) method of solving equations is presented to the Royal Society.*VFR In numerical analysis, the Horner scheme (also known as Horner algorithm), named after William George Horner, is an algorithm for the efficient evaluation of polynomials in monomial form. Horner's method describes a manual process by which one may approximate the roots of a polynomial equation. The Horner scheme can also be viewed as a fast algorithm for dividing a polynomial by a linear polynomial with Ruffini's rule. Student's often learn this process as synthetic division.  *Wik

1847 The United States issued its first two postage stamps. They pictured Benjamin Franklin and George Washington respectively [Scott #1-2]. *VFR

1852 Dirichlet delivers a memorial lecture at the Berlin Academy in honor of his close friend Jacobi, calling him the greatest member of the Academy since Lagrange. *VFR

1856 Weierstrass appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Polytechnic School in Berlin. *VFR

In 1858, the Wallace-Darwin theory of evolution was first published at the Linnaean Society in London*. The previous month Charles Darwin received a letter from Alfred Wallace, who was collecting specimens in the East Indies. Wallace had independently developed a theory of natural selection - which was almost identical to Darwin's. The letter asked Darwin to evaluate the theory, and if worthy of publication, to forward the manuscript to Charles Lyell. Darwin did so, almost giving up his clear priority for he had not yet published his masterwork The Origin of Species. Neither Darwin nor Wallace were present for the oral presentation at the Linnaean Society, where geologist Charles Lyell and botanist Joseph Hooker presented both Wallace's paper and excerpts from Darwin's unpublished 1844 essay.*TIS
In his annual report the following May, society president Thomas Bell wrote, “The year which has passed has not, indeed, been marked by any of those striking discoveries which at once revolutionize, so to speak, the department of science on which they bear.” *Futility Closet

1873 From a letter dated July 1, 1873, in the Coast Survey files in the National Archives in Washington. Peirce writes, "Newcomb, in a paper .... says he finds that pendulums hung by springs twist and untwist as they oscillate and says this will affect the time of oscillation."The Charles S. Peirce-Simon Newcomb Correspondence by Carolyn Eisele.

1894 The New York Mathematical Society changed its name to the American Mathematical Society to reflect its national charter. [AMS Semicentennial Publications, vol. 1, p. 74]. *VFR

1908 International agreement to use SOS for distress signal signed. An International Radiotelegraphic Convention, ... met in Berlin in 1906. This body signed an international agreement on November 3, 1906, with an effective date of July 1, 1908. An extensive collection of Service Regulations was included to supplement the Convention, and in particular Article XVI adopted Germany's Notzeichen distress signal as the international standard, stating: "Ships in distress shall use the following signal: · · · — — — · · · repeated at brief intervals". *Citizens Compendium

1918 Florian Cajori (1859–1930) appointed professor of the history of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, one of the few such chairs in the the world. During the next twelve years he published 159 papers on the history of mathematics. *VFR

1948 The Bell System Technical Journal publishes the first part of Claude Shannon's "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", regarded as a foundation of information theory, introducing the concept of Shannon entropy and adopting the term Bit. *Wik

1964 The New York Times, in a full page ad, announced that Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward would play a game on an elliptical pool table. It had a pocket at one focus so that if the ball passed over the other focus it would bank off the rail into the pocket. [UMAP Journal, 4(1983), p. 176; Recreational Mathematics Magazine, no. 14, January-February 1964] *VFR

1980 A method of trisecting any given acute angle Origami is demonstrated. Hisashi Abe invented this idea and published in July, 1980 edition of the Japanese journal "Suugaku Seminar"(Mathematics Seminar). For this method, and more ways to trisect the angle, see this post.
*Takaya Iwamoto

2001 The last occurrence that there were 3 eclipses in one month, and of which two solar eclipses. For July 2000 being on 1st a partial solar eclipse, 16th a total lunar eclipse, and 31st a partial solar eclipse. The next occurrence with a month with 3 eclipses will be December 2206 with a partial solar eclipse on 1st and 30th and a total lunar eclipse on 16th. Ref. Fred Espenak 06/00 SEML. *NSEC

2010 Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman turned down the Clay Millineum prize of one million dollars, saying that he considers his contribution to proving the Poincaré conjecture to be no greater than that of Richard Hamilton, who introduced the theory of Ricci flow with the aim of attacking the geometrization conjecture. On March 18 It had been announced that he had met the criteria to receive the first Clay Millennium Prize for resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. *Wik

2015 Michael Elmhirst Cates, becomes the 19th Lucasian Professor of Mathematic at the University of Cambridge. Professor Cates is a physicist and Professor of Natural Philosophy and Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Edinburgh. Previous recognitions for Prof. Cates include Maxwell Medal and Prize (1991), the Paul Dirac Medal and Prize (2009), and the Weissenberg Award (2013). He will assume the chair from another Physicist, Michael Green. He follows a line that began with Isaac Barrow and Isaac Newton and includes Charles Babbage, Paul Dirac, and Stephen Hawking


BIRTHS

1646 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) born in Leipzig, Germany. Leibniz occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy. He developed the infinitesimal calculus independently of Isaac Newton, and Leibniz's mathematical notation has been widely used ever since it was published. He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685[4] and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. He also refined the binary number system, which is at the foundation of virtually all digital computers. In philosophy, Leibniz is mostly noted for his optimism, e.g. his conclusion that our Universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition, in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or a priori definitions rather than to empirical evidence. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in biology, medicine, geology, probability theory, psychology, linguistics, and information science. He wrote works on politics, law, ethics, theology, history, philosophy, and philology. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, and in unpublished manuscripts. As of 2010, there is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz.*Wik

1779 John Farrar (July 1, 1779 – May 8, 1853) born at Lincoln, Massachusetts. As Hollis professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard, he was responsible for a sweeping modernization of the science and mathematics curriculum, including the change from Newton’s to Leibniz’s notation for the calculus. *VFR

1788 Jean Victor Poncelet (July 1, 1788 – December 22, 1867) born in Metz, France. He taught engineering and mechanics, but had a hobby of much greater interest—projective geometry. *VFR French mathematician and engineer whose study of the pole and polar lines associated with conic led to the principle of duality. While serving as an engineer in Napoleon's 1812 Russian campaign as an engineer, he was left for dead at Krasnoy, but then captured. During his imprisonment he studied projective geometry and wrote a treatise on analytic geometry. Released in 1814, he returned to France, and in 1822 published Traité des propriétés projectives des figures in which he presented his fundamental ideas of projective geometry such as the cross-ratio, perspective, involution and the circular points at infinity. As a professor of mechanics (1825-35), he applied mechanics to improve waterwheels and was able to double their efficiency.*TIS

1848 Emil Weyr (1 July 1848 in Prague, Bohemia (now Czech Republic) - 25 Jan 1894 in Vienna, Austria) His father Frantisek Weyr, was a professor of mathematics at a realschule (secondary school) in Prague from 1855. Emil was four years older than his brother Eduard Weyr who also became a famous mathematician. Emil attended the realschule in Prague where his father taught, then studied at the Prague Polytechnic from 1865 to 1868 where he was taught geometry by Vilém Fiedler.
He studied in Italy with Cremona and Casorati during the academic year 1870-71 returning to Prague where he continued to teach. In 1872 he was elected to be Head of the Union of Czech Mathematicians and Physicists. In 1875 he was appointed as professor of mathematics at the University of Vienna. He, together with his brother Eduard Weyr, were the main members of the Austrian geometric school. They were interested in descriptive geometry, then in projective geometry and their interests turned towards algebraic and synthetic methods in geometry. Among many works Emil Weyr published were Die Elemente der projectivischen Geometrie and Über die Geometrie der alten Aegypter.
Emil Weyr led the geometry school in Vienna throughout the 1880's up until his death. Together with Gustav von Escherich, Emil Weyr founded the important mathematical journal Monatshefte fuer Mathematik und Physik in 1890. The first volumes of the journal contain papers written by his brother Eduard. In 1891 Emil Weyr became one of the first 19 founder members of the Royal Czech Academy of Sciences. *SAU

1906 Jean Dieudonn´e (1 July 1906 – 29 November 1992) born. *VFR French mathematician and educator known for his writings on abstract algebra, functional analysis, topology, and his theory of Lie groups. Dieudonné was one of the two main contributors to the Bourbaki series of texts. He began his mathematical career working on the analysis of polynomials. He worked in a wide variety of mathematical areas including general topology, topological vector spaces, algebraic geometry, invariant theory and the classical groups. *TIS



DEATHS


1957 Donald McIntosh (Banffshire, 13 January 1868 – Invernesshire, 1 July 1957) graduated from the University of Aberdeen and taught at George Watson's Ladies College in Edinburgh. He was appointed a Director of Education. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1899 and President in 1905. *SAU

1963 Bevan Braithwaite Baker (1890 in Edinburgh, Scotland - 1 July 1963 in Edinburgh, Scotland) graduated from University College London. After service in World War I he became a lecturer at Edinburgh University and was Secretary of the EMS from 1921 to 1923. He left to become Professor at Royal Holloway College London. *SAU

1971 Sir William Lawrence Bragg (31 Mar 1890; 1 Jul 1971 at age 81) was an Australian-English physicist and X-ray crystallographer who at the early age of 25, shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1915 (with his father, Sir William Bragg). Lawrence Bragg formulated the Bragg law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure: nλ = 2dsinθ which relates the wavelength of x-rays, λ, the angle of incidence on a crystal, θ, and the spacing of crystal planes, d, for x-ray diffraction, where n is an integer (1, 2, 3, etc.). Together, the Braggs worked out the crystal structures of a number of substances. Early in this work, they showed that sodium chloride does not have individual molecules in the solid, but is an array of sodium and chloride ions. *TIS

1983 Richard Buckminster Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was a U.S. engineer and architect who developed the geodesic dome, the only large dome that can be set directly on the ground as a complete structure, and the only practical kind of building that has no limiting dimensions (i.e., beyond which the structural strength must be insufficient). Fuller also invented a wide range of other paradigm-shifting machines and structural systems. He was especially interested in high-strength-to-weight designs, with a maximum of utility for minimum of material. His designs and engineering philosophy are part of the foundation of contemporary high-tech design aesthetics. He held over 2000 patents.*TIS
This is another one who died within two weeks of his date of birth. I must organize data on this...



Credits :
*CHM=Computer History Museum
*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts
*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar
*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie
*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History
*TIA = Today in Astronomy
*TIS= Today in Science History
*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA
*Wik = Wikipedia
*WM = Women of Mathematics, Grinstein & Campbell
          Software Engineer - (Cambridge)   
About the role and the team This is an exciting opportunity to join a fast growing team in the heart of Kendall Square We provide multiplex assays to medical researchers around the world Software to design experiments analyze instrument data and present the results is an essential component of the product We are in the process of expanding the set of software tools that will be available to our customers This opportunity is for a software engineer to develop and support web based applications The candidate will work as part of a small team of software developers to deliver and support applications for in house scientists and business development team members as well as users at customer sites Our end users are typically wet lab biologists a key design goal is simplifying the user experience delivering sophisticated and high quality data analysis without need for scripting or programming on their part Applications include textual analysis of biological literature online database mining for assay interpretation and statistically based experiment design tools The tool http www fireflybio com portal search provides a flavor of our work About you You should have a demonstrated ability to work and think independently and creatively Our development projects are not delivered with detailed specifications but as user requests to be solved by whatever means most appropriate So you will be expected to understand and explore the design space of alternative solutions You should be able to recognize requests in the larger context of platform development and deliver special requests as part of a new general capability You will have a passion for writing elegant compact maintainable code If this sounds like you please read on and apply Minimum Qualifications Bachelora s Degree in Computer Science or an engineering scientific discipline years of extensive programming experience yearsa experience with designing building extending and maintaining mid scale software systems Preferred Qualifications Familiarity with object oriented development in Java data structures collections design patterns garbage collection multithreading Web application experience with at least one modern MVW Toolkit eg Django Rails NodeJS Spring in a modern programming language eg Java Python Ruby Scala JS A track record of finishing projects meeting deadlines and getting things done Proven ability to work independently and multitask Friendly positive self motivated and a team player Effective written and verbal communication skills Background in health care bioinformatics genetics genomics molecular biology Experience with regression testing developer documentation end user documentation and version control is expected Fundamental understanding of applied math and or statistics Proficiency in Scala or prior exposure to functional programming via a language such as Lisp or Scheme About Us Ever since when our founder Jonathan Milner started selling antibodies from the back of his bike Abcam has aimed to help scientific researchers make breakthroughs faster We now have offices and labs in the UK the US China and Japan and as we continue to grow we remain ambitious driven by our customersa success and their research needs Ita s our goal to provide a world standard in protein research tools technical support and delivery When you join Abcam youa ll join a global business with the passion and the vision to become the most influential company and best loved brand in life sciences Our culture is our key differentiator We believe in empowering individuals with responsibility given at an early stage The working environment is fun and fast paced collaborative and outcome focused with a strong customer focus In addition to competitive salaries we can offer an attractive flexible benefits package which includes share options a culture focused on wellbeing and opportunities for growth and development Abcam is an Equal Opportunity Employer and makes all employment decisions without regard to age national origin race ethnicity religion creed gender sexual orientation disability veteran status or any other characteristic protected by law Source: http://www.juju.com/jad/000000009jikil?partnerid=af0e5911314cbc501beebaca7889739d&exported=True&hosted_timestamp=0042a345f27ac5dc69354e46c76daa485f5433b1779459d32f1da485eef8e872
          Microbiology Technologist - Jamieson Laboratories Ltd. - Windsor, ON   
Degree or diploma in microbiological or biological science related field from an accredited College and/or University or equivalent in experience....
From Indeed - Thu, 20 Apr 2017 12:45:32 GMT - View all Windsor, ON jobs
          Microbes seen controlling action of host\'s genes   
All animals-from sea sponges to modern-day humans-evolved in a world already teeming with microbes. These single-celled microorganisms now cover practically every surface of our bodies and are as much a part of our biology as our own tissues and organs. They educate our immune system,...
          Biology: Visiting Faculty Position (Focus in Ecology) - University of Richmond - Richmond, VA   
The University of Richmond is a private, highly selective, predominantly liberal arts institution. The Department of Biology at the University of Richmond seeks...
From University of Richmond - Mon, 26 Jun 2017 14:34:40 GMT - View all Richmond, VA jobs
          John Horgan & Richard Wrangham   
Does the biology of violence make war inevitable? ... How chimpanzee-like is modern warfare? ... Richard's new book, "Catching Fire" ... Were we scavengers before we were hunters? ... The allegedly "natural" raw food diet ... Ancient connections between food and sex ...
          How Neil Gorsuch screwed up dissent in Arkansas birth certificate case   
An important analysis in Slate by Mark Stern explains how badly Neil Gorsuch got the facts and legal analysis wrong in writing a dissent to the U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that Arkansas unconstitutionally discriminated against married same-sex couples by preventing the listing of both parents on birth certificates.

Stern notes — as I"ve tirelessly and tiresomely noted — that the Arkansas Supreme Court and Gorsuch were wrong in claiming a "biological" ground for the discrimination. If Arkansas attempted to require disclosure of biological parentage on birth certificates of all parents, they might have a point. It doesn't. An artificial insemination statute specifically allows a non-biological parent (father) to be listed as parent.  Arkansas just didn't allow the law to cover same-sex couples.

Stern figures that the dissent was Gorsuch's anti-gay philosophy at work. He wants to resist granting same-sex couples the full "constellation" of marital benefits provided in the Obergfell same-sex marriage ruling. Stern speculates that Gorsuch was trying to provide a roadmap to biological justification for rulings hostile to gay rights

But he got one thing flatly wrong.

First, he wrote that the court should have dismissed the appeal because “in this particular case and all others of its kind, the state agrees, the female spouse of the birth mother must be listed on birth certificates too.” What? That issue lay at the heart of this case—but Gorsuch has it exactly backward: Arkansas explicitly refused to list “the female spouse of the birth mother” on birth certificates. That’s how the case wound up at the Supreme Court in the first place.
This is important. Because other courts will note the dissent for ill reasons.  The Arkansas case was mentioned in the Texas Supreme Court decision I wrote about earlier today. There, the court seems to be encouraging a strategy to make gay couples fight for every single of the hundreds of rights granted by law to married couples. They'll have to disprove a presumption that there's a rational reason for differentiating in every case between rights of gay married couples and straight couples.

Coincidentally, I received some documents from the Arkansas Health Department today in  response to an FOI request. I was looking for some explanation for their change of heart over a couple of days this week, when the Department decided to go ahead and follow Supreme Court precedent on birth certificates rather than wait for an Arkansas Supreme Court hearing to formalize the order. They allowed same-sex parents to amend birth certificates for children born of artificial insemination to same-sex couples.

Among the information I received were text messages between Robert Brech, general counsel at the Health Department, and Ann Purvis,  the department deputy director.

Brech commented that Colin Jorgensen, who'd defended the state law for the attorney general's office, had said that the decision seem limited and Arkansas's situation could have been fixed with a simple change to the state's statute dealing with artificial insemination.

Purvis: No so sure. Let me read again more closely.

I think the Ark. Supreme Court may take its direction from Gorsuch's dissent.

Brech: I hope they do.

I do think the court will take Gorsuch's lead. Given that the majority would have read it, wouldn't they have made it clear it wasn't limited.

They can't even write a 3 or 4 page opinion that is clear? Wonder about other states as well.

The case, and the discussion, illustrate how hard this can be if the state chooses to make it so.  Women can become pregnant by means other than artificial insemination for purposes of motherhood in a marriage with another woman. Women can use donor eggs for pregnancy. And never mind the milkman scenario for straight couples. Will the Arkansas Supreme Court and legislature head down a path that requires interrogation of ALL parents on means of conception or onlyof  same-sex couples? This could be easy, but in Arkansas it won't be. The legislature long ago should have granted presumed parental status to both parents in a married couple at birth,. not sought as Justice Jo Hart did, to cook up some flimsy biological excuse for discrimination.

As Stern wrote in tearing apart Gorsuch's work:

But that’s not going to work, because state family law is not just about biology. There is no state in the country that limits either legal parentage or birth certificates to biological parents.




          A treatment for accelerated aging   
Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oviedo, Carlos Lopez Otín, is an internationally renowned scientist. In his lab have done outstanding work that opened the door to important research avenues for diseases like cancer, arthritis or many inherited diseases, some of them discovered by his team in the Asturian capital. Otín Lopez earned […]
          ادب از که آموختندی از گذشتگان   


     یا        
   گذشتگان چراغ راه آیندگان هستند


از بچگی دوست داشتم نقاشی کنم بماند که اوج هنرم در طراحی با مداد کشیدن گربه و کوه و خونه است از این خونه هایی که یه مربع پایین میکشی یه مثلث بالاش و یه دود کش و در و پنجره هم براش میذاری. دیگه خیلی دستم همکاری کنه میتونم اون گربه رو پوزش رو دراز تر کنم گوشهاش رو کشیده تر و تبدیلش کنم به سگ!!! بعله ما یه همچی هنرمندی هستیم
خدا پدر مادر تکنولوژی رو بیامرزه که به مدد ایشون تونستم یه ذره به آرزوم برسم  و آرزو به دل از دنیا نرم.
ولی  همیشه فکر میکردم  به همه نقاش های دنیا حسادت کردم که چه ذهن و دست هماهنگی دارند اما اوج تیر حسادتم سمت انسانهای غار نشین بود.
 این انسان های غارنشین عجب هنرمند هایی بودن بدون مدد به معلم طراحی و فلان مداد  و فلان مدادرنگی هزار رنگ مارک دار چه چیزایی میکشیدن نه خدایی کسی میتونه بیاد بز بکشه ؟با یه  سنگ، روی یه سنگ دیگه حکاکی کنه بعد اون بزها جست و خیز هم بکنند یا گاو شاخ دار به اون قشنگی بکشه قبول کنید سخته.
من همیشه به عنوان یه انسان امروزی شهرنشین با این همه امکانات احساس حقارت و سرافکندگی عجیبی در برابر این موضوع داشتم تا اینکه .....
تا اینکه چندتا دانشمند عقده ای تر و حسود تر از من تاب نیاوردند و اونقدر در این هنر پیشینیان انگشت کردند تا پرده از حقیقت برداشتندی و رسوای عالموشون کردندی طوری که من الان میخوام جامه بدرانم و فریاد کنان عربده کشان برم سمت بیابان و اشک شوق بریزم از کشف این معمای بزرگ و در راه بازگشت به دیار خویش  حتما از این دستورالعمل شگرف پیشینیان استفاده کنم...
شرح ماجرا را از اینجا بخوانید





          AASWomen Newsletter for June 30, 2017   
AAS Committee on the Status of Women
Issue of June 30, 2017
eds: Nicolle Zellner, Heather Flewelling, Christina Thomas, and Maria Patterson

This week's issues:

1. Women in Leadership: Networks         
2. Scholar Spotlight: Adrianna Perez
3. Astrobiology: Hunting aliens  
4. How science got women wrong
5. Job Opportunities
6. How to Submit to the AASWomen Newsletter
7. How to Subscribe or Unsubscribe to the AASWomen Newsletter
8. Access to Past Issues of the AASWomen Newsletter

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1. Women in Leadership: Networks 
From: Joan Schmelz via womeninastronomy.blogspot.com 

As you make the transition from scientist to manager, you may realize that the technical and mathematical skills that got you where you are won’t help as much as you advance. [T]hese abilities alone will not be enough as you move to higher levels. Even though your undergrad and graduate curricula were packed full of requirements, you may reach a point when you lament that you never took a management course. Your success will depend less and less on the skills that made you a successful scientist and more and more on your human competencies. In a community that is dominated by introverts, this is a particularly troubling realization, and an individual with even mild extroverted tendencies has a natural advantage. There is a joke I heard while I was working in the Astronomy Division at NSF. Question: How do you tell if someone is an extrovert? Answer: When they pass you in the hall, they look at your shoes.

Read more at

http://womeninastronomy.blogspot.com/2017/06/women-in-leadership-networks.html 

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2. Scholar Spotlight: Adrianna Perez
From: Nicolle Zellner [nzellner_at_albion.edu]

Adrianna Perez, a senior undergraduate physics major at California State University – Dominguez Hills, is a 2017 scholar in the REU program at the University of Texas – Austin (i.e., TAURUS).

Read her interview at

http://taurusastronomy.blogspot.com/2017/06/scholar-spotlight-adrianna-perez.html 

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3. Astrobiology: Hunting aliens
From: Nicolle Zellner [nzellner_at_ albion.edu]

Ramin Skibba reviews the book “Making Contact: Jill Tarter and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence” by Sarah Scoles.

Read the review at

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v546/n7660/full/546596a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20170629&spMailingID=54382085&spUserID=MjA1NzcxNzE5OAS2&spJobID=1184869696&spReportId=MTE4NDg2OTY5NgS2 

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4. How science got women wrong
From: Nicolle Zellner [nzellner_at_albion.edu]

“Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong”, by Angela Saini, “is the story of how science made the journey tougher—until now.”

Read the book review at

http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21724375-why-view-women-are-gentle-caring-and-empathetic-whereas-men-are-strong 

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5. Job Opportunities

For those interested in increasing excellence and diversity in their organizations, a list of resources and advice is here: https://cswa.aas.org/#howtoincrease 

- Engineering Manager, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD
https://rn11.ultipro.com/SPA1004/JobBoard/JobDetails.aspx?__ID=*D3A365B2676BE2BE 

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6. How to Submit to the AASWOMEN newsletter

To submit an item to the AASWOMEN newsletter, including replies to topics, send email to aaswomen_at_aas.org 

All material will be posted unless you tell us otherwise, including your email address. 

When submitting a job posting for inclusion in the newsletter, please include a one-line description and a link to the full job posting. 

Please remember to replace "_at_" in the e-mail address above.

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7. How to Subscribe or Unsubscribe to the AASWOMEN newsletter

Join AAS Women List by email: 

Send email to aaswlist+subscribe_at_aas.org from the address you want to have subscribed. You can leave the subject and message blank if you like. 

Be sure to follow the instructions in the confirmation email. (Just reply back to the email list) 

To unsubscribe by email: 

Send email to aaswlist+unsubscribe_at_aas.org from the address you want to have UNsubscribed. You can leave the subject and message blank if you like. 

To join or leave AASWomen via web, or change your membership settings: 

https://groups.google.com/a/aas.org/group/aaswlist  

You will have to create a Google Account if you do not already have one, using https://accounts.google.com/newaccount?hl=en  

Google Groups Subscribe Help: 

http://support.google.com/groups/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=46606  

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8. Access to Past Issues

https://cswa.aas.org/AASWOMEN.html
  
Each annual summary includes an index of topics covered.

          Most abundant viruses in Earth's oceans identified   
Forty-four of the most abundant new viruses in all the Earth's oceans have been identified by scientists. The finding has been achieved thanks to the application of cutting-edge techniques that mix flow cytometry and genomics and molecular biology techniques.
          2017 Arkansas Times Academic All-Star Team   
Meet the best and brightest high school students in the state.

The class of 2017, our 23rd, is made up of athletes, coders, budding politicians and brain experts. There's rarely a B on the transcripts of these students — in not just this, their senior year, but in any year of their high school careers.

Back in 1995, we created the Academic All-Star Team to honor what we then called "the silent majority — the kids who go to school, do their homework (most of it, anyway), graduate and go on to be contributing members of society." Too often, we argued then, all Arkansans heard about young people was how poorly they were faring. Or, when students did get positive attention, it came for athletic achievement.

As you read profiles of this year's All-Stars, it should be abundantly clear that good things are happening in Arkansas schools and there are many academic achievers who deserve to be celebrated. You should get a good idea, as well, of how these stellar students are busy outside school, with extracurricular activities, volunteer work, mission activities and more.

They'll be honored this week at a ceremony at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock with plaques and $250 cash awards.

Many college plans listed here are not set in stone, as students await information on scholarships and acceptances.

CAROLINE COPLIN-CHUDY
Age: 17
Hometown: North Little Rock
High School: Mount St. Mary Academy
Parents: (guardian) Dennis Chudy
College plans: Duke University

Caroline Coplin-Chudy has a 4.4 grade point average — high enough to rank second in her class at Mount St. Mary Academy — and lost her mother to leukemia during her sophomore year, something she told us came to be a source of inspiration and drive during her academic development. "It was a big adjustment. After my mom passed away, it was just my stepdad. It's a weird realization coming to the idea that both of your parents are gone, and it's just you. ... I still think of her every single day. She motivates me to do well in everything, because my whole life I wanted to make her proud." Caroline is president of Mount St. Mary's Investment Club and of SADD (Students Against Destructive Decisions). She's also been a regular volunteer for several years at the Little Rock Compassion Center, whose recovery branch provides meals and health resources to people suffering from addiction. Caroline said she found healing from her own grief in the friendships she forged there. As the recipient of a Questbridge scholarship, described by Caroline's guidance counselor and nominator Amy Perkins as a program where lower-income students qualify for tuition to schools with which they "match" via an early decision process, Caroline will attend Duke University on a full scholarship. "I'm going to study biology and psych, with a minor in Spanish. My plan is to work at the Duke Center for Addiction [Science and Technology] helping people with drug addictions overcome that sort of thing. It's something that I've had experience with, watching my family go through things like that."

AXEL NTAMATUNGIRO
Age: 17
Hometown: Pine Bluff
High School: Subiaco Academy
Parents: Sixte Ntamatungiro and Sylvana Niciteretse
College plans: Rice University, neuroscience

Axel Ntamatungiro grew up among books and maps dispersed throughout his home that "paint[ed] the walls with nuanced shades of knowledge." It shows. Not often can a high school senior explain, as Axel does, his love for studying the brain so easily. "Neuroscience is basically a neuron turning on and off," he said. "The fact that you have billions of these combinations that lead to consciousness, that's unbelievable." To continue learning about the mind, Axel is headed to Rice University on a full ride as a QuestBridge scholar. Maybe medical school or graduate school after that. Axel said his parents taught him a "humble intellectualism" that helped him understand "the irrationality of life." They always told him: "Work hard, but you need to realize you don't always get what you deserve." And life has been, at times, irrational and difficult for his family. Axel was the only member of his family born in the United States — in Little Rock in 1999. The rest migrated from Burundi in the early 1990s. They stayed here as the Rwandan genocide inflicted incredible damage in the area. That past was never hidden from Axel. "Instead of avoiding my questions, my parents level-headedly answered [them], telling me about Belgian colonialism, Hutu-Tutsi tension and the systematic poverty afflicting Burundi," he said. Maybe that is why Axel has never been afraid to ask big questions. He said it also helped to have a diverse group of friends who taught him new things. At his cafeteria table for lunch are kids from all over: Nigeria, Fort Smith, Japan, Bentonville and Russia. Everyone's small stories add to a global perspective, something bigger from something small, kind of like those neurons.

JADE DESPAIN
Age: 18
Hometown: Springdale
High School: Haas Hall Academy (Fayetteville)
Parents: Brenan and Tiffany DeSpain
College plans: U.S. Naval Academy, nuclear engineering

For Jade DeSpain, the question, "Where's your hometown?" isn't necessarily as straightforward as it seems. The National Merit semifinalist, swimming star and Quiz Bowler spent much of her childhood in Beijing, where her parents — both fluent in Mandarin — taught her Chinese concurrently with English (and where, she notes, she acquired an "incredible prowess with chopsticks.") "We've moved around so much that I don't really have a 'hometown,' but Springdale is the closest I've ever gotten," she said. She's made her impact there, too, tutoring students free of charge through her volunteer work with the M&N Augustine Foundation and putting in time at the Arkansas Council for the Blind and the Springdale Animal Shelter. Jade is ranked second in her class, and her high school transcript is full of aced courses in trigonometry, physics and calculus. She's also the co-founder of Haas Hall Academy's coding club, so a career in nuclear energy development — Jade's field of choice — isn't just an aspiration; it's the plan. "I have a deep appreciation for nature," she told us, citing Devil's Den State Park as a spot to which she feels closely connected, and stressing the importance of preserving natural spaces and developing more long-term options for sustainable energy. On Christmas Day 2016, Jade checked her email to find that she'd attained something she'd wanted as early as age 12: acceptance to the U.S. Naval Academy. There, she'll major in nuclear engineering and complete her five mandatory post-Academy years in the Navy, after which she hopes to acquire a Ph.D. in the field.

AVERY ELLIOTT
Age: 18
Hometown: Cabot
High school: Cabot High School
Parents: Dan and Melissa Elliott
College plans: University of Arkansas, medicine

Though many of our All-Stars seem destined from birth for academic greatness, there is the occasional inspiring All-Star who has had to overcome seemingly insurmountable odds. One of those is Cabot High School's Avery Elliott, who was born with nystagmus, a condition that causes involuntary eye movements that can make it hard for sufferers to concentrate and learn. Though it's hard to imagine it now, when she was in elementary school Avery found herself falling further and further behind her classmates in reading because of her condition. "That was difficult," she said. "I was behind schedule until about third or fourth grade. I would have to go home and really work with my parents to keep up with the rest of the class." Even though she struggled early on, Avery said that, in a way, the nystagmus contributed to her success and gave her a direction to follow. "I had to learn to really study even outside of school," she said. "I learned some very good study habits. But I think it also really affected where I wanted to go as far as my career. ... I really learned that a medical team can not only dispense medicine, but can really affect someone's life." A National Merit finalist who has volunteered extensively with Special Olympics and already completed 43 hours of college-level coursework, Avery has been awarded the University of Arkansas Fellowship. She plans to study medicine at UAMS after completing her undergrad degree, then practice in Arkansas. That goal has always pushed her to succeed academically. "I wanted to go into the medical field from an early age," she said, "so I knew starting out in high school that I needed to make very good grades in order to get where I needed to. I had to really learn the material, rather than just trying to ace a test."

JARED GILLIAM
Age: 17
Hometown: Cabot
High school: Cabot High School
Parents: Dan and LeAnne Gilliam
College plans: University of Arkansas, engineering

When most young people say they want to change the world, it's easy to believe that's just pie-in-the-sky thinking by someone who hasn't yet been through the Academy of Hard Knocks. When Jared Gilliam says he wants to change the world, however, there's a good chance he might actually pull it off. Jared even has a plan: He'll change the world through engineering. A National Merit finalist and AP scholar with a GPA of 4.18 and a perfect score of 36 on the ACT, Jared is well placed to do just that. A musician who plays percussion with the Cabot High Marching Band, Jared said his favorite subject in school is math. "I think I'm mostly interested in engineering because I've always been sort of a problem-solver," he said. "I've enjoyed math and science, working through things and finding solutions to everyday problems. This year, I've been in robotics, so we've spent time working on a robot to perform various tasks. I've enjoyed that a lot. I think engineering is where my ability would best be used." He'll attend the University of Arkansas, which has offered him the Honors College Fellowship. He said the drive to excel academically has always been a part of his life. "I've grown up being encouraged to do well, and I guess I have my parents to thank for that and all my teachers," he said. "I think knowing that I have the ability to do all of this, I feel compelled to do what I can to make a difference. I think life would be pretty boring if I didn't go out there and do all the things I do. I don't think I could settle for not being successful."

BENJAMIN KEATING
Age: 18
Hometown: Fort Smith
High School: Southside High School
Parents: Drs. Bill and Janice Keating
College plans: Undecided

If you were looking for a ringing endorsement of Ben Keating's character, you'd need to look no further than Amy Slater, the guidance counselor who nominated him for our Academic All-Stars roster and who said of Ben, "He is all the things I hope my son turns out to be. ... He really thinks about things, and he practices the trumpet and piano for hours a day. It's crazy, his dedication." Ben probably had something to prove here; he admits to some skepticism on the part of his mother when he announced he'd be pursuing a career in music. He's certainly proved his mettle; Ben is band president at Southside, was a principal trumpet for the 2017 National Youth Honor Orchestra, first chair for Southside's Wind Symphony and for the All-State Jazz Band and was ranked in the top-tier bands for All-State Band and All-State Orchestra each year from 2014-16. The accolades go on and on: Ben has received a Young Artist Award from the International Trumpet Guild, a Gold Medal from the National Piano Guild and superior ratings from the National Federation of Music Clubs competitions for over a decade. He plays for the Arkansas Symphony Youth Orchestra and as a volunteer musician for the Fort Smith Community Band. Ben is still deciding where to attend college, but wherever he goes, he hopes to continue playing with an orchestra. Eventually, he wants to teach at the university level. "Ultimately," he wrote, "I want to use my passion to unite people of all different races, backgrounds and cultures. In today's society that is politically and culturally divided, it is more important than ever to share the universal language of music."

KATHERINE HAHN
Age: 17
Hometown: Hindsville
High School: Huntsville High School
Parents: Shannon Hahn
College plans: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, biochemical engineering

Katherine Hahn is ranked first in her class at Huntsville High School, which she attends because her hometown of Hindsville is too small to support its own school system. The population of Hindsville is "about 75 people," she told us. At Huntsville High, Katherine plays bass drum in the marching band and marimba/xylophone in the concert band and runs with the Huntsville cross-country team. Her real passion, though, is science. "I think I've always wanted to go to a college that was science-based and research-based," she told us. Her high school principal, Roxanne Enix, noted her own surprise when Katherine announced that she'd take 10 credits her senior year, instead of the recommended eight. "I thought she had lost her mind," Enix stated. Those credits, over half of which are in AP classes, are what Katherine hopes have prepared her for the rigorous workload at MIT. Aiming for a career in pharmaceutical development, Katherine plans to study biochemical engineering, something she said resonated personally with her as a result of her mother's struggle with skin cancer. "Biology helps me understand why medicine does the things it does," Katherine told us. "Whenever I first started out, I wanted to do environmental stuff," she said, but turned her attention to drug delivery systems after observing so many friends and loved ones battling cancer. "I want to help stop people from being scared of losing people," she explained. Katherine, a native of Tahlequah, Okla., who moved to Arkansas around fifth grade, has served on the Madison County Health Coalition as Youth Leader and was named Student of the Year in 2017 by the Huntsville Chamber of Commerce and Huntsville High School.

GEORGIANA BURNSIDE
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High school: Little Rock Christian Academy
Parents: Bob and Ann Burnside
College plans: Stanford University, biology and public policy

When this reporter mentioned to friends at UAMS that she'd just spoken to an amazingly poised, optimistic and intelligent young woman with a spinal cord injury, they said in unison, "You mean Georgiana Burnside." Her reputation as a teenager who at 16 was paralyzed from the waist down in a snow skiing accident but who considers the event a "blessing" no doubt goes further than UAMS, all the way to Denver's Craig Hospital, where she spent "the most memorable two months in my life," she said, and where she returns to continue her rehabilitation. What is a spinal cord injury? She answers that it is a) a life changed in a split second, b) finding out that a bad attitude is the true disability, c) a time to show off wheelchair tricks, and d) spontaneous moments of unfortunate incontinence. In her essay for the Arkansas Times, Georgiana writes, "my physical brokenness has developed wholeness in my heart about the capacity life holds for individuals regardless of their disabilities." In a phone interview, Georgiana, once a figure skater, talked about her work with Easter Seals, fundraisers for Craig Hospital, and giving talks and testimony about her faith. Georgiana has regained the ability to walk with hiking sticks and leg braces, thanks to the strength in her quads. And, thanks to support from the High Fives Foundation in Truckee, Calif., which sponsors athletes with injuries and which has paid for some of her rehabilitation, Georgiana returned to the slopes over spring break, skiing upright with the aid of long forearm equipment. At Stanford, she'll study to be a doctor, with a goal to return to Craig Hospital as a physician who'll treat other injured youths who, though they may have, like Georgiana, at first believed their life was over, will learn they have "a unique role ... enabling the advancement of society."

MITCHELL HARVEY
Age: 17
Hometown: North Little Rock
High School: North Little Rock High School
Parents: David and Susan Harvey
College plans: Likely Mississippi State University, chemical engineering

Mitchell Harvey is a big fan of the periodic table. "The elements are amazing little things," he wrote in his Academic All-Star essay. "They make up everything, yet we hardly see them in their pure form in everyday life." Mitchell decided they needed more exposure, so he started collecting examples of the elements and taking them to school for his peers and teachers to see. He extracted helium from an abandoned tank on the side of the road. He found zinc in wheel weights, grew crystals of copper with electrolysis and made bromine, which he describes as "a blood-red liquid that fumes profusely," from a "crude" homemade distillation setup and pool chemicals. Though you can buy sodium readily, Mitchell made his by melting drain cleaner (sodium hydroxide) with a blowtorch and then passing a current through it, separating the mixture into sodium metal, oxygen and water. His parents were OK with the procedure, he says, because he wore a Tyvek suit, three pairs of gloves, safety goggles and a face shield. While on a college visit in California last summer, Mitchell toured Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles and was impressed by the large periodic table display exhibit there. So he decided to build one for North Little Rock High. He got money from the school's alumni group, the Wildcat Foundation, to pay for the supplies necessary to construct the 9-foot-by-6-foot display. He hopes to have it completed in the next two weeks and fill it with examples of elements he has collected, though he may need additional funding to pay for other elements. No. 1 in a class of 687, Mitchell scored a perfect 36 on the ACT. He's also an Eagle Scout, and led a project to plant 800 native hardwood seedlings at Toltec Mounds Archeological State Park. After college, Mitchell said, he might start his own waste remediation business. "The business model I would be going for would be taking some byproduct that's hazardous and turning it into something useful."

CARSON MOLDER
Age: 18
Hometown: Mabelvale
High school: Bryant High SCHOOL
Parents: Kevin and Ruby Molder
College plans: University of Arkansas

Not everybody plays the mellophone and likes to draw up better interstate exchanges, but Carson Molder does both. The University of Arkansas Honors College-bound student, No. 1 in his class, likes to create three-dimensional schemes in his head, and has been creating road designs since he was young. But as a musician who plays the French horn in his school's orchestra and the mellophone in the Legacy of Bryant marching band, and who has won a band scholarship in addition to his Honors College reward to the UA, he said that one day he may be an audio engineer. "I'm going to put things together and see what sticks," he said of his future. Meanwhile, Carson said the internet has been his Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria, taking him to new places that he otherwise could not get to. "I can count on my hands the number of times I have set foot outside Arkansas," Carson wrote in an essay for the Arkansas Times. But with the internet, "I can gaze into the redwood forests of California and the skyscrapers of New York City without leaving my desk." Without the internet, he said in a phone interview, "I would not be at the top of my class." Carson added, "It's not going to replace going out and visiting these things, but if you're a kid and don't have the money to go out, you can visit Yellowstone." Carson, who describes himself as "really ambitious," is looking forward to studying with Dr. Alan Mantooth, the director of the UA National Center for Reliable Electric Power Transmission. The UA, he said, "will provide me the tools" he'll need to succeed in graduate school, which he hopes will be Stanford University.

OLIVIA LANGER
Age: 18
Hometown: Jonesboro
High school: Brookland High School
Parents: Kelly Webb and Jonathan Langer
College plans: University of California, Santa Barbara, chemistry

You might think that a student who is No. 1 in her class and a National Merit finalist with nary a B on her high school transcript might not consider one of her greatest achievements her selection as her high school's drum major three years in a row. But here's the thing: Schoolwork comes easy to Olivia Langer. "I never had to work hard," she told us. In fact, her style of learning is "conversation-based," she said; she enjoys "debate without argument." But music was different: "I struggled at points, and had to put in extra work to be good." Her selection as drum major was "something I know I've worked for," she said, and she has enjoyed the responsibilities that come with it. "I like to take care of people. The band calls me band mom," she added. Beside numerous academic awards, Olivia also earned a 2017 state Horatio Alger scholarship for students who have overcome great obstacles. Hers, Olivia said, was financial: She's always had a place to stay and food to eat, but she hasn't been able to afford academic programs. "Honestly, I wasn't able to visit any of the colleges I applied to," she said. So she will see the UC Santa Barbara campus for the first time when she arrives this fall. She's considering a double major in chemistry and anthropology; she's interested in the evolutionary side of anthropology, and plans to seek graduate and post-graduate degrees.

REBECCA PARHAM
Age: 18
Hometown: Alma
High School: Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences and the Arts
Parents: Eileen and Rick Parham
College plans: University of Arkansas or Hendrix College

On a visit to Hanamaki, Japan, with her school, Rebecca Parham noticed that once a month all the citizens would clean the front of their homes and shops. Folks would give each other gifts, too. "It was clear people tended to think for the whole," she said. "I thought that was really nice." An avid chemist, Rebecca did not just improve her Japanese on the trip, she brought those lessons of helping the community back to Arkansas. Her work has been at the intersection of heady science and community impact. In her robotics club, she noticed that girls were less likely to participate. "I decided that was not OK," she said. So, she designed a day with LEGO kits to encourage women to pursue STEM education. That desire to make an impact goes beyond school, too. For her senior project, Rebecca designed a test for homebuyers to see if meth had been cooked on their property (yes, meth). Her parents, on hearing of this project choice, asked her to "please explain a little bit further ... ." Here's the gist: The method of meth production in rural areas has shifted to something called the Birch reduction; older testing kits would no longer work. But Rebecca thought she could produce one that could. She designed a flame test. It finds lithium compounds left behind. The process of invention was "definitely frustrating," Rebecca said, but you "learn things you never thought of before." Rebecca did not plan to spend senior year in her dorm late at night "searching online" how to identify meth production, but she has a driving curiosity toward science and how it "connects to the world." She hopes to work in renewable energy — to be part of the global community, from Japan to Arkansas — making the world a nice place in which to live.

GRANT ROBINSON
Age: 18
Hometown: Searcy
High school: Searcy High School
Parents: Eric and Lisa Robinson College plans: University of Arkansas

Grant Robinson's father is a cardiologist, and Grant long figured he would follow in his dad's footsteps. But now he's not so sure. Last summer, he was selected, among thousands of applicants from around the world, to participate in a Stanford University summer engineering program. He got to experience a taste of college life, to take advantage of Stanford's decked-out labs and to tour the area to see results of civil engineering. The most memorable part of the program? Grant's small group built a Rube Goldberg machine — a complicated gadget that performs a simple task in a convoluted way — that, by Grant's estimation, was "the most complex and aesthetically pleasing" in the program. It included an electromagnet the group handmade and chemical reactions triggered by the machine. Grant's academic achievements are the byproduct of a natural curiosity. He said he spends what little free time he has exploring YouTube, trying to figure out the way the world works. Another influence: His father, who pulled himself out of poverty to become a doctor, has always instilled in him the importance of hard work. The message clearly stuck. Grant is second in his class of 263, with a 4.27 GPA. He scored a 35 on the ACT. He's a Presidential Scholar. His classmates voted him most likely to receive the Nobel Prize. He also participated in Project Unify (now known as Unified Champion Schools), an effort by the Special Olympics to get young people with and without special needs to come together for activities. Grant helped plan a basketball tournament as part of the project. In the fall, he'll be rooting on the Razorbacks at the University of Arkansas.  

JOHN SNYDER
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High school: Little Rock Christian Academy
Parents: Jill and Steve Snyder
College plans: Cornell University, industrial and labor relations

Whatever you were doing by your senior year in high school, chances are you probably hadn't already authored a book, much less a book on the complicated intersection of taxation and politics. John Snyder has, though. His book, "The Politics of Fiscal Policy," explores the political aspects of economics, including the pros and cons of various governmental tax schemes and their effect on government spending. It's for sale on Amazon right now. "It's pretty concise," John said, "but I wanted a way to express all my ideas in economic terms. That was a great way to do that." A history buff who serves as vice president of his class, John has a stunning 4.49 GPA and is ranked first in his class of 129. Though he wanted to be a lawyer when he was younger, his plan now is to go into investment banking. "Ultimately I want to have my own hedge fund — this thing called an activist hedge fund — and eventually I want to be actively involved in politics, whether that's in the midst of my business career or after ... . I'd love to run for public office one day." At Cornell University, John will be studying industrial and labor relations, a field that marries his love of multiple subjects. "Basically it ties in business, law, economics and history all into sort of one degree," he said. "You can do limitless things [with the degree]. Some people go into law school, some go into banking, some go to politics. That's why I chose that degree." John said his philosophy is that we have only a limited amount of time on earth, and so we should try to make the most of our lives. "I think there are a lot of things I can do to change the way things currently are in society, whether it's related to business or in academia or public policy," he said. "If I don't play a role in that and I'm not striving to do my best, I would feel like I'm wasting my potential."

PRESTON STONE
Age: 18
Hometown: Benton
High school: Benton High School
Parents: Haley Hicks and Brec Stone
College plans: University of Arkansas, pre-med

Benton High School's Big Man on Campus — No. 1 in his class, captain of the football team, an AP Scholar, straight As — can add to his resume the fact that he helped build his home. Preston, his two brothers and his mother bounced around a bit after her divorce, from Texas to Arkansas, living with grandparents and friends, Preston said. Then the family was selected by Habitat for Humanity, and he and his brothers pitched in to build their house. "It was the first place I could truly call home and it allowed me the stability I needed to grow into the kind of student I am today," he wrote in his essay for the Arkansas Times. Preston, who also helped build a school outreach group called SERVE to help new or struggling students, also credits sports for giving him purpose. He recently volunteered to trade in the pigskin for a basketball, joining a team that played boys at the Alexander Juvenile Detention Center. "It was an awesome experience," Preston said in a phone interview. "We were a little bit nervous at first" at the detention center, he said, but the team enjoyed the game — even though they lost to the Alexander team, formed to reward inmates with good behavior. "They practice every day," Preston said. Preston has received a $70,000 Honors College scholarship at Fayetteville. He won't be playing football with the Razorbacks. Instead he is thinking of following a pre-med track that will lead him to sports medicine. He plans to go Greek, as well.

KARINA BAO
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High school: Central High School
Parents: Amy Yu and Shawn Bao
College plans: undecided

Karina Bao embraces complexity. The Central High School valedictorian (in a class of 636) is a member of the school's back-to-back state champion Ethics Bowl Team, for which she said she spent hours "researching, discussing and sometimes even arguing" case studies. Unlike debate, she said Ethics Bowl is "really about the back-and-forth and considering different caveats and nuances and considerations" in issues ranging from local food to gender identity. As president of the school's Brain Club, she leads discussions on brain diseases, disorders and anatomy. It's a role for which she's more than qualified: She placed first in the U.S. Brain Bee, a youth neuroscience competition in which contestants answer questions about anatomy and make diagnoses based on patient actors. Placing No. 1 in the U.S. competition landed Karina a trip to Copenhagen, Denmark, to the International Brain Bee, which happened to coincide with a Federation of International Neuroscientists conference, where Karina got to talk to scientists from all over the world about their groundbreaking research. She placed fifth in the international competition. A perennial outstanding delegate winner at Model United Nations competitions, Karina said Model U.N. has helped her to "not be scared of the complexity and interconnectedness of pressing issues we face today." In her spare time, Karina volunteers on the oncology wing of Baptist Hospital. "You don't get to do much," she said. "But at least we get to talk to people and help them with whatever they need and be there to listen." In her Academic All-Stars essay, Karina echoed the same drive for understanding: "The stories other people share with me become not my own when I retell them, but a part of humanity's collective spirit to understand each other. We grow from hours of listening and crying, to empathize, to have the strength and openness to pop each successive layer of the protective bubble that keeps us from seeing the very world in which we reside."

BRYCE COHEA
Age: 19
Hometown: Greenwood
High school: Greenwood High School
Parents: Mike and Robin Cohea
College plans: University of Tulsa or Vanderbilt university, biology

Though he grew up landlocked, far from the deep blue sea, Greenwood High School standout Bryce Cohea knew from an early age that he wanted to be a marine biologist. To reach that goal, Bryce had to start early. "In the ninth grade," he wrote in his Academic All-Stars essay, "I began planning out all my classes for the next four years. I wanted to graduate top of my class, and in order to do that I would need to take every advanced placement class and get an A in every class." That's exactly what he did, too, making nothing less than a perfect grade in every class for his entire high school career. With a 4.25 GPA and a rank of No. 1 in his class of 275, Bryce has volunteered extensively with the Salvation Army and collected shoes for the homeless; he helps unload trucks and stock shelves at the food bank at his church. A National Merit semifinalist, he also has the distinction of having scored the first perfect ACT score of 36 in Greenwood High School history. "I've honestly been a good test-taker," he said. "The first time I took it, I got a 34. After that, I got the test back and I worked on whatever I missed. After a few more tries, I got a 36." Bryce was still deciding on which university to attend when we spoke to him, but he definitely plans to study science. The subject has always interested him, he said. "I'm planning on majoring in biology and then specializing after that," he said.

IMANI GOSSERAND
Age: 16
Hometown: Rogers
HIGH SCHOOL: ROGERS HIGH SCHOOL
Parents: James and Hyesun Gosserand

College plans: University of Southern California, Harvey Mudd College or Columbia University, computer science or environmental science

Imani Gosserand has a journal in which she organizes the many moving parts of her life — competitive gymnastics, AP classes, computer science, Young Democrats, volunteering — into lists. Personal stuff is in there, too: bucket lists, remembrances. The journal combines the creative and the organized; it is problem-solving with an artful flare, which is how Imani operates. "I really like being able to create something of my own," she said of computer science. At a camp at Stanford University, in California, her team won the competition to program a car. Imani, not surprisingly, is good at math: She learned multiplication at age 4 and went on to skip two grades. Imani thinks schoolwork is fun. "We had a huge packet of homework problems we had to do over one of our breaks," she said. "And no one else was excited about it except for me. I was like 'Oh, I'm so excited to do all these problems!' " She brings that enthusiasm for problem-solving to bigger issues, as well. "I feel like there are so many opportunities for me because our world relies on technology, so I think I could go into any field," she said. She's excited to explore and see where she can help. "I want to meet people from around the world and hear different perspectives."

C.J. FOWLER
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High School: Central High School
Parents: Bobbi and Dustin McDaniel and Chris and Kim Fowler
College plans: Yale University

C.J. Fowler has long been around Democratic politics. His stepfather is former Arkansas Attorney General Dustin McDaniel. But C.J. said he decided to become more politically involved himself after he came out as gay. "The situation that I'm in is not great," he said. "People are not always accepting. But it's on me if I want to try to change that and make it better for the people who come after me. I have to make sure that my community and all marginalized communities have a seat at the table, because far too often a bunch of old gray white guys are making policies that hurt everyone else." The student body president of Central High, C.J. said he's tried to move the student council, a glorified dance committee, toward advocacy and activism for students throughout the district, whose future is being decided by those "people sitting in dark rooms." He said students too often get left out of the conversation about the district "because we're too young to have opinions. But we're not; we're living it every day." C.J. has been a fixture at Little Rock School District public comment periods. Though he can't point to any policy victories, he said at least LRSD Superintendent Mike Poore knows who he is and that he disagrees with him. C.J., who is also the executive director of Young Democrats of Arkansas, sees the backlash against President Trump as encouraging. "We're realizing that, if we're going to go all in for progressive values, we need to go all in." Rather than join the chorus of progressives in the Northeast after he finishes at Yale, C.J. says he wants to come back to Arkansas and possibly continue in politics. He admires state Sen. Joyce Elliott (D-Little Rock) and says he hopes if he ever holds office that he can follow her example.

SOPHIE PRICE
Age: 18
Hometown: Fort Smith
High School: Southside High
Parents: Claire Price and Scott Price
College plans: Vanderbilt University, political science

"Growing up, I would always argue with everybody," Sophie Price said. Sometimes it was just to play devil's advocate, but mostly, it was because Sophie wants to find the capital-t Truth. Some of this digging for truth is class: seven AP course just this year and 12 during her time in high school. But, some of it is also talking with people, discussing issues. "The best way to improve your argument is to hear the counters, to hear the other side," Sophie said, and often she is willing to be convinced. She wants to do the right thing; she believes in justice. Which is why after college at Vanderbilt on a full scholarship, she wants to field arguments as a judge. "My whole life I've followed this ideal that you have to do what's right," Sophie said. "I want to be a judge so I can kind of decide that." Vanderbilt was the only school to which Sophie applied. She knew it was the right one for her. She arrived in Nashville on a rainy day in January, but through the gloom, she knew. "Something about the beautiful campus and the intelligent people and these varying perspectives just sold me immediately," she said. In a few months she was back at Vanderbilt for a camp where she studied law, and it cemented the deal. "There was something so exhilarating about being able to have this case and have the facts and kind of create your own narrative and really advocate for someone that drew me in," she said. Watch out, because "everything I do, I want to give it a 120 percent," Sophie said.

MEAGAN OLSEN
Age: 17
Hometown: Fayetteville
High School: Fayetteville High School
Parents: Anjanette Olsen
College plans: University of Arkansas Honors College, chemical engineering

Fayetteville High School’s top student, with a perfect ACT score of 36, a 4.2 gradepoint average and the co-author of a paper on fractal self-assembly, is not just a bookworm. She’s a leader, her counselor Cindy Alley says, who shows “grit, motivation to succeed and a desire to help others.” She is also, Alley says, “a pure joy to be around.” In her essay for the Arkansas Times, Meagan talked about how she came to understand “ternary counters,” a base-3 method of counting in which only the digits 0, 1 and 2 are used. (Binary counters of 0 and 1 make up our computer’s “thinking,” as people with 10 fingers, we use base 10 to count.) Meagan, trying to make a “self-assembling ternary counter,” said she banged her head against “endless walls” for weeks. Then just after 1 a.m., she woke up with the answer. It’s a wise child who gives credit where credit is due: “I understood,” she wrote, “my mother’s advice about taking a break whenever I was upset.” Meagan’s paper on fractal self-assembly was published in the 22nd International Conference on DNBA Computing and Molecular Programing. She no longer lets frustration prevent her from solving a problem; sometimes, she’ll just sleep on it. Meagan told the Times she plans to attend a small conference this summer and then take some needed down time. She plans to use her degree from Fayetteville to pursue biomedical research.
          Too long for a comment   

This post started as a comment on a Savage Minds post, "What is good anthropological writing?", wherein Thomas Eriksen asked, "Which were the texts that made an indelible impression on you, and why?" The following is my answer:

The texts, both fiction and non-fiction, which have "made an indelible impression" on me as an Anthropologist, scholar, and all the other titles (daughter, sister, artist, friend) I hold as a person in general, came to me in three ways at three different times:


First, when I was 12 years old, my family took a trip to Seattle. I didn't have any unread books of my own to bring along for the plane ride, so I went into our family book closet and pulled from the shelf that held my Dad's books from college, John Howard Griffin's Black Like Me. When we returned home, I went straight back to that shelf and grabbed a box set of Doonesbury comics. As this was before the Internet, I got through Doonesbury by using my children's encyclopedia, our family encyclopedias, my Mom's textbook from the History class she was taking at the community college (she went back to school when I was in Kindergarten, working full-time and taking classes when she could until I was in 8th grade), and my parents as references for all the historical and political commentary I did not understand.



When I finished that collection, I returned to the shelf and chose (no kidding) Margaret Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa. I should mention that my dad was an Anthropology and Spanish undergrad and my inclination towards Anthropology was greatly influenced by all the stories I grew up hearing my Dad tell. As a child, my Dad lived on the outskirts of various Native American reservations across New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. After he graduated from college, he joined the Peace Corps and lived in a Shuar village in Ecuador. Aside from the tales he recounted of these experiences, he seemed to have an Anthropological anecdote for and spin on everything, from problems with bullies at school to my inquiry, "Why would the US government send people to internment camps?" when my family visited Manzanar National Historic Site when I was in 4th grade. So, by the time I got around to reading Coming of Age, I was already prepared to enjoy it.


Next, during my Senior year of high school, I was taking both AP English and AP Biology (AP stands for "Advanced Placement," the "recommended courses" for students aspiring to attend universities considered elite, in my case the University of California. In these classes, the pace of learning was sped up and the expectation of quality of work was raised, this meant that you had more than twice as much homework and it had to be at least twice as good as that in the "regular" classes, which meant that you had to form "study groups" and divide the work amongst each other in order to deliver, something that was expressly forbidden and considered "cheating" by teachers but accepted and practiced as the norm by students. And, because classes, like all others at my high school, were scheduled for only 50 minutes each day, you were often expected, pretty much required, to spend lunches, free periods, and time after school in lab or other lecture/discussion type sessions. Finally, at the end of the course, you had the option of taking the corresponding AP test. Scores of 3 or higher, out of 5, would pass you out of entry level courses at many universities and so you worked very hard to obtain them. These were my experiences at one particular high school in an affluent area where over 90% of the graduating class went on to attend college, and so may not be the most "normal" representation of college prep courses). I was one of several students who were taking both classes at the same time and so our teachers decided to do a joint project, "What is life?" How do you define "life?" What does it mean to "be alive?" This project itself was influential for me because we studied the concept of "being alive" from and within two different disciplines. I remember one particular discussion in Bio when we debated whether or not a virus should be classified as a living organism. This debate forced us to realize that scientific classification and the concept of "being alive" are arbitrary, cultural constructions. Each class also had its own theme, in English it was existentialism and in Bio it was, well, Bio. In English, our study of existentialism included the reading of William Butler Yeats' poem, "The Second Coming", Joseph Heller's Catch-22, Samuel Beckett's play, Waiting for Godot, and Franz Kafka's short story, In the Penal Colony. These English class texts were all fiction, but in Bio, I read David Quammen's The Flight of the Iguana: A Sidelong View of Science and Nature which gets its title from Quammen's imaginative account of Darwin's study of Galapagos Island iguanas; the iguanas are strong swimmers, but as Darwin wrote in The Voyage of the Beagle, "they will sooner allow a person to catch hold of their tails than jump into the water..." Quammen's book is sort of non-fiction in that he transforms scientific information into interesting, anecdotal stories. In the case of the iguanas, Quammen imagines Darwin launching them by their tails into the sea and watching them swim back to the shore where he stands. This text was influential for me because it demonstrates how good writing intrigues the reader by prompting her to draw parallels between the mundane and the academic.


Lastly, during my Freshman year of university, a friend lent me his copy of Tom Robbins' Even Cowgirls Get the Blues. I can't explain why this book was so influential, I think I just really admire Robbins' writing style. Another great, influential book by Robbins is Fierce Invalids Home From Hot Climates.


So, there you have it, the texts that changed my life!


          RESEARCH ASSISTANT(RESEACH ASSISTANT)   

Department: Internal Medicine

Salary: $37,313.00 to Commensurate

Advertising Ends On: 07/12/2017

Job Duties:

Provide support for an applied microbiology research laboratory by conducting experiments with bacterial cultures and enzymatic assays, collecting and analyzing results and performing operational duties associated with the laboratory. Place orders for laboratory reagents and monitor reagent inventories. Research in the health and physical sciences is included in this job family.  Key areas of responsibilities include conducting research experiments, collecting, analyzing and summarizing data, preparing reports, contributing to manuscripts/publications, administrative and project management, facilities and equipment management, and supervision/staffing.

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Background checks(criminal history, child/dependent adult sexual abuse) will be conducted on final candidates for all positions in UI Hospitals and Clinics. Background checks may also be conducted for other positions.


IOWA CITY, IA 52240
          My Ducks Don't "Quack"   
And I don't think it's only my ducks who can't seem to pronounce "quack." It seems to me that ducks are universally incapable of enunciating the "qu" sound. Instead they pretty much just say "wank wank wank," (heavy on the "wa" and light on the "k") which has led my husband and I to chide our ducks with the nomiker "wankers." Considering that this term has somewhat lewd connotations in the UK, I guess I can understand why biologists have agreed upon the term "quack." (As an aside: Here is a great chart listing the accepted mnemonics of bird calls).

Besides, it really wouldn't do to have a class of schoolkids in the UK singing "Old McDonald Had a Farm" with a "wank wank here and a wank wank there, here a wank, there a wank, everwhere a wank wank," eh?

Note: I posted this photo of a mallard drake because I really love it. This photo was brought to you courtesy of PD Photo.org.
          Postdoctoral Positions in Cancer Research at Harvard Medical School - Cancer Research Institute of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA   
The laboratory is in the Division of Cancer Biology and Angiogenesis at Boston’s Center for Life Science and is integrated into the medical and research...
From Indeed - Sun, 05 Mar 2017 20:56:58 GMT - View all Boston, MA jobs
          Future-proofing 'big data' biological research depends on good digital identifiers   
(PLOS) 'Big data' research runs the risk of being undermined by the poor design of the digital identifiers that tag data. A group of worldwide researchers, led by Julie McMurry, at Oregon Health & Science University, has assembled a set of pragmatic guidelines to create, reference and maintain web-based identifiers to improve reproducibility, attribution, and scientific discovery. The guidance, publishing June 29 in the open access journal PLOS Biology helps address the frequent problems associated with persistent identifiers linked to scientific data.
          Cancer researchers overestimate reproducibility of preclinical studies   
(PLOS) Cancer scientists overestimate the extent to which high-profile preclinical studies can be successfully replicated, new research publishing June 29 in the open access journal PLOS Biology by Jonathan Kimmelman and colleagues from McGill University suggests.
          Research Associate - University of British Columbia - Okanagan, BC   
The Soil Microbial Ecology group within the Department of Biology, at the University of British Columbia's Okanagan campus, invites applications for a Research...
From University of British Columbia - Tue, 20 Jun 2017 12:51:32 GMT - View all Okanagan, BC jobs
          How Neil Gorsuch screwed up dissent in Arkansas birth certificate case   
An important analysis in Slate by Mark Stern explains how badly Neil Gorsuch got the facts and legal analysis wrong in writing a dissent to the U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that Arkansas unconstitutionally discriminated against married same-sex couples by preventing the listing of both parents on birth certificates.

Stern notes — as I"ve tirelessly and tiresomely noted — that the Arkansas Supreme Court and Gorsuch were wrong in claiming a "biological" ground for the discrimination. If Arkansas attempted to require disclosure of biological parentage on birth certificates of all parents, they might have a point. It doesn't. An artificial insemination statute specifically allows a non-biological parent (father) to be listed as parent.  Arkansas just didn't allow the law to cover same-sex couples.

Stern figures that the dissent was Gorsuch's anti-gay philosophy at work. He wants to resist granting same-sex couples the full "constellation" of marital benefits provided in the Obergfell same-sex marriage ruling. Stern speculates that Gorsuch was trying to provide a roadmap to biological justification for rulings hostile to gay rights

But he got one thing flatly wrong.

First, he wrote that the court should have dismissed the appeal because “in this particular case and all others of its kind, the state agrees, the female spouse of the birth mother must be listed on birth certificates too.” What? That issue lay at the heart of this case—but Gorsuch has it exactly backward: Arkansas explicitly refused to list “the female spouse of the birth mother” on birth certificates. That’s how the case wound up at the Supreme Court in the first place.
This is important. Because other courts will note the dissent for ill reasons.  The Arkansas case was mentioned in the Texas Supreme Court decision I wrote about earlier today. There, the court seems to be encouraging a strategy to make gay couples fight for every single of the hundreds of rights granted by law to married couples. They'll have to disprove a presumption that there's a rational reason for differentiating in every case between rights of gay married couples and straight couples.

Coincidentally, I received some documents from the Arkansas Health Department today in  response to an FOI request. I was looking for some explanation for their change of heart over a couple of days this week, when the Department decided to go ahead and follow Supreme Court precedent on birth certificates rather than wait for an Arkansas Supreme Court hearing to formalize the order. They allowed same-sex parents to amend birth certificates for children born of artificial insemination to same-sex couples.

Among the information I received were text messages between Robert Brech, general counsel at the Health Department, and Ann Purvis,  the department deputy director.

Brech commented that Colin Jorgensen, who'd defended the state law for the attorney general's office, had said that the decision seem limited and Arkansas's situation could have been fixed with a simple change to the state's statute dealing with artificial insemination.

Purvis: No so sure. Let me read again more closely.

I think the Ark. Supreme Court may take its direction from Gorsuch's dissent.

Brech: I hope they do.

I do think the court will take Gorsuch's lead. Given that the majority would have read it, wouldn't they have made it clear it wasn't limited.

They can't even write a 3 or 4 page opinion that is clear? Wonder about other states as well.

The case, and the discussion, illustrate how hard this can be if the state chooses to make it so.  Women can become pregnant by means other than artificial insemination for purposes of motherhood in a marriage with another woman. Women can use donor eggs for pregnancy. And never mind the milkman scenario for straight couples. Will the Arkansas Supreme Court and legislature head down a path that requires interrogation of ALL parents on means of conception or onlyof  same-sex couples? This could be easy, but in Arkansas it won't be. The legislature long ago should have granted presumed parental status to both parents in a married couple at birth,. not sought as Justice Jo Hart did, to cook up some flimsy biological excuse for discrimination.

As Stern wrote in tearing apart Gorsuch's work:

But that’s not going to work, because state family law is not just about biology. There is no state in the country that limits either legal parentage or birth certificates to biological parents.




          Animal Handler 1 - Rock Island County - Forest Preserve, Niabi Zoo - Coal Valley, IL   
Must have an appropriate, valid driver’s license. Education, Experience, & License Requirements. Bachelor's degree in biology or zoology, or related field is... $15.67 an hour
From Indeed - Mon, 05 Jun 2017 18:03:42 GMT - View all Coal Valley, IL jobs
          New insight into how telomeres protect cells from premature senescence   
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz have further uncovered the secrets of telomeres, the caps that protect the ends of our chromosomes. They discovered that an RNA molecule called TERRA helps to ensure that very short (or broken) telomeres get fixed again. The work, which was recently published in the journal Cell, provides new insights into cellular processes that regulate cell senescence and survival in aging and cancer.
          Reply to Epigenetics, a Revolution with a Long Onramp, Poised to Accelerate Design Thinking on Sat, 09 Jan 2016 18:38:19 GMT   
Some revolutions have long onramps. Modern epigenetics has been around for well over a decade, but its impact has yet to be fully explored. Which interpretation of biology -- evolution or intelligent design -- stands the best chance of advancing scientific understanding of genomics through epigenetics research?
          Purdue Extension releases new publications in Protecting Pollinators series    
Purdue Extension has released two new publications in the Protecting Pollinators series: The Complex Life of the Honey Bee and Biology and Control of Varroa Mites in Bee Hives.
          QC Microbiology Laboratory Supervisor - Advanced Bioscience Laboratories - Rockville, MD   
Perform and/or oversee environmental monitoring for HVAC (viable air, viable surface, total particulates), purified water (conductivity, TOC, bioburden) and...
From Advanced Bioscience Laboratories - Mon, 12 Jun 2017 08:53:38 GMT - View all Rockville, MD jobs
          2017 NECO Chemistry OBJ Theory Essay | Questions & Answers Expo   

NECO 2017 Chemistry OBJ Theory Essay | Questions & Answers Expo

NECO Chemistry 2017 Questions & Answers - OBJ Essay Theory Expo - These are the searches related to NECO Chemistry Answers: neco 2017 biology; neco chemistry practical answers; neco chemistry 2017; 2017 neco chemistry practical; neco answer for mathematics; neco expo free; neco examination time table; neco answer online.
CONTINUE READING
          Childhood cancer chemotherapy-induced bone damage: pathobiology and protective effects of resveratrol and other nutraceuticals.   

Childhood cancer chemotherapy-induced bone damage: pathobiology and protective effects of resveratrol and other nutraceuticals.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jun 29;:

Authors: Su YW, Chen KM, Hassanshahi M, Tang Q, Howe PR, Xian CJ

Abstract
Intensive cancer chemotherapy causes significant bone loss, for which the mechanisms remain unclear and effective treatments are lacking. This is a significant issue particularly for childhood cancers, as the most common ones have a >75% cure rate following chemotherapy; there is an increasing population of survivors who live with chronic bone defects. Studies suggest that these defects are the result of reduced bone from increased marrow fat formation and increased bone resorption following chemotherapy. These changes probably result from altered expression/activation of regulatory molecules or pathways regulating skeletal cell formation and activity. Treatment with methotrexate, an antimetabolite commonly used in childhood oncology, has been shown to increase levels of proinflammatory/pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines (e.g., enhanced NF-κB activation), leading to increased osteoclast formation and bone resorption, as well as to attenuate Wnt signaling, leading to both decreased bone and increased marrow fat formation. In recent years, understanding the mechanisms of action and potential health benefits of selected nutraceuticals, including resveratrol, genistein, icariin, and inflammatory fatty acids, has led to preclinical studies that, in some cases, indicate efficacy in reducing chemotherapy-induced bone defects. We summarize the supporting evidence.

PMID: 28662275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Exhibit: Before They Were Heroes: Sus Ito’s World War II Images @ Harvard Medical School Transit Gallery   


Correction 5/31/17: Someone just pointed out to me that I had written the Saturday hours were on June 2nd. Saturday is actually June 3rd.


It is really unusual to have exhibits on the WWII Japanese American experience in the Boston area. The Transit Gallery at Harvard Medical School is currently exhibiting part of a very rare collection of photos from a Japanese American soldier who served in Europe in the segregated all Japanese American 442nd Regimental Combat Team. I checked with the New England chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League and we believe this may be the first exhibit in the Boston area to focus on the 442nd. I'm not even sure if other photos like these exist.




Dr. Susumu Ito or Sus as he was known to those of us who knew him, took his 35mm Agfa Ansco to war against orders. In 2015 he told the Los Angeles Times, "I wanted to take [my camera] because we weren't allowed to. I like to break the rules."


Left & right: Japanese American soldiers in the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion
Center: Ito's family in incarceration at Rohwer War Relocation Center


Sus was 21 when he was drafted in 1940, prior to US entry into WWII. He served in a non-segregated Quartermaster truck and vehicle maintenance unit at Camp Haan near Riverside, California. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Sus was sent to Fort Sill in Oklahoma and restricted to civilian duty as a mechanic. In 1943 he was selected to join the 442nd and assigned to the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, the artillery unit of the 442nd. While Sus was stationed at Fort Shelby in Mississippi, his family was being unjustly incarcerated at the Rohwer War Relocation Center in Arkansas. He was able to visit them once before deploying to Europe and took photos of that visit. Cameras were initially banned inside War Relocation Authority incarceration camps and although restrictions were eventually lifted in the spring of 1943, few candid photos of camp life exist.


Photograph and note to Ito from Larry Lubetski, former Dachau Concentration Camp
prisoner. Lubetski was a Lithuanian Jew who was only a teenager when the
522nd Field Artillery Battalion helped to rescue him after the liberation of Dachau.


Sus and his camera went thousands of miles all over Europe. He documented everything he saw along the way – from Nazi soldiers and their prisoners (he helped to liberate Dachau) to the daily life of his fellow Japanese American soldiers between battles. Sus was a prolific photographer, taking thousands of photos, many of which he sent to his mom to let her know he was okay. The exhibit showcases just a fraction of the collection.


Silhouettes of six German soldiers retreating westward at dawn in Germany.
Spring 1945


After the war Sus continued his education with the help of the G. I. Bill and after receiving his PhD from Case Western Reserve University became a postdoctoral fellow at Cornell Medical School in the lab of Don W. Fawcett, Chair of the Department of Anatomy. When Dr. Fawcett was appointed Chair of the Department of Anatomy at Harvard Medical School in 1960, he brought Sus along with him as an associate professor. After retiring in 1990, Sus, as an Emeritus professor, remained active in the lab until 2014, happy to assist postdocs with electron microscopy, a field that he and Dr. Fawcett pioneered.


Ito on rest and recuperation, posing with his arm around the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France.
Summer 1945


The exhibit was first displayed at the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, California in the late summer of 2015. Sus passed away just a few weeks after the JANM exhibit closed. He was a beloved member of Boston's Japanese American community and of the Harvard Medical School community.


Before They Were Heroes: Sus Ito’s World War II Images




In 1994, the Japanese American National Museum received a donation of several dozen 35mm film canisters and their contents from World War II veteran Susumu "Sus" Ito. While serving in the all-Japanese American 442nd Regimental Combat Team's 552nd Field Artillery Battalion, Ito took thousands of photographs and carried them nearly five thousand miles across Italy, France, and Germany during his wartime service.

In part, Ito took these photos to send to his mother, who was incarcerated at the Rohwer War Relocation Center. The snapshots depict a previously unseen and close-up view of the Nisei soldiers and their everyday experiences. Through the lens of Ito's camera, these young men are just that–young men, away from home and family, serving their country in a time of war. While some of the images capture the soldiers' heroism, most of the photographs show the smaller, human moments of daily life.

Unseen for over seventy years, Sus Ito's thousands of photographs provide a rare window into one person's extraordinary experience of everyday life as a soldier during World War II.

Ito's collection captures the iconic moments often associated with the 442nd Regimental Combat Team–from the rescue of the Lost Battalion to the liberation of two Dachau subcamps.

But these intense moments of war are punctuated by long periods of boredom and waiting. From Ito reading a Superman comic to soldiers stomping on grapes to make wine, the photos notably depict the more routine activities of wartime life. Ito purposefully captured and sent these snapshots to his mother as a way [to] reassure her of his safety.

Today, the collection of photographs stands as a unique record of an important period in American history.

This exhibit was organized by the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, and is sponsored by the Harvard Medical School Office of Human Resources, the New England Japanese American Citizens League, Dr. James Adelstein, Atsuko Fish, and May & Tetsuo Takayanagi.

The original exhibit also contained artifacts and videos which due to space and equipment limitations are not included in the Transit Gallery's exhibit. Later this year the exhibit will travel to the Fullerton Arboretum in Fullerton, CA from September 11th to December 1st. If you are interested in booking the exhibit, please contact the Japanese American National Museum.


Hours
Open through Monday, June 26, 2017
Regular Hours: Monday-Friday, 9am - 5pm
Special hours: Saturday, June 3, 2017, 1pm - 5pm
Note: If you are not a member of the Harvard Medical School community, please contact Tania Rodriguez in advance to ensure access to Gordon Hall. 

Location
Transit Gallery at Gordon Hall, Harvard Medical School
25 Shattuck St., Boston, MA 02115

Admission
Free and open to the public.

Directions & Parking
Getting to Gordon Hall is a bit of a challenge. Taking the Green Line is your best option. The closest T stop is Brigham Circle on the E Line. You can access Shattuck St. by walking through the courtyard behind the Countway Library of Medicine (the entrance to the courtyard is between the Countway Library and Harvard School of Public Health).

There is some 2 hour metered parking along Huntington Ave. but not a lot. Most of the nearby parking garages are attached to hospitals and I'm not sure if they are open to the public. The closest garage that I believe is open to the public is the Longwood Galleria Garage at 350 Longwood Ave. See rates here.



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New findings published in Nature Chemical Biology show promise for finding new solutions to treat lung cancer and other deadly diseases. Kentucky continues to lead the nation in incidence and death rates from lung cancer, and the University of Kentucky is committed to reducing these numbers. According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer is among the leading causes

The post A new way to combat cancer at the cellular level: Block it appeared first on Innovation Toronto.


          New study reveals new drug target for gout and other inflammatory diseases   
(Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) Particle-driven diseases sound exotic and include things like silicosis and asbestos, but actually also include much more common diseases like Alzheimer's, gout and even atherosclerosis. A new report published online in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology suggests a potential drug target for particle-driven diseases like these and many others.
           Transplant trials with Tregs: perils and promises    
Modern immunosuppression regimens effectively control acute rejection and decrease graft loss in the first year after transplantation; however, these regimens do not have a durable effect on long-term graft survival owing to a combination of drug toxicities and the emergence of chronic alloimmune responses. Eliminating drugs and their toxicities while maintaining graft acceptance has been the primary aim of cellular therapies. Tregs suppress both autoimmune and alloimmune responses and are particularly effective in protecting allografts in experimental transplant models. Further, Treg-based therapies are selective, do not require harsh conditioning, and do not have a risk of graft-versus-host disease. Trial designs should consider the distinct immunological features of each transplanted organ, Treg preparations, dose, and frequency, and the ability to detect and quantify Treg effects in a given transplant environment. In this Review, we detail the ongoing clinical trials of Treg therapy in liver and kidney transplantation. Integration of Treg biology gleaned from preclinical models and experiences in human organ transplantation should allow for optimization of trial design that will determine the potential efficacy of a given therapy and provide guidelines for further therapeutic development.
           Altered homeostatic regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in lower gastrointestinal tract GVHD pathogenesis    
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality from GVHD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Recent data indicate that lower GI tract GVHD is a complicated process mediated by donor/host antigenic disparities. This process is exacerbated by significant changes to the microbiome, and innate and adaptive immune responses that are critical to the induction of disease, persistence of inflammation, and a lack of response to therapy. Here, we discuss new insights into the biology of lower GI tract GVHD and focus on intrinsic pathways and regulatory mechanisms crucial to normal intestinal function. We then describe multiple instances in which these homeostatic mechanisms are altered by donor T cells or conditioning therapy, resulting in exacerbation of GVHD. We also discuss data suggesting that some of these mechanisms produce biomarkers that could be informative as to the severity of GVHD and its response to therapy. Finally, novel therapies that might restore homeostasis in the GI tract during GVHD are highlighted.
           Gender, biology, nature and capitalism    
Hearn, Jeff (1992) Gender, biology, nature and capitalism. In: The Cambridge Companion to Marx. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp. 222-245. ISBN 9780521366946
           Feeding strategy and daily ration of juvenile pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in a South Florida seagrass bed.    
Article Schwamborn, R. and Criales, M. I. (2000) Feeding strategy and daily ration of juvenile pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in a South Florida seagrass bed. , Marine Biology, 137 , pp. 139-147 . hdl:10013/epic.23895
           Seasonal changes in the transport and distribution of meroplankton into a Brazilian estuary with emphasis on the importance of floating mangrove leaves.    
Article Schwamborn, R. and Bonecker, A. C. T. (1996) Seasonal changes in the transport and distribution of meroplankton into a Brazilian estuary with emphasis on the importance of floating mangrove leaves. , Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 39 , pp. 451-462 . hdl:10013/epic.23900
           Macrozooplankton of an impacted bay in northeastern Brazil.    
Article Silva, A. P. , Leitão, S. N. , Gusmão, L. M. O. , Schwamborn, R. and Silva, T. A. E. (2004) Macrozooplankton of an impacted bay in northeastern Brazil. , Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 47 , pp. 485-493 . hdl:10013/epic.23890
          Gorsuch's anti-gay dissent in birth certificate case proved him either daft or supremely deceptive   

Put a pin in this one, because it surely says something about Neil Gorsuch’s integrity and disregard for intellectual honesty as well as the course of any LGBTQ cases that reach a Supreme Court that now counts him among its justices.

Although six justices—including Anthony Kennedy and Chief Justice John Roberts—summarily reversed an Arkansas Supreme Court ruling that essentially made a mockery of the high court's 2015 Obergefell decision legalizing same-sex marriage, Justice Gorsuch decided to send a clarion call to homophobes across the country that they have a steadfast ally on the bench.

The case, Pavan v. Smith, involved a pretty straightforward birth certificate issue in which Arkansas automatically lists the husband of a married mother on a child's birth certificate—even if he isn’t the biological father—thereby elevating him as a legal parent despite having no biological tie. The same was not true for same-sex spouses. The very simple solution was to reframe the policy in gender-neutral terms so a same-sex "spouse" would also be listed and therefore given equal legal status as a parent despite not being biologically related to the child. The Arkansas Department of Health refused to do that and the state Supreme Court upheld the agency’s judgment.

But the case was such an affront to the equal treatment of same-sex couples articulated in the Obergefell decision that the justices voted 6-3 to reverse that ruling without even hearing oral arguments. Gorsuch thought differently and deemed it necessary to issue the dissent—a very ominous sign, writes Noah Feldman for Bloomberg.

His reasoning was pretty doubtful. Gorsuch said that the Arkansas opinion didn’t defy the Obergefell precedent but rather sought to “earnestly engage” it. The state court, he asserted, merely accepted the state’s claim that there were “rational reasons” for a “biology based birth registration regime.”

The problem with this view of course is that Arkansas doesn’t have a biology-based registration policy. It has a marriage-based regime.

Exactly, which means Gorsuch is either far more intellectually challenged than we previously knew or he's just plain devious.


          Unconstitutional, unethical, unscientific   

Dr P M Bhargava Lamblasts BRAI Bill. Says Threat to Health.

Source: Arkitect India: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arkitectindia/message/12263

PUSHPA M. BHARGAVA

The Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India Bill, if passed, will adversely affect agriculture, health of humans and animals, and the environment, causing unparalleled harm.



It is now widely accepted that the existing procedure in India (and even elsewhere) for regulation of genetic engineering technology is faulty and insufficient. It was for this reason that Jairam Ramesh, then Minister for Environment and Forests, put an indefinite moratorium on the open release of genetically engineered Bt brinjal, which was approved by the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee of the Ministry on October 14, 2009.



The Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India (BRAI) Bill, proposed to be put up to Parliament, claims to take care of the deficiencies in the existing system of approval of genetically modified (GM) crops. As it turns out, the Bill is unconstitutional, unethical, unscientific, self-contradictory, and not people-oriented. It suffers from greater flaws and deficiencies than the present system. If passed, it will seriously and adversely affect agriculture, health of humans and animals, and the environment, causing unparalleled harm.



BRAI will consist of three full-time and two part-time members. It will have three divisions, each headed by a Chief Regulatory Officer. It will be supported by a Risk Assessment Unit, an Enforcement Unit, a Monitoring Office, a Product Ruling Committee, an Environmental Appraisal Panel, Scientific Advisory Panels, an Inter-ministerial Governing Board, a Biotechnology Advisory Council, and State Biotechnology Regulatory Advisory Committees. These bodies would consist mostly of bureaucrats who are likely to have little knowledge of the highly complex issues that arise in today's biotechnology. No civil society participation is proposed anywhere. Even the proposed Biotechnology Regulatory Appellate Tribunal will not accept complaints from civil society, in spite of the fact that the Bill directly or indirectly affects every citizen. It is not even clear which department of the Government of India will service BRAI. The Convener of the Selection Committee for members of BRAI will be from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), which is a vendor of genetic engineering (the technology that BRAI is supposed to regulate) in the country. The Bill says the members of BRAI will be persons of integrity. There is, however, no requirement of integrity for members of any of the other committees mentioned above!



The Bill is unconstitutional as agriculture is a State subject, and it takes away from the State government the authority to take decisions on GM plant products. In this connection, it is noteworthy that more than 10 States cutting across political affiliations formally told Mr. Ramesh in 2009-2010 that they would not permit Bt brinjal to be released in their territories.



No public consultation

Article 28 of the Bill states the information declared by BRAI “confidential commercial information” will not come under the RTI Act, and there is no way civil society can challenge its decision to declare any information confidential. In spite of the fact that BRAI encompasses activities that would virtually affect every Indian, there is no mention in the Bill of public consultation.

Articles 81, 86 and 87.2, which allow BRAI to override any existing law in the areas covered by BRAI, contradict Article 86, which says “the provisions [of BRAI] shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other law for the time being in force



The definition of modern biotechnology in Article 3 (r) is absurd as it excludes a large number (over 25) of areas such as peptide synthesis, immuno-technology, tissue culture, stem cells and nano-biotechnology that are an integral part of today's biotechnology. Not only that, it would make techniques that are used in everyday research in modern biology such as isolation or sequencing of DNA and the PCR technique illegal, unless approved by BRAI in every specific case. So every university in the country teaching these extremely widely used techniques will have to get BRAI permission for teaching them to undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Funnier is the inclusion in Schedule I (which lists organisms and products “which should be regulated by the Authority”) of cloned animals, DNA vaccines, and stem cell-based products. There is no mention of them in the main text of the Bill. Schedule 1 also includes “products of synthetic biology for human or animal use.” I have been in the business of modern biology for six decades and seen the modern biological evolution from very close quarters with more than 20 of my friends having won Nobel prizes but, for the life of me, I cannot make out what is meant by “products of synthetic biology.



In fact, if one strictly followed item 2(d) of Schedule 1, no organ transplantation would be possible in the country without BRAI permission!

One would also have expected that the Bill, if it was people-oriented, to state the procedure to be adopted before approval of a GM product. The first step should be to determine the need for the product through a socio-economic survey and analysis. If there is need, then one should determine if there are cheaper, better and well-established alternatives such as smart or molecular breeding, organic agriculture, or use of Integrated Pest Management or bio-pesticides in the case of GM products containing a foreign pesticidal gene. If it is concluded that there is no alternative to, say, a GM crop, one would need to state a mechanism for deciding what tests the GM crop would need to undergo, and a statement of who will do the tests to ensure public credibility. There is no provision in the Bill for an independent testing laboratory for GM crops, in which civil society would have confidence.



No mention of mandatory labelling

There is no mention of mandatory labelling of GM food products, and there is no protection provided to, say, farmers whose fields growing, for example products of organic agriculture, get contaminated with a GM product of the neighbouring farm.



Article 62 under “Offences and Penalties” is unprecedented. It implies that anyone making a statement about a GM crop which BRAI decides is false or misleading, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend up to three months and also with a fine which may extend to Rs. 5 lakh. BRAI will not be obliged to state the basis of its decision which is not challengeable by any member of civil society. The Bill thus assumes that all the wisdom of biotechnology lies with the five members of the Authority, and what thousands of leading scientists say will cut no ice with the members of BRAI.



One may justifiably ask why this Bill. The reasons are clear. Food business is the biggest in the world. Whosoever controls it will control the world. To control food production, one needs to control just seed and agrochemicals production. This is what a handful of multinational seed companies, which are also producers of agrochemicals such as pesticides and weedicides, are attempting to do through patented GM crops. These companies are located in the United States, and liaise closely with the U.S. government.



In fact, one of the biggest quarrels between the U.S. and Europe is that Europe, by and large, does not allow GM crops and requires appropriate labelling of all food products that contain more than 0.9 per cent of GM material. No such labelling is required in the U.S. where, therefore, a person today does not know if he is consuming GM food.



Till a few years ago, there was no significant opposition to GM crops in India. In fact, the mechanism set up by the Government of India, ostensibly to regulate GM products, largely worked as a vendor of GM products, serving the interests of seed and agrochemical MNCs.



But, then, people of India became wiser and better-informed. Consequently, against all odds and expectations of the MNCs, and of the U.S. government and the rulers in India, we had an indefinite moratorium on Bt brinjal, and the opposition to GM crops became a force to reckon with. Some components of the existing regulatory system have also begun to assert themselves. As of today, at least five States (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Himachal Pradesh) have formally declared that they will not allow field trials and/or open release of any GM crop. So, the present system had to be disabled, and roadblocks to fulfilling the ambition of the U.S. and the seed MNCs removed. What better way to achieve this than by BRAI — so the government thought. But, I believe, the GoI has again underestimated the collective wisdom of the people of India!



(Pushpa M. Bhargava is former Vice-Chairman, National Knowledge Commission.)

http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/article2752711.ece?homepage=true








          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
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          Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines.   
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Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:248

Authors: Jaurigue JA, Seeberger PH

Abstract
Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases-malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development.

PMID: 28660174 [PubMed - in process]


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From The Princeton Review - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 05:49:36 GMT - View all British Columbia jobs
          Intrexon Appoints Helen Sabzevari, Ph.D., Senior Vice President, Human Therapeutics and Head of Research and Development of Precigen   

Intrexon Corporation logo. (PRNewsFoto/Intrexon Corporation)GERMANTOWN, Md., June 29, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Intrexon Corporation (NYSE: XON), a leader in the engineering and industrialization of biology to improve the quality of life and health of the planet, today announced the appointment of Helen Sabzevari, Ph.D., Senior Vice President, Intrexon...



          Calimari Camo   
One sticky step closer to invisibility. #marinebiology #camouflage #reflectin
          Sexy Student Girl Gave Her Best To Learn All About Penis For Biology Exam Tomorrow   
Watch Sexy Student Girl Gave Her Best To Learn All About Penis For Biology Exam Tomorrow at free fuck and porn video site
          It’s Time for the World Heritage Convention to Step Up Protection of Globally Significant Wilderness Areas   
Despite being irreplaceable and increasingly threatened, wilderness areas remain under-valued, under-protected, and have been almost completely ignored in international environmental policy. Immediate pro-active action is required to save them. The question is where such action could come from. In a paper just published in Conservation Biology, we argue that the World Heritage Convention has the ability to protect wilderness areas by improving coverage within Natural World Heritage Sites (NWHS). This is something very much in the World Heritage Convention’s best interests if it is to meet its core objective to identify and conserve the world’s most valuable sites.
          Mussels, crabs, and other emails living in ecosystem using oil as energy source   
At asphalt volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico that spew oil, gas and tar, mussels and sponges live in symbiosis with bacteria providing them with food. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology and colleagues from the USA have now discovered deep-sea animals living in symbiosis with bacteria that use oil as an energy source and appear to thrive on short-chained alkanes in the oil. According to the researchers, bacteria closely related to the symbionts, which bloomed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, used this ability to degrade the oil in the sea. Oil forms the basis for
          Origin of Homo Sapiens is at least 300,000 years ago based on new fossils instead of 200,000 years   
New finds of fossils and stone tools from the archaeological site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, push back the origins of our species by one hundred thousand years and show that by about 300 thousand years ago important changes in our biology and behavior had taken place across most of Africa. The first of our kind. Two views of a composite reconstruction of the earliest known Homo sapiens fossils from Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) based on micro computed tomographic scans of multiple original fossils. Dated to 300 thousand years ago these early Homo sapiens already have a modern-looking face that falls within
          'UNDER THE ALIEN SKIN' - June 29, 2017   
The existence of rational, sentient beings on a planet other than Earth is no longer a fantastic, remote possibility conjectured by imaginative and unrealistic minds. It is declared not a possibility but a probability by an ever-growing chorus of distinguished astronomers and eminent scientists in all fields. Already, there has been established a new science – “exobiology,” the study of forms of extraterrestrial life. On tonight’s show, Clyde Lewis talks about UNDER THE ALIEN SKIN.

          Entry-Level Environmental Associate - Michael Baker International - Temecula, CA   
You’ll need a Bachelor Degree in Environmental Science, Planning, Biology, Ecology or a related field, and 0 to 2 years of experience:....
From Michael Baker International - Thu, 20 Apr 2017 23:48:58 GMT - View all Temecula, CA jobs
          Science and Technology Analyst   
OH-Columbus, Job Description Headway Workforce Solutions is currently seeking a Science and Technology Analyst for a 3 to 6 month contract opportunity in Columbus, OH with our partner, one of the nation's largest producers and transporters of energy. Our client’s Applied Genomics and Biology Business Line is currently seeking a Science and Technology Contractor to provide support involving the evaluation and a
          €5.7 million for novel treatment approaches in pediatric brain cancer   

Children with low grade brain cancer usually suffer many years of distress. An international initiative that is coordinated at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Hopp Children's Tumor Center (KiTZ) at the National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg has now been established with the goal of changing this. Research teams from Heidelberg and London aim to gain better understanding of the biology of low grade pediatric brain tumors and to use these findings to develop novel treatment approaches. The British Brain Tumour Charity provides funds of €5.7 million to support the project, which was launched in late June.The Hopp Children's Tumor Center at the NCT Heidelberg (KiTZ) is a joint institution of the Heidelberg University Hospital and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ).

Copyright: Philipp Benjamin/Heidelberg University Hospital

Copyright: Philipp Benjamin/Heidelberg University Hospital


          QA Lab Technician (Food & Beverage) - Kawartha Dairy Limited - Bobcaygeon, ON   
Bachelor of Science Degree or Diploma in Microbiology or Food Science. Reporting to the Quality Assurance Supervisor, the scope of this position involves...
From Indeed - Tue, 23 May 2017 16:42:04 GMT - View all Bobcaygeon, ON jobs
          A Decade of Bioenergy Research, Ethanol Producer Magazine   

JBEI has pioneered the development of advanced routes to the production of fuels from sugars for use in blendstocks by using synthetic biology.

The post A Decade of Bioenergy Research, Ethanol Producer Magazine appeared first on jbei.org.


          High School Biology/Science Teacher - Math Plus Tutors - Sarnia, ON   
Math Plus Tutors inspires success by tackling learning challenges. We have an exceptional team of local professionals ready to meet the need of your children.... $21.50 - $23.00 an hour
From Indeed - Sun, 28 May 2017 22:39:37 GMT - View all Sarnia, ON jobs
          HIGH SCHOOL MATH / SCIENCE TUTOR - Oxford Learning Centers - Kanata, ON   
Advanced functions, data management, calculus, physics, chemistry, and biology. HIGH SCHOOL MATH / SCIENCE TUTOR....
From Oxford Learning Centers - Mon, 24 Apr 2017 21:44:17 GMT - View all Kanata, ON jobs
          –   
We have previously published articles by the Australian AIDS-and-biology researcher Cal Crilly, and here is yet another installment. Cal is someone who digs into scientific studies. He does biological detective work and finds gems that hide in plain view, things we don't normally understand and that even the experts do not see as they are not trained to put discordant facts together and question basic assumptions. What this new article tells us is that retroviruses - the same kind that are thought to cause immune deficiency or AIDS - are useful and necessary for our immune system to function correctly. That of course tends to leave the hypothesis of a viral causation of AIDS in grave trouble. I say 'hypothesis' because no one has proven, or even come close to a coherent explanation for, the mechanism of AIDS causation by HIV. How does a retrovirus that is by nature a benign particle, cause devastation of the immune system? Here we have several scientific studies published in the world's finest journals, which attest to the fact that retroviruses are part and parcel of the human organism, that they are needed to provide certain defensive capabilities against invaders, and that they are not pathogenic. So we might ask ourselves why HIV tests (thought to indicate the presence of a retrovirus) are still performed, and why doctors are still recommending the use of toxic anti-retroviral drugs to kill what, rather than a foreign invader, appears to be part of normal human metabolic processes. Cal Crilly lays it out for you, citing and linking the sources......
          –   
This is another installment of research into the biochemistry of HIV and Aids by Cal Crilly, an Australian who finds himself fascinated with the intricacies of biology. Crilly analyzes the seemingly unconnected studies that show the biochemical changes that accompany the presence of numerous retroviruses - one of them called HIV - in humans. The mechanism that makes retroviruses appear is hypomethylation, and it is the same mechanism that accompanies pregnancy and inflammation. Those retroviruses are produced in the course of normal biological activity and they are not infectious. There are many different types (ever heard of HIV 'mutating'?). As an aside, we declare pregnant mothers to be "HIV positive" as pregnancy causes the presence of retroviruses in the course of normal biological activity, and those harmless endogenous retroviruses react with what's generally called an "HIV" test. Certain basic nutrients - Selenium, Folate, B12, B6, Choline are the most important - counteract hypomethylation of the cells and thereby calm the production of human endogenous retroviruses. The toxic Aids drug AZT causes hypermethylation but it is so destructive of normal cell processes that most patients die. The 'life prolonging' effect of HAART, the drug cocktail that is prescribed to Aids patients today is due to a sharp decrease in the dosage of deadly AZT in the cocktail. Cal demonstrates those facts and more with reference to studies you can find as well, if you're interested in the details. Meanwhile we continue to treat immune compromised people with drugs that further compromise the immune system and - in many cases - kill the patient. When is medicine going to start treating those people by insisting on better eating and supplementation supplying the correct nutrients? How long will it take until the toxic drugs are phased out in favor of real prevention?...
          –   
It is hard to make sense of the numerous contradictions in the official explanation of what causes Aids and how to best fight the scourge. But then - the confusion may be fully intentional. Aids as a strategy and cover for de-population would make perfect sense. It is race specific, its victims are the poor and socially deviant, and if we believe the press, the whole population of the African continent is at grave risk. A high percentage of those treated eventually do die. What they die of is the hard question that must be asked. Aids testing, prevention and treatment are promoted by the medical/pharmaceutical world and by the mainstream press as essential counter-measures. Yet both Aids testing and treatment target certain racial and social groups and the populations of developing countries, especially if they are located on the African continent. The interpretation of test results is largely arbitrary. Prevention consists of giving both mother and child a highly toxic shot of medicine, and treatment - more often than not - seals the fate of the victim. Treatment leads to a more or less certain death. All that is promised is that the death will be slowed by "life extending" drugs. What makes me think of a deliberate strategy with regards to Aids and the confusion that surrounds it, is the point-blank refusal of the reigning pharmaceutical/medical establishment to even address those contradictions, to discuss in an open way with those who point out that something's not right. Perhaps I am too suspicious, but it seems to me that so much bungling cannot be the result of mere inadequacy. Contradictions, Contradictions Some of the most egregious contradictions I have found over the years are: Tests identify people who "have Aids" but they do not find a virus, merely some specific proteins that could be (and apparently are) associated with a host of non-Aids conditions. The interpretation of tests is different for people with different life stories. Likelihood of a positive test result is increased by being gay or promiscuous, by being of African descent or just by living in a poor part of town, yet "universal testing" is being advocated. In Africa, the definition of Aids does not rely on a test. It is sufficient if you have the symptoms of several of the diseases that are rampant there, diseases brought on by poor hygiene and by bad nutrition. Instead of helping Africans overcome the endemic diseases of their continent with better sanitation and freshly grown produce, we send them toxic Aids drugs and industrially produced, often genetically modified grains. Prevention and treatment of Aids are always highly toxic. More Aids victims die of iatrogenic liver disease brought on by the doctor-prescribed pharmaceutical drugs than of the "opportunistic" diseases that a failing immune system is said to bring on. People who refuse treatment often do not get ill - especially if they adopt a healthy lifestyle - some have been documented to stay healthy for decades. Most people who take Aids drugs suffer horrible "side effects", among them immune deficiency brought on by the drugs. They also die early. Yet no studies have been done to compare a natural, healthy regimen of nutrition and good life with the recommended antiretroviral drug treatment. The isolation of the viral entity that is said to cause Aids has never been published in a peer-review journal. The virus cannot be isolated from sick individuals. No one has shown how the viral entity actually CAUSES immune deficiency. Yet a Nobel prize has recently been awarded to Luc Montagnier and a collaborator for the discovery of HIV. That rabbit hole is very deep. The more you dig, the more absolutely incomprehensible facts and contradictions emerge. One of the most articulate critics of the Aids orthodoxy is Dr Andrew Maniotis, a Professor of Pathology and Program Director in the University of Chicago's Department of Pathology, Anatomy, Cell Biology and Bioengineering. In the following piece, Dr Maniotis highlights the failures of the paradigm that says Aids is caused by an infective agent called HIV and it must be treated with anti-retroviral drugs. In the second part of this post, Dr Maniotis comments on an article in the New Statesman that comments on the controversy around Aids. Perhaps I should be clear that Dr Maniotis, while pointing at the various inconsistencies, does not advocate any conspiratorial view of Aids. If I imply such a conspiratorial (de-population) connection, that view is mine alone. The failures of the HIV/Aids hypothesis According to former NIH director, and Nobel Laureate, Harold Varmus who formed the committee that named “HIV” “HIV,” retrovirus-derived DNA sequences (genes that come from viruses whose genes are made out of RNA instead of DNA), may be ancient molecular “parasites” in their associations with other organisms. As such, they may not be recognizable as foreign molecules to the human immune system (which explains the STEP trial and 60 other "HIV" vaccine disasters, perfectly). Thus, “retroviruses” or their components are not immunogenic (capable of being seen as foreign by the human immune system), because “HIV’'s” molecules, and those of other “retroviruses” are not seen as foreign or non-self,” because they are, and always have been, part of the incredible repertory of the combinatorial complexity of the normal human genome. Supposedly, if we are around on this planet millions of years from now, the human immunoglobulin cassette (that part of the T-cell genome that immunologists claim can be instantaneously rearranged to respond to foreign antigens) new immuonglobulins will continuously be produced to counter any “foreign” molecular challenge, which are not yet present on this earth yet. Therefore, we have NOT sequenced the total human genome, because some of it’s sequences don’t yet exist. And they may not exist in persons said to have “AIDS,” hepatitis B or C or D, as a response to a foreign virus, but these signatures may instead represent the breakdown products of autoimmune diseases that cause cells to spit out “virus-like particles.” As molecular parasites, and as response of our own cellular reactions to common diseases, foreign proteins or metabolic and even psychological stressors such as an AIDS or cancer death sentence, “retroviruses,” their genes, and their molecules, may be simply a byproduct of our stressed cells, because they always have been, are, and always will be, made by our own cells. The amazing thing is that: some antiretroviral drug regimens in some people (almost half of them it appears) can stop the cells from producing these stress responses and their consequent virus-like particles as shown in the German drug addiction clinics by Heinrich Kremer and Juliana Sacher. But these doctors warn, when taken long-term, HAART will cause damage to the bone marrow and others systems, as literally dozens of mainstream clinical trials have demonstrated. It isn’'t only the 60 vaccine failures that raise issue with the “HIV=AIDS” hypothesis. And it isn’'t that cures for cancer or “HIV-disease” have been foiled in every case by “mutation.” Other failures of the “HIV=AIDS” hypothesis include: The failure to really isolate “HIV,” from all other objects in the Universe, or to explain what its confusing presence in healthy drug-naïve persons means; The failure to appreciate, that the association of a molecular marker with any disease state, does not prove, disprove, or even suggest causality; The failure of the Nobel committee to appreciate, in the case of Montagnier’'s and Barre-Sinoussi’'s recent award of the Nobel Prize, that their Patient One’'s “viral” isolate,” was derived from a fellow with swollen lymph nodes, a history of syphilis and syphilis treatment the year before, a history of gonorrhea, a history of cytomegalovirus infection, a history of herpes I and II infection, a history of Epstein-Barr virus infection, and God knows what else; The failure to appreciate, in the case of Robert Gallo'’s so-called amplification of “HIV” markers in stimulated tumor-cell cultures not killed by “HIV,” that “HIV markers” are detectable in less than half to a third of of 72 healthy persons, and not persons now considered to be AIDS patients. And as shocking as it is, a failure to appreciate that there still is no rational or acceptable cell culture model or method to grow HIV” in Petri dishes; The failure of the Nobel committee to appreciate that, a) “HPV” (human papilloma viruses) molecular sequences that are sometimes associated with cervical cancers are just that: they are molecular sequences, not Human papilloma viruses. HPV virus particles, to date have not been shown to induce cervical cells or any other kind of cells to become cancerous, and b) the failure of the Nobel Committee to acknowledge and heed the widely publicized warnings in the Journal “College of American Pathologists (CAP),” and also by senior investigators at the National Cancer Institute, and the company Digene who make “HPV” molecular tests, that HPV-sequences” have not been validated against the clinical occurrence of clinical cervical cancer. In this context, the Nobel committee also failed to appreciate the shameful carnage currently being perpetrated by the so-called first cancer vaccine GARDASIL (made by the same company Merck, who 20 years ago claimed that their hepatitis B vaccine was the first “anti-cancer” vaccine, before France filed a class action suit to stop the hepatitis B vaccine mandate for its young citizens, because it harmed so many); The failure to sequence the “HIV” genome as a consistent pattern or sequence, or to identify specific proteins that are not also found in normal, “non-infected” contexts; The failure to inform the public (and most scientists) that reverse transcriptase is not specific to viruses, nor are the gag, pol, env, p24, and other so-called “HIV-specific” genes and their products, which all can be detected in normal, “non-infected” contexts, and which are published on Medline; The failure a) to block transmission of “HIV” or AIDS in mother to child transmission studies (MTCT) as shown by the Cochran Meta-analysis and other peer-reviewed reports, which showed increased “HIV mutation rates” after black box label drugs such as nevirapine were discontinued in the U.S., and ashamedly administered to more than eight hundred seventy five thousand African mother-infant pairs by Max Essex of Harvard, and others and b) the failure to acknowledge or appreciate that safety officers of the NIH, such as Dr. Fishbein, who monitored such trials as a safety officer, were fired, while those individuals such as Edmond Tremont who directed the nevaripine trial(s) were not even reprimanded after he had changed the data in safety reports that Dr. Fishbein and others had uncovered, in order to push forward George Bush’s PEPFAR pogrom and the eugenics pogram on Africans; The failure to understand why ARV’s (anti-retrovirals) in some individuals, can prevent "AIDS syndromes," because their toxicity to normal immune cells can not only can block these cells from expressing HIV-specific” molecules as a normal response to a physiological stress, or as evidence of a rare genetic polymorphism, but because these drugs are so toxic, that like antibiotics, they suppress both fungal and bacterial growth, but cannot prevent theoretical virus proliferation, because if the HIV” paradigm is correct, these genomes of “HIV” are rapidly integrated into the DNA of the “infected,” and will never be sensitive to drugs designed against their “molecules.” The failure of microbicides, condom campaigns, and circumcision, that more often than not, have increased the rate of detecting “HIV’s” molecular markers, instead of decreasing them among African human “lab rats;” The failure to a) appreciate the disaster and infant mortality caused by breast feeding dissuasion campaigns, designed to decrease infant mortality from “HIV-infection,” but which increased infant mortality 20 times in formula fed infants, compared to mother-infant pairs that didn'’t listen to their doctors, and who weren'’t dissuaded from breast feeding, and b) the failure to appreciate the corresponding terrorism that has been waged against new mothers to promote formula dumping on 3rd World nations, and perhaps because of a hatred of the human female’s breast and the disgusting nature of breast feeding; The failure to acknowledge how projected and WHO-manufactured “HIV” and AIDS”...
          Director of Sales - Business Development, Sales And Marketing, M   
San Francisco, If you are a Director / Head of Sales and Marketing with experience in the Biology / Genomics space, please read on! If you are interested in working for an early-staged VC-Backed start-up where you can have a direct impact on the company's future and work alongside some of the smartest and brightest in the biotech industry you will want to hear more! We are a platform for executing next-gen seque
          Mechanisms governing inflammasome activation, assembly and pyroptosis induction   
Abstract
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death to exert host defense against microbes. Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors such as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma 2 like receptors (ALRs) assemble the inflammasome complexes in response to pathogens and danger or altered-self signals in the cell. Inflammasome sensors, in association with an adaptor protein—apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and -recruitment domain (ASC)—activate inflammatory caspase-1 to enable the release of inflammatory cytokines and induce cell death, conferring host defense against pathogens. Beyond infectious diseases, the importance of inflammasomes is implicated in a variety of clinical conditions such as auto-inflammatory diseases, neuro-degeneration and metabolic disorders and the development of cancers. Understanding inflammasome activation and its molecular regulation can unveil therapeutic targets for controlling inflammasome-mediated disorders. In this review, we describe recent advances in inflammasome biology and discuss its activation, structural insights into inflammasome assembly and mechanisms for the execution of pyroptosis.

          Senior Terrestrial Ecologist / Ecologist - Groundwater Environmental Management Services (GEMS) - Canada   
Minimum Bachelor's Degree in biology, earth science, environmental science or related major. Senior Terrestrial Ecologist / Ecologist....
From Groundwater Environmental Management Services (GEMS) - Sun, 12 Mar 2017 08:29:23 GMT - View all Canada jobs
          Singapore scientists uncover how the liver unclogs itself   
(National University of Singapore) A multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the Mechanobiology Institute, Singapore at the National University of Singapore, the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology of A*STAR, and BioSyM, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology have described the mechanical principles adopted by liver cells as they remove excess bile during obstructive cholestasis. This study was published online in the Journal of Hepatology.
          22nd Annual Dickens Symposium: Interdisciplinary Dickens   

22nd Annual Dickens Symposium: Interdisciplinary Dickens

Charles Dickens was the ultimate interdisciplinary thinker. The encyclopedic quality of his writing, his incorporation of characters from all classes and walks of life, his genius at being “a special correspondent for posterity,” and his interest in reforms in prisons, the treatment of the insane and urban design--all result in works that reflect on a wide range of disciplines and that can be effectively illuminated by interdisciplinary approaches. This international conference examines Dickens through the lens of art, biology, law, medicine, philosophy, political science, religion, and more. Co-sponsored by the Dickens Society (http://dickenssociety.org/) and The Center for Interdisciplinary Teaching & Learning (CITL) (http://www.bu.edu/cgs/citl/) at Boston University College of General Studies. Register on Eventbrite (https://www.eventbrite.com/e/22nd-annual-dickens-symposium-interdisciplinary-dickens-tickets-31156144868) by June 29.

12:00am on Friday, July 14th 2017

College of General Studies, 871 Commonwealth Ave.

http://www.bu.edu/cgs/citl/dickenssymposium/


          ビッグ ディックス タイニー チックス   

When teen Tiffany sneaks up on her friend's father in the shower, his monster man meat sneaks up into her pussy. Alyssa is on a mission to get an autograph from her favourite musician. But he gives her something much bigger to remember him by. Abby keeps screwing up in her catering gig, so she's determined not to screw up the one big thing: her boss. Cindy needs some help with her studies. Lex can help her get in touch with her inner-most biology.

          Senior Principal Scientist, ImmunoPharmacology Tumor Biology - Pfizer Inc. - La Jolla, CA   
Pfizer is an E-Verify employer. A career at Pfizer offers opportunity, ownership and impact. Pfizer, a global leader in the biopharmaceutical industry, is...
From Indeed - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 14:21:01 GMT - View all La Jolla, CA jobs
          Senior Scientist, ImmunoPharmacology Tumor Biology - Pfizer Inc. - La Jolla, CA   
Pfizer is an E-Verify employer. A career at Pfizer offers opportunity, ownership and impact. All over the world, Pfizer colleagues work together to positively...
From Indeed - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 14:17:10 GMT - View all La Jolla, CA jobs
          Senior Associate Scientist, ImmunoPharmacology Tumor Biology - Pfizer Inc. - La Jolla, CA   
Pfizer is an E-Verify employer. A career at Pfizer offers opportunity, ownership and impact. All over the world, Pfizer colleagues work together to positively...
From Indeed - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 14:14:11 GMT - View all La Jolla, CA jobs
          Computational Methods in Systems Biology '09 -- Abstracts of the Posters   
Degano, Pierpaolo and Gorrieri, Roberto (2009) Computational Methods in Systems Biology '09 -- Abstracts of the Posters. Technical Report del Dipartimento di Informatica . Università di Pisa, Pisa, IT.
          MCAT Biology Instructor (EV) - The Princeton Review - San Diego, CA   
JOB SUMMARY Teaching is a calling. Whether you’re a professor who loves to teach as much or more than research, a TA who loves to lead classes (and not just...
From The Princeton Review - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 05:47:55 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          A mortalin-like gene is crucial for planarian stem cell viability   
Conte, Maria and Deri, Paolo and Isolani, Maria Emilia and Mannini, Linda and Batistoni, Renata (2009) A mortalin-like gene is crucial for planarian stem cell viability. Developmental Biology, 334 (1). pp. 109-118. ISSN 0012-1606
          MCAT Biology Instructor (EV) - The Princeton Review - Detroit, MI   
JOB SUMMARY Teaching is a calling. Whether you’re a professor who loves to teach as much or more than research, a TA who loves to lead classes (and not just...
From The Princeton Review - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 05:47:21 GMT - View all Detroit, MI jobs
          Laboratory Technician (Microbiology)   
Laboratory Technician (Microbiology) ALS provides a broad range of testing and analytical services to a wide variety of end markets and industries around the globe. They continue to remain at the forefront of the testing services industry, building an enviable reputation. ...
          Science   
News about Science Topics Science Breaking News Science Journals Science Magazines Science E-zines Science Weblogs Archaeology Astronomy Biology Chemistry Earth Sciences Environment Health Natural Disasters Hazards Physics Skeptical Inquiry Space Technology School Science News Science Publications Some Results: News about Science ABC News: Technology & Science: News stories along with podcasts, video and blogs. USA. … Continuar leyendo "Science"
          По-братски   

Раскрыто генетическое происхождение народов Южного Кавказа

http://img12.nnm.me/4/0/c/4/4/d06042b479a6479f022e4f8a747.jpg

Пастух в Азербайджане

Женская часть населения Армении практически не изменилась за последние восемь тысяч лет. К такому выводу пришла международная группа исследователей из России, Армении и Дании, проанализировав митохондриальную ДНК людей, живших несколько тысячелетий назад на Южном Кавказе. Исследование опубликовано в журнале Current Biology.

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          Alive and Shine with Aadil and Savitri!: Encore Ignorance May Not Be Bliss Afterall   
GuestDr. Klinghardt is a world renowned physician. His research on neuro-biology and the effect our environment has on our nervous system is legend. Aadil will interview Dr. Klinghardt who is also the founder and chairman of the German and Swiss Institute for Neuro Biology.
          Alive and Shine with Aadil and Savitri!: Alive and Shine with Aadil and Savitri Ignorance May Not Be Bliss Afterall   
GuestDr. Klinghardt is a world renowned physician. His research on neuro biology and the effect our environment has on our nervous system is legend. Aadil will interview Dr. Klinghardt who is also the founder and chairman of the German and Swiss Institute for Neuro Biology.
          Weekend Schedule of Events   

Thursday, June 29th   Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve Turtle Talks 2-3pm  Join the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve for weekly Turtle Talk presentations to learn about the behavior and biology of these endangered species as well as what you can do to help make their nesting season successful. The presentations are free, family friendly and will be […]

The post Weekend Schedule of Events appeared first on Apalachicola Bay Chamber of Commerce.


          Turtle Talks   

Join the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve for weekly Turtle Talk presentations to learn about the behavior and biology of these endangered species as well as what you can do to help make their nesting season successful. The presentations are free, family friendly and will be given each Wednesday throughout the summer.

The post Turtle Talks appeared first on Apalachicola Bay Chamber of Commerce.


          Research Associate - University of British Columbia - Okanagan, BC   
This research requires advanced knowledge of the soil nitrogen cycle, the biology of crown gall disease in grape, and of quantitative molecular techniques....
From University of British Columbia - Tue, 20 Jun 2017 12:51:32 GMT - View all Okanagan, BC jobs
          Outstanding Reviewers for Integrative Biology in 2016   
Following the success of Peer Review Week in September 2016 (dedicated to reviewer recognition) during which we published a list of our top reviewers, we are delighted to announce that we will continue to recognise the contribution that our reviewers make to the journal by announcing our Outstanding Reviewers each year. We would like to […]
          What are your colleagues reading in Integrative Biology?   
The articles below are some of the most read Integrative Biology articles in 2016. You can view the full collection of our top 10 downloaded articles here. Mimicking the topography of the epidermal–dermal interface with elastomer substrates Priyalakshmi Viswanathan, Murat Guvendiren, Wesley Chua, Stephanie B. Telerman, Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Jason A. Burdick and Fiona M. Watt   […]
          CellMatrix poster prize winners   
Many congratulations to Lakshmi Kavitha Sthanam (IIT Bombay) and Asja Guzman (Columbia University) on winning the poster prizes at the International Conference on New Advances in Probing Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions (CellMatrix). Integrative Biology was the proud sponsor of these poster prizes and the winners received book vouchers and Royal Society of Chemistry certificates. This meeting took place in […]
          Top 10 Reviewers for Integrative Biology   
In celebration of Peer Review Week, with the theme of Recognition for Review – we would like to highlight the top 10 reviewers for Integrative Biology in 2016, as selected by the editor for their significant contribution to the journal. Name Institution Dr Shelly Peyton University of Massachusetts Amherst Dr Chris Moraes McGill University Dr […]
          Nanoparticle Chemistry Technician, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine   
University of Calgary - Canada - cell interactions/behavior (eg: ELISA, FACS) Microscopy (transmission electron microscopy, super-resolution confocal microscopy, scanning... electron microscopy) Continuous development and streamlining of processes and procedures The ability to work under minimal supervision, in a busy...
          Postdoctoral Fellows - Mechanobiology of Tissue Repair   
St. Michael's Hospital - Banting, Selangor - Ontario - . Experiments will involve a wide range of techniques, including organ decellularization, atomic force microscopy, microindentation/microaspiration..., electron microscopy, cell and tissue imaging, transcriptomic analyses, and mouse models of fibrovascular injury. These projects will offer a unique...
          Setting Girls Up for Successful STEM Careers   
On June 28, Girl Scouts and the American Petroleum Institute (API) were joined by Senators Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) and Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND) at a briefing to highlight to Congress the need to increase girls’ involvement in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). The group discussed programs and policies that encourage girls to pursue STEM careers, with Senator Capito, a co-chair of Girl Scouts’ honorary Congressional troop, emphasizing the value of empowering girls with the tools and resources to become STEM leaders. Representatives from both Girl Scouts of the USA and Girl Scouts of the Chesapeake Bay (Delaware council) drove home the unique benefits of Girl Scouts’ STEM programming, and Girl Scout Ambassador Veyola Rezkalla shared how her experiences as a Girl Scout spurred her interest in biology. 


In front of a standing-room-only crowd, Veyola said that Girl Scouts provided her with hands-on STEM opportunities that instilled in her the confidence to succeed in the field. This fall she’ll attend the University of Delaware, where she plans to major in biological sciences, bringing her closer to her goal of becoming a pediatrician. 

Veyola and Senator Capito were joined by the API’s Tara Anderson, who discussed difficulties she’sseen in the energy industry’s efforts to recruit more women. Ms. Anderson noted that while growth in STEM jobs has tripled over the past ten years, many girls and women still struggle to see themselves in these careers due to a lack of role models and encouragement during their adolescent years. 

Hoping to build off STEM programming offered at local Girl Scout councils and boost girls’ interest in the fields, the API is partnering with councils to host “energy literacy” events for girls across the country. And this summer, Girl Scouts will debut a series of STEM badges girls can earn on topics that include cybersecurity, engineering, robotics, and computer programing.

Members of Congress and partners like the API are vital allies in advancing policies that allow girls to thrive in the ever-growing fields of STEM. Whether they choose to become the next accomplished astrophysicists or more generally appreciate the science all around them, when they engage in STEM, girls enhance their self-confidence, strengthen their problem-solving abilities, and are more likely to take on leadership roles in their communities. In other words, through STEM experiences, girls gain the skills they need to become successful leaders—regardless where their career paths lead them.

          Hear It from a Girl Scout: I Would Rather Be the Researcher Than the Enthusiast   
Since 2013, in collaboration with Arconic Foundation, Girl Scouts of the USA has awarded ten Girl Scouts the Chuck McLane Scholarship, which is available to Gold Award recipients who complete projects related to science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). Earlier this month, we announced that Ashley Martin of Girl Scouts of North-Central Alabama was a recipient of the Chuck McLane Scholarship for 2017. She will attend the University of Georgia as a Bernard Ramsey Scholar majoring in genetics. Check out her story and what she has to say about her experience at Girl Scouts.

Tell us about your STEM-related Gold Award project and your experience at Girl Scouts.

My project is a curriculum that gives a mostly unbiased overview of genetic engineering and genetically modified foods and encourages people to develop their own opinions. The curriculum is a three-day unit study, including materials to cover the scientific, economic, social, and environmental impacts of GMO crops. It also provides an overview of basic genetics to facilitate understanding of more advanced material. The target audience is a high school–level biology class, advanced middle school students, and homeschoolers. Before making the materials available freely on the Internet, I conducted a small pilot class of 14 people and administered pre- and post-course quizzes to measure the program’s impact. The pilot class went well, with a 43 percent increase between an initial background quiz and the final quiz. This curriculum is available at www.BetterLesson.com and www.TeachersPayTeachers.com.

For me, this was a perfect capstone to an incredible experience in Girl Scouts. I started ten years ago, joining a Brownie troop in Pittsburgh before moving to my new home in Huntsville, Alabama. Girl Scouts has given me opportunities to volunteer and try things I would never be able to do on my own, like spending the night in a science museum. My favorite part was making signs and selling cookies every year. As I got older, I started taking on more of a leadership and mentor role, helping my little sister’s troop whenever I could. Being a Girl Scout taught me a lot about the type of person I want to be.


What advice would you give to other girls who are in the process of earning their Gold Award?

Don’t give up! I will confess that at various times my Gold Award project felt overwhelming or impossible. But rather than focus on the whole thing, I learned to break it up into smaller pieces, and then lay out a plan for completing each piece. After that, it was much easier to just focus on and follow the plan. I didn’t need to have a solution for everything at the same time; I just had to tackle the next step in front of me.


How do you take the lead?

The Girl Scouts, my Journeys, and the Gold Award have been great opportunities to take on a leadership role in the more traditional sense. While those were amazing experiences that taught me a lot about myself and the type of person I want to be, I also think leadership doesn’t just happen in those big moments. I also work hard to lead by example in my daily life, often in simple ways. I treat others with respect and compassion. I try to be a good listener, and a good friend, for everyone I know. When someone needs help, I’m the first to jump in and the last to leave. I think this type of leadership on a small scale is just as important as the more traditional examples.


Was there a particular event or moment in your childhood that sparked your interest in STEM?

Ever since I read about an experiment where scientists created cats that glow in the dark, I have been fascinated by biology research. I loved to learn about advancements in genetic engineering and how it has the potential to solve problems affecting both food and medicine. In ninth grade, I realized that I would rather be the researcher making these advancements than the enthusiast reading about them. Ever since then, it has been my goal to be a scientist.


What does the Chuck McLane Scholarship mean to you?

I was incredibly honored to learn I had won the scholarship. Before I applied, I looked over the online descriptions of the previous winners and was blown away by their passion for STEM and the scope of their Gold Award projects. To be considered an equal to these amazing and talented women is humbling. I only hope that I can inspire someone the way that they inspired me!


Where are you going to college, and what STEM studies are you interested in focusing on?

I will be attending the University of Georgia in the fall, majoring in genetics. I have already completed a lot of the freshman biology and chemistry courses through dual enrollment in high school, so I’m excited to jump right in to higher level biology and genetics classes. Ideally, I also want to start conducting research as a freshman, so that I can augment classroom learning with practical experience in a working laboratory setting. I hope to minor in computer science or bioinformatics, as genetics serves as an incredibly complex “big data” problem that will require novel computational analysis methodologies. This will give me the most solid foundation possible for future education and careers.

In the long term, I intend to earn my PhD in genetics and become a researcher in academia or private industry. I would love to work at a cutting-edge biotechnology start-up that uses genetic engineering to improve medicine, agriculture, or pharmaceuticals.


Do you have any female heroes in STEM?

I have always admired the work and life of Marie Curie. She did groundbreaking work in chemistry and physics related to radioactivity during an age when higher education for women was very rare. That work led to a Nobel Prize (twice!) and the discovery of two atomic elements. She then took that science and developed mobile X-ray units used to treat soldiers on the front in World War I. That, to me, is the ultimate goal for any scientist: to not only advance human understanding, but also have a positive impact on society.


What advice would you give to other girls who want to pursue STEM careers?


Just do it! I’m lucky to have had a lot of supportive people in my life who believed in me and taught me I could do anything I put my mind to. But even if you don’t have people in your corner, believe in yourself. I always struggled with math, but made it through college-level Calculus I and II in high school with a lot of blood, sweat, and tears. It was hard work, but incredibly rewarding once I realized I really could do it. Now I know the sky is the limit.


From 2013 through 2017, the Arconic Chuck McLane Scholarship Program has provided a $10,000 scholarship to two girls a year. Learn more about these young women and the other Arconic Chuck McLane Scholarship recipients.

          Happy Mother’s Day to You—and to Every Mom in Your Life!    


At Girl Scouts, we know firsthand that moms and all their awesome, life-changing love come in many different packages. Sometimes “mom” is actually, well, Mom. But many times motherly love comes from others—like aunts, grandmas, dads, and Girl Scout troop leaders—sometimes even from that friendly neighbor who always seems to find the best way to brighten our day.

It’s easy to see that motherhood is rooted not only in biology. Motherhood is active when we support another person’s dream, or pour our love into someone because we see it’s needed. And it’s always an amazing gift. That’s why we’re celebrating all of those who have shared motherly love with the children of this world—including our own Juliette Gordon Low, who founded Girl Scouts to prepare girls to face the world with courage, confidence, and character, making it a better place along the way. Daisy may not have borne children of her own—but she was definitely a mother, and a great one at that!

So today, let’s celebrate all of the mothers out there, no matter what form they come in. Let’s take a moment to pause and say “thank you” to that beautiful person (or people!) in our lives who mothers us. Who worries about us, supports us, nurtures us—who pushes us to be our very best. Let’s acknowledge every person in our lives who helps us find our confidence, who loves us for exactly who and what we are, and who we can always count on to be in our corner, no matter what.

We’d also like to send a very special shout-out to all the Girl Scout moms who give so much to our Girl Scout movement every day—from driving girls to meetings and helping with activities, to leading troops and opening girls’ eyes to life-changing new experiences. We appreciate you, and we know the girls do too!

Happy Mother’s Day!
          A New World Conspiracy – Free Excerpt of Wendy N Wagner’s An Oath of Dogs   
Fancy some expansive, colony science fiction with some corporate intrigue and alien biology all mixed in? Then you’ll love Wendy N Wagner’s expansive, compelling and heartfelt new novel, An Oath of Dogs. Kate Standish has been on the forest-world of Huginn less than a week and she’s already pretty sure her new […]
          The Biology of Belief: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter and Miracles [Audiobook]   

          TWiM #155: Living in the stomach of a cell    

Michele updates the TWiMers on Legionella in the Flint water supply, and Elio informs us about how horizontally acquired biosynthesis genes boost the physiology of Coxiella burnetii.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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Links for this episode

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv


          Dr Josh Axe: Vitamin B17 Controversy: Poison or Cancer Treatment?   
Excerpt:

"Banned by the FDA in the 1980s but touted by some alternative medicine practitioners as a treatment for cancer, the controversy over the innocently named vitamin B17 rages on. Once labeled and marketed as a vitamin, its appearance practically disappeared without a trace within the mainstream medical community.
Today, however, a simple Web search pulls multiple blogs and articles either generously supporting this nutrient as a miracle cure or vilifying it as a hoax.
Vitamin B17, also called amygdalin or laetrile, is a glycoside nutrient linked with cancerprevention in alternative medicine practices — and there are anecdotal claims that it’s actually cured cancer. Vitamin B17 is derived from natural food sources and most abundant in seeds of plants of the prunasin family, such as apricots and apples.
Vitamin B17 interacts with other antioxidants — including vitamin Avitamin C and vitamin E — along with pancreatic enzymes to break down and eliminate harmful cells from the body. This makes it beneficial for detox support, immunity and potentially even various forms of disease prevention.
Vitamin B17, which has the scientific name mandelonitrile beta-D-gentiobioside, is considered a nitriloside, a natural cyanide-containing substance. Laetrile, the extract form of vitamin B17, is most well-known for potentially helping prevent cancer development through the production of hydrogen cyanide.
This beneficial compound is released into the body’s tissues and targets and destroys mutated cells. Although more formal research is still needed to prove vitamin B17’s effectiveness, many alternative medicine practitioners use vitamin B17 to increase immunity. Cyanide is thought to be the main anti-cancer component of vitamin B17 but is not fully proven in clinical settings as of today.

Vitamin B17’s Potentially Big Benefits

1. May Help Protect Against Cancer

Overall, study results investigating the anti-cancer effects of vitamin B17 are mixed. Some show that vitamin B17 is beneficial in avoiding cancer and keeping the spread of existing cancer cells to a minimum, while others show no effects of vitamin B17 on cancerous cells. While many practitioners believe that vitamin B17 laetrile is a very good cancer treatment, most agree that it shouldn’t be the primary cancer treatment for any patient — instead, they recommend that it be used as an effective add-on supplement.
Vitamin B17, specifically in the form of D-amygdalin, may help with the regression and growth of cancerous cells and tumors because it exhibits selective killing effects on mutated cells, also called apoptosis. Apoptosis is a mechanism of “programmed cell death” and considered an important part of cancer treatment. Vitamin B17 compounds have the important ability to kill cancer cells more readily than killing normal, healthy cells.
In a study by the Department of Physiology at Kyung Hee University in South Korea, when amygdalin extract was combined with cancerous human prostate cells, the extract helped significantly induce apotosis in the prostate cancer cells. The researchers conclude that amygdalin may offer a valuable, natural option for treating prostate cancer. (1)
Other animal studies show that vitamin B17 amygdalin is effective at killing cancerous bladder and brain cells under certain conditions, especially when combined with other antibody-enzyme complexes. (2)
On the other hand, other studies using human lung and breast cancer cells show no effects of vitamin B17 on stunting tumor growth. Therefore, in the medical community, there still isn’t agreement at this time as to whether vitamin B17 should be used as an anti-cancer treatment.

2. Boosts Immunity

Vitamin B17 contains special properties that slow down the spread of illness throughout the body by killing harmful cells, but the exact way that vitamin B17 does this isn’t well-understood.
A study published in the International Journal of Radiation and Biology found that vitamin B17 amygdalin stimulated the immune system by causing a statistically significant increase in the ability of a patient’s white blood cells to attack harmful cells. (3) One theory of vitamin B17’s effects suggests that transformation of normal cells into dangerous cells that can cause disease is normally prevented by beneficial enzymes produced within the pancreas. So vitamin B17 may help increase the production of pancreatic enzymes that destroy harmful properties within the body.
Vitamin B17 is also thought to help the body experience enhanced detox effects by supporting liver function. This boosts immune function by ridding the body of toxins, malignant cells and other potentially harmful substances before they cause illness or serious chronic diseases. Another explanation of vitamin B17 mechanisms is that when vitamin B17 releases cyanide, it increases the acid content of tumors and leads to the destruction of harmful cells within the tumors, arresting their growth.

3. Reduces Pain

In a case series published in 1962, when patients were treated with a wide range of doses of intravenous vitamin B17 laetrile, pain relief was the primary benefit reported. Some of the patients’ responses included decreased adenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) and decreased tumor size.
However, patients weren’t followed long term to determine whether or not the benefits continued after treatment stopped, so it’s hard to tell whether vitamin B17 could act as a natural pain reliever for other conditions, such as arthritis. (4)

4. Lowers High Blood Pressure

Vitamin B17 may cause a low blood pressure reaction due to formation of thiocyanate, a powerful blood pressurelowering agent. However, it’s unknown if this is an effective treatment long-term or if the effects are mostly temporary.
Once metabolized, vitamin B17 causes enzyme beta-glucosidase production that interacts with intestinal bacteria to detox the body and lower blood pressure. This normally isn’t a danger for most people and may be beneficial for some, but it’s important not to use vitamin B17 in this way if you already take blood pressure-lowering medication.
If you have any existing heart issues that could become complicated if you experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure, you should avoid taking vitamin B17."
Also mentioned in the article:

Is Vitamin B17 Safe?

Best Sources of Vitamin B17

Is Vitamin B17 Treatment New?

Recommended Intake of Vitamin B17

Types of Vitamin B17 Supplements

Vitamin B17 Recipes

Vitamin B17 Side Effects and Interactions


Link

          Nanobiotechnology Market Globally Estimates $42 Billion by 2021   

Global Nanobiotechnology Market Poised to Bring in $42 billion by 2021

Deerfield Beach, FL -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/30/2017 -- Zion Market Research has published a new report titled "Nanobiotechnology Market for Drug Discovery, Drug Delivery, Diagnostics and Others: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 – 2021" According to the report, the global nanobiotechnology market was valued at approximately USD 28 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach approximately USD 42 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of around 8.5% between 2016 and 2021.

Nanobiotechnology is the convergence of engineering and molecular biology. Nanobiotechnology has the ability to create biological and biochemical materials and devices at molecular and atomic levels. It provides new class of multifunctional systems and devices for biological analysis with better sensitivity and specificity. Nanobiotechnology comprises the application of the tools and processes of nanotechnology to control biological systems. The nanobiotechnology comprises new techniques such as 3D imaging in live cells, real-time imaging, and single molecule imaging bioanalytical microarrays and microfluidic devices and biosensors

Request For Free Sample Report: https://goo.gl/BFES2Y

The major driving factor for the global nanobiotechnology market is rising health awareness among the people and emerging technology. Government initiatives and funding has provided strong boost to nanobiotechnology market in North America and Asia Pacific. Advancement in technology to provide better health services expected to fuel the nanobiotechnology market over the forecast period. However, environmental concern is expected to hamper the growth of nanobiotechnology market. Lack of resources and high technological cost can be barrier for the growth of this industry in emerging and underdeveloped economies. Nonetheless, strong demand from pharmaceutical industry is projected to open up new growth opportunities within the forecast period.

Based on application, the global nanobiotechnology market has been segmented into drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostics and others. Diagnostics was accounted for major share of total nanobiotechnology market in 2015 and expected to exhibit significant share within the forecast period. This growth is mainly due to emerging technology in medical sector. Drug delivery is another key outlet of nanobiotechnology market and expected to show strong growth in this market in the near future. Drug discovery is expected to witness significant growth in the years to come.

Request For Free Price Quotation: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/requestquote?reportid=55960

In terms of geography, North America was the largest market of nanobiotechnology I in the world due to the advancement in technology. Moreover, nanobiotechnology market has huge opportunity in the emerging markets of Asia Pacific due to increasing population coupled with health awareness among people in this region. Latin America is expected to experience significant growth in the near future.

Browse the full report at: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/nanobiotechnology-market-z55960

Some of the leading players includes in nanobiotechnology market such as Calando Pharmaceuticals Inc., Advanced Sensor Technologies, Affymetrix, Gilead Sciences, Applied Nanotech, Advectus Life Sciences, and Elan Pharmaceuticals and others.

This report segments the global nanobiotechnology market as follows:

Application Segment Analysis: Drug Discovery, Drug Delivery, Diagnostics, Others

Regional Segment Analysis: North America (US), Europe(Germany, France, UK), Asia Pacific(China, Japan, India), Latin America(Brazil), Middle East and Africa

About Zion Market Research
Zion Market Research is an obligated company. We create futuristic, cutting edge, informative reports ranging from industry reports, company reports to country reports. We provide our clients not only with market statistics unveiled by avowed private publishers and public organizations but also with vogue and newest industry reports along with pre-eminent and niche company profiles. Our database of market research reports comprises a wide variety of reports from cardinal industries. Our database is been updated constantly in order to fulfill our clients with prompt and direct online access to our database. Keeping in mind the client's needs, we have included expert insights on global industries, products, and market trends in this database. Last but not the least, we make it our duty to ensure the success of clients connected to us—after all—if you do well, a little of the light shines on us.

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          Summer Undergraduate Nonproliferation Program Brings 11 Outstanding Students to Monterey   
Teaser

A unique summer internship opportunity for students interested in nonproliferation brings undergraduate students to the Middlebury Institute of International Studies.

The bustling campus of the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey may quiet down a bit during the summer, but it remains full of energy and opportunity for students eager to learn. One such opportunity is offered by the Institute’s James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS), which furthers its mission—to combat the spread of weapons of mass destruction by educating the next generation of nonproliferation experts—with a unique summer internship opportunity for undergraduate students.

This summer, CNS welcomed a very promising group including nine undergraduate interns and two Davis United World College (UWC) fellows to the center’s Summer Undergraduate Nonproliferation Program. All were selected through a very competitive application process. The interns are from Middlebury College, Brown University, Colby College, Emory University, Duke University, University of California Davis, University of Georgia, University of Saint Andrews in Scotland, and Dublin City University in Ireland, while the two Davis UWC fellows are from Cornell University and Agnes Scott College.

The summer undergraduate nonproliferation program combines on-the-job training with a comprehensive nonproliferation lecture series. Participants conduct research on issues related to the spread and control of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and on regional security issues in the former Soviet Union, Eurasia, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East. In addition to working on ongoing projects at CNS, students develop their own research projects under the guidance of senior Institute faculty and CNS staff.

The center started the summer undergraduate internship program in 1997, and the Davis UWC Fellowship in Nonproliferation Studies was established in 2006. From the inception of each program, interns and Davis UWC fellows have come from a wide variety of majors, including biology, international relations, East Asian studies, nuclear engineering, mathematics, political science, peace studies, computer science, and geology, and from a diverse group of colleges and universities throughout the U.S. The program also sometimes accepts highly qualified international students.

This year, CNS again welcomed Dr. Tariq Rauf, a former high-ranking official at the International Atomic Energy Agency with extensive experience in the nonproliferation and disarmament field, as a special lecturer in the program. His lecture series thoroughly covers international nonproliferation and disarmament regimes, and the challenges facing them. The duration of the internship and fellowship is two to three months between early June and late August.

This year’s internship program is funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and Tom and Sarah Pattison Fund. The Davis UWC Fellowship Program is funded by the Kathryn Davis Fellows for Peace. The Summer Undergraduate Nonproliferation Program complements the Institute’s Master of Arts in Nonproliferation and Terrorism Studies program for graduate students.

Is MIIS Spotlight
No

Summer undergraduate nonproliferation interns with Program Manager Masako Toki (far right) and Visiting Lecturer Tariq Rauf (center, in back).

Top Right Media

CNS undergrad interns 2015

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          MCAT Biology Instructor (EV) - The Princeton Review - Detroit, MI   
JOB SUMMARY Teaching is a calling. Whether you’re a professor who loves to teach as much or more than research, a TA who loves to lead classes (and not just...
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          Post-doctoral fellowship in Microbiology - Brazil   
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          Quality Assurance Manager - Vert Health Ltd - Browning, SK   
QA certification courses considered an asset. Bachelors or Masters degree in Microbiology, Biology, Biochemistry, or Chemistry....
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          Rentokil Initial Malaysia Reveals Vital Importance of Proactive Bed Bug Management in Hotels to Prevent Future Infestations   

Bed bug infestation is one of the key contributors that can ruin a guest's experience in a hotel. Learn what hotel owners and housekeeping staffs can do to reduce the risk of potential bed bug breakout.

Petaling Jaya, Selangor -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/10/2016 -- Bed bug infestation is nothing new in the hospitality sector, in fact, with the rapid hike in the Malaysian tourism industry, it is extremely important for hoteliers to ensure that their hotels have established an integrated pest control program in case of infestations. A recent survey performed at the University of Kentucky proved that nothing drives guests away faster than bed bug problems. 91% of the guests even mentioned that they would not return to the same hotel if they have had a bad experience during their first visit.

According to a report by The Telegraph, a British tourist had an unpleasant experience during her birthday celebration in Langkawi, Malaysia when the 3-star hotel that she checked into was plagued with bed bugs. Incidents like these not only give hotels a bad reputation and discourage return visits, it can also cause severe repercussions, leading to serious financial impacts such as lawsuits.

What should hoteliers do in case of bed bug infestation?

Bed bugs live in the cracks and crevices of walls, bed frames, headboards, bedside tables and draperies. An infestation in a hotel will most likely spread throughout the whole facility by crawling as adult bed bugs and these creepy crawlers can move up to five feet in about a minute. Besides that, they may also hitchhike their way into hotel rooms through vacuum cleaners, laundry, luggage and even housekeeping trolleys.

In case of a bed bug infestation breakout, it is recommended for hoteliers to:

- Assist guests to seek medical assistance for bites if necessary and relocate guests adjacent, side, above and below of the room infested.

- Document identified areas of bed bug infestations, either through staff, guest complaint and pictures; this will help with the elimination process for the pest control operator.

- Assist guest to launder their clothing and hotel to replace all linens. Ensure all items are wrapped in plastic bags during room relocation so that bed bugs do not spread during transportation of these items to the laundry or new room.

- Minimize furniture movements in the infested room to prevent bed bugs from spreading further to other rooms. This restricted movement also applies to the occupant's belongings, if possible, until the arrival of pest control operator.

Besides reactive actions, preventive measures and early detection are also essential because they are one of the keys in reducing the risk of a full-blown infestation. This can be achieved by carrying out periodic inspections by experienced service technicians.

Why pest education is necessary in minimizing potential bed bug infestation?

Housekeepers and hotel staffs are highly encouraged to equip themselves with fundamental bed bug knowledge. Which is why the Bed Bug Awareness Week was initiated and organized annually to provide hoteliers and housekeepers continuous awareness on bed bug issues. Leading pest control company like Rentokil provides educational pest trainings to their customers in the commercial sectors. These trainings are beneficial to the hoteliers as it enables them to understand basic bed bug biology and help them identify the signs of an infestation before it spreads like a wildfire.

The pest control expert also aims to provide hoteliers with complete peace of mind by introducing their 10-day Bed Bug Treatment Program. Rentokil's bed bug elimination program starts off with extensive treatments and it follows with periodic checks to ensure that all bed bugs are eliminated.

"With the growth of online review sites and social media platforms, it has become very easy for consumers to share their bad experiences online. Therefore, hotel owners need to be extra vigilant when it comes to managing bed bug infestations in the hotel facilities because all it takes is one bad review to impact the business negatively." said Carol Lam, the Managing Director of Rentokil Initial Malaysia.

About Rentokil Pest Control Malaysia
Rentokil Pest Control is part of Rentokil Initial group, one of the largest business services companies in the world.

At Rentokil Initial Malaysia, we have 2 brands that are focused on providing the best services with nationwide coverage, fast response and expert technical knowledge: Rentokil Pest Control and Initial Hygiene.

Visit http://www.rentokil-initial.com.my to find out how Rentokil Initial (M) Sdn Bhd services can add value to different business sectors.

For media inquiries please e-mail louise.leong@rentokil-initial.com.

For more information on Rentokil Pest Control, please contact:
1300 885 911
http://www.rentokil.com.my/
15th Floor, Menara Yayasan Selangor
No. 18A, Jalan Persiaran Barat
46000 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/rentokil-initial-malaysia-reveals-vital-importance-of-proactive-bed-bug-management-in-hotels-to-prevent-future-infestations-701142.htm

Media Relations Contact

Louise Leong
Marketing Director - Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei & the Philippines
Rentokil Initial Malaysia
Telephone: 1300 885 911
Email: Click to Email Louise Leong
Web: http://www.rentokil.com.my


          Rentokil Initial Malaysia Creates Awareness on the Threats of Termite Invasion on Annual Termite Week   

Termites may be tiny but this silent destroyer has been proven to be one of the most feared pests by most homeowners around the globe.

Petaling Jaya, Selangor -- (ReleaseWire) -- 03/26/2015 -- A single termite may not look threatening, but a whole colony can compromise the structural integrity to properties in a short period of time. According to the entomologist at University Sains Malaysia, termites cause an estimated RM40million of structural damages in Malaysia every year.

Many property owners in Malaysia worry about fire or flood, but termite damage is actually much more common because our tropical environment and high humidity encourage the growth of termite population. The worse bite would be to the value of your assets as most building insurance policies do not cover termite damage.

Termites randomly and continuously forage in search of their food - cellulose. Even if your property is built primarily of brick or stone, it is still at risk because the structural supports and other building components are constructed of wood and other cellulose containing materials.

A threat to your living space

There are an estimated 4,000 termite species worldwide and Subterranean termite (Coptotermes spp.) is commonly found in homes. Subterranean termites have been known to forage up to 300 feet from their colony, thus if your neighbours have termites, then it is very likely they could have gone into your home as well.

Termites are intelligent social insects that live in colonies with a strict caste system, where they are organised into different social classes based on their roles and responsibilities.

Here are the different castes and roles within a termite colony:

-King and queen - mate and produce eggs

-Alates (or swarmers) - reproductives that leave the nest in large swarms to look for mates and nest locations to form new colonies

-Worker - undertakes the labour of food searching and feeds the colony

-Soldier - provides strength and armour against attacks or invasions

Most termite colonies are originated from a single pair of primary reproductive. A Subterranean termite queen can produce up to 1,000 eggs a day and grow the colony up to hundreds and millions of termites in a short period. With that copious number of occupants that are buried deep underground for moisture. It won't be surprising if there are multiple colonies inhabiting the same piece of land you call home.

The workers produce a variety of chemicals known as the pheromones that influence their behaviour. As these workers are blind, they rely on pheromones to help them send messages to other termites in the colony. When a food source is located, the odour trail is intensified to recruit other termites to the feeding site.

As termites devour their way through wood from the inside, this can make it difficult to detect a termite infestation but there are some tell-tale signs that can indicate their presence.

-Mud shelter tubes on wall
Subterranean termites build elaborate shelter tubes made of mud, dirt and debris in order to travel to and fro the food source without being seen, These tubes are about an inch in diameter and are usually found on exterior and interior walls leading up to the entry points of the building.

-Sightings of flying alates or discarded alates wings on window sills and floors
Generally, the first sign of infestation noticed by homeowners is the presence of swarming reproductives on window sill or near indoor light. Another indication is the presence of wings, discarded by the alates as a normal part of their behaviour,

-Damaged/ infested wood - consumed wood from within but with the outer layers intact
Wood damage is a definite sign of termite infestations. Wood that yields a dull, thudding sound when struck with a screwdriver or hammer should be examined

When homeowners found evidence of termite infestation at home, it is important that a thorough inspection is done before deciding the type of treatment. Termite control is most effective if it is carried out by experienced and professionally trained technicians who understand the biology and living/feeding habits of termites, on top of thorough observation of the building's construction, soil characteristics and favourable conditions for infestation.

Effective termite treatments

1) Baiting - a holistic method to eliminate termite colonies by placing unobtrusive bait stations in your property. The highly palatable bait contains an active ingredient that inhibits termite growth. When the bait is shared and spread, it will gradually affect the colony until it can no longer support itself and the queen, and collapses.

2) Termiticide - one of the many soil treatments that create a treated zone around the perimeter and sub-floor by injecting termiticide through drilled holes. Affected termites will spread the termiticide to others through physical contact, eventually reducing the population of the colony.

"Discovering that there is termite infestation in your home can be devastating, especially when severe damages had incurred. By recognising the early signs of termite presence can help homeowners reduce costly repairs and further damages that will affect the value of your property." said Ms. Carol Lam, the Managing Director of Rentokil Initial Malaysia.

About Rentokil Pest Control Malaysia
Rentokil Pest Control is part of Rentokil Initial group, one of the largest business services companies in the world. As the leading market leader in pest control industry, Rentokil's Termite Home Protection Plan provides property owners with a wide range of termite control solutions that are specifically designed for different needs and preferences.

At Rentokil Initial Malaysia, three brands are focused on providing the best services with nationwide coverage, fast response and expert technical knowledge: Rentokil Pest Control, Initial Hygiene and Ambius Interiors. Visit www.rentokil-initial.com.my to find out how Rentokil Initial (M) Sdn Bhd services can add value to different business sectors.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.releasewire.com/press-releases/rentokil-initial-malaysia-creates-awareness-on-the-threats-of-termite-invasion-on-annual-termite-week-588046.htm

Media Relations Contact

May Chang
Assistant Digital Marketing Manager
Rentokil Initial Malaysia
Telephone: 1300 887 911
Email: Click to Email May Chang
Web: http://www.rentokil.com.my


          Data Review Specialist   
PA-Lancaster, Are you looking to work with data sets and reporting accurate information to clients? Do you have a keen attention to detail? We at Eurofins Lancaster Laboratories happen to be searching for a Data Review Specialist to support our Molecular and Cell Biology Services group in Lancaster, PA. As a Data Review Specialist your responsibilities will include, but are not limited to, some of the following
          Development Manager - Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine (CCRM) - Canada   
Bioprocess development, cell or molecular biology, genetics, gene engineering, viral vectors, pluripotent stem cells and derived progeny, hematopoietic stem...
From Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine (CCRM) - Fri, 19 May 2017 00:06:06 GMT - View all Canada jobs
          VIE ARD Microbiology - Sanofi US - Toronto, ON   
There will be the opportunity to gain experience with sophisticated laboratory instruments and methods associated with virus vectors, DNA analyses and...
From SanofiUS - Thu, 22 Jun 2017 15:06:15 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
           Evolution and the Internet (Featured Blog)   
Evolution isn't just about biology. Our focus on biology is part of the world-wide challenge in getting people to understand how systems evolve. Think of the resistance Galileo faced when he said that the universe didn't, literally, revolve round us. One reason people have difficulty accepting undirected evolution is that educators don't give people a good sense of why things "work". It's a difficult problem because we tend to look for a "reason" for why things are the way they are... More...
          Research Microscopist - UES - Dayton, OH   
~ 1-5 years" postdoctoral experience in the field of biology, biomedical engineering, bioengineering, materials science, chemistry, physics, microbiology, cell...
From UES - Wed, 21 Jun 2017 19:50:46 GMT - View all Dayton, OH jobs
          Computational Toxicologist - UES - Dayton, OH   
In biology, environmental toxicology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, pharmacology, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, or other related disciplines...
From UES - Thu, 25 May 2017 22:30:29 GMT - View all Dayton, OH jobs
          Calling Chris Christie! White House Opioid Crisis Commission Misses Due Date for Preliminary Report   
The group's task of reducing addiction and overdose is complicated by administration positions on health care and drug policy funding.

WASHINGTON — President Trump’s commission on the opioid crisis has missed its first deadline.

The newly created panel met for the first time on June 16, just 11 days before the White House’s ambitious due date for a preliminary report meant to outline federal strategies to curb the epidemic.

An executive order that established the commission had set a 90-day deadline for the completion of that document. The deadline will come and go without a report being filed, and a commission teleconference originally scheduled for Monday evening has been rescheduled for July 17.

“It’s been pushed back for a couple of weeks,” commission member Bertha Madras, a researcher at Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital who studies the biology of addiction, told STAT. “We need more time because it’s a massive task.”

Madras said the group has been working diligently on its report, compiling a list of federal resources and programs available to help stem the epidemic. The panel was still crafting its recommendations, she said, but overall the commission’s work was going very well.

“Right now, we’re going to have more recommendations than anyone anticipated,” she said.

Madras was named to the commission just last month, along with its chair, Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey, and Govs. Charlie Baker of Massachusetts and Roy Cooper of North Carolina. The fifth member, former Rhode Island congressman Patrick Kennedy, is a treatment advocate who has spoken openly about his own struggle with drug abuse.

“It seemed to have been put together on a fairly brief turnaround,” said Dr. Joe Parks, the medical director of the National Council for Behavioral Health, of the first meeting, during which he delivered a brief presentation. “I was left with the impression that we were part of an initial broad information-gathering — I was given very broad opportunity to give whatever input I pleased.”

Outside experts have been largely impressed by the commission and its direction, if not the pace of work.

“I had a good hour with Governor Christie, and I have to say he was extremely impressive, extremely knowledgeable,” said Gary Mendell, who as the CEO of the addiction treatment advocacy group Shatterproof was invited to testify before the commission at its first meeting. “He seemed very focused on wanting to do the right thing.”

But Mendell and others who appeared at the first hearing were adamant that the pending health care legislation would be a major setback for the recovery community if it became law.

At the same time, Mendell said, while those invited to testify implored the White House not to pursue legislation that could hamper treatment access, they recognized that Christie’s commission is a non-legislative body with little influence over Republicans on the Hill.

Despite forceful rhetoric on the issue from Trump while on the campaign trail, the White House has struggled to avoid contradictions between the commission’s work and its own agenda.

In April, Trump celebrated the House’s passage of a bill that detractors say would sharply reduce access to addiction treatment in two ways: a roughly $800 billion cut in planned Medicaid spending over the coming decade, and deregulation that could allow insurers in some states not to cover some basic health services, including addiction treatment.

In May, a leaked memo suggested the Trump administration would seek to effectively eliminate the White House’s drug control policy office, reducing its funding from $388 million to $24 million. The administration backtracked on the cuts following bipartisan outrage.

And on Monday, top Trump lieutenant Kellyanne Conway found herself facing demands for an apology after she suggested the two requisite tools for ending the crisis were funding and “a four-letter word called will.”

When asked about the deadline, the White House forwarded questions to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, which forwarded questions to Christie’s office, which did not respond to requests for comment.

The commission has not changed its goal of submitting a final report to Trump by Oct. 1.

Andrew Joseph contributed reporting.

An earlier version of this story stated that Trump’s draft budget envisioned effectively eliminating the White House’s drug control policy office. The proposal was made in a memo that was leaked, before the budget proposal was released.

 

Related Stories


          Ch 1   
Ch. 1. Standard Equipment

  1. robot vs human; in a well designed system the components are black boxes
  • the robot challenge: 1) visual system light/dark > shapes > objects, 3D>2D, rotation etc... reverse optics is ill posed, impossible yet we do it all the time IN REAL TIME! constant deadlines
  • 2) movement: reverse kinematics and reverse dynamics; no animal has evolved to have wheels; legs; 6 legs > 4 legs still stable but 2 legs! unstable !!! yet we do it
  • cannot treat everything as unique > categories; e.g. "bachelor"
  • common sense is very hard to code into a machine
  • Isaac Asimov's Fundamental Rules of Robotics: must program the machine to sustain itself
  • emotions: self protection, care, love, agression must all be programmed
  • visual areas of the brain can be damaged resulting in different perception 1) paying attention to only half of the visual field 2) everything grey and dim 3) see objects but not movement 4) cannot identify objects or faces
  • identical twins reared apart: 1) entering the water backwards! 2) leaving little love notes for their wives ! etc.. 3) sneezing loudly in crowded elevators for fun !!! 4) flush the toilet before and after use !
  • reverse engineering the psyche: AGENDA OF THE BOOK = The mind is a system of organs of computation, designed by natural selection to solve the kinds of problems our ancestors faced in their foraging way of life, in particular, understanding and outmaneuvering objects, animals, plants and other people.
    • >>>computational theory of mind
    • >>>evolutionary psychology
    • Tooby and Cosmides < has been opposed, the mind should not be treated as evolutionary development but rather as culture
    • >>> the common is really uncommon
    • >>> brain is evolutionary != cultural development
  • pregnancy sickness evidence that it is selected for > protects the embrio
  • nature vs nurture debate is quite meaningless
  • evolutionary doesn't mean human = ape or whale = cow, we do want to get to the differences
  • behavior did not evolve, the mind did!
  • Psychological correctness
    • Standard Social Science Model SSSM > bad, except maybe that allowed some bad moral judgments to be eradicated; SSSM = fundamental division between biology and culture
    • must separate science from morals
    • 3 implications of innate human nature:
    1. innate human nature implies innate human differences
      1. Gloria Steinem: "There are really not many jobs that actually require a penis or a vagina, and all the other occupations should be open to everyone."
    2. naturalistic fallacy: natural > good (even war, crimes etc)
    3. genes control behavior: no responsibility for our actions
  • confusion between goals of genes' (spreading themselves) and our goals (whatever our minds dictate: health, love, friends, work, maybe children)

          HAEMOGLOBIN BOOSTER : TOP IRON-RICH FOODS    

Low haemoglobin, anaemia, hair loss, tiredness and headaches are some of the symptoms and health problems associated with lack of iron in the body.

Iron deficiency can affect your life adversely and can lead to serious health problems. Following are top 18 ingredients that can boost your iron intake; just add these healthy foods rich in iron to prevent diseases related iron deficiency.

Daily recommended dietary intake

Women above 19 to 50: 18 mg
Men above 19: 8 mg

Australian Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI)

Liver:
Liver is the powerhouse of iron. Among non vegetarians this is the best way to boost your haemoglobin levels. The commonly consumed chicken liver (100gms) contains 9 mg of iron. But Beef liver contains far less calories compared to other kind of liver and is great source for iron content - less cholesterol, high iron.

Seafood:
Oily fishes are not only rich in Omega 3 fatty acids but also a good source of iron. Sardines or trale, mackerel or bangda and Indian Salmon or raavas are the best sources for iron.

Ground beef:
Red meat is the most recommended ingredient to improve haemoglobin, but red meat should be without fat. Beef contains a rich source of iron, but ground beef without fat or sirloin beef provides a rich source of iron. 85gm of beef provides 2.1 mg of iron.

Chicken breast:
The fleshiest part of the chicken is the breast and it also contain iron. About 100 gms of chicken breast provides 0.7 mg of iron. Bone marrow, liver, chicken and red meat are the best way to boost haemoglobin for non - vegetarians.

Brown rice:
Brown rice is 'the' ingredient in the 21st century. It has several health benefits from weight loss to cholesterol to digestive disorders. Brown rice also contains iron that can improve haemoglobin


          July 2017 AP Scores and Fall Schedule Adjustments   
If you are an incoming first-year student who registered for classes prior to receiving your AP scores, please read below:

If you have earned AP credit for a UMBC course, please follow the steps below to get the necessary course permissions to adjust your fall schedule, if applicable. Please be sure to submit your official scores to UMBC so that your AP credit is reflected in your UMBC record.

MATH COURSES
Submit a Help Ticket via the link below:
http://mathstat.umbc.edu/help-or-service-request/

For "Requester Type," select Undergraduate. For "Request Type," select Permissions.

In your help request, please attach a screenshot of your AP score in Calc AB or Calc BC. Please also note the specific lecture and discussion sections (4 digit number) that you would like to add to your schedule. Please be sure to select math sections that are open (green circle). If you select a section that has a waitlist, you may get permission to add yourself to the waitlist, but this will not guarantee you a seat in the course.

COMPUTER SCIENCE or ENGINEERING COURSES
Email one of the following advisors to request permission for computer science or engineering courses:

Josh Abrams (josh.abrams@umbc.edu)
Anne Arey (annearey@umbc.edu)
Emily Stephens (eastephe@umbc.edu)
Ashley Luster (aluster@umbc.edu)

In your email, please attach a screenshot of your AP score in Calc AB or Calc BC, if the course has a math prerequisite. Please also note the specific lecture and discussion sections (4 digit number) that you would like to add to your schedule. Please be sure to select course sections that are open (green circle). If you select a section that has a waitlist, you may get permission to add yourself to the waitlist, but this will not guarantee you a seat in the course.

PHYSICS COURSES
Please contact the Physics Department for permission for physics courses.

http://physics.umbc.edu/general-info/contact-us/

CHEMISTRY and BIOLOGY COURSES
Please email cnmsadvising@umbc.edu for further instructions regarding permissions for chemistry and biology courses.

OTHER QUESTIONS
If you have other questions regarding your fall schedule, please contact one of the following advisors:

Josh Abrams (josh.abrams@umbc.edu)
Anne Arey (annearey@umbc.edu)
Emily Stephens (eastephe@umbc.edu)
Ashley Luster (aluster@umbc.edu)




          UNILAG invents new method of diagnosing malaria   

University of Lagos said it invented a new method of diagnosing malaria, following intensive research by its Department of Medical Micro Biology and Parasitology. Prof.


          Meet Puristry + Win It!   

So picture it, it’s July 2015. I’m a visibly fat girl from the South spending a few days in Vegas, but it was not because I needed a vacation, or because I wanted to do dirty things that I would leave behind on my plane ride home. I was at Cosmoprof. See back then, it was assumed that I was highly influential, and I was invited to participate in Beaut-E Zone and speak on a panel at the event. Even better? I was doing it alongside Afrobella. Yeah, THE Afrobella (screams internally like I just found out again). Because I was VIP (*snickers*), I was invited to attend Beauty Pitch- It was like a live version of Shark Tank but all the inventions related to the beauty/ personal care genre. The judges- Marc Cuban and John Paul DeJoria.   .@100percentpure is the only brand that uses fruit pigments in their cosmetics. No artificial dyes #beautypitch pic.twitter.com/rJCmm3cPL6 — 🦄Aprill🌟 (@HeyAprill) July 12, 2015 The contestants- 18.21 Man Made, Hair Construction, LightStim, Zenagen, and 100% Pure. 100% Pure was created by Susie Wang. The concept? Flawless. Cosmetics made from fruit pigments, high in antioxidants and vitamins. The line-up was amazing, the products had amazing pigmentation that gave my lips and cheeks an amazing pop of color. I thought to myself, she MUST win. Then it happened. She won Beauty Pitch! I was amazed and excited to see a woman create such an amazing impact in a male dominated beauty industry. Congrats @100percentpure!! #beautypitch pic.twitter.com/fMzfXsLrrB — 🦄Aprill🌟 (@HeyAprill) July 12, 2015 Not surprisingly, 100% Pure continues to flourish. And now she’s back with a new skincare line- Puristry. Puristry is the chemistry of pure ingredients. Developed by Wang, she distinctly understands and utilizes each plant or ingredient’s natural biology, and formulates based on that knowledge. See it’s one thing to throw a bunch of natural ingredients in a bottle and call it a good product, it’s another to have a deeper understanding of each ingredient and target it accordingly to the skin. I got a chance to try two products from the line, and you get the chance to win the entire line. Keep reading.   Puristry Flower Water Toner, $32 I can’t resist a good toner that not only cleanses the skin but infuses it with skin friendly nutrients. That’s basically what this toner is. Puristry Flower Water Toner is a calming blend of rose and calendula to quench the thirstiest skin (hello, me). It also contains hyaluronic acid to leave the skin plump, soft and soothed. Dispense on a cotton pad and sweep over the face. Good for use day and night. It has a floral scent with a crisp hint of mint.   Puristry Restorative Facial Oil, $55 Puristry Restorative Facial Oil is a blend of the finest cold pressed oils to improve elasticity, firmness, suppleness, and tone. Let’s break down some notable goodies in this oil, shall we? Jojoba Seed Oil mimics sebum, which is great for oily skin types. Rose Hip Seed Oil contains high doses of Vitamin C to naturally lighten dark marks. Pomegranate Seed Oil contains omega 5 fatty acid and antioxidants to fight skin aging. Blackcurrant Fruit Oil is a natural source of gamma-linoleic acid that moisturizes and improves skin elasticity Green Tea Leaf Oil is antioxidant rich oil which protects the skin from damage caused by UV radiation and free radicals.   ….and that’s not even scratching the surface of the ingredient list. Apply a half dollar sized amount onto freshly cleansed and toned skin and neck (don’t forget that décolletage). The oil is lightweight, non-greasy and absorbs quickly into the skin. The scent is very light and minty and does not linger on the skin. My skin was left soft and supple all day. Shop Puristry by visiting their website: HERE (Need a start and end date on the contest), enter to win the full Puristry Collection, but there’s a catch! Not only will you win, you get to gift a full set to a friend! a Rafflecopter giveaway Terms and conditions: https://www.puristry.com/pages/terms-condition

The post Meet Puristry + Win It! appeared first on Hey Aprill.


          The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Poses New Threat to Marine Life   
Imagine a landfill twice the size of Texas, filled with junk, castoffs and other trash. Now imagine it’s floating in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, a swirling vortex of plastic and flotsam, stretches across a vast swath of the Ocean and has long been a concern of scientists worried about its effects on marine life. Now, researchers from the Scripps Institute of Oceanography have found that a sharp increase in debris floating in a region between Hawaii and California — dubbed the Eastern Garbage Patch — is significantly affecting the environment of one of the ocean’s smallest residents. The finding, published Wednesday in Biology Letters, reports that a marine insect that skims the oceans surface is laying eggs on top of plastic bits rather than natural flotsam, which scientists are concerned could be replaced by debris in its habitat. (MORE: Giant Floating Garbage Patch: Now in the Atlantic, Too! ) “This is something that shouldn’t be in the ocean and it’s changing this small aspect of the ocean ecology,” said Scripps graduate student Miriam Goldstein to the Associated Press. Previous research has similarly looked into not only the endangered wildlife that suffers from this floating trash, but how this mass collection of debris got here in the first place. In 2006, the Los Angeles Times detailed the decline of the Albatross in the Midway Atoll, a collection of islands about half way between North America and Japan. The birds commonly fly over the Eastern Garbage Patch, mistaking trash for food. As a result, about 200,000 of the 500,000 chicks born there each year died from dehydration and starvation. An Environmental Protection Agency study showed that the chicks that died of those causes had twice as much plastic in their stomachs. Bottle caps, combs, golf tees, toothbrushes and even toy soldiers were found inside the birds. (MORE: Why the Albatross is Our Albatross) These items come from all over the world, swept along by the system of currents called the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The
          Researchers Study Alcohol Addiction Using Optogenetics   
Optogenetics enables researchers like Evgeny A. Budygin, Ph.D., assistant professor of neurobiology and anatomy at Wake Forest Baptist, to address critical questions regarding the role of dopamine in alcohol drinking-related behaviors, using a rodent model.  
          Salvia Research News   
The controversial drug salvia got a lot of attention last month when teen pop sensation and television star Miley Cyrus was filmed smoking the herb at a party. Now, researchers at Johns Hopkins University Medical School are going to study whether it can be used as a potential treatment for an array of neurological disorders, including addiction. In this story on ABCNews.com, David P. Friedman, Ph.D., professor of physiology and associate dean for research, is quoted about potential effects on the adolescent brain.  Read the ABCNews.com story here. Learn about salvia at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Visit The Center for Neurobiology of Addiction Treatment (CNAT). -- a collaborative multi-disciplinary research and educational program designed to explore the neurobiology of drug abuse.  It has been funded by NIDA at Wake Forest University School of Medicine since 1991. 
          WATER CIVET VS AQUATIC GENET, OR MORPHOLOGY VS MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - A TALE OF TANGLED TAXONOMY   

Painting from 1924 of water civets/aquatic genets in their native habitat (public domain/reproduced here on a strictly non-commercial Fair Use basis only)

Originally a civet, nowadays a genet, unrecorded by science until 1913, never studied alive by scientists, and virtually unknown even to the local native people (a rare event indeed!), Genetta (=Osbornictis) piscivora is surely one of the world's most mystifying mammals.

Yet it is an exceedingly handsome, strikingly-coloured creature, with a densely-furred chestnut head and body, a black bushy tail (constituting almost half of the animal's total length of 3 ft), and white facial markings. The type specimen of this secretive viverrid was obtained on 1 December 1913 in a forest stream at Niapu, in what is now the northeastern portion of the Democratic Congo, by Drs James P. Chapin and Herbert Lang during the American Museum of Natural History's Congo Expedition. Six years later, its species was formally described by Dr Joel A. Allen from the museum, who named it Osbornictis piscivora, in honour of Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn (who was greatly interested in the Congo Expedition), and recording its fish-eating proclivity.

Dr Joel A. Allen (left) and Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn (right) (public domain)

Although its anatomy suggests that it is most closely related to the genets, this anomalous species was long referred to as the water civet because it exhibits several features markedly at variance with typical genet morphology. Most obvious of these is its vulpine colouration, totally different from the black-and-white coat patterning of spots and bands synonymous with genets. In addition, the soles of its paws are unfurred, its teeth are much weaker and narrower than those of correspondingly-sized genets, its nose is somewhat smaller, its muzzle is shorter, and its overall size rivals that of the giant genet Genettavictoriae, the largest of the typical spotted Genetta species. Consequently, when formally describing and naming it, Allen assigned this novel viverrid to its very own genus, Osbornictis, in which it remained for many decades.

In 2004, however, a team of researchers who had been conducting a molecular-based comparison of several different viverrid genera, including Osbornictis and Genetta, published their findings in a Zoologica Scripta paper, in which they concluded that these two genera were sufficiently closely related for the water civet to be housed within Genetta, as Genetta piscivora. Since then, it has been known colloquially as the aquatic genet.

My model of this enigmatic species (© Dr Karl Shuker)

Most books state that the water civet (or aquatic genet) was totally unknown to the natives prior to its scientific discovery in 1913; this is not true. Along with the holotype, Lang and Chapin also obtained an incomplete specimen (lacking skull, tail, and feet) from a native; and in the local Kibila and Kipakombe languages, it has its own specific name - the esele.

Nevertheless, for the most part it is truly as much a mystery to them as it is to science, with virtually no information available concerning its natural history, and very few museum specimens.

The type locality of this species (i.e. where its type specimen was obtained), a large forest brook at Niapu, photographed here at the height of the rainy season (public domain)

In 1996, however, a major new chapter was written in this species' sparse history, when veteran wildlife film-maker Alan Root announced that he had succeeded in filming a living specimen in its native Congolese habitat, hunting for fishes by gently tapping the water with its paws and then trailing its long white whiskers on the surface to detect any movements. This unique footage formed part of a special one-hour film of Congolese wildlife by Root entitled A Space in the Heart of Africa, which was first screened on British television within the long-running ITV Survival series in July 1996.

This ShukerNature blog article is adapted and updated from my book The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals, the most comprehensive book on this subject ever published.







          UM Wildlife Biology Professor Co-Edits New Book on Renewable Energy Development   
  MISSOULA – A growing energy footprint requires careful thought about our world’s energy mix, but even a renewable energy future is not necessarily a green one. While essential to combat climate change, the transition to renewable energy risks trading one crisis for another: climate change for energy sprawl – the amount of land needed to produce energy... Continue reading…
          Glenn Loury & Bret Weinstein   
Bret’s work in evolutionary biology ... Bret’s inside take on the turmoil at Evergreen State College ... Attempts to limit faculty autonomy at Evergreen ... The problem of self-censorship ... Bret explains why he went on Tucker Carlson’s show ... The clash with the “Patriot Prayer” group at Evergreen ... How protestors targeted Bret ...
          Research Associate - University of British Columbia - Okanagan, BC   
This research requires advanced knowledge of the soil nitrogen cycle, the biology of crown gall disease in grape, and of quantitative molecular techniques....
From University of British Columbia - Tue, 20 Jun 2017 12:51:32 GMT - View all Okanagan, BC jobs
          Donor Support Coordinator - Donor Network of Arizona - Phoenix, AZ   
Dispatch and coordinate clinician teams throughout the state for tissue recovery. Science Degree, Biology degree desired.... $22 an hour
From Indeed - Mon, 06 Mar 2017 19:22:23 GMT - View all Phoenix, AZ jobs
           Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics    
Pecorino, Lauren (2016) Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 9780198717348
           Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics    
Pecorino, Lauren (2012) Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 9780199577170
           Time reversal microwave breast imaging for contrast-enhanced tumor classification    
Kosmas, P., Laranjeira, S., Dixon, J.H., Li, X. and Chen, Y. (2010) Time reversal microwave breast imaging for contrast-enhanced tumor classification. In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, NJ, USA, pp. 708-711. ISBN 978-1-4244-4123-5 (print) ISSN 1557-170X (online) (doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5626158 )
          DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS: 25TH JUNE 2017   
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS: 25TH JUNE 2017
(DAILY NEWS INDIA)
SHARED BY: WWW.DAILYGK.IN

1. VENKAIAH NAIDU INAUGURATES ‘HOMES FOR ALL’ PROPERTY SHOW IN AHMEDABAD
i. Union Minister for Urban Development, Housing and Poverty Alleviation Venkaiah Naidu inagurated the ‘Homes For All’ property.
ii .The show is organized by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and GIHED CREDAI in Ahmedabad.
iii. On the occasion, Mr. Naidu has launched several smart initiatives such as AMC Seva Mobile Application, Janmitra Card -‘One Card Many Services’, Amdavad Airport Shuttle Service, and Intelligent Transit Management System among others.
iv. The Janmitra card enables multimodal transport journey payments like Transit Services Ticketing for AMTS, BRTS, Payments for Municipal Services, Payment for any other retail transaction.


2. DEFENCE MINISTER ARUN JAITLEY’S 3-DAY VISIT TO RUSSIA FROM JUNE 21-23, 2017
i. Defence Minister Arun Jaitley was on an official visit to Russia. The visited was aimed at strengthening bilateral defence and security cooperation between India and Russia.
ii. Mr. Jaitley co-chaired the 1st meeting of the India-Russia High Level Committee on Science and Technology with the Russian Deputy PM Dmitry Rogozin.
iii. Mr. Jaitley co-chaired the 17th meeting of the India-Russia Intergovernmental Commission on Military-Technical Cooperation in Moscow with Russian Defence Minister General Sergei Shoigu.

3. INCUBATION CENTRE FOR BIOTECH START-UPS TO BE SET UP AT CCMB, HYDERABAD
i. An incubation centre for biotechnology start–ups is to be set up at the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad, Telangana
ii. It will be supported by the NITI Aayog and will create facilities and bring in stakeholders to ensure the success of innovative ideas.
iii. The Centre has set up the Atal Incubation Centre in the NITI Aayog to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship.
iv. The CCMB is one of the 10 organizations identified to host the ‘Atal Incubation Centre’. Under this, the government will release funds of Rs 10 cr in the coming five years.
v. The incubation centre would engage with all the stakeholders of a biotechnology translational journey and it includes intellectual property agencies, regulators, seed funders, business developers, successful businessmen and research institutions.

4. SALMAN KHAN’S SULTAN WINS BEST ACTION MOVIE AT 20TH SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL
i. Superstar Salman Khan’s “Sultan” has won the best action movie award at the Shanghai International Film Festival.
ii. “Sultan” became the 1st ever Bollywood film to win the award in the Jackie Chan Action Movie week section. The movie is directed by Ali Aabbas Zafar, the movie also featured Anushka Sharma.

5. SAHITYA AKADEMI AWARDS FOR VINCY QUADROS AND AMEY NAIK
i. The country’s highest literary body the Sahitya Akademi award has been presented to 2 Konkani literary personalities Vincy Quadros and AmeyNaik from Goa.
ii. Quadros is being awarded Sahitya Akademi’s Bal Sahitya Puraskar for his book ‘Jaduche Petul’ for children in Konkani.
iii .Amey Naik has been selected for Yuva Puraskar 2017 for his Konkani poetry collection ‘Mog Dot Com’. Sahitya Akademi has announced the awards after its executive board meeting held in Guwahati.
iv. Quadros who writes both in Devnagri and Romi scripts, has written eight short story books, seven books on children’s literature, one novel and another book on spiritual matters.

6. VIJAYA BANK BAGS NINE SKOCH AWARDS
i. Vijaya Bank has received Skoch Awards in following 9 categories — Best Bank for NPA Management – Organization Category; Best Bank in Public Sector; Retail Lending; Inclusive Wallet – VPAYQWIK; Digital Inclusion; IT Security; e-Surveillance of ATMs and branches; and 100 Digital Villages – Financial Inclusion.
ii. Vijaya Bank’s Executive Director B. S. Rama Rao received the NPA Management Award (individual category) from Sameer Kochhar, Chairman, Skoch Group at Mumbai.
iii. Skoch Group is a Gurgaon based think tank dealing with socio-economic issues with a focus on inclusive growth since 1997.
iv. Skoch Awards are independent benchmark of best practices in India in the fields of governance, finance, technology, banking, corporate citizenship, economics and inclusive growth.

7. IMRAN KHAWAJA APPOINTED AS ICC DEPUTY CHAIRMAN
i. The International Cricket Council has appointed Imran Khawaja as its deputy chairman.
ii. Imran Khawaja is a Chairman of Associates counties and a veteran administrator from Singapore. He is a senior lawyer and has been serving in the ICC Board for several years. He had also served as a part of influential committees of the ICC.
iii. He was part of a 5 member ICC working team that framed ICC’s new constitution last year. The International Cricket Council, was founded in 1909 as the Imperial Cricket Conference. ICC is responsible for setting professional standards of discipline for international cricket.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS BASED ON TODAY’S NEWS

Q1. UNION MINISTER FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT, HOUSING AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION VENKAIAH NAIDU INAUGURATED THE ‘HOMES FOR ALL’ PROPERTY SHOW IN WHICH CITY?
a)  Jaipur
b)  Lucknow
c)  Bengaluru
d)  Ahmedabad
Q2. FIRST MEETING OF THE INDIA-RUSSIA HIGH LEVEL COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WAS HELD  IN?
a)  Moscow, Russia
b)  Ufa, Russia
c)  Novosibirsk, Russia
d)  New Delhi, India
Q3. AN INCUBATION CENTRE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY START-UPS IS TO BE SET UP AT THE CSIR-CENTRE FOR CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY IN?
a)  Nagpur
b)  Hyderabad
c)  Ranchi
d)  Kochi
Q4. WHICH AMONG THE FOLLOWING BANKS HAS RECEIVED SKOCH AWARDSIN 9 DIFFERENT CATEGORIES?
a)  Vijaya Bank
b)  Punjab National Bank
c)  Bank of Baroda
d)  Syndicate Bank
Q5. TWO KONKANI LITERARY PERSONALITIES, ________ AND ______ FROM GOA HAVE BEEN CHOSEN FOR SAHITYA AKADEMI AWARDS?
a)  Vincy Quadros and Amey Naik
b)  Vincy Quadros and Victor Fernandes
c)  Victor Fernandes and Amey Naik
d)  Laurence Gomes and Amey Naik

ANSWERS: 

1 - D    2 - C    3 - B    4 - A    5 - C

          English speaking customer support engineer night shift AK munkakörbe keresünk munkatársat. | Fe...   
English speaking customer support engineer night shift AK munkakörbe keresünk munkatársat. | Feladatok: Triage level response to all technical support questions mainly for our US customers within 48 hours • Log Support Cases with Jira • Work as part of the Global Support Team • Work closely and collaborate with the other teams including Quality Management Team, Research & Development Team, including product testing • Assist with Workshops, on-site installation • Additional duties as required. | Elvárások: Bachelors or Masters degree in IT - Bio-IT field molecular biology, genomics or similar will be advantageous • 3+ years in a Technical Support role at a company with a scientific focus • Fluent English is a must • Experience with networking and command line tools • Technical/analytical mindset - strong troubleshooting skills • Ability to prioritize and work under pressure • Self-motivated, works well under minimal supervision • Confident strong communicator • High energy level; positive attitude; works well in a rapidly evolving business environment | További elvárások: Familiarity with Salesforce, MS Office products, Google-Docs, Jira, Java, SQL • Experience with remote support e.g. TeamViewer, GoToMeeting, Skype • Experience with configuration and troubleshooting on Windows or Linux or OS X the rest can be learned on the job • Active collaboration with key stakeholders in the Europe and US offices • Willingness to learn in all fields connected to the role. | További infó és jelentkezés itt: www.profession.hu/allas/1036303
          UC Berkeley Professor To Speak On Herbicide Atrazine   

Dr. Tyrone Hayes, Professor of Integrative Biology, will kick off a state-wide speaking tour May 15 at the Baldwin High School Auditorium. His talk, titled “Silencing the Independent Scientist,” are part of Hawaii SEED’s Raise Awareness Inspire Change speaker series. The University of California Berkeley Professor is best known for his research of Swiss firm […]

The post UC Berkeley Professor To Speak On Herbicide Atrazine appeared first on Maui Time.


          Research Technician / Research Assistant - Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation - Oklahoma City, OK   
Animal husbandry (worms, flies, fish, mice, etc.), molecular biology (e.g., cloning and PCR), microbiology/sterile technique, cell culture, protein biochemistry...
From Indeed - Tue, 30 May 2017 18:17:43 GMT - View all Oklahoma City, OK jobs
          Sr. / Research Technician / Research Assistant - Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation - Oklahoma City, OK   
We utilize both animal and cellular models, and cutting edge technologies in functional genomics, bioinformatics, genetics, molecular and cell biology, and...
From Indeed - Fri, 26 May 2017 13:59:53 GMT - View all Oklahoma City, OK jobs
          Software Developer 2 - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA   
HTML/CSS, Javascript, or work with native UI API’s. Berkeley Lab’s Environmental Genomics &amp; Systems Biology Division has an opening for a Software Developer 2....
From Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 22:58:55 GMT - View all Berkeley, CA jobs
          Front End Developer SD2 (Environmental Genomics & Systems Biology) - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA   
Experience with UI testing and user-centered design. Demonstrated experience to write high-performance, readable/reusable code for UI components which work...
From Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Tue, 30 May 2017 19:54:31 GMT - View all Berkeley, CA jobs
          Comment on What’s Hot in 2012 for Car Audio by EdwardTek   
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          Experienced OCT High School Biology (SBI3U/SBI4U) Teacher - Clinton International College - Toronto, ON   
Clinton is currently looking for an experienced, bright, and enthusiastic *Biology Teacher*. Clinton International College is a boutique high school emphasizing... $18 - $23 an hour
From Indeed - Thu, 11 May 2017 21:58:04 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          MT / MLT / MLS / MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST / GENERALIST   
Posted on: 2017-06-30

A Medical Technologist or Medical Laboratory Technician is needed for 13 weeks in Indiana for second shift! As the MT/MLT, you will be rotating every other weekend and performing generalist duties. You must be ASCP certified and you will be using LIS - Cerner Millenium; Chemistry - AU480 and Access2; Coagulation - ACL Top; Hematology - DXH600; and BB - Gel method. No microbiology is required for this position. You are required to perform limited phlebotomy (phlebotomist there until 7:00 p.m.; nurses draw their own). Come enjoy this beautiful part of Indiana for the next few months and apply now for this amazing MT/MLT opportunity!! Position: Medical Technologist - Laboratory Specialty/Modality: MT-Generalist Physical Abilities: Up to 20lbs For the most prompt response, please APPLY ONLINE. Resumes may also be sent to medlabjobseekers@aureusmedical.com or call (800) 456-5857 for more information. As always, there is never a fee for candidates to utilize our services. There is a reason why Aureus Medical Group is a national leader in healthcare staffing. Whether working with an employee to locate exciting career opportunities or with a hospital to fill a need at a critical time, our job is to take care of you and the patients we collectively serve - and we do so with the highest degree of honesty and integrity. We bring over 25 years of experience, proven methods, and an unwavering commitment to patient care to the staffing process. With travel, locum tenens, local contract, and direct hire opportunities available nationwide, you're sure to find the perfect fit for your career goals and your lifestyle. Our Account Managers are dedicated by specialty area and there is never a charge to you for our services. Not all staffing companies are alike. We're proud to be different. Experience the Aureus difference. EEO/Veteran/Disabled/E-Verify Employer
          SPD TECH LEAD - Sterile Processing - Full-Time - Day   
Posted on: 2017-06-30

Works under the direction of the Director, Supervisor, Manager, or Clinical lead to coordinate the sterilization activities of the operating room and/or SPD department. Coordinates and maintains the flow of instruments, equipment, and supplies for the operating room and/or the hospital. Demonstrates ability to perform competencies as outlined in unit based Competency Assessment tools. Demonstrates age-specific care as established for area and job title. Experience/Specialized Skills: Requires two years experience in a sterile processing, outpatient, or surgical setting. Working knowledge of sterilizers, surgical instrumentation, and hospital equipment. Prefer two years of experience as OR technician.

Required Certification/Registration: Certified Registered Central Service Technician (CTCST).

Required Education/Course(s)/Training: High school graduate or equivelent preferred. College course work in microbiology desireable. Prefer successful completion of a hospital central service technician course.

Scripps Health is an equal opportunity employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, religion, color, national origin, sex, age, status as a protected veteran, among other things, or status as a qualified individual with disability.

Job: Patient Care - Support

Primary Location : Central San Diego County-LA JOLLA-SCRIPPS MEMORIAL HOSPITAL LA JOLLA

Organization : 9888 GENESEE AVE

Job Posting :

Benefit status :


          SPD TECH LEAD - Sterile Processing - Full-Time - Evening   
Posted on: 2017-06-30

Works under the direction of the Director, Supervisor, Manager, or Clinical lead to coordinate the sterilization activities of the operating room and/or SPD department. Coordinates and maintains the flow of instruments, equipment, and supplies for the operating room and/or the hospital. Demonstrates ability to perform competencies as outlined in unit based Competency Assessment tools. Demonstrates age-specific care as established for area and job title. Experience/Specialized Skills: Requires two years experience in a sterile processing, outpatient, or surgical setting. Working knowledge of sterilizers, surgical instrumentation, and hospital equipment. Prefer two years of experience as OR technician.

Required Certification/Registration: Certified Registered Central Service Technician (CTCST).

Required Education/Course(s)/Training: High school graduate or equivelent preferred. College course work in microbiology desireable. Prefer successful completion of a hospital central service technician course.

Scripps Health is an equal opportunity employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, religion, color, national origin, sex, age, status as a protected veteran, among other things, or status as a qualified individual with disability.

Job: Patient Care - Support

Primary Location : Central San Diego County-LA JOLLA-SCRIPPS MEMORIAL HOSPITAL LA JOLLA

Organization : 9888 GENESEE AVE

Job Posting :

Benefit status :


          Test Item Writers - Educational Assessment & Research, Inc. - Olathe, KS   
In Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics, or English. This involves finding related readings and information to serve as “stimuli” for the test...
From Indeed - Sat, 15 Apr 2017 04:12:32 GMT - View all Olathe, KS jobs
          The Biology of Ideology   
Researchers have found tantalizing hints that our voting practices can be traced to a political psyche shaped by genetic traits.
          Research Microscopist - UES - Dayton, OH   
~ 1-5 years&quot; postdoctoral experience in the field of biology, biomedical engineering, bioengineering, materials science, chemistry, physics, microbiology, cell...
From UES - Wed, 21 Jun 2017 19:50:46 GMT - View all Dayton, OH jobs
          Computational Toxicologist - UES - Dayton, OH   
In biology, environmental toxicology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, pharmacology, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, or other related disciplines...
From UES - Thu, 25 May 2017 22:30:29 GMT - View all Dayton, OH jobs
          As Big Pharma Flocks to Science Exchange, Norwest Leads $28M Funding   
Some biology PhD’s become entrepreneurs because there are only so many posts around for university professors. But Elizabeth Iorns had scored one of those coveted entry-level academic jobs, so there was a lot at stake in 2011, when she was deciding whether to give it up to launch a startup. Six years later, Iorns says […]
          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
To create and maintain a classroom atmosphere that generates high expectations and enthusiasm for learning by infusing critical thinking skills, application $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          Illustrated Guide To Home Biology Exp., Grs. 9-12   
For Sale

Like New condition, $15ppd. Never used.



15.00
          Gorsuch's anti-gay dissent in birth certificate case proved him either daft or supremely deceptive   

Put a pin in this one, because it surely says something about Neil Gorsuch’s integrity and disregard for intellectual honesty as well as the course of any LGBTQ cases that reach a Supreme Court that now counts him among its justices.

Although six justices—including Anthony Kennedy and Chief Justice John Roberts—summarily reversed an Arkansas Supreme Court ruling that essentially made a mockery of the high court's 2015 Obergefell decision legalizing same-sex marriage, Justice Gorsuch decided to send a clarion call to homophobes across the country that they have a steadfast ally on the bench.

The case, Pavan v. Smith, involved a pretty straightforward birth certificate issue in which Arkansas automatically lists the husband of a married mother on a child's birth certificate—even if he isn’t the biological father—thereby elevating him as a legal parent despite having no biological tie. The same was not true for same-sex spouses. The very simple solution was to reframe the policy in gender-neutral terms so a same-sex "spouse" would also be listed and therefore given equal legal status as a parent despite not being biologically related to the child. The Arkansas Department of Health refused to do that and the state Supreme Court upheld the agency’s judgment.

But the case was such an affront to the equal treatment of same-sex couples articulated in the Obergefell decision that the justices voted 6-3 to reverse that ruling without even hearing oral arguments. Gorsuch thought differently and deemed it necessary to issue the dissent—a very ominous sign, writes Noah Feldman for Bloomberg.

His reasoning was pretty doubtful. Gorsuch said that the Arkansas opinion didn’t defy the Obergefell precedent but rather sought to “earnestly engage” it. The state court, he asserted, merely accepted the state’s claim that there were “rational reasons” for a “biology based birth registration regime.”

The problem with this view of course is that Arkansas doesn’t have a biology-based registration policy. It has a marriage-based regime.

Exactly, which means Gorsuch is either far more intellectually challenged than we previously knew or he's just plain devious.


          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
To create and maintain a classroom atmosphere that generates high expectations and enthusiasm for learning by infusing critical thinking skills, application $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          Developmental Supervisor-Spencer, WI - Land O’Lakes, Inc. - Spencer, WI   
Bachelor degree required, preferably in Food Science, Chemistry, Biology, or related field. The employee must occasionally lift and/or move up to 15 pounds....
From Land O’Lakes, Inc. - Wed, 21 Jun 2017 09:49:57 GMT - View all Spencer, WI jobs
          Delta Poly Otefe-Oghara 2017/18 ND [UTME] Admission Screening Form On Sale    
The Delta State Polytechnic hereby invites applications from students for the screening and documentation of candidates for admission into National Diploma for the 2017/2018 academic session.

The Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara has scheduled 11th and 12th September, 2017 for the screening and documentation of Candidates for the 2017/2018 Academic Session.

Candidates Eligible for the Exercise

(i) All Candidates who chose Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara as their first or second choice and scored 180 and above in the 2017 UTME. 
(ii) Candidates who chose other Polytechnic but wish to change to Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara and scored a minimum of 180 having changed it through JAMB.

Courses Available

(i) Accountancy 
(ii) Banking and Finance 
(iii) Business Administration and Management 
(iv) Mass Communication 
(v) Office Technology and Management 
(vi) Computer Science 
(vii) Science Laboratory Technology (SLT) 
(viii) Statistics 
(ix) Computer Engineering 
(x) Electrical/Electronic Engineering 
(xi) Mechanical Engineering 
(xii) Welding and Fabrication Technology  

Documents Required for the Screening/Documentation

Candidates for the screening are required to come with original copies of the following: 
(i) JAMB Result Slip 
(ii) O/L Results 
(iii) Certificate of Local Government of Origin 
(iv) Two recent Passport Photographs 
(v) The Screening Form (Photocopy) 
(vi) Birth Certificate (Age Declaration)

Entry Requirements

(i) Five(5) O’Level Credit Passes including Mathematics and English Language in subjects relevant to the Candidate’s course of study. 
(ii) The following subjects are taken as one: Economics or Commerce, Government or History or Civic Education, Biology or Agricultural Science or Fishery or Animal Husbandry, Marketing or Salesmanship, Financial Accounting or Book Keeping, Data Processing or ICT or Computer Studies or Information & Communication Technology. 
CRS is accepted only for all Business/Social Science Courses. 
(iii) Candidates who applied for Computer Science must have at least a pass in Physics.

METHOD OF APPLICATION:

(i) Log on to www.ogharapoly.edu.ngthen click on ND Application Form. 
(ii) Click the payment button to pay a non-refundable screening and documentation fee of Five Thousand Naira (N5,000.00) made online with Verve or Master Debit Card (ATM Card). 
(iii) Print two(2) copies of the online acknowledgement form to conclude the registration.

SCREENING DATE AND SCHEDULE

Admission screening dates will be announced in due course.

Closing Date

Interested Candidates should apply on or before 30th August, 2017.

          Research Scientist/ Research Fellow/ Technical Assistant - CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University - Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu   
Sundaramanickam, Assistant professor, CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine sciences, Annamalai University Parangipettai-608502 Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu,India...
From Indeed - Tue, 02 May 2017 17:50:13 GMT - View all Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu jobs
          Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Biology, Vol. 9, No. 3   
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Biology, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2017

          Medical Coding Jobs -Nursing GNM Fresher UG PG Graduates 720027.3695VidyaHR (Tamil Nadu)   
Core2Code - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
Job Description: We are hiring freshers /Exp in (Life science/Nursing/Paramedical ) UG PG for leading Healthcare MNC Companies. Eligibility Nursing,GNM Pharmacy Zoology Advance zoology Botany Biochemistry Bioinformatics Biotech Biomedical Microbiology Nutrition Dietician Environmental science Food Technology Agriculture Genetics BDS, BPT, BUMS, BHMS, BSMS, BAMS Designation: Medical Coder(Converting Medical Terms into Codes) Qualification : Life Science/Nursing/Paramedical Passed out : 2010-2017 Gender : Male / Female. Shift : Only General Shift with weekend leave+Cab Pay Scale : 10000k-17000k fresher if exp 40k (Incentives upto 3000/- per month) Location : Chennai,Hyderabad,Kerala,Coimbatore ,Salem ,Thirunelveli,Trichy,Vellore ,Thanjaur,Madurai,Cuddalore Exp-0 to 6 in any deparment with age limit 32 Key skills: Basic communication and Computer Skills Age Limit : Below 33 with above qualification ( if you are fresher in medical coding) Contact:- Vidya Sr.HR 7200,273695...
          Medical Coding Jobs -B.Pharm/M.pharm/Pham.D Graduates 720027.3695 -VidyaHR (Tamil Nadu)   
Core2Code - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
Job Description: We are hiring freshers /Exp in (Life science/Nursing/Paramedical ) UG PG for leading Healthcare MNC Companies. Eligibility Nursing,GNM Pharmacy Zoology Advance zoology Botany Biochemistry Bioinformatics Biotech Biomedical Microbiology Nutrition Dietician Environmental science Food Technology Agriculture Genetics BDS, BPT, BUMS, BHMS, BSMS, BAMS Designation: Medical Coder(Converting Medical Terms into Codes) Qualification : Life Science/Nursing/Paramedical Passed out : 2010-2017 Gender : Male / Female. Shift : Only General Shift with weekend leave+Cab Pay Scale : 10000k-17000k fresher if exp 40k (Incentives upto 3000/- per month) Location : Chennai,Hyderabad,Kerala,Coimbatore ,Salem ,Thirunelveli,Trichy,Vellore ,Thanjaur,Madurai,Cuddalore Exp-0 to 6 in any deparment with age limit 32 Key skills: Basic communication and Computer Skills Age Limit : Below 33 with above qualification ( if you are fresher in medical coding) Contact:- Vidya Sr.HR 7200,273695...
          Medical Coding Jobs -Botany Zoology Chemistry UG PG Graduates 720027.3695 -VidyaHR (Tamil Nadu)   
Core2Code - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
Job Description: We are hiring freshers /Exp in (Life science/Nursing/Paramedical ) UG PG for leading Healthcare MNC Companies. Eligibility Nursing,GNM Pharmacy Zoology Advance zoology Botany Biochemistry Bioinformatics Biotech Biomedical Microbiology Nutrition Dietician Environmental science Food Technology Agriculture Genetics BDS, BPT, BUMS, BHMS, BSMS, BAMS Designation: Medical Coder(Converting Medical Terms into Codes) Qualification : Life Science/Nursing/Paramedical Passed out : 2010-2017 Gender : Male / Female. Shift : Only General Shift with weekend leave+Cab Pay Scale : 10000k-17000k fresher if exp 40k (Incentives upto 3000/- per month) Location : Chennai,Hyderabad,Kerala,Coimbatore ,Salem ,Thirunelveli,Trichy,Vellore ,Thanjaur,Madurai,Cuddalore Exp-0 to 6 in any deparment with age limit 32 Key skills: Basic communication and Computer Skills Age Limit : Below 33 with above qualification ( if you are fresher in medical coding) Contact:- Vidya Sr.HR 7200,273695...
          Medical Coding Jobs -Bioinformatics Advance Zoology UG PG Graduates 720027.3695 -VidyaHR (Tamil Nadu)   
Core2Code - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
Job Description: We are hiring freshers /Exp in (Life science/Nursing/Paramedical ) UG PG for leading Healthcare MNC Companies. Eligibility Nursing,GNM Pharmacy Zoology Advance zoology Botany Biochemistry Bioinformatics Biotech Biomedical Microbiology Nutrition Dietician Environmental science Food Technology Agriculture Genetics BDS, BPT, BUMS, BHMS, BSMS, BAMS Designation: Medical Coder(Converting Medical Terms into Codes) Qualification : Life Science/Nursing/Paramedical Passed out : 2010-2017 Gender : Male / Female. Shift : Only General Shift with weekend leave+Cab Pay Scale : 10000k-17000k fresher if exp 40k (Incentives upto 3000/- per month) Location : Chennai,Hyderabad,Kerala,Coimbatore ,Salem ,Thirunelveli,Trichy,Vellore ,Thanjaur,Madurai,Cuddalore Exp-0 to 6 in any deparment with age limit 32 Key skills: Basic communication and Computer Skills Age Limit : Below 33 with above qualification ( if you are fresher in medical coding) Contact:- Vidya Sr.HR 7200,273695...
          Medical Coding Jobs - Biochemistry Microbiology Fresher UG PG Graduates (MNC Company Jobs)-VidyaHR (Tamil Nadu)   
Core2Code - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
Job Description: We are hiring freshers /Exp in (Life science/Nursing/Paramedical ) UG PG for leading Healthcare MNC Companies. Eligibility Nursing,GNM Pharmacy Zoology Advance zoology Botany Biochemistry Bioinformatics Biotech Biomedical Microbiology Nutrition Dietician Environmental science Food Technology Agriculture Genetics BDS, BPT, BUMS, BHMS, BSMS, BAMS Designation: Medical Coder(Converting Medical Terms into Codes) Qualification : Life Science/Nursing/Paramedical Passed out : 2010-2017 Gender : Male / Female. Shift : Only General Shift with weekend leave+Cab Pay Scale : 10000k-17000k fresher if exp 40k (Incentives upto 3000/- per month) Location : Chennai,Hyderabad,Kerala,Coimbatore ,Salem ,Thirunelveli,Trichy Exp-0 to 6 in any deparment with age limit 32 Key skills: Basic communication and Computer Skills Age Limit : Below 33 with above qualification ( if you are fresher in medical coding) Contact:- Vidya Sr.HR 7200,273695...
          Medical Coding Jobs - Biotech Biomedical Fresher UG PG Graduates 720027.3695VidyaHR (Tamil Nadu)   
Core2Code - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
Job Description: We are hiring freshers /Exp in (Life science/Nursing/Paramedical ) UG PG for leading Healthcare MNC Companies. Eligibility Nursing,GNM Pharmacy Zoology Advance zoology Botany Biochemistry Bioinformatics Biotech Biomedical Microbiology Nutrition Dietician Environmental science Food Technology Agriculture Genetics BDS, BPT, BUMS, BHMS, BSMS, BAMS Designation: Medical Coder(Converting Medical Terms into Codes) Qualification : Life Science/Nursing/Paramedical Passed out : 2010-2017 Gender : Male / Female. Shift : Only General Shift with weekend leave+Cab Pay Scale : 10000k-17000k fresher if exp 40k (Incentives upto 3000/- per month) Location : Chennai,Hyderabad,Kerala,Coimbatore ,Salem ,Thirunelveli,Trichy Exp-0 to 6 in any deparment with age limit 32 Key skills: Basic communication and Computer Skills Age Limit : Below 33 with above qualification ( if you are fresher in medical coding) Contact:- Vidya Sr.HR 7200,273695...
          Medical Coding Jobs For Biotech,biochem,microbio, Zoo,& Botany Grad Ct:Ranjani HR (Tamil Nadu)   
Iskills solutions - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
500 Opening for Medical Coding job Medical Coding is the process of converting Verbal Descriptions into numeric or alpha numeric by using ICD 10-CM, CPT & HCPCS. As per HIPAA rules healthcare providers need efficient Medical Coders Requirement: • knowledge in Anatomy and Physiology • Good communication and interpersonal skills • Basic Computer Skills No of vacancy:100 Position : Medical Coder Eligibility: • Bio medical • Bio chemistry • Bio technology • Bio informatics • Micro biology • Zoology and Advanced zoology • Biology • Botany • Plant biology • Nursing & diploma • Life science graduates • Pharmacy (b.ph, m.ph, dip) • Paramedical Salary • 14.5K to 18K (fresher) To 40K (experienced) Pm (Incentives & Benefits as per Corporate Standards) • 4K fixed hike after six months Other Benefit • weekend Off • Only dayshift • Pick up and drop Cab provided Reach us : Ranjani HR Contact : 81908 : 82200 Address : No:35, Laxmi Narayan Street, duraisami subway road, T.nagar, West Mambalam-600033. (landmark-opp the purple optical)...
          Medical Coding Job for Fresher in Day Shift Ct:Ranjani HR (Tamil Nadu)   
Iskills solutions - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
500 Opening for Medical Coding job Medical Coding is the process of converting Verbal Descriptions into numeric or alpha numeric by using ICD 10-CM, CPT & HCPCS. As per HIPAA rules healthcare providers need efficient Medical Coders Requirement: • knowledge in Anatomy and Physiology • Good communication and interpersonal skills • Basic Computer Skills No of vacancy:500 Position : Medical Coder Eligibility: • Bio medical • Bio chemistry • Bio technology • Bio informatics • Micro biology • Zoology and Advanced zoology • Biology • Botany • Plant biology • Nursing & diploma • Life science graduates • Pharmacy (b.ph, m.ph, dip) • Paramedical Salary • 14.5K to 18K (fresher) To 40K (experienced) Pm (Incentives & Benefits as per Corporate Standards) • 4K fixed hike after six months Other Benefit • weekend Off • Only dayshift • Pick up and drop Cab provided Reach us : Ranjani HR Contact : 81908 : 82200 Address : No:35, Laxmi Narayan Street, duraisami subway road, T.nagar, West Mambalam-600033. (landmark-opp the purple optical)...
          Medical Coding Job for Fresher in Day Shift Ct:Ranjani HR (Tamil Nadu)   
Iskills solutions - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
500 Opening for Medical Coding job Medical Coding is the process of converting Verbal Descriptions into numeric or alpha numeric by using ICD 10-CM, CPT & HCPCS. As per HIPAA rules healthcare providers need efficient Medical Coders Requirement: • knowledge in Anatomy and Physiology • Good communication and interpersonal skills • Basic Computer Skills No of vacancy:500 Position : Medical Coder Eligibility: • Bio medical • Bio chemistry • Bio technology • Bio informatics • Micro biology • Zoology and Advanced zoology • Biology • Botany • Plant biology • Nursing & diploma • Life science graduates • Pharmacy (b.ph, m.ph, dip) • Paramedical Salary • 14.5K to 18K (fresher) To 40K (experienced) Pm (Incentives & Benefits as per Corporate Standards) • 4K fixed hike after six months Other Benefit • weekend Off • Only dayshift • Pick up and drop Cab provided Reach us : Ranjani HR Contact : 81908 : 82200 Address : No:35, Laxmi Narayan Street, duraisami subway road, T.nagar, West Mambalam-600033. (landmark-opp the purple optical)...
          Medical Coding Jobs for Zoology, Botany, Microbiology, Biotech Grads Ct:Ranjani HR (Tamil Nadu)   
Iskills solutions - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
500 Opening for Medical Coding job Medical Coding is the process of converting Verbal Descriptions into numeric or alpha numeric by using ICD 10-CM, CPT & HCPCS. As per HIPAA rules healthcare providers need efficient Medical Coders Requirement: • knowledge in Anatomy and Physiology • Good communication and interpersonal skills • Basic Computer Skills No of vacancy:500 Position : Medical Coder Eligibility: • Bio medical • Bio chemistry • Bio technology • Bio informatics • Micro biology • Zoology and Advanced zoology • Biology • Botany • Plant biology • Nursing & diploma • Life science graduates • Pharmacy (b.ph, m.ph, dip) • Paramedical Salary • 14.5K to 18K (fresher) To 40K (experienced) Pm (Incentives & Benefits as per Corporate Standards) • 4K fixed hike after six months Other Benefit • weekend Off • Only dayshift • Pick up and drop Cab provided Reach us : Ranjani HR Contact : 81908 : 82200 Address : No:35, Laxmi Narayan Street, duraisami subway road, T.nagar, West Mambalam-600033. (landmark-opp the purple optical)...
          Medical Coding Jobs For Biochemistry Graduates & Post Grad in Chennai Ct:Ranjani HR (Tamil Nadu)   
Iskills solutions - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
500 Opening for Medical Coding job Medical Coding is the process of converting Verbal Descriptions into numeric or alpha numeric by using ICD 10-CM, CPT & HCPCS. As per HIPAA rules healthcare providers need efficient Medical Coders Requirement: • knowledge in Anatomy and Physiology • Good communication and interpersonal skills • Basic Computer Skills No of vacancy:100 Position : Medical Coder Eligibility: • Bio medical • Bio chemistry • Bio technology • Bio informatics • Micro biology • Zoology and Advanced zoology • Biology • Botany • Plant biology • Nursing & diploma • Life science graduates • Pharmacy (b.ph, m.ph, dip) • Paramedical Salary • 14.5K to 18K (fresher) To 40K (experienced) Pm (Incentives & Benefits as per Corporate Standards) • 4K fixed hike after six months Other Benefit • weekend Off • Only dayshift • Pick up and drop Cab provided Reach us : Ranjani HR Contact : 81908 : 82200 Address : No:35, Laxmi Narayan Street, duraisami subway road, T.nagar, West Mambalam-600033. (landmark-opp the purple optical)...
          Jobs for Biotech, Biomedical& Biochemistry Graduates in Medical Coding Grad Ct:Ranjani HR (Tamil Nadu)   
Iskills solutions - Date posted: 30 Jun 2017
500 Opening for Medical Coding job Medical Coding is the process of converting Verbal Descriptions into numeric or alpha numeric by using ICD 10-CM, CPT & HCPCS. As per HIPAA rules healthcare providers need efficient Medical Coders Requirement: • knowledge in Anatomy and Physiology • Good communication and interpersonal skills • Basic Computer Skills No of vacancy:500 Position : Medical Coder Eligibility: • Bio medical • Bio chemistry • Bio technology • Bio informatics • Micro biology • Zoology and Advanced zoology • Biology • Botany • Plant biology • Nursing & diploma • Life science graduates • Pharmacy (b.ph, m.ph, dip) • Paramedical Salary • 14.5K to 18K (fresher) To 40K (experienced) Pm (Incentives & Benefits as per Corporate Standards) • 4K fixed hike after six months Other Benefit • weekend Off • Only dayshift • Pick up and drop Cab provided Reach us : Ranjani HR Contact : 81908 : 82200 Address : No:35, Laxmi Narayan Street, duraisami subway road, T.nagar, West Mambalam-600033. (landmark-opp the purple optical)...
           Principles of protein structure: An established Internet‐based course in structural biology    
Sansom, Clare and Moss, David (2000) Principles of protein structure: An established Internet‐based course in structural biology. Association for Learning Technology Journal, 8 (2). pp. 29-39. ISSN 0968-7769
          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
To create and maintain a classroom atmosphere that generates high expectations and enthusiasm for learning by infusing critical thinking skills, application... $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          The Bite of Conscience   
Today we continue our series on hidden feelings with an in-depth examination of guilt.  I speak with Stanford professor of psychiatry and human biology Herant Katchadourian, author of the book Guilt: The Bite of Conscience, about the urge to confess our guilt, how it can be used as a weapon, and how we can know […]
          What Is Thought?   


Is that some sort of trick question? Everyone knows what thought is. Or do they...  My questions for you today are:

  • How do you define “a thought” (yes, a single thought)? Where is the boundary from one thought to the next?
  • What is “thought” more generally? Does this cognitive activity require conscious awareness? Or language? We don't want to be linguistic chauvinists, now do we, so let's assume mice have them. But how about shrimp? Or worms?

What is “a thought”?

Can you define what a discrete “thought” is?  This question was motivated by a persistent brain myth:
You have an estimated 70,000 thoughts per day.
Where did this number come from? How do you tally up 70,000 thoughts? Do some thoughts last 10 seconds, while others are finished in one tenth of a second?

Over 24 hours, one thought per second would yield 86,400 thoughts. If “thoughts” are restricted to 16 waking hours, the number would be 57,600. But we're almost certainly thinking while we're dreaming (for about two hours every night), so that would be 64,800 seconds, with an ultimate result of one thought every 0.9257 seconds, on average.

LONI®, the Laboratory of Neuroimaging at USC, included this claim on their Brain Trivia page, so perhaps it's all their fault.1

How many thoughts does the average person have per day?
*70,000

*This is still an open question (how many thoughts does the average human brain processes in 1 day). LONI faculty have done some very preliminary studies using undergraduate student volunteers and have estimated that one may expect around 60-70K thoughts per day. These results are not peer-reviewed/published. There is no generally accepted definition of what "thought" is or how it is created. In our study, we had assumed that a "thought" is a sporadic single-idea cognitive concept resulting from the act of thinking, or produced by spontaneous systems-level cognitive brain activations.

Neuroskeptic tried to find the origin of The 70,000 Thoughts Per Day Myth five years ago. He found a very bizarre post by Charlie Greer (“Helping Plumbing, HVAC, and Electrical service contractors Sell More at Higher Profits”):
Several years ago, the National Science Foundation put out some very interesting statistics. We think a thousand thoughts per hour. When we write, we think twenty-five hundred thoughts in an hour and a half. The average person thinks about twelve thousand thoughts per day. A deeper thinker, according to this report, puts forth fifty thousand thoughts daily.

If this “NSF report” exists, no one can find it (NSF is a funding agency, not a research lab). Were the LONI® researchers funded by NSF?  No one knows...





Maybe we're approaching this in the wrong way. We shouldn't be relying on descriptions of mental events to define a thought, but rather discrete brain states.


Using this definition, “a thought” is what you can capture with your fancy new imaging technique. Therefore, a thought conveniently occupies the available temporal resolution of your method:
“A thought or a cognitive function usually lasts 30 seconds or a minute. That’s the range of what we’re hoping to be able to capture,” says Kay Tye, an assistant professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT.
In this case, the method is FLARE, “an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window” (Wang et al., 2017).


But what if your method records EEG microstates, “short periods (100 ms) during which the EEG scalp topography remains quasi-stable” (Van De Ville et al., 2010). In this case, thoughts are assembled from EEG microstates:
One characteristic feature of EEG microstates is the rapid transition from one scalp field topography into another, leading to the hypothesis that they constitute the “basic building blocks of cognition” or “atoms of thought” that underlie spontaneous conscious cognitive activity.

And for good measure, studies of mind wandering, spontaneous thought, and the default mode network are flourishing. To learn more, a good place to start is Brain signatures of spontaneous thoughts, a blog post by Emilie Reas.

What is “thought”?

What is called thinking? The question sounds definite. It seems unequivocal. But even a slight reflection shows it to have more than one meaning. No sooner do we ask the question than we begin to vacillate. Indeed, the ambiguity of the question foils every attempt to push toward the answer without some further preparation.

- Martin Heidegger, What Is Called Thinking?

Philosophers have filled thousands of pages addressing this question, so clearly we're way beyond the depth and scope of this post. My focus here is more narrow, “thought” in the sense used by cognitive psychologists. Is thought different from attention

Once we look at the etymology and usage of the word, no wonder we're so confused...

Does Beauty Require Thought?

Speaking of philosophy, a recent study tested Kant's views on aesthetics, specifically the claim that experiencing beauty requires thought (Brielmann & Pelli, 2017).




Participants in the study rated the pleasure they felt from seeing pictures (IKEA furniture vs. beautiful images), tasting Jolly Rancher candy, and touching a soft alpaca teddy bear. In one condition, they had to perform a working memory task (an auditory 2-back task) at the same time. They listened to strings of letters and identified when the present stimulus matched the letter presented two trials ago. This is distracting, obviously, and the participants' ratings of pleasure and beauty declined. So in this context, the authors effectively defined thought as attention or working memory (Brielmann & Pelli, 2017).2 


Alternate Titles for the paper (none of which sound as exciting as the original Beauty Requires Thought)

Aesthetic Judgments and Pleasure Ratings Require Attention

Judgments of Beauty Require Working Memory and Cognitive Control

...or the especially clunky Ratings of “felt beauty” Require Attention — but only for beautiful items.


Dual task experiments are pretty popular. Concurrent performance of the n-back working memory task also disrupts the execution of decidedly non-beautiful activities, such as walking and timed ankle movements. So I guess walking and ankle movements require thought...



Footnote

1 This claim was still on their site as recently as March 2017, but it's no longer there.

2 They did, however, show that working memory load on its own (a digit span task) didn't produce the same alterations in beauty/pleasure ratings.


References

Brielmann, A., & Pelli, D. (2017). Beauty Requires Thought. Current Biology, 27 (10), 1506-1513.

Van de Ville D, Britz J, Michel CM. (2010). EEG microstate sequences in healthy humans at rest reveal scale-free dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107(42):18179-84.

Wang W, Wildes CP, Pattarabanjird T, Sanchez MI, Glober GF, Matthews GA, Tye KM, Ting AY. (2017). A light- and calcium-gated transcription factor for imaging andmanipulating activated neurons. Nat Biotechnol. Jun 26.



gif from palerlotus


          Cancer researchers overestimate reproducibility of preclinical studies   
Cancer scientists overestimate the extent to which high-profile preclinical studies can be successfully replicated, new research published in the open access journal PLOS Biology by Jonathan...
          The 2017-18 New TV Class   
The 2017-18 New TV Class

Last week, we took a look at which TV shows have been cancelled, and which have been renewed. Today, we’re checking out trailers and/or synopses for some of the new shows we’ll most likely see on our small screens during the 2017-18 TV season.

After watching the trailers, head to the comments to chat!

ABC

Alex, Inc.

Alex, who’s in his mid-30s with a wife and two kids, makes the crazy decision to quit his good job and dive into the brave new world of starting a business. (Based on the podcast, StartUp.)

The Crossing (Midseason)

Refugees from a war-torn country start showing up to seek asylum in an American town. Only the country these people are from is America and the war they are fleeing is 250 years in the future.

Deception (Midseason)

Superstar magician Cameron Black is bringing his skill for illusion to the FBI. Using every trick in the book and inventing new ones, he will help the government catch the world’s most elusive criminals while staging the biggest illusions of his career.

For the People (Midseason)

Set in the Southern District of New York (SDNY) Federal Court, aka "The Mother Court," this legal drama follows brand new lawyers working for both the defense and the prosecution as they handle the most high profile and high stakes cases in the country—all as their personal lives intersect.

The Good Doctor

A young surgeon with autism and Savant syndrome is recruited into the pediatric surgical unit of a prestigious hospital. The question will arise: can a person who doesn't have the ability to relate to people actually save their lives?

The Gospel of Kevin

Kevin, a down-on-his-luck man, is tasked by God with a mission to save the world.

Marvel’s Inhumans

An isolated community of superhumans fight to protect themselves.

The Mayor

A struggling hip-hop artist runs for mayor to promote his mix-tape and wins.

Roseanne (Midseason)

The groundbreaking family comedy returns, with the original cast.

Splitting Up Together (Midseason)

The story of a couple whose marriage is reignited by their divorce.

Ten Days in the Valley

About an overworked television producer and single mother in the middle of a fractious separation. When her young daughter goes missing in the middle of the night, Jane's world—and her controversial police series—implodes.

CBS

9JKL

An out-of-work actor attempts to set boundaries with his intrusive but well-meaning family, while he lives in the apartment between his parents and his brother, sister-in-law, and their baby.

Me, Myself, and I

A comedy examines one man's life over a 50-year span. It explores three distinct periods in his life - as a 14-year-old in 1991, a 40-year-old in present day and a 65-year-old in 2042.

Seal Team

Follow the lives of elite Navy SEALs as they train, plan and execute the most dangerous, high-stakes missions our country can ask of them.

Star Trek: Discovery (Premiering on TV, but then moving to the CBS All Access app)

No official synopsis yet, but it’s a new Star Trek show that’s set about 10 years prior to the events of the original series.

S.W.A.T.

Follows a locally born and bred S.W.A.T. lieutenant who is torn between loyalty to the streets and duty to his fellow officers when he's tasked to run a highly-trained unit that's the last stop for solving crimes in Los Angeles.

Wisdom of the Crowd

A tech innovator creates a cutting-edge crowd-sourcing hub to solve his own daughter's murder, as well as revolutionizing crime solving in San Francisco.

Young Sheldon

The early life of child genius Sheldon, later seen in The Big Bang Theory.

The CW

Dynasty

Follows two of America's wealthiest families as they feud for control over their fortune and their children.

Valor

The boundaries between military discipline and human desire are tested on a U.S. Army base that houses an elite unit of helicopter pilots trained to perform clandestine international and domestic missions.

Black Lightning

A retired superhero becomes a vigilante for justice.

Life Sentence

When Stella finds out her terminal cancer is cured, she's going to have to learn to live with all the choices she's made when she decided to "live like she was dying."

Fox

Ghosted

A skeptic is forced to work with a firm believer of the paranormal on unexplained occurrences in Los Angeles.

The Gifted

In a world where mutated humans are treated with distrust and fear, an institute for mutants battles to achieve peaceful co-existence with humanity.

The Orville

Follows the crew of the not-so-functional exploratory ship in the Earth's interstellar fleet, 300 years in the future.

LA > Vegas

An ensemble workplace comedy, set on the Friday night flight from LAX to Vegas and the returning flight on Sunday, about a group of underdogs who’re trying to find their place in the world and who all share the same goal: to come back a winner in the casino of life.

The Resident

An idealistic young doctor begins his first day under the supervision of a tough, brilliant senior resident who pulls the curtain back on all of the good and evil in modern day medicine. Lives may be saved or lost, but expectations will always be shattered.

NBC

A.P. Bio (Midseason)

A former philosophy professor who takes a job teaching AP biology and uses his students to get back at the people in his life who have wronged him.

The Brave

The complex world of our bravest military heroes who make personal sacrifices while executing the most challenging and dangerous missions behind enemy lines.

Champions (Midseason)

Vince, a charismatic gym owner with no ambition lives with his younger brother Michael, a gorgeous idiot. Their simple life of women and working out is put on hold when the teenage son of Vince is dropped off on their doorstep by Priya, one of his old high school flings.

Good Girls (Midseason)

Three "good girl" suburban wives and mothers suddenly find themselves in desperate circumstances and decide to stop playing it safe and risk everything to take their power back.

The Handmade Project (Midseason)

No synopsis for this yet, but it stars Amy Poehler and Nick Offerman, and I think we can assume from the title that they’ll be making things.

Law & Order True Crime: The Menendez Murders

When the Menendez brothers were tried on national TV for brutally killing their parents in Beverly Hills, their story became a national obsession. Now, the first edition of this anthology series delves into the players, the crime and the media circus, detailing the day-to-day battles of the trial and unveiling the shocking truth of what really went down when the cameras stopped rolling.

Reverie (Midseason)

A former detective specializing in human behavior is brought in when the launch of an advanced virtual reality program has dangerous and unintended consequences.

Rise (Midseason)

A working class high school drama department and the students come alive under a passionate teacher and family man whose dedication to the program galvanizes the entire town.

Will & Grace

An encore 11 years in the making. It’ll take Will, Jack and Karen to convince Grace it’s a good idea.


I’m definitely looking forward to Star Trek: Discovery—regardless of its plot—and I think The Crossing and The Gifted sound fascinating. (The Gifted is also somehow connected to the X-Men?) Ghosted, of course, looks to be an excellent buddy cop show. Most of the other shows seem like the same ol’, same ol’, but that’s not surprising.

Oh, and The Orville looks like a bad version of Galaxy Quest and/or Hyperdrive, both of which I love.

Anything pique your interest? Let’s discuss below.


          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
To create and maintain a classroom atmosphere that generates high expectations and enthusiasm for learning by infusing critical thinking skills, application... $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
To create and maintain a classroom atmosphere that generates high expectations and enthusiasm for learning by infusing critical thinking skills, application... $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          HPC Seminar Series: The Subterranean Genome of the Devil Worm   

The Subterranean Genome of the Devil Worm Professor John R. Bracht Department of Biology (CAS) Abstract: The subterranean worm H. mephisto, was first discovered in a gold mine in South Africa, living nearly a mile underground in water-filled cracks in the earth’s crust. Completely isolated from the terrestrial biosphere, this organism has managed to survive, […]

The post HPC Seminar Series: The Subterranean Genome of the Devil Worm appeared first on CTRL Connect.


          Thoughts on marriage, the mandate and our Roman Catholic church   

Today is a very interesting day in the history of the United States of America, one among many interesting days in recent years, as the forces of secularism and relativism struggle for ascendance in the hearts and minds of Americans. The recent election was a turning point in my mind, for in this election, for the first time, a majority of Americans voted for their own perceived desires as opposed to voting for the good of the republic as a whole, the "common good". They did so as the result of a massive campaign of disinformation, that has been ongoing for decades, to dissociate our political life from a moral one.

It is interesting how, when we turn away from God in the idealism of self-determination, the foundation upon which we place our premises becomes quite malleable, and it is interesting how forces that we have no idea could exist take that soft ground and shape it into something which sounds good and yet shields a rotten interior. We fall for the fake sell over and over again — history proves it beyond a shadow of a doubt, and I believe we have reached this point in the United States of America. Enough people shied away from embracing the "self-evident truths"  in our foundational documents and instead have embraced a centralized form of government, enticed by promises that government can efficiently and FAIRLY take care of the needs of the populace. The first rewards we are reaping have nothing to do with money, but instead attack our moral fiber and what makes us a country unique in the annals of history.

NATURAL LAW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

The American Constitution was founded on the basis of the natural law, ie that set of presuppositions about who we are and why we are here that are innate to our very selves, and that can be divined in every society at every time in the history of the world. Why? Because it is truth! Natural law is the visible sign of God, who created order: physical law, chemical law, natural law. The concept of natural law has been protected and promoted by the Catholic Church since at least the days of St Thomas Aquinas. It is mentioned in the Declaration of Independence, "the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God". Well, over the course of the last 50 years the understanding of these laws has been eroded, the moral framework which is the outcome of natural law has not been taught in schools, and there are now enough people of voting age who believe that they can exchange these laws for their own self-interest, and still remain free. And they voted for it.

I have news for everyone reading this. It won't. We have entered an era of majority rule, what Nietzsche called the "will to power", and the end result, if we do not check it soon, will be an authoritarian state or even a totalitarian one. Join me in fervent prayer is that this not be so, but God's will be done, for it is our choice. 

MARRIAGE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

So, here we are, today, Friday, November 30, 2012 and the Supreme Court of the United States of America is going to decide if it will take up the cause of marriage, 

"The Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court will meet [November 30] to consider whether to accept the appeal of the Prop 8 Legal Defense Fund. If their answer is "no", and the Supreme Court fails to take the case, the way will be cleared for same-sex couples to begin marrying again in California, and the will of 7 million voters will be overturned. The future of marriage is hanging in the balance and prayers are in critical need."
Letter from Catholics for the Common Good, www.ccgaction.com.

This is interesting because it has implications for the entire United States. If marriage is redefined as the public recognition of a committed relationship for the benefit of adults and not an institution that evolved for the nurturing of the children that are conceived, then the natural truth of marriage will have been denied and marriage will enter a phase where it can become whatever one wants it to be— a chaotic situation for sure. I note that throughout history and geography it can be seen that humans have attempted to make their surroundings as safe as possible in order to more easily raise children. As these groups of individuals grew into communities, they codified laws to support the union of adults and the protection of the resultant offspring. Yet marriage as the union of man and woman in a committed relationship for the sake of the children actually predates the codification of laws! This is natural law in action.

Historically marriage has sustained itself as a natural institution with minimal assistance from the state. Same-sex marriage, however, cannot exist on its own without intervention of the state. It is not a self-sustaining institution and has never in history existed on its own. It is sterile and thus corrupts the basic unit of society, the family. The only way a situation such as this can exist is through force. Laws that are not self-evident and not self-sustaining are forced upon the whole in a kind of bullying. It is taking the desires of a few and forcing it upon everyone else, just because they want it. How did this happen? There has been a decades-long campaign manipulating and cajoling people to accept not what they know is natural in their hearts, but what they think they should do because 'everyone says so'. History, biology, religion all work against it, yet soon it may become the law of the land.

 HHS MANDATE

This morning I came across another interesting article, written in February by Elizabeth Westhoff of the Diocese of St Louis, entitled "Attacks on the Church calling us to martyrdom". Here is another interesting fact. Just because the government decides to force a populace to accept something that is contrary to nature does not mean that the Church will accept it. She has been in this situation before and has been willing to be martyred for her faith in Christ and His teaching.

The article was written in response to another attack on the Church by the present administration in the form of the HHS mandate, in which Catholic and other Christian-ordered institutions will be forced to offer treatments contrary to firmly held beliefs. The federal government is working to deny the most fundamental right we, as Americans, have, the right to freedom of religion. The founders knew this is the first freedom, for it is only with a moral populace that a self-governing people can exist. The Church calls it "Our First, Most Cherished Liberty". It is a major attack on the Bill of Rights and the devastation it will cause could very well be fatal to America as a constitutional republic. I spoke on how depriving people of freedom of religion has played out since the Enlightenment earlier this year. This is very serious business indeed. 

 Here is a possible outcome.

 If the Supreme Court takes up the case of California's Proposition 8 and overturns it, then the redefinition of marriage from the historically verifiable institution that exists to unite people in a loving relationship for the good of their children will have been turned into a convenient system of partnership for the benefit of adults. It will have corrupted natural law, and the Roman Catholic Church as well as other people of faith will have to become breakers of the law in order to bless marriages. There is no other choice. The new health plan is being implemented even as I write this— the recent election decided that— and the HHS mandate will have to be disobeyed by people of faith as well. If it is defied, and if the fines are not paid, the recourse will have to be the jailing of the perpetrators, perhaps beginning with our bishops (read midway through, where Cardinal George states that he will die in his bed, his successor in jail and his successor a martyr in the public square) 

CONCLUSION

In my opinion, the real war going on here is not about the redefinition of marriage, or the availability of contraceptive pills, but the foundational documents that undergird our country and the trust in God that permeates them. It is an assault on God, an out and out rejection of morality and truth in the name of a perverted "social justice".

 It is hard to write this, but I recall that lo, Jesus Christ makes all things new. As we enter into the Advent time of waiting, we can ponder how God uses the events of history to draw us closer to Him. The events that are about to unfold may be uncomfortable, they may spell the end of the America our founders created, but the love that is Jesus Christ will be more easily visible through the purification that results. In the article I link to above, taken from Catholic New World, The Newspaper of the Archdiocese of Chicago, by Cardinal Francis George, he states at the very end,

 "God sustains the world, in good times and in bad. Catholics, along with many others, believe that only one person has overcome and rescued history: Jesus Christ, Son of God and Son of the Virgin Mary, savior of the world and head of his body, the church. Those who gather at his cross and by his empty tomb, no matter their nationality, are on the right side of history. Those who lie about him and persecute or harass his followers in any age might imagine they are bringing something new to history, but they inevitably end up ringing the changes on the old human story of sin and oppression. There is nothing "progressive" about sin, even when it is promoted as "enlightened."The world divorced from the God who created and redeemed it inevitably comes to a bad end. It's on the wrong side of the only history that finally matters."

Michele Coldiron, CCWF 


          The Overpopulation Myth in the Context of Love   
This morning, over coffee, I was checking e-mails and stumbled on this blog post by Matthew Archbold on the 7th billion baby.  I understand the consternation of people in positions of influence and power, and from their vantage point, to be sure, there is a problem that looms large indeed: OVERPOPULATION. http://www.ncregister.com/blog/archbold/
I come from that worldview. I studied Malthus in biology, even in high school back in the '70's. Paul Ehrlich's books were seemingly on every person's tongue. However, the deadlines for doom kept passing, like a night train zipping by sign posts if one cared to look out the window and notice.
I grew up, became a biologist and then got a master's in education. The drumbeat never slackened in all this time. The little imp in my brain (who I have lately discovered is the Holy Spirit) told me not to worry, for every child is a person, and as so is loved. Even a baby born in Calcutta has a mom and a dad. That person is not a number as the worried elites believe, the numbers toting up with the regularity of the clackety-clack of train schedules in a French station. It is a person. I just needed to learn where to go for affirmation for my imp, who sounded so positive and so different from what the world was telling me. I found it in the teachings of the Roman Catholic church, made accessible by Blessed John Paul II.
Last weekend we filmed what we hope will become the first of a series exploring the Theology of the Body. Check our website www.ccwf.org for details. Blessed John Paul II allowed God to work through him, to explain in today's terms what it means to be human. We people have fabricated the densest blinders possible, using the tools of scientific reasoning and an existentialist mentality where nothing is real, held together with threads of disdain and cynicism, to obscure the Truth that is in front of us. But when we stop, even for a minute, to ponder what our heart is silently telling us, that is the moment the Holy Spirit, hanging in the air awaiting the opening, sighs in and begins to do his work, transforming hearts of stone to ones that beat, as they did when we were little children.
Though I am no expert, let me present my ideas on population. I have heard many people wonder, when returning from a "third world country", at how happy the people are. Of course they are happy! They have a reality just as we do, and tend to be more focused on community, as they need each other in order to survive. A person is a member of a community. A community, the first one of which is the family, can be described as a series of relational communions. When we are in communion with another, the Spirit flows just as it does in the Trinitarian relationship of love. Love exists in relationships. As God is love, God is existing around us in our words and deeds as we go about everyday life. In fact, the happiness of "third worlders" can be easier to come by than those of us in the materialist societies as their relationships are closer due to the exigencies of daily life. 
So often we confound material gain with happiness. Without material goods the necessity of relationship is obvious, and it is this relationship that produces happiness and not the resultant goods we produce. It is like going on vacation. The weeks spent organizing the trip often seems more enjoyable than the actual event. Or think of a bicycle, shining in the window at the bike shop. Dreaming of obtaining it and the work that goes into that often produces more happiness than the actual object. I recently spoke with a man who had bought a home in a 55+ community. He said ruefully that it was comfortable and safe, but it was not what God had intended for families.
Accepting God into our lives will always result in positive, life enhancing actions, even if our efforts are clumsy, even in age 55+ communities! It is our will that makes the difference. We don't need gadgets to experience this, not even a well constructed house - though of course, these items make the go at life easier. Life has meaning in the interactions of the day which are giving, in which there is positive, human interaction going on - whether it be word or in material exchanges. The eye catches an other, a laugh erupts mysteriously over some trifle. The building of the houses or the work that went in to figuring out how to lay the sewer system. All is a marvel of interconnectedness and relationship. Anything done for a positive reason is God-like, and therefore God IS, in that moment. God shows His hand through us. God is love.
And so, the last paragraph of Mr. Archbold's blog rings so beautifully:
Your birth is a celebration. You are a completely unique individual loved by God. You are a new way to spread love in this world. Because that's what is needed most. Love. Because the world doesn't have too many people. It just has too little love.
So let us focus on the love that is each human being. Work in a positive frame of mind to build things of use for each other. Accept the tragedies and joys that go hand in hand with living on earth. Learn the structure that allows us to be in closer communion with God - the one he provided for us through the Church. Relish the knowledge that one day, too soon, we will be invited to enter the heavenly mansion, where there is a room created for each of us.

 
Michele Coldiron
California Catholic Women's Forum




          Here's Exactly How You Can Eat More Without Gaining Weight   

You may have noticed across Instagram several women are talking about their increased caloric intake, claiming they're eating more (a lot more) but looking lean, toned, svelte, and strong. HOW.

Quick answer? They're strength training. Weightlifting. Trading tons of cardio for dumbbells and kettlebells and barbells. Here's how it works.

A post shared by ELF (@emlouisefitness) on

Strength training builds muscles; the more muscles you have, the more food you need to eat; and more muscle means a faster metabolism. In short, strength training means you can eat more, and that food won't get converted to fat. "Muscle uses more energy and thus burns more calories than fat," said Nicole Aurigemma, physiologist at the Penn State Muscle Biology Lab. She told POPSUGAR that this also means you'll have "a slightly higher resting metabolic rate, meaning that your metabolism is increasing with training."

You don't want to drastically increase your food right away, but rather start slow. Add little by little as you start your strength and resistance training regimen. You may end up needing a significant amount more calories to fuel your body (like Emma, above, for instance, who increased her intake by 1,000 calories a day).

We conferred with personal trainer and injury prevention specialist Liz Letchford, MS, ATC, PhD candidate about the process of strength training coupled with adding calories to the body in a healthy way that doesn't contribute to fat gain. She noted that many women limit their calories so much (or for so long) that they hit a plateau. "If the body has stopped responding to a calorie deficit [read: you're dieting but you're not losing weight], this can be attributed to two major things: hormones or survival," she told POPSUGAR. "Dieting for extended periods of time puts the body into a state of extreme stress, so it slows down all processes related to metabolism and digestion. You can increase your metabolism through a process called reverse dieting."

However, if you've been dieting in extreme ways and "dealing with symptoms of severe malnutrition," Liz warned that "refeeding on your own can be dangerous and should be conducted under medical supervision." You need to be especially careful with the amount of food you add as well as the speed. "Essentially, you are slowly increasing your caloric intake week by week to coach your body out of survival mode and allow your body time to increase its metabolism. It is not a quick fix - it happens over a period of months in order to heal any metabolic damage."


          Savant's New words in 2017.   
I was exposed to the Panthers as a kid while growing up in then 1960s & 70s.. It turns out they were quite correct in inferring that the then nascent technological revolution, electronic revolution within global capitalism, would eventually make work obsolete, and that as black (and other) labor became obsolete, the danger of greater repression, possibly genocide, might increase. The Panthers were looking at the big picture, but were way ahead of their time. The police were always inclined toward destruction or containment of the Black community; but when a revolutionary movement like that of the Panthers emerged, then naturally authorities would see them as a special threat, or in the words of former FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover, the Panthers were "the greatest threat to national security." The more highly conscious you are, the more dangerous you are---at least if this consciousness is REAL, and expresses itself in a commitment to fundamental social transformation. As for an effort to destroy biracial women I know of no such effort by police, the government, or the corporate sector. There may be biracial black women who, contrary to yourself, possess of social (and even REVOLUTIONARY) consciousness, and who may be targeted. But they're not targeted because they're biracial or light skinned. They're targeted because of their defiance, their dissidence, their subversive activism. At your present level of consciousness, you needn't worry.

One difference now is, as you observed, the social media. Prior to this century, or at least prior to the 1990s. Negroes with these self-hating anti-Black attitudes couldn't avail themselves of computers and the internet to spew their venom at each other. Probably such attitudes were not as common nor as extreme where they did exist. Black communities were once more cohesive than they are now, less polluted by possessive individualism, acquisitiveness, narcissism and sheer simplemindedness. Our values were more COMMUNAL than they are now. People looked out for children, and not just their own biological children. Under the more overtly repressive old Jim Crow regime with its naked terrorism, Black folks knew they needed each other, and most acted accordingly. Even those Negro males and females who did have negative attitudes of that kind usually kept it to themselves. They didn't spew their venom into newspapers, magazines or radio. Unlike Uncle Tom Soto or SBT, they'd be ashamed to do so, and were half ashamed for even having such attitudes anyway. Fortunately, such venomous Negro gender warriors and haters are not a majority even now. But they feel a lot freer to show their dumb a___ _, and the internet aids in their buffoonery.

The failure to make such distinction is evidence of an underdeveloped. For such discernments are essential to critical thinking. Actually, the records of the time seem to indicate that in communities which had Panther patrols police abuses against the community decreased, but was intensified against the Panthers themselves. In some communities where Panther presence was strong one often saw communities come alive creating clinics, breakfast for the children, neighborhood associations, etc. One often saw substantial drop in violent crime and in the flow of drugs. Claims that it didn't work are bogus. In the eyes of fascistic police Blacks are not "ladies" and "gentlemen "--nor even human. That is why Blacks from all walks of life have found themselves targets of police brutality. Some of the tactics of the Civil Rights Movement need to be reconsidered and revised in light of the needs of a new time and movement.


If you do, then you should be publicly chastised---which I once saw members of the Fruit of Islam do to a wayward brother for wife beating. Rarely, do I agree with anything said or done by NOI. That was an exception. I despise punks who beat women. But that seems to have become acceptable to some younger Negroes. At least in the past it was deemed unacceptable even by most men--because they were MEN.


 I don't think Angela Y. Davis is a fool but I suspect that you are--at least if you actually believe the misinformation you post, and especially if you're as academically trained as you say and believe it. Black only look like animals to racists. That is not the doing of Angela Y. Davis. Also, what evidence have you that "most black intellectuals have fled to the South"? There are Black intellectuals throughout the country, but the South is still home to over half the Black population of the USA. Many Black intellectuals were already in the South, especially those who taught in black colleges and universities--most of which were and are in the South. But black intellectuals can be found all over the country, though there is some concentration on the East Coast. As for your being brighter than Angela Davis, or even close to equally bright as Angela Y. Davis, you've thus far shown no evidence of this. And if you have notable accomplishments as a "National Achievement Scholar," no one--not even the most perceptive--would have guessed it from posts that we've seen thus far.

 First of all, Angela Davis didn't have Blacks marching with guns. This was the practice of the Black Panther Party and also the Deacons for Defense. And as long as racist Klan and cops patrol and terrorize Blacks with guns then Blacks have a right to self defense, including even the forming of militias if necessary. That's a natural human right--and rightly regarded as INTELLIGENT, not "declasse. " (By the way, your use of the word declasse is incorrect, a malaproprism.) No evidence exists, or you have not offered any, of white supremacist support for the Black Panther Party or even the Nation of Islam. I was around (though very young) when the BPP operated in Baltimore. They organized in Black churches (mostly Protestant) as well as Catholic churches (white and black). They also had their own offices. They held meetings on college campuses and properties of civic organizations. Frankly, your claim about their being funded by white supremacists is a fabrication. As for the Nation of Islam, as best as anyone can tell they were founded by a religious leader whose leadership was eventually followed by that of Elijah Muhammad. No evidence I know of indicates that they were started by the government, but we know they were infiltrated by the FBI---which is a different matter altogether. They did at times have questionable contacts with the American Nazi party.

Anyone who has actually read Dr. King thoroughly knows that he didn't think northerners were particularly trustworthy, or that racism was some peculiarly southern malady. After all, he did say that MOST white Americans lived racism as a way of life. And also that his experiences of racism in Chicago easily equaled or exceeded what he had seen in Alabama and Mississippi. And these observations run throughout his works from 1950s --1968.


Obviously, you are unintelligent as well as new here. Most people know that I am a revolutionary and scholarly African American man--with little tolerance for BS even from other Blacks, Secondly, you committed an Argumentum ad Hominem, a fallacy of relevance. Your statement was FALSE, and I called you on it. Learn some history, fool. And a bit of advice in case you happen to be a male--for you're clearly not yet a black MAN-- of color, from Malcolm X: "The Black man will get respect from NO ONE until he learns to respect his black woman."



Ghettoes were created mainly by segregation imposed on us by WHITES, not by interracial Black feminists. Stop making up history, fool!  (



The Confederate flag does have the same meaning it always had: white supremacy, nativist fascism, slavery, racist terrorism, and right wing government tyranny.


 Dr. King made disparaging comments about capitalism, some going back to his college years. Dr. King also expressed sympathy for socialism, a democratic socialism.
If you look at his famous speech against the Vietnam War you can see that he denounces American IMPERIALISM which he sees as emanating from capitalism. Moreover, he was attempting to organize an anti-capitalist Poor Peoples Campaign when he was assassinated, a campaign which may have included shutting down the US government.
It was not China which was threatened by Dr. King's increasingly revolutionary movement. It was the United States government and American capitalism that was threatened.



 Dr. King acknowledged no innate intellectual differences between races because none exist--nor can they exist. As early as the 1960s he noted that modern anthropologists hold that "there is no basic differences in the racial groups of our world" and that most "deny the existence of what we have known as race." (TESTAMENT OF HOPE, pp. 121--122). Modern genetics offers even stronger evidence that race is a social category, not a creation of Nature. Hence King was right in arguing--as do most contemporary scientists in biology and genetics--that "there are no superior and inferior races" if for no other reason than that there are no races. Race exists only as an historical-social phenomenon, and only is a racialized--indeed RACIST--society can there be superior or inferior races.

 King's comments on capitalism were scathing, and saw in its a similar moral relativism and materialism. He also stated more than once that he favored socialism.
As he was speaking his true convictions, he was neither lying nor being misleading. You may try to prove him wrong, but that entails another philosophical argument.
Personalism, which was King's basic philosophical position, is a form of philosophical idealism. Hence his opposition to materialism whether it be the philosophical materialism of Marx, or the crude practical materialism of capitalism or Soviet style Communism.
The Civil Rights Movement was primarily a movement for freedom and justice at least as such are possible within a bankrupt capitalist society. Peace, as Dr. King repeatedly emphasized, can only be achieved on the basis of justice. Without justice peace is at best a tragic mirage.
The difference between Dr. King and both Communists and capitalists is that he believed in the inherent dignity of every human personality. Communists sometimes claimed to believe in it, and human dignity is often trumpeted in western capitalist countries. But it is mostly a pretext which their practice proves to be a sham.
By the way, communism in the original sense of a classless society King did not see as objectionable. But the practice of Communist parties was a different matter.


 Actually, Venezuela is the latest victim of imperialism whose motivating force is capitalism, the market. It is interesting that the corporate media--both liberal and conservative--have the same line on Venezuela, denouncing the democratically elected government in favor of the local plutocracy and proto-fascist opposition which operates by means of violence that would be denounced as terrorism if directed at one of America's right wing allies.
It is also interesting the liberal and conservative corporate media has not directed its animosity to the reactionary government in Honduras, established by a military coup against another democratically elected government. That coup received the implicit blessing of Obama, and apparently also of Il Duce Don Trump.
It goes to show the Democrats and Republicans, "liberals" ad "conservatives" are both subservient to imperialism, to corporate money and interests.
Both parties must be neutralized and a revolutionary democratic alternative formed.


-Savant

          Postdoctoral Positions in Cancer Research at Harvard Medical School - Cancer Research Institute of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA   
The laboratory is in the Division of Cancer Biology and Angiogenesis at Boston’s Center for Life Science and is integrated into the medical and research...
From Indeed - Sun, 05 Mar 2017 20:56:58 GMT - View all Boston, MA jobs
          Research Assistant-Intern - Blue Horizon International - Hackensack, NJ   
A bachelor’s degree in medicine, biology or related field of study. The intern will work closely with projects to engage in data collection, analysis and...
From Indeed - Thu, 23 Mar 2017 18:14:32 GMT - View all Hackensack, NJ jobs
          Deadly Mediterranean Recluse Spider Discovered in Kanchanaburi, Thailand   
. . BANGKOK – Doctoral student Narin Chompupang announced at a media conference at the Chulalongkorn University faculty of science in Bangkok on Wednesday that a deadly Mediterranean recluse spiders has been found for the first time in Thailand in a cave in Kanchanaburi. Mr Narin, a doctoral biology student, came across them during a […]
          Amgen looking for Senior Scientist in Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism   
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This...

If above link is not accessible, find more info at: http://jobs.pharmatutor.org
          Analytical Laboratory Technologist - Burnaby Laboratory - Burnaby, BC   
Science field (i.e Biochemistry, biology, immunology)) or suitable college-level qualifications. Must have exceptional pipetting skills and previous experience...
From Indeed - Mon, 03 Apr 2017 18:07:43 GMT - View all Burnaby, BC jobs
          Phage-dependent variability of Candidatus ‘Accumulibacter phosphatis’ populations in aerobic granular sludge   
During the past 20 years, aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been extensively studied with the aim to develop an attractive alternative to conventional activated sludge for wastewater treatment. The phosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) Candidatus ‘Accumulibacter phosphatis’ is often found with significant abundance in AGS as well as in other enhanced biological phosporus removal (EPBR) systems. Although they have never been isolated in pure culture, members of this bacterial genus appear to be genetically and physiologically more diversified than initially expected. Impaired EBPR performances observed in lab- and full-scale reactors have often been correlated to a decrease in Accumulibacter populations. This phenomenon has mainly been linked to the presence of bacterial competitors such as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO), and bacteriophages have only rarely been suspected to be responsible for this depletion (1). In the present study, the metagenome of 46 individual granules from a lab-scale AGS sequencing batch reactor was sequenced. The results showed a surprisingly variable relative abundance of Accumulibacter populations amongst the different granules that could only be partially explained by the “phenotype” of these granules. A co-occurrence analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between the number of Accumulibacter sequencing reads with the relative abundance of two bacteriophages, namely EBPR podovirus 1 (EPV1) and EBPR podovirus 3 (EPV3), that have been previously detected in a lab-scale EBPR reactor (2). These results suggest that these phages are the major reason for the variability of Accumulibacter relative abundance in the sampled granules which raises the question whether the Accumulibacter populations in the different granules have different sensitivities towards these phages. (1) Barr et al., 2010, Fems Microbiology Ecology, 631-642 (2) Skennerton et al., 2011, Plos One
          Carleton Engineering Club Recognized as Top In Its Field   
The Carleton University Engineering in Medicine and Biology Student Club (CU@EMBS) is being recognized as one of the top international clubs in the field. It is composed of both graduate and undergraduate students. The club will be receiving the 2017 Outstanding Performance by a Student Chapter Club Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics […]
          MCAT Biology Instructor (EV) - The Princeton Review - Detroit, MI   
JOB SUMMARY Teaching is a calling. Whether you’re a professor who loves to teach as much or more than research, a TA who loves to lead classes (and not just...
From The Princeton Review - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 05:47:21 GMT - View all Detroit, MI jobs
          Protein Essential for Converting Sound into Brain Signals Identified   
Nearly 40 million Americans suffer from some level of hearing loss—which includes approximately 74,000 children with profound, early-onset deafness—with almost 50% of these cases stemming from genetic causes. While the cellular architecture and basic biology surrounding human auditory perception have been understood for quite some time, the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate the conversion of sound waves into signals that the brain interprets as sound is still unclear. Now, researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM) have just published results identifying a crucial protein in the auditory translation process. Findings from the new study were published online today in Nature Communications in an article entitled “ CIB2 Interacts with TMC1 and TMC2 and Is Essential for Mechanotransduction in Auditory Hair Cells .” CIB2, or calcium and integrin-binding protein 2, was found previously to be essential for the structure of stereocilia, the structures at ...
          Senior Terrestrial Ecologist / Ecologist - Groundwater Environmental Management Services (GEMS) - Canada   
Minimum Bachelor's Degree in biology, earth science, environmental science or related major. Senior Terrestrial Ecologist / Ecologist....
From Groundwater Environmental Management Services (GEMS) - Sun, 12 Mar 2017 08:29:23 GMT - View all Canada jobs
          Laboratory Tech 1 - Eurofins Microbiology, Inc. - Mounds View, MN   
Enter the sample data into Eurofins eLIMS sytem in a timely and accurate manner. Eurofins is the world leader in the food, bio/pharmaceutical product testing....
From Lancaster Laboratories - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 22:51:29 GMT - View all Mounds View, MN jobs
          Laboratory Tech I - Eurofins Microbiology, Inc. - Dallas, TX   
Enter the sample data into Eurofins eLIMS sytem in a timely and accurate manner. Eurofins is the world leader in the food, bio/pharmaceutical product testing....
From Lancaster Laboratories - Thu, 23 Mar 2017 19:57:57 GMT - View all Dallas, TX jobs
          This interactive woven canopy at MoMA PS1 changes colors as the sun sets   
Designed by Jenny Sabin Studio and debuting to the public June 29, Lumen is the winner of The Museum of Modern Arts and MoMA PS1’s 18th edition of the Young Architects Program and will serve as the setting for the 20th season of the Warm Up outdoor concert series this summer. The project integrates various disciplines, including biology, materials science, mathematics, engineering and design, to produce an artistic micro-climate that is both environmentally responsive and beautiful. RELATED:...
          Postdoctoral Research Scientist - Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation - Oklahoma City, OK   
We are an interdisciplinary _Drosophila_ genetics laboratory fully equipped for fly genetics, routine cell and molecular biology work, and imaging, and...
From Indeed - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 21:03:32 GMT - View all Oklahoma City, OK jobs
          Microbiologist - Eurofins Microbiology, Inc. - Des Moines, IA   
Eurofins is the world leader in the food, bio/pharmaceutical product testing. It is also number one in the field of environmental laboratory services and one
From Lancaster Laboratories - Thu, 16 Mar 2017 09:14:25 GMT - View all Des Moines, IA jobs
          Microbiologist - Eurofins Microbiology, Inc. - Louisville, KY   
Eurofins is the world leader in the food, bio/pharmaceutical product testing. It is also number one in the field of environmental laboratory services and one
From Lancaster Laboratories - Thu, 16 Mar 2017 09:14:25 GMT - View all Louisville, KY jobs
          Food Microbiology Supervisor - EMSL - Cinnaminson, NJ   
Coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Yeast &amp; Mold, Salmonella, Listeria, E. EMSL Analytical, Inc....
From EMSL - Sun, 19 Mar 2017 06:55:08 GMT - View all Cinnaminson, NJ jobs
          Specialist, Medical Information and Pharmacovigilance - Shoppers Drug Mart / Pharmaprix - Toronto, ON   
Preferred Biology, Pharmacology, Nursing, and Pharmacy. 243 Consumers Road, Toronto, Ontario, M2J 4W8 Canada....
From Shoppers Drug Mart / Pharmaprix - Wed, 28 Jun 2017 20:34:28 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Sales Consultant (Part-Time) - KSS, Inc. - Toronto, ON   
Bachelors degree, preferably with a focus on Biology, Pharmacology, other Health Science or Commerce. Interested in pharmaceuticals, scientific and clinical...
From Indeed - Fri, 16 Jun 2017 02:17:40 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Mgr Operational Shop Floor Quality - Sanofi US - Toronto, ON   
Bachelor of Science degree specializing in Microbiology, Biochemistry, Immunology or Pharmacology. Bachelor of Science degree specializing in Microbiology,...
From SanofiUS - Wed, 07 Jun 2017 15:28:23 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          QOOQ Shop Floor Manager (Afternoon Shift) - Sanofi US - Toronto, ON   
Bachelor of Science degree specializing in Microbiology, Biochemistry, Immunology or Pharmacology with 5+ years of relevant experience in Quality Operations...
From SanofiUS - Tue, 06 Jun 2017 15:10:28 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          QOOQ BPR Reviewer - Sanofi US - Toronto, ON   
Bachelor of Science degree specializing in Microbiology, Biochemistry, Immunology or Pharmacology. Bachelor of Science degree specializing in Microbiology,...
From SanofiUS - Fri, 19 May 2017 15:28:52 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Switzerland’s ‘Big Four’ animals on display in Zurich   
Pop quiz: What’s the national animal of Switzerland? Actually, there isn’t one. But the Swiss National Museum is highlighting the “Big Four” – along with their cultural and historical significance.  Multimedia exhibition Swiss Bestiary, which opens on Friday, features a mix of iconic wild and domestic animals: the cow, ibex, marmot and Saint Bernard.  “We tried to find the balance between nature and biology, and culture and history,” curator Jacqueline Perifanakis told swissinfo.ch. “The human-animal connection is very conducive to that.”  Beautifully prepared mounted specimens, borrowed from institutions around the country, are the crowning feature of each section.  “You’ll notice that the cow has horns – we chose her especially because that’s natural,” Perifanakis pointed out. Manmade items like cowbells and wooden toys are also on display. Across the hall, next to the Saint Bernard, there’s a brandy barrel – even though these were never really worn by the robust mountain ...
          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
Maintains current teaching certification and, if needed, progresses toward a permanent certification and/or endorsement.... $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          Research Associate - University of British Columbia - Okanagan, BC   
And in developing multiplex digital droplet PCR assays. Research Associate - Plant Pathology, Soil Microbiology, and Molecular Biology....
From University of British Columbia - Tue, 20 Jun 2017 12:51:32 GMT - View all Okanagan, BC jobs
          Laboratory Technician II – POET   

The Laboratory Technician II is responsible for performing various tests including all applicable quality control standards and samples and reporting results to the Quality Manager. Lab Technician II's are also accountable for ensuring all necessary tests are completed accurately and in a timely manner as well as training operators in proper field sampling and testing techniques.

To perform the essential functions of this position successfully, an individual should be able to demonstrate and provide the following:
- Bachelor’s degree in Chemistry, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Biology or related science required. May consider POET Lab Tech I experience with documented successful performance.
- Basic troubleshooting skills and prior analytical experience required.
- Previous experience to the concepts of quality assurance and quality control within the laboratory environment required.
- Prior experience with environmental testing and knowledge of cGMP, PI, QC and PQ reporting preferred.
- Knowledge in Microsoft Office Suite and the ability and willingness to learn new software applications.
- Excellent organizational, time management and communications skills as well as the ability to adapt to change.

The post Laboratory Technician II – POET appeared first on North Iowa Area Community College.


          AgCenter Assistant/Associate Professor (Muscle Biology and Meat Quality) - Louisiana State University - Louisiana   
The successful candidate will be expected to develop an independent research program in muscle biology and meat quality related to livestock or avian species...
From Louisiana State University - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 08:10:51 GMT - View all Louisiana jobs
          Palmyra: Day 1   

The water at Palmyra is so warm compared to Jarvis ... the air is SOOOO cold and wet!  Today was our first day at Palmyra and, well, I can't say we actually got to SEE the island.  We were seldom more than 100 yards off shore, but most of the time the island and beaches were behind an opaque sheet of rain and miserableness.  Yes, that is a word.

Our switch-outs between dives were very fast as the water was much warmer than the air and the surface team was ready to hit the water as soon as the dive team hit the surface.  Rain came in a mix of drizzle and downpour and the wind was near constant.  This is what marine biology is all about!

All kidding aside, the dives today were excellent and would have been spectacular if for a little sun.  Oh, I hope the sun comes out tomorrow!  Our last dive of the day was exceptional even though it was so dark we could hardly see.  We heard dolphins and saw huge numbers of fish, rivaling even Jarvis in their abundance.

Tonight the rain continues unabated and it appears our ship has become a temporary refuge for a number of boobies seeking a dry place to roost for the night.  Oh I hope the morning brings the sun ...


          QA Lab Technician (Food & Beverage) - Kawartha Dairy Limited - Bobcaygeon, ON   
Bachelor of Science Degree or Diploma in Microbiology or Food Science. Reporting to the Quality Assurance Supervisor, the scope of this position involves...
From Indeed - Tue, 23 May 2017 16:42:04 GMT - View all Bobcaygeon, ON jobs
          Sami Blood / Film School interview with Director Amanda Kernall   
SAMI BLOOD is the debut feature from writer/director Amanda Kernell, who based their beautifully rendered film from her own grandmother's life. Set in 1930s Sweden during the pre-Nazi Eugenics movement, SAMI BLOOD follows Elle, a young indigenous Lapland girl made to feel like an inferior species when she’s subjected to indoctrination and race biology in a Swedish boarding school. Elle escapes, and in doing so is estranged from her sister, her family and her culture. SAMI BLOOD is a unique and intimate perspective on the history of the Sami people, and tells a story of oppression that resonates across borders and generations. The film features a breakthrough performance from its young lead actress Lene Cecilia Sparrok, who has never acted before and is Sami herself. She stars in the film alongside her sister Mia Sparrok. Director and writer Amanda Kernell joins us to talk about her heart wrenching story of a young woman struggling to find a place in an increasingly hostile world. 90% on RottenTomatoes For news and updates go to: sami-blood.synergetic.tv facebook.com/sameblod Los Angeles Screening: Beginning June 30, 2017 at the Laemmle Monica Film Center
          Computational Chemistry & Molecular Design - GlaxoSmithKline - Upper Providence, PA   
Perl, C/C++, Java or Python). PhD or equivalent in Computational Chemistry, Cheminformatics, Computational Biology, Physics, Biophysics or Chemistry....
From GlaxoSmithKline - Wed, 10 May 2017 13:19:50 GMT - View all Upper Providence, PA jobs
          Entry-Level Environmental Associate - Michael Baker International - Temecula, CA   
You’ll need a Bachelor Degree in Environmental Science, Planning, Biology, Ecology or a related field, and 0 to 2 years of experience:....
From Michael Baker International - Thu, 20 Apr 2017 23:48:58 GMT - View all Temecula, CA jobs
          Divisions (Academic)   

College departments and Programs are organized into six academic divisions:

1.  Arts (Film & Media Culture, Music, Studio Art, Theater/Dance);

2.  Humanities (Classics, History, History of Art and Architecture, Philosophy, Religion);

3.  Languages (Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese Studies, Hebrew, Russian, Spanish & Portuguese);

4.  Literature (American Studies, English and American Literatures);

5.  Natural Sciences (Biology, Chemistry & Biochemistry, Computer Science, Geology, Mathematics, Physics, Physical Education); and

6.  Social Sciences (Economics, Geography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology & Anthropology, Education Studies).

Several interdisciplinary programs (Environmental Studies, International Studies, the Comparative Literature Program, Literary Studies, Gender, Sexuality & Feminist Studies) draw on more than one division for their course listings.


          Molecular characterization of serogrouping and virulence genes of Malaysian Vibrio cholerae isolated from different sources.   
Shuan Ju Teh, C.; Lin Thong, K.; Tein Ngoi, S.; Ahmad, N.; Balakrish Nair, G.; Ramamurthy, T. (2009) Molecular characterization of serogrouping and virulence genes of Malaysian Vibrio cholerae isolated from different sources. The Journal of general and applied microbiology , 55 (6). pp. 419-25. ISSN 0022-1260
          MCAT Biology Instructor (EV) - The Princeton Review - Detroit, MI   
JOB SUMMARY Teaching is a calling. Whether you’re a professor who loves to teach as much or more than research, a TA who loves to lead classes (and not just...
From The Princeton Review - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 05:47:21 GMT - View all Detroit, MI jobs
          Meet a Scientist: Krementsov Studies Gut Bacteria-M.S. Link    
Think of the immune system as the shepherd, and bacteria as the sheep, says Dimitry Krementsov, Ph.D., assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Immunobiology at the Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont. Since it’s “constantly monitoring,” the immune system is the authority on what in the body ...
          How To Increase Your Boob Size   

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          Oral Wound Healing: Cell Biology and Clinical Management   
Oral Wound Healing: Cell Biology and Clinical Management by Hannu Larjava Books SERIES:  Oral Surgery language :  English PUBLISH:  2012 ISBN-10 / ASIN: 0813804817 Page: 432 pages File type: PDF File...

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          Efficacy of Antibiotic Suppressive Therapy in Patients with a Prosthetic Joint Infection.   
J Bone Jt Infect. 2017 Jan 15;2(2):77-83. Wouthuyzen-Bakker M1, Nijman JM1, Kampinga GA2, van Assen S1, Jutte PC3. Author information 1 Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious diseases. 2 Department of Medical Microbiology. 3 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Abstract Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal […]
          Comment on Does a “Heat Pack” Prove Dominance? by Kevin Behan   
Your question brings us to the crux of the confusion. Behaviorism isn't using words properly, by which I mean it is conflating hierarchy with dominance. They are not the same. For example, does the music of a choir emerge because the altos are trying to dominate the sopranos by singing higher, and then the tenors the basses? Or, does each individual find their right place and then a synergistic sound emerges from this wave coupling of sound? In other words a flow hierarchy. Whereas dominance by definition, means an intention to control another, to control an outcome, the capacity to compare two points of view, the subject versus the object, a present or past point in time versus a future point in time. This is not the same as a hierarchy. According to Constructal Law, there is always hierarchy in nature and it always follows the same mathematical formula, from watersheds to the air passageways of a lung, to orchestras and to military command structures. Now since this same structure runs consistently between inanimate and animate systems, and we wouldn't say that the Mississippi River is dominating the Ohio river or any other of its tributaries, why would we assume that wolves are thinking thoughts of dominance and submission when they configure themselves exactly the same way as inanimate systems sans genes and thoughts? With waterways and forests we simply note given the new understanding of thermodynamics and self-organizing systems that there is a flow hierarchy. This deeper recognition of its true structure then leads us to a far deeper understanding of nature. Words matter. When behaviorism leaps to intention, then it misses the true current of energy that is the organizing principle of behavior. (When I press a behaviorist on this point they immediately get evasive and claim that they aren't ascribing intention, that its due to selective pressures, but this is a dodge because it is now ascribing intention to genes as in the rationale that genes are seeking to replicate. And so the fact remains that behaviorism/biology fails to identify the current.) Since all structure is predicated on an undercurrent flow of energy, and if we ascribe dominant intent to a dog, then what is the current? It would have to be the transmission of thoughts. But if this were true, then social structure should vary greatly from one wolf pack to another, as it does in human societies wherein intention plays a huge role. But instead we see that social structure in wolves is reliably mathematical a la inanimate flow systems which don't have genes or thoughts. Furthermore we miss the simple truth that the female in heat is defining the current, and the males are subsidiary tributaries to that current. We see it inside out and miss the truth entirely. Note that later in the video when male and female are in a copulatory tie, the narrator says this is so that other males can't impregnate the female. But that is only true for that half hour period of time, later the same day, or the next day, another male could impregnate her, especially given that the "dominant" male could be too exhausted to continue. (In a closed system like a wolf pack with fewer individuals all related to each other, this is not likely to happen. But it does occasionally.) But the big problem with that theory is that it immediately begs the question (which behaviorism/biology NEVER asks): if the copulatory tie is so effective at the transmission of the genes of the dominant male, the transmission of genes being the key to adaptability, then why is this only manifested in the canine species? The copulatory tie only occurs with canines and that is an extraordinary fact because such an exclusivity doesn't make any sense in a gene-centric interpretation of behavior, which otherwise touts how adaptive traits are conserved and radiate across all species genomes. But this anomaly, not to mention many more exclusive to canines, is left unexamined. (Whereas in an immediate-moment thermodynamic treatment wherein the movement of energy is the organizing principle, the answer can be known.)
          Everything is genetic, isn't it?   
There is hardly a trait, physical or behavioral, for which there is not at least some familial resemblance, especially among close relatives.  And I'm talking about what is meant when someone scolds you saying, "You're just like your mother!"  The more distant the relatives in terms of generations of separation, the less the similarity.  So you really can resist when told, "You're just like your great-grandmother!" The genetic effects decline in a systematic way with more distant kinship.

The 'heritability' of a trait refers to the relative degree to which its variation is the result of variation in genes, the rest being due to variation in non-genetic factors we call 'environment'.  Heritability is a ratio that ranges from zero when genes have nothing to do with the trait, to 1.0 when all the variation is genetic.  The measure applies to a sample or population and cannot automatically be extended to other samples or populations, where both genetic and environmental variation will be different, often to an unknown extent.

Most quantitative traits, like stature or blood pressure or IQ scores show some amount, often quite substantial, of genetic influence.  It often happens that we are interested in some trait that we think must be produced or affected by genes, but that no relevant factor, like a protein, is known.  The idea arose decades ago that if we could scan the genome, and compare those with different manifestations of the trait, using mapping techniques like GWAS (genomewide association studies), we could identify those sites, genomewide, whose variation in our chosen sample may affect the trait's variation.  Qualitative traits like the presence or absence of a disease (say, diabetes or hypertension), may often be due to the presence of some set of genetic variants whose joint impact exceeds some diagnostic threshold, and mapping studies can compare genotypes in affected cases to unaffected controls to identify those sites.

Genes are involved in everything. . . . .
Many things can affect the amount of similarity among relatives, so one has to try to think carefully about attributing ideas of similarity and cause.  Some traits, like stature (height) have very high heritability, sometimes estimated to be about 0.9, that is, 90% of the variation being due to the effects of genetic variation.  Other traits have much lower heritability, but there's generally familial similarity.  And, that's because we each develop from a single fertilized egg cell, which includes transmission of each of our parent's genomes, plus ingredients provided by the egg (and perhaps to a tiny degree sperm), much of which were the result of gene action in our parents when they produced that sperm or egg (e.g., RNA, proteins).  This is why traits can usually be found to have some heritability--some contribution due to genetic variation among the sampled individuals.  In that sense, we can say that genes are involved in everything.

Understanding the genetic factors involved in disease can be important and laudatory, even if tracking them down is a frustrating challenge.  But because genes are involved in everything, our society also seems to have an unending lust for investigators to overstate the value of their findings or, in particular, to estimate or declaim on the heritability, and hence genetic determination, of the most societally sensitive traits, like sexuality, criminality, race, intelligence, physical abuse and the like.

. . . . . but not everything is 'genetic'!

If the estimated heritability for a trait we care about is substantial, then this does suggest the obvious: genes are contributing to the mechanisms of the trait and so it is reasonable to acknowledge that genetic variation contributes to variation in the trait.  However, the mapping industry implies a somewhat different claim: it is that genes are a major factor in the sense that individual variants can be identified that are useful predictors of the trait of interest (NIH's lobbying machine has been saying we'll be able to predict future disease with 'precision').  There has been little constraint on the types of trait for which this approach, sometimes little more than belief or wishful-thinking, is appropriate.

It is important to understand that our standard measures of genes' relative effect are affected both by genetic variation and environmental lifestyle factors.  That means that if environments were to change, the relative genetic effects, even in the very same individuals, would also change.  But it isn't just environments that change; genotypes change, too, when mutations occur, and as with environmental factors, these change in ways that we cannot  predict even in principle.  That means that we cannot legitimately extrapolate, to a knowable extent, the genetic or environmental factors we observe in a given sample or population, to other, much less to future samples or populations.  This is not a secret problem, but it doesn't seem to temper claims of dramatic discoveries, in regard to disease or perhaps even more for societally sensitive traits.

But let's assume, correctly, that genetic variation affects a trait.  How does it work?  The usual finding is that tens or even hundreds of genome locations affect variation in the test trait.  Yet most of the effects of individual genes are very small or rare in the sample.  At least as important is that the bulk of the estimated heritability remains unaccounted for, and unless we're far off base somehow, the unaccounted fraction is due to the leaf-litter of variants individually too weak or too rare to reach significance.

Often it's also asserted that all the effects are additive, which makes things tractable: for every new person, not part of the study, just identify their variants and add up their estimated individual effects to get the total effect on the new person for whatever publishable trait you're interested in.  That's the predictive objective of the mapping studies.  However, I think that for many reasons one cannot accept that these variable sites' actions are truly additive. The reasons have to with actual biology, not the statistical convenience of using the results to diagnose or predict traits.  Cells and their compounds vary in concentrations per volume (3D), binding properties (multiple dimensions), surface areas (2D) and some in various ways that affect how how proteins are assembled and work, and so on.  In aggregate, additivity may come out in the wash, but the usual goal of applied measures is to extrapolate these average results to prediction in individuals.  There are many reasons to wish that were true, but few to believe it very strongly.

Even if they were really additive, the clearly very different leaf-litter background that together accounts for the bulk of the heritability can obscure the numerical amount of that additivity from sample to sample and person to person.  That is, what you estimated from this sample, may not apply, to an unknowable extent, to the next sample.  If and when it does works, we're lucky that our assumptions weren't too far off.

Of course, the focus and promises from the genetics interests assume that environment has nothing serious to do with the genetic effects.  But it's a major, often by far the major, factor, and it may even in principle be far more changeable than genetic variation.  One would have to say that environmental rather than genetic measures are likely to be, by far, the most important things to change in society's interest.

We regularly write these things here not just to be nay-sayers, but to try to stress what the issues are, hoping that someone, by luck or insight, finds better solutions or different ways to approach the problem that a century of genetics, despite its incredibly huge progress, has not yet done.  What it has done is in exquisite detail to show us what the problems are.

A friend and himself a good scientist in relevant areas, Michael Joyner, has passed on a rather apt suggestion to me, that he says he saw in work by Denis Noble.  We might be better off if we thought of the genome as a keyboard rather than as a code or program.  That is a good way to think about the subtle point that, in the end, yes, Virginia, there really are genomic effects: genes affect every trait....but not every trait is 'genetic'!
          Allegiance to the Earth: The Environmentalism Pledge   

For her final project in Anthropology/Biology 282G Sapiens: The Changing Nature of Human Evolution, recent University of Rhode Island graduate Marisa DeCollibus created something wonderful.

During her studies at URI, she gained expertise in psychology, learning, and education. From that vantage, she wrote a pledge of allegiance to the earth to be recited daily by K-12 students.

In the companion paper she writes, "Today's Kindergarteners are tomorrow's impactful Sapiens ..." and "I tried to create imagery that invoked being a part of a collective landscape instead of being the rulers of the landscape..."

Here's the pledge.

The Environmentalism Pledge
by Marisa DeCollibus

I pledge to care for the natural world
Of all living and nonliving formations
And to the resources
Of which we share
One planet
Amongst stars
Irreplaceable
With intention
And effort
For all

**
Please share widely and please let us know if you think it's just as wonderful as we do and, especially, if you begin reciting this with your children. If you'd like to get in touch with Marisa, please let us know.


          Relatedness is relative: How can I be 85% genetically similar to my mom, but only related to her by half?   
First of all, no. I am not the lovechild of star-crossed siblings, or even cousins, or even second cousins. 

This is a gee-whiz kind of post. But the issues are not insignificant.

Hear me out with the background, first, before I get to the part where my eyes bug out of my head and I pull out my kid's Crayola box and start drawing.

If you've learned about sociobiology, or evolutionary psychology, or inclusive fitness, or kin selection, or the evolution of cooperation and even "altruism," or if you've read The Selfish Gene, or if you've been able to follow the debate about levels of selection (which you can peek at here)...

... then you've heard that you're related to your parents by 1/2, to your siblings by 1/2 as well, to your grandparents and grandchildren by 1/4, to your aunts and uncles and nieces and nephews by 1/4 as well, and to your first cousins by 1/8 and so on and so forth.  (Here's some more information.)

So, for example. For evolution (read: adaptationism) to explain how cooperative social behavior could be adaptive in the genetic sense, we use the following logic provided by Bill Hamilton, which became known as "Hamilton's Rule": 

The cost to your cooperation or your prosocial behavior (C) must be less than its benefit to you (B), reproductively speaking, relative to how genetically related (r) you are to the individual with whom you're cooperating. That could have come out smoother. Oh, here you go:

C < rB, or B > C/r

If you're helping out your identical genetic twin (r=1.0), then as long as the benefit to you is greater than the cost, it's adaptive.

C < B, or B > C

If you're helping out your daughter (r = 0.5) then as long as the benefit to you is greater than twice the cost, it's adaptive.

C < (1/2)B, or B > 2C

So already, the adaptive risk to helping out your daughter or your brother is quite higher. And it's even harder to justify the cooperation between individuals and their sibs' kids, and grandkids, especially ESPECIALLY non-kin. But, of course creatures do it! And so do we.

As relatedness gets more distant and distant, we go from 2 times the cost, to 4 times, 8 times, 16, 32, 64 etc... You can see why people like to say "the math falls away" or "drops off" at first or second cousins when they're explaining where the arbitrary line of genetic "kin" is drawn.  If you offer up a curious, "we're all related, we're all kin," someone out of this school of thought that's focused on explaining the evolution of and genes for social behavior may clue you in by circumscribing "kin" as the members of a group that are r = 1/8 or r = 1/16 but usually not less related than that.

This has long bothered me because we're all genetically related and so much cooperation beyond close kin is happening. And it's been hard for me, as someone who sees everything as connected, to read text after text supporting "kin selection" and "kin recognition" (knowing who to be kind to and who to avoid bleeping), to get past the fact that we're arbitrarily deciding what is "kin" and it seems to be for convenience. I'm not doubting that cooperation is important for evolutionary reasons. Quite the contrary! It's just that why is there so much math, based in so many potentially unnecessary assumptions about genes for behavior, gracing so many pages of scientific literature for explaining it or underscoring its importance? 

(It could just be that as an outsider and a non-expert I just don't understand enough of it and if I only did, I wouldn't be gracing this blog with my questions. But let's get back to my reason for posting anyway because it's potentially useful.)

Right. So. Even for folks who aren't part of evolution's academic endeavor, it's obvious to most that we're one half dad and one half mom. The sperm carries one half of a genome, the egg another, and together they make a whole genome which becomes the kid. Voila!

There's even an adorable "Biologist's Mother's Day" song about how we've got half our moms' genome... 


... but there's biology above and beyond the genes we get from mom (and not from dad). And that song is great for teaching us that the rest of the egg and the gestational experience in utero provide so much more to the development of the soon-to-be new human. So "slightly more than half of everything" is thanks to our mothers. Aw!

But, genetically, the mainstream idea is still that we're 50% our mom. 

I teach very basic genetics because I teach evolution and anthropology.And I'm not (usually) a dummy.* I get it. It's a fact! I'm half, genetically, my mom and I'm also half my dad. 

r = 0.5

Okay! But, given these facts about relatedness and how it's imagined in evolutionary biology, facts that I never ever questioned, I hope you can see why this report from 23andMe (personal genomics enterprise) blew my mind:

Percent similarity to Holly Dunsworth over 536070 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms or, effectively/rather, a subset of known variants in the genome; Click on the image to enlarge).
I am 85% like my mom and I am at least 76% like my students and friends who are sharing with me on 23andMe. Names of comparisons have been redacted. As far as I know, this kind of report is no longer offered by 23andMe. I spat back in 2011/12 and the platform has evolved since.

Okay, first of all, it is a huge relief that, of all the people I'm sharing with on 23andMe, the one who squeezed me out of her body is the most genetically similar to me. Science works.

But that number there, with my mother, it is not 50%. It's quite a bit bigger than that. It says I'm over 85% the same as her.

What's more, I am also very similar to every single person I'm sharing with on the site, including example accounts from halfway around the world. Everyone is at least 60-ish% genetically similar to me, according to 23andMe. I know we're all "cousins," but my actual cousins are supposed to be 1/8th according to evolutionary biology. How can my mom be related to me by only one half? How can my actual cousins be only an eighth (which is 12.5%)? 

What is up with evolutionary biology and this whole "r" thing?

Hi. Here is where, if they weren't already, people just got really annoyed with me. Evolutionary biology's "relatedness" or "r" is not the same as genetic similarity like that reported by 23andMe.

Okay!

But why not? 

Let me help unpack the 85% genetic similarity with my mom. Remember, it's not because I'm inbred (which you have to take my word for, but notice that most everyone on there is over 70% genetically similar to me so...).

It's because my mom and dad, just like any two humans, share a lot in common genetically. Some of the alleles that I inherited from my dad are alleles that my mom inherited from her parents. So, not only is everything I got from her (50%) similar to her, but so are many of the parts that I got from my dad. 

Let me get out my kid's arts supplies.

Here is a pretty common view of relatedness, genetically. In our imagination, parents are not related (r = 0) which can lead our imagination to think that their alleles are distinct. Here there are four distinct alleles/variants that could be passed onto offspring, with each offspring only getting one from mom and one from dad. In this case, the sperm carrying the orange variant and the egg with the blue variant made the baby.


1. (Please, if you're horrified by the "r" business in these figures, read the post for explanation.)
But few genes have four known alleles, at least not four that exist at an appreciable frequency. Some could have three. What does that look like? 

The green allele doesn't exist in the next example. As a result of there being only three variants for this gene or locus, mom and dad must share at least one allele, minimum. That means, they look related and that means that, depending on which egg and sperm make the kid, the kid could be more related to mom than to dad. 


2. (Please, if you're horrified by the "r" business in these figures, read the post for explanation.)
Now here's where people who know more than I do about these things say that the kid is not more related to mom than dad because she got only one allele from mom and that keeps her at r = 0.5. 

Well, that's just insane. What does it matter whether she got the allele from mom or dad? I thought genes were selfish? (Sorry, for the outburst.)

Again, I realize I'm annoying people and probably much worse--like stomping all over theory and knowledge and science--by mixing up the different concepts of genetic similarity (e.g. 50%) with "r" (e.g. 0.5) and horribly misunderstanding all the nuance (and debate) about "r," but I'm doing it because I'm desperately trying to know why these two related ideas are, in fact, distinct. 

One last pathetic cartoon. 

In this third example, as is common in the genome, there are only two alleles/variants in existence (at an appreciable frequency, so not accounting for constant accumulation of de novo variation). An example of such a gene with only two known alleles is the "earwax gene" ABCC11 (there's a wet/waxy allele and dry/crumbly one). Here, the two alleles are orange and blue. Most humans in the species will have at least one allele in common with their mate for a gene with two alleles, and it's not because most humans are inbred, unless we want to redefine inbreeding to include very distant relatives (aside: which may be how the term is used by experts). 


3. (Please, if you're horrified by the "r" business in these figures, read the post for explanation.)
But as a result of the chance segregation of either the blue or orange allele into each of the gametes, two people with the same genotype can make a kid with the same genotype. 

And of course, making a kid with your same genotype is the only possible outcome if you and your mate are both homozygous (i.e. where both copies are of the same variant so that leaves no chance for variation in offspring unless there is a new mutation). 

So, I wandered a little bit away from my point with these drawings, but I had to because I wanted to get down from where my imagination has me (us?) with "r" versus how things really are with reproduction. We are baby-making with vastly similar genomes to ours, so we are making babies with vastly similar genomes to ours. 

So, I do see why biology says I'm related to my mom by one half. But, on the other hand, what does it matter if I got the thing I have in common with my mom from my mom or whether I got it from my dad? Because I got it. Period. It lives. Period. 

[Inserted graf January 20, '17] Saying it matters where I got the similarity to my mom keeps us at r = 0.5. Saying it matters only that I inherited DNA like hers keeps us always, all of us, at r > 0.5 with our parents and our kids because any two babymakers share much of their genome.

And the fact that this (see 2 and 3) happens so often is why I'm a lot more than 50% genetically like my mom, and the same can be said about my genetic similarity to my dad without him even spitting for 23andMe. 

So, here we are. I don't understand why our relatedness to one another, based on genetic similarity, is not "r."

I hope it's for really beautifully logical reasons and not something political. 

Because...

If "r" was defined by genetic similarity, then would cooperating with my 76% genetically similar students and friends be more adaptive than the credit I currently get from evolutionary biology for cooperating with my own flesh and blood son? 

If "r" was defined by genetic similarity, then could we use the power of math and theoretical biology to encourage broader cooperation among humans beyond their close kin? 

So many questions.

Maybe I should re-learn the math and learn all the other math.

Nah. Not myself. At least, it wouldn't come fast enough for my appetite. Maybe someone who already knows the math could leave a comment and we could go from there... 

And it would be worth it, you know, because despite my relatively weaker math skills, I bet we're more than 50% genetically similar.





*from 23andMe: "You have 321 Neanderthal variants. You have more Neanderthal variants than 96% of 23andMe customers."
          Post-truth science?   
This year was one that shook normal politics to its core.  Our belief in free and fair elections, in the idea that politicians strive to tell the truth and are ashamed to be caught lying, in real news vs fake, in the importance of tradition and precedent, indeed in the importance of science in shaping our world, have all been challenged.  This has served to remind us that we can't take progress, world view, or even truth and the importance of truth themselves for granted.  The world is changing, like it or not.  And, as scientists who assume that truth actually exists and whose lives are devoted to searching for it, the changes are not in familiar directions.  We can disagree with our neighbors about many things, but when we can't even agree on what's true, this is not the 'normal' world we know.

To great fanfare, Oxford Dictionaries chose "post-truth" as its international word of the year.
The use of “post-truth” — defined as “relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief” — increased by 2,000 percent over last year, according to analysis of the Oxford English Corpus, which collects roughly 150 million words of spoken and written English from various sources each month.  New York Times
I introduce this into a science blog because, well, I see some parallels with science.  As most of us know, Thomas Kuhn, in his iconic book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, wrote about "normal science", how scientists go about their work on a daily basis, theorizing, experimenting, and synthesizing based on a paradigm, a world view that is agreed upon by the majority of scientists.  (Although not well recognized, Kuhn was preceded in this by Ludwik Fleck, Polish and Israeli physician and biologist who, way back in the 1930s, used the term 'thought collective' for the same basic idea.)

When thoughtful observers recognize that an unwieldy number of facts no longer fit the prevailing paradigm, and develop a new synthesis of current knowledge, a 'scientific revolution' occurs and matures into a new normal science.  In the 5th post in Ken's recent thought-provoking series on genetics as metaphysics, he reminded us of some major 'paradigm shifts' in the history of science -- plate tectonics, relativity and the theory of evolution itself.

We have learned a lot in the last century, but there are 'facts' that don't fit into the prevailing gene-centered, enumerative, reductive approach to understanding prediction and causation, our current paradigm.  If you've read the MT for a while, you know that this is an idea we've often kicked around.  In 2013 Ken made a list of 'strange facts' in a post he called "Are we there yet or do strange things about life require new thinking?" I repost that list below because I think it's worth considering again the kinds of facts that should challenge our current paradigm.

As scientists, our world view is supposed to be based on truth.  We know that climate change is happening, that it's automation not immigration that's threatening jobs in the US, that fossil fuels are in many places now more costly than wind or solar.  But by and large, we know these things not because we personally do research into them all -- we can't -- but because we believe the scientists who do carry out the research and who tell us what they find.  In that sense, our world views are faith-based.  Scientists are human, and have vested interests and personal world views, and seek credit, and so on, but generally they are trustworthy about reporting facts and the nature of actual evidence, even if they advocate their preferred interpretation of the facts, and even if scientists, like anyone else, do their best to support their views and even their biases.

Closer to home, as geneticists, our world view is also faith-based in that we interpret our observations based on a theory or paradigm that we can't possibly test every time we invoke it, but that we simply accept.  The current 'normal' biology is couched in the evolutionary paradigm often based on ideas of strongly specific natural selection, and genetics in the primacy of the gene.

The US Congress just passed a massive bill in support of normal science, the "21st Century Cures Act", with funding for the blatant marketing ploys of the brain connectome project, the push for "Precision Medicine" (first "Personalized Medicine, this endeavor has been, rebranded -- cynically? --yet again to "All of Us") and the new war on cancer.  These projects are nothing if not born of our current paradigm in the life sciences; reductive enumeration of causation and the ability to predict disease.  But the many well-known challenges to this paradigm lead us to predict that, like the Human Genome Project which among other things was supposed to lead to the cure of all disease by 2020, these endeavors can't fulfill their promise.

To a great if not even fundamental extent, this branding is about securing societal resources, for projects too big and costly to kill, in a way similar to any advertising or even to the way churches promise heaven when they pass the plate. But it relies on wide-spread acceptance of contemporary 'normal science', despite the unwieldy number of well-known, misfitting facts.  Even science is now perilously close to 'post-truth' science. This sort of dissembling is deeply built into our culture at present.

We've got brilliant scientists doing excellent work, turning out interesting results every day, and brilliant science journalists who describe and publicize their new findings. But it's almost all done within, and accepting, the working paradigm. Too few scientists, and even fewer writers who communicate their science, are challenging that paradigm and pushing our understanding forward. Scientists, insecure and scrambling not just for insight but for their very jobs, are pressed explicitly or implicitly to toe the current party line. In a very real sense, we're becoming more dedicated to faith-based science than we are to truth.

Neither Ken nor I are certain that a new paradigm is necessary, or that it's right around the corner. How could we know? But, there are enough 'strange facts', that don't fit the current paradigm centered around genes as discrete, independent causal units, that we think it's worth thinking about whether a new synthesis, that can incorporate these facts, might be necessary. It's possible, as we've often said, that we already know everything we need to know: that biology is complex, genetics is interactive not iterative, every genome is unique and interacts with unique individual histories of exposures to environmental risk factors, evolution generates difference rather than replicability, and we will never be able to predict complex disease 'precisely'.

But it's also possible that there are new ways to think about what we know, beyond statistics and population-based observations, to better understand causation.  There are many facts that don't fit the current paradigm, and more smart scientists should be thinking about this as they carry on with their normal science.



---------------------------------
Do strange things about life require new concepts?
1.  The linear view of genetic causation (cis effects of gene function, for the cognoscenti) is clearly inaccurate.  Gene regulation and usage are largely, if not mainly, not just local to a given chromosome region (they are trans);
2.  Chromosomal usage is 4-dimensional within the nucleus, not even 3-dimensional, because arrangements are changing with circumstances, that is, with time;
3.  There is a large amount of inter-genic and inter-chromosomal communication leading to selective expression and non-expression at individual locations and across the genome (e.g., monoallelic expression).  Thousands of local areas of chromosomes wrap and unwrap dynamically depending on species, cell type,  environmental conditions, and the state of other parts of the genome at a given time; 
4.  There is all sorts of post-transcription modification (e.g., RNA editing, chaperoning) that is a further part of 4-D causation;
5.  There is environmental feedback in terms of gene usage, some of which is inherited (epigenetic marking) that can be inherited and borders on being 'lamarckian';
6.  There are dynamic symbioses as a fundamental and pervasive rather than just incidental and occasional part of life (e.g., microbes in humans);
7.  There is no such thing as 'the' human genome from which deviations are measured.  Likewise, there is no evolution of 'the' human and chimpanzee genome from 'the' genome of a common ancestor.  Instead, perhaps conceptually like event cones in physics, where the speed of light constrains what has happened or can happen, there are descent cones of genomic variation descending from individual sequences--time-dependent spreading of variation, with time-dependent limitations.  They intertwine among individuals though each individual's is unique.  There is a past cone leading of ancestry to each current instance of a genome sequence, from an ever-widening set of ancestors (as one goes back in time) and a future cone of descendants and their variation that's affected by mutations.  There are descent cones in the genomes among organisms, and among organisms in a species, and between species. This is of course just a heuristic, not an attempt at a literal simile or to steal ideas from physics! 
Light cone: Wikipedia

8.  Descent cones exist among the cells and tissues within each organism, because of somatic mutation, but the metaphor breaks down because they have strange singular rather than complex ancestry because in individuals the go back to a point, a single fertilized egg, and of individuals to life's Big Bang;
9.  For the previous reasons, all genomes represent 'point' variations (instances) around a non-existent core  that we conceptually refer to as 'species' or 'organs', etc.('the' human genome, 'the' giraffe, etc.);
10.  Enumerating causation by statistical sampling methods is often impossible (literally) because rare variants don't have enough copies to generate 'significance', significance criteria are subjective, and/or because many variants have effects too small to generate significance;
11.  Natural selection, that generates current variation along with chance (drift) is usually so weak that it cannot be demonstrated, often in principle, for similar statistical reasons:  if cause of a trait is too weak to show, cause of fitness is too weak to show; there is not just one way to be 'adapted'.
12.  Alleles and genotypes have effects that are inherently relativistic.  They depend upon context, and each organism's context is different;
13.  Perhaps analogously with the ideal gas law and its like, phenotypes seem to have coherence.  We each have a height or blood pressure, despite all the variation noted above.  In populations of people, or organs, we find ordinary (e.g., 'bell-shaped') distributions, that may be the result of a 'law' of large numbers: just as human genomes are variation around a 'platonic' core, so blood pressure is the net result of individual action of many cells.  And biological traits are typically always changing;
14. 'Environment' (itself a vague catch-all term) has very unclear effects on traits.  Genomic-based risks are retrospectively assessed but future environments cannot, in principle, be known, so that genomic-based prediction is an illusion of unclear precision; 
15.  The typical picture is of many-to-many genomic (and other) causation for which many causes can lead to the same result (polygenic equivalence), and many results can be due to the same cause (pleiotropy);
16. Our reductionist models, even those that deal with networks, badly under-include interactions and complementarity.  We are prisoners of single-cause thinking, which is only reinforced by strongly adaptationist Darwinism that, to this day, makes us think deterministically and in terms of competition, even though life is manifestly a phenomenon of molecular cooperation (interaction).  We have no theory for the form of these interactions (simple multiplicative? geometric?).
17.  In a sense all molecular reactions are about entropy, energy, and interaction among different molecules or whatever.  But while ordinary nonliving molecular reactions converge on some result, life is generally about increasing difference, because life is an evolutionary phenomenon.
18. DNA is itself a quasi-random, inert sequence. Its properties come entirely from spatial, temporal, combinatorial ('Boolean'-like) relationships. This context works only because of what else is in (and on the immediate outside) of the cell at the given time, a regress back to the origin of life.

          Is genetics still metaphysical? Part VI. What might lead to a transformative insight in biology today--if we need one   
It's easy to complain about the state of the world, in this case, of the life sciences, and much harder to provide the Big New Insights one argues might be due.  Senioritis makes it even easier: when my career in genetics began, not very much was known.  Genes figuratively had 2 alleles, with measurable rates of recurrence by mutation.  Genetically tractable traits were caused by the proteins in these genes; quantitative traits were too complex to be considered seriously to be due to individual genes, so were tacitly assumed to be the additive result of an essentially infinite number of them.

How many genes there were was essentially unknowable, but using identified proteins as a gauge, widely thought to be around 100,000. The 'modern evolutionary synthesis' solved the problem, conceptually, by treating these largely metaphorical causal items as largely equivalent, if distinct, entities whose identities were essentially unknowable.  That is, at least, we didn't have to think about them as specific entities, only their collective actions.  Mendelian causal genes, evolving by natural selection was, even if metaphorical or even in a serious way metaphysical, a highly viable worldview in which to operate.  A whole science enterprise grew around this worldview.  But things have changed.

Over the course of my career, we've learned a lot about these metaphysical units.  Whether or not they are now more physical than metaphysical is the question I've tried to address in this series of posts, and I think there's not an easy answer--but what we have, or should have, understood is that they are not units!  If we have to have a word for them, perhaps it should be interactants.  But even that is misleading because the referents are not in fact unitary.  For example, many if not  most 'genes' are only active in context-dependent circumstances, are multiply spliced, may be post-trascriptionally edited, are chemically modified, and have function only when combined with other units (e.g., don't code for discretely functioning proteins), etc.

Because interaction is largely a trans phenomenon--between factors here and there, rather than just everything here, the current gene concept, and the panselectionistic view in which every trait has an adaptive purpose, whether tacit or explicit, is a serious or even fundamental impediment to a more synthetic understanding. I feel it's worth piling on at this point, and adding that the current science is also pan-statistical in ways that in my view are just as damaging.  The reason, to me, is that these methods are almost entirely generic, based on internal comparison among samples, using subjective decision-criteria (e.g., p-values) rather than testing data against a serious-level theory.

If this be so, then perhaps if the gene-centered view of life, or even the gene concept itself as life's fundamental 'atomic' unit, needs to be abandoned as a crude if once important approximation to the nature of life. I have no brilliant ideas, but will try here to present the sorts of known facts that might stimulate some original thinker's synthesizing insight--or, alternatively, might lead us to believe that no such thing is even needed, because we already understand the relevant nature of life: that as an evolutionary product it is inherently not 'regular' the way physics and chemistry are.  But if our understanding is already correct, then our public promises of precision medicine are culpably misleading slogans.

In part V of this series I mentioned several examples of deep science insight, that seemed to have shared at least one thing in common:  they were based on a synthesis that unified many seemingly disparate facts.  We have many facts confronting us.  How would or might we try to think differently about them?  One way might be to ask the following questions: What if biological causation is about difference, not replication?  What if 'the gene' is misleading, and we were to view life in terms of interactions rather than genes-as-things?  How would that change our view?

Here are some well-established facts that might be relevant to a new, synthetic rather than particulate view of life:

1. Evolution works by difference, not replication Since Newton or perhaps back to the Greek geometers, what we now call 'science' largely was about understanding the regularities of existence.  What became known as 'laws' of Nature were, initially for theological reasons, assumed to be the basis of existence.  The same conditions led to the same outcomes anywhere.  Two colliding billiard balls here on Earth or in any other galaxy, would react in identical ways (yes, I know, that one can never have exactly the same conditions--or billiard balls--but the idea is that the parts of the cosmos were exchangeable.)  But one aspect of life is that it is an evolved chemical phenomenon whose evolution occurred because elements were different rather than exchangeable.  Evolution and hence life, is about interactions or context-specific relative effects (e.g., genetic drift, natural selection). 
2.  Life is a phenomenon of nested (cladistic) tree-like relationships Life is not about separated, independent entities, but about entities that from the biosphere down (at least) to individual organisms are made of sets of variations of higher-level components.  Observation at one level, at least from cells up to organs to systems to individuals, populations, species and ecosystems, are reflections of the nested level(s) the observational level contains. 
3.  Much genetic variation works before birth or on a population level Change may arise by genetic mutation, but function is about interactions, and success--which in life means reproduction--depends on the nature of the interactions at all levels.  That is, Darwinian competition among individuals of different species is only one, and perhaps one of the weakest, kinds of such interaction.  Embryonic development is a much more direct, and stronger arena for filtering interactions, than competition (natural selection) among adults for limited resources.  In a similar way, some biological and even genetic factors work only in a population way (bees and ants are an obvious instance, as are bacterial microfilm and the life cycles of sponges or slime molds). 
4.  Homeostasis is one of the fundamental and essential ways that organisms interact Homeostasis as an obvious example of a trans phenomenon.  It's complexly trans because not only do gene-expression combinations change, but they are induced to change by extra-cellular and even extra-organismal factors both intra and inter-species.  The idea of a balance or stasis, as with organized and orchestrated combinatorial reaction surely cannot be read of in cis.  We have known about interactions and reactions and so on, so this is not to invoke some vague Gaia notions, but to point out the deep level of interactions, and these depend on many factors that themselves vary, etc. 
5. Environments include non-living factors as well as social/interaction ones No gene is an island, even if we could identify what a 'gene' was, and indeed that no gene stands alone is partly why we can't.  Environments are like the celestial spheres: from each point of view everything else is the 'environment', including the rest of a cell, organ, system, organism, population, ecosystem.  In humans and many other species, we must include behavioral or social kinds of interactions as 'environment'.  There is no absolute reference frame in life any more than in the cosmos.  Things may appear linear from one point of view, but not another.  The 'causal' effects of a protein code (a classical 'gene') depend on its context--and vice versa
6. The complexity of factors often implies weak or equivalent causation--and that's evolutionarily fundamental. Factors or 'forces' that are too strong on their own--that is, that appear as individually identifiable 'units'--are often lethal to evolutionary survival.  Most outcomes we (or evolution) care about are causally complex, and they are always simultaneously multiple: a species isn't adapting to just one selective factor at a time, for example.  Polygenic causation (using the term loosely to refer to complex multi-factoral causation) is the rule.  These facts mean that individually identified factors usually have weak effects and/or that there are alternative ways to achieve the same end, within or among individuals.  Selection, even of the classical kind, must be typically weak relative to any given involved factor. 
7. The definition of traits is often subjective and affects their 'cause' Who decides what 'obesity', 'intelligence', or 'diabetes' is?  In general, we might say that 'Nature' decides what is a 'trait', but in practice it is often we, via our language and our scientific framework, who try to divide up the living world into discrete categories and hence to search for discrete causal factors.  It is no surprise that what we find is rather arbitrary, and gives the impression of biological causation as packaged into separate items rather than being fundamentally about a 'fabric' of interactions.  But the shoehorn is often a major instrument in our causal explanations. 
8. The 'quantum mechanics' effect: interaction affects the interactors In many aspects of life, obviously but not exclusively applied to humans, when scientists ask a question or publicize a result, it affects the population in question.  This is much like the measurement effect in quantum mechanics.  Studying something affects it in ways relevant to the causal landscape we are studying.  Even in non-human life, the 'studying' of rabbits by foxes, or of forests by sunlight, affects what is being studied.  This is another way of pointing out the pervasive centrality of interaction.  Just like political polls, the science 'news' in our media, affect our behavior and it is almost impossible to measure the breadth and impact of this phenomenon.

All of these phenomena can be shoe-horned into the 'gene' concept or a gene-centered view of life or of biomedical 'precision'.  But it's forced: each case has to be treated differently, by statistical tests rather than a rigorous theory, and with all sorts of exceptions, involving things like those listed here, that have to be given post hoc explanations (if any). In this sense, the gene concept is outmoded and an overly particulate and atomized view of a phenomenon--life--whose basic nature is that it is not so particularized.

Take all of these facts, and many others like them, and try to view them as a whole, and as a whole that, nonetheless can evolve.  Yesterday's post on how I make doggerel was intended to suggest a similar kind of mental exercise.  There can be wholes, and they can evolve, but they do it as wholes. If there is a new synthesis to be found, my own hunch it would be in these sorts of thoughts.  As with the examples I discussed a few days ago (plate techtonics, evolution itself, and relativity), there was a wealth of facts that were not secret or special, and were well-known. But they hadn't been put together until someone thinking hard about them, who was also smart and lucky, managed it. Whether we have this in the offing for biology, or whether we even need it, is what I've tried to write about in this series of posts.

Of course, one shouldn't romanticize scientific 'revolutions'.  As I've also tried to say, these sorts of facts, which are ones I happen to have thought of to list, do not in any way prove that there is a grand new synthesis out there waiting to be discovered. It is perfectly plausible that this kind of ad hoc, chaotic view of life is what life is like.  But if that's the case, we should shed the particulate, gene-centered view we have and openly acknowledge the ad hoc, complex, fundamentally trans nature of life--and, therefore, of what we can promise in terms of health miracles.
          Is genetics still metaphysical? Part V. Examples of conditions that lead to transformative insights   
A commenter on this series asked what I thought that "a theory of biology should (realistically) aspire to predict?" The series (part 1 here) has discussed aspects of life sciences in which we don't currently seem to have the kind of unifying underlying theory found in other physical sciences. I'm not convinced that many people even recognize the problem.

I couched the issues in the context of asking whether the 'gene' concept was metaphysical or was more demonstrably or rigorously concrete.  I don't think it is concrete, and I do think many areas of the life sciences are based on internal generic statistical or sampling comparison of one sort of data against another (e.g., genetic variants found in cases vs controls in a search for genetic causes of disease), rather than comparing data against some prior specific theory of causation other than vacuously true assertions like 'genes may contribute to risk of disease'.  I don't think there's an obvious current answer to my view that we need a better theory of biology, nor of course that I have that answer.   

I did suggest in this series that perhaps we should not expect biology to have the same kind of theory found in physics, because our current understanding doesn't (or at least shouldn't) lead us to expect the same kind of cause-effect replicability.  Evolution--which was one of the sort of basic revolutionary insights in the history of science, and is about life, specifically asserts that life got the way it is by not being replicable (e.g., in one process, by natural selection among different--non-replicate--individuals).  But that's also a very vanilla comment.

I'll try to answer the commenter's question in this and the next post.  I'll do it in a kind of 'meta' or very generic way, through the device of presenting examples of the kind of knowledge landscape that has stimulated new, deeply synthesizing insight in various areas of science.

1.  Relativity
History generally credits Galileo for the first modern understanding that some aspects of motion appear differently from different points of view.  A classic case was of a ship gliding into the port of Genoa: if someone inside the ship dropped a ball it would land at his feet, just as it would for someone on land.  But someone on land watching the sailor through a window would see the ball move not just down but also along an angled path toward the port, the hypotenuse of a right triangle, which is longer than the straight-down distance.  But if the two observations of the same event were quantitatively different, which was 'true'?  Eventually, Einstein extended this question using images such as trains and railroad stations: a passenger who switched on two lightbulbs, one each at opposite ends of a train, would see both flashes at the same time.  But a person at a station the train was passing through would see the rearmost flash before the frontward one.  So what does this say about simultaneity?

These and many other examples showed that, unlike Isaac Newton's view of space and time as existing in an absolute sense, they depend on one's point of view, in the sense that if you adjust for that, all observers will see the same laws of Nature at work.  Einstein was working in the Swiss patent office and at the time there were problems inventors were trying to solve in keeping coordinated time--this affected European railroads, but also telecommunication, marine transport and so on. Thinking synthetically about various aspects of the problem led Einstein later to show that a similar answer applied to acceleration and a fundamentally different, viewpoint-dependent, understanding of gravity as curvature in space and time itself, a deeply powerfully deeper understanding of the inherent structure of the universe.  A relativisitic viewpoint helped account for the nature and speed of light, aspects of both motion and momentum, of electromagnetism, the relationship between matter and energy, the composition of 'space', the nature of gravity, of time and space as a unified matrix of existence, the dynamics of the cosmos, and so on, all essentially in one go.

The mathematics is very complex (and beyond my understanding!).   But the idea itself was mainly based on rather simple observations (or thought experiments), and did not require extensive data or exotically remote theory, though it has been shown to fit very diverse phenomena better than former non-relativisitc views, and are required for aspects of modern life, as well as our wish to understand the cosmos and our place in it.  That's how we should think of a unifying synthesis. 

The insight that led to relativity as a modern concept, and that there is no one 'true' viewpoint ('reference frame'), is a logically simple one, but that united many different well-known facts and observations that had not been accounted for by the same underlying aspect of Nature.

2.  Geology and Plate Techtonics (Continental Drift)
Physics is very precise from a mathematical point of view, but transformative synthesis in human thinking does not require that sort of precision.  Two evolutionary examples will show this, and that principles or 'laws' of Nature can take various forms.  

The prevailing western view until the last couple of centuries, even among scientists, was that the cosmos had a point Creation, basically in its present form, a few thousand years ago.  But the age of exploration occasioned by better seagoing technology and a spirit of global investigation, found oddities, such as sea shells at high elevations, and fossils.  The orderly geographical nature of coral atolls, Pacific island chains, volcanic and earthquake-prone regions was discovered.  Remnants of very different climates than present ones in some locations were found.  Similarly looking biological species (and fossils) were found in disjoint parts of the world, such as South Africa, South America, and eventually Antarctica.  These were given various local, ad hoc one-off explanations.  There were hints in previous work, but an influential author was Alfred Wegener who wrote (e.g., from 1912--see Wikipedia: Alfred Wegener) about the global map, showing evidence of continental drift, the continents being remnants of a separating jigsaw puzzle, as shown in the first image here; the second shows additional evidence of what were strange similarities in distantly separated lands.  This knowledge had accumulated by the many world collectors and travelers during the Age of Exploration. Better maps showed that continents seemed sometimes to be 'fitted' to each other like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.  



Geological ages and continental movement (from Hallam, A Revolution in the Earth Sciences, 1973; see text)


Evidence for the continental jigsaw puzzle (source Wikipedia: Alfred Wegener, see text)

Also, if the world were young and static since some 'creation' event, these individual findings were hard to account for. This complemented ideas by early geologists like Hutton and Lyell around the turn of the 19th century. They noticed that deep time also was consistent with the idea of (pardon the pun) glacially slow observable changes in glaciers, river banks, and coastlines that had been documented since by geologists  Their idea of 'uniformitarianism' was that processes observable today occurred as well during the deep past, meaning that extrapolation was a valid way to make inferences.  Ad hoc isolated and unrelated explanations had generally been offered piecemeal for these sorts of facts.  Similar plants or animals on oceanically separated continents must have gotten there by rafting on detritus from rivers that had been borne to the sea.

Many very different kinds of evidence were then assembled and a profound insight was the result, which we today refer to by terms such as 'plate techtonics' or 'continental drift'.   There are now countless sources for the details, but one that I think is interesting is A Revolution in the Earth Sciences, by A. Hallam, published by Oxford Press in 1973, only a few years after what is basically the modern view had been convincingly accepted.  His account is interesting because we now know so much more that reinforces the idea, but it was as stunning a thought-change as was biological evolution in Darwin's time.  I was a graduate student at the time, and we experienced the Aha! realization that was taking place was that, before our very observational eyes so to speak, diverse facts were being fit under the same synthesizing explanation (even some of our faculty were still teaching old, forced, stable-earth explanations).

Among much else, magnetic orientation of geological formations, including symmetric stripes of magnetic reversals flanking the Mid-Atlantic Trench documented the sea-floor spreading that separated the broken-off continental fragments--the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle.  Mountain height and sea depth patterns gained new explanations on a geologic (and very deep time) scale, because the earth was accepted as being older than biblical accounts).  Atolls and the volcanic ring of fire are accounted for by continental motions.  

This was not a sudden one-factor brilliant finding, but rather the accumulation of centuries of slowly collected global data from the age of sail (corresponding to today's fervor for 'Big Data'?).  A key is that the local facts were not really accounted for by locally specific explanations, but were globally united as instances of the same general, globally underlying processes.  Coastlines, river gorges, mountain building, fossil-site locations, current evidence of very different past climates and so on were brought under the umbrella of one powerful, unifying theory.  It was the recognition of very disparate facts that could be synthesized that led to the general acceptance of the theory.  Indeed, subsequent and extensive global data, continue to this day to make the hypothesis of early advocates like Wegener pay off.

3.  Evolution itself
It is a 100% irrefutable explanation for life's diversity to say that God created all the species on Earth. But that is of no use in understanding the world, especially if we believe, as is quite obvious, that the world and the cosmos more broadly follows regular patterns or 'laws'.  Creationist views of life's diversity, of fossils, and so on, are all post hoc, special explanations for each instance. Each living species can be credited to a separate divine reason or event of creation.  But when world traveling became more common and practicable, many facts and patterns were observed that seemed to make such explanations lame and tautological at best.  For example, fossils resembled crude forms of species present today in the same area.  Groups of similar species are found living in a given region, with clusters of somewhat less similar species elsewhere. The structures of species, such as of vertebrates, or insects, showed similar organization, and one could extend this to deeper if more different patterns in other groups (e.g., that we now would call genera, phyla, and so on).  Basic aspects of inheritance seemed to apply to species, plant and animal alike.  If all species had been, say, on the same Ark, why were similar species so geographically clustered?

It dawned on investigators scanning the Victorian Age's global collections, and in particular Darwin and Wallace, that because offspring resemble their parents, though are not identical to them, and individuals and species have to feed on each other or compete for resources, that those that did better would proliferate more.  If they became isolated, they could diverge in form, and not only that but the traits of each species were suited to its circumstances, even if species fed off each other.  Over time this would also produce different, but related species in a given area.  New species were not seen directly to arise, but precedents from breeders' history showed the effects of selective reproduction, and geologists like Lyell had made biologists aware of the slow but steady nature of geological change.  If one accepted the idea that rather than the short history implied by biblical reading, life on earth instead had been here for a very long time, these otherwise very disparate facts about the nature of life and the reasons for its diversity might have a common 'uniformitarian' explanation--a real scientific explanation in terms of a shared causative process, rather than a series of unrelated creations: the synthesis of a world's worth of very diverse facts made the global pattern of life make causal and explanatory sense, in a way that it had never had before.

Of course the fact of evolution does not directly inform us about genetic causation, which has been the motivating topic of this series of posts.  We'll deal with this in our next post in the series.

Insight comes from facing a problem by synthesis related to pattern recognition
The common feature of these examples of scientific insight is that they involve synthesis derived from pattern recognition. There is a problem to be solved or something to be explained, and multiple facts that may not have seemed related and have been given local, ad hoc, one-off 'explanations'. Often the latter are forced or far-fetched, or 'lazy' (as in Creationism, because it required no understanding of the birds and the beasts). Or because the explanations are not based on any sort of real-world process, they cannot be tested and tempered, and improved.  And, unlike Creationist accounts, scientific accounts can be shown to be wrong, and hence our understanding improved.

In our examples of the conditions in which major scientific insights have occurred, someone or some few, looking at a wealth of disparate facts, or perhaps finding some new fact that is relevant to them, saw through the thicket of 'data', and found meaning.  The more a truly new idea strikes home, in each case, the more facts it incorporates, even facts not considered to be relevant.

Well!  If we don't have diverse, often seemingly disparate facts in genetics then nobody does!  But the situation now seems somewhat different from the above examples: indeed, with the precedents like those above, and several others including historic advances in chemistry, quantum physics, and astronomy, we seem to hasten to generalize, and claim our own synthesizing 'laws'.  But how well are we actually doing, and have we identified the right primary units of causation on which to do the same sort of synthesizing?  Or do we need to?

 I'll do my feeble best to offer some thoughts on this in the final part of this series.
          Is genetics still metaphysical? Part IV: The 'specifisticity' of life   
I had not intended a 4th post in the series (part 1 is here) about whether genetics is 'metaphysical', and what that might mean in our search to understand biological causation.  However, I just listened to a very good** discussion of the Copernican 'revolution' in understanding the movement we observe in the skies, and its relevance to scientific inference generally.  That led me to write this follow-up.

Copernicus showed that viewing the Sun rather than the Earth as the center of the known universe seemed more natural and in some ways easier than the prior Ptolemaic system.  Of course, the issues were deeper because they were relevant to theological explanations of existence, in which the Earth was the center of God's creation.

The Ptolemaic system that dated back to the classical era had led to the discovery that planets did not orbit the earth in simple circles; instead, to predict their position one had to invoke 'epicycles', short occasional small circular detours in planetary paths.  By placing the Sun at the center of celestial motions, the Copernican system was somewhat simpler, though it had its own equivalent of epicycles and wasn't entirely more obvious.  The important follow-up that did simplify things was Kepler's showing that the orbits were ellipses rather than circles.  This was much easier and more natural, even if also imperfect**, and indeed Tycho Brahe had shown ways to make Earth-centered planetary predictions that basically matched those of Copernicus, by having the moon and planets circle the Earth but the Sun circle the Earth, in a sense salvaging a geocentric cosmos.

The BBC program's discussion concerned the fact that at some point, truth becomes as much philosophical  as it is scientific. Matters of computational convenience were not necessarily about what view is 'true'.  Indeed, we may never be able to know absolute truth, and indeed that concept may be inherently philosophical, as pointed out on the program by the philosopher of science Massimo Pigliucci.  Thus, none of the competing planetary computational approaches necessarily need be 'true': each had its own level of complexity and limits of accuracy.  These days science takes the heliocentric system as obviously 'true', and in particular, that theological assertions that the Earth is the center of the universe is wrong.

More relevant to this post, however, I think that at some point every science becomes an axiomatic system, built upon terms and relationships that are defined but not examined or examinable in any further depth.  In classical geometry, for example, such terms include 'point' or 'line', and I think that currently, the 'electron' is like that: it is not clearly a 'thing' nor a 'wave' and if it is 'energy' that, too, is something whose effect can be defined observationally but whose essence is not further explored.  In a sense, the ultimate nature of these fundamentals is 'metaphysical' that is, is above the physical, something whose 'true' reality or essence we cannot see, at least in our current stage of a science.

Mathematics is an axiomatic system, based on entities like numbers and relationships like equality, addition, and so on.  We deduce things from these primary entities or prove their relative properties, but we can go a very long way in physics and cosmology using mathematics and the various principles and assumptions that we currently make.   We don't need to ask what an electron or electromagnetic wave 'is' in order to make precise use of it in building a model of physical existence, whether or not some day we will be able to probe such things more deeply.

If this is the basis of science, isn't the same true of the biological equivalent of what are currently considered its primary 'things'--that is, 'genes'?  I think not.

Genetics and metaphysics in a comparative context
In the previous posts in this series, I asked whether genetics (and by extension, evolution) was still essentially metaphysical.  Since the term 'gene' (and its historical antecedents) was defined by observable facts, such as patterns of inheritance, it was assumed to be a real entity, even if nothing was known or, at the time, knowable about its essence.  That was in the realm of speculation but, like electrons or geometrical points perhaps, it was at least assumed to be a kind of real 'thing' because it seemed to behave is if it were.  But what kind of thing was purely speculative and at best indirectly supported by evidence of its putative causal result, the directly observable traits of organisms.

As we tried to explain in this series, the idea of a 'gene' historically grew out of Mendel's work with carefully selected traits in peas, which he chose specifically as being useful for plant improvement. The resulting metaphoric or metaphysical notion of life's primary causal element (at the time, perhaps, literally comparable to atomic 'elements'--indicated by Mendel's use of that word) led to a perhaps unprecedentedly productive research strategy, which yielded the discovery of RNA and DNA itself, that particular regions of DNA code for the structure of proteins.

However, to a much under-appreciated extent, that very success itself led us to discover that no 'gene'--no bit of DNA--acts on its own, that only sometimes is a given coding stretch used to produce a given protein because of context-specific variable exon usage; that the code only works when other types of DNA-based codes are used to control the expression of the gene; that the code is sometimes altered after transcription; and much, much more. Indeed, it seems very possible that important or even fundamental aspects of what DNA does remain unknown.

We've dealt with some of these issues in many other posts.  In particular, the 'gene' is currently not a fundamental concept comparable to 'point', 'electron', 'square root', and so on.  It is not something that is a fundamental, irreducible causal element whose internal nature or identity cannot be probed more deeply. Unlike points and electrons, not all genes are identical; indeed no two genes are. A gene is not a primary causal unit in the same sense.  Earlier in this series we quoted a new suggested definition of 'gene' that makes this point by inadvertently being so useless that it might as well not have been suggested.

Today, except for some restricted, usually vague and often conveniently self-serving situations, we do not have a good concept of what a gene 'is'--or even if life is based on some such concept.  First, we define genes in terms of biological 'functions', that is, some purportedly causative outcomes that we like to measure, like the production of skin or eyes, or intelligence, or disease.  One thing that is relevant and does seem very clear is that aspects of DNA have functions that are fundamentally due to interaction, or even that interaction is all that DNA function is about.  The word ('gene') no longer unambiguously refers to a clear kind of basic element: its referents have to be defined ad hoc. The same purported unit has different causative aspects in different experimental and natural contexts.  It is also not a proper fundamental unit because in today's usages a 'gene' has internal components (in DNA sequence, modification by other chemicals etc.).  In some selective situations the word has utility (e.g., referring to the BRCA1 gene in a causative context related to breast cancer), but even that is typically limited, and worse, limited to a typically unknown and/or variable extent. These statements reflect the success of the science to date, but also show how deep our need for conceptual reform really is.

Life is specifisitic 
It was probably understatement on our part to have ended the 3rd element of this series by saying that the 'gene' is still, and perhaps essentially, a metaphysical concept.  That's because it's not really clear, yet, whether it even is a coherent concept, much less whether it, or any fundamental unit of causation applies to life in the way such concepts (may) apply to physics and chemistry.  In a sense, perhaps similar to the views of Einstein and Ernst Mach that we touched on in part I of this series, the fundamental units of life are relationships, not things.  This may be similar to the issue in physics about when or whether or how reality is made of waves or things.  But there would be more, because of the fact that unlike physics, the fundamental units are not replicable the way electrons are.

Perhaps a different unique-context-centered causative concept is needed for understanding the essential nature of life: a  fundamental 'specifismology'.  At this stage of our knowledge, in particular in relation to prediction, and also in the political economy of contemporary science, we are far from that level of of understanding. But we've said that many times before!

It is in the nature of science that how and when we'll get a break of deeper insight, no one can say.
-------------------------------------------------


**You would probably enjoy this podcast or online-stream.  It is from the BBC Radio 4 science program series, Discovery.  The discussion of Copernicus and his work is very interesting, but as a science program, the Beeb committed at least a minor error in a kind of de facto assumption that there is some sort of underlying truth in this aspect of cosmology and the history concerns which measurement approach is most accurate or easiest.  That is essentially a Newtonian view, of space as having an absolute reference frame for which one tries to find the easiest computational system. That's what 'the Solar System' means: we place the Sun at the origin of 3-dimensional linear coordinates.  However, in post-Einstein relativistic times we now accept that there is no reference frame from which to decide which view is 'true'; heliocentric models are simply more practicably useful.  Whether the relativistic nature of reference frames applies to biology in a seriously relevant way is a separate, but interesting question.
          18th International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA18)   
We were pleased to present a prize at the 18th International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes to HeeJu Nah (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Korea) for her poster on: “Precise Cloning and Heterologous Expression of Natural Product Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Using Streptomyces Artificial Chromosome System.” The symposium took place in Jeju, Korea on 23 – […]
          The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business   
The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business
author: Charles Duhigg
name: Jeff
average rating: 3.90
book published: 2011
rating: 2
read at: 2017/03/14
date added: 2017/03/14
shelves: audio-collection, read-in-2017, probably-never-read-again, abandoned
review:
This is one of the hardest sorts of books for me. The author is clever, clearly knows more than I do about neuro-biology and even habits, *and* I'm interested in the topic, but the book still rubs me the wrong way. There is a... sloppiness about the way that it forms and uses concepts. For instance, it conflates as "habits" things as diverse as complex, semi-automated procedural knowledge such as how to back a car out of a driveway and, you know, habits. He seems to use it cover anything the mind does to achieve unit economy (though doesn't extend it quite to concept formation as the book isn't that epistemological.) Don't get me wrong: I wouldn't rankle, whether I agreed or not, if an argument were made that there were similarities between these mental phenomena sufficient to regard them as types of the same thing. Instead, the author simply assumes it. This is an example, rather than my whole objection. Then after a period that should be establishing basic assumptions, definitions, etc., and starting to unfold discoveries, suggestions, etc., he builds on what for me is a hopelessly shaky foundation, so I'm having to go through everything he's saying and unfolding it in terms of the odd foundation he's laid.

I got what I can out of such a work. I traced through some useful frameworks on the examples he gave of habit patterns, and what changes to them look like. As long as you keep them tied to concretes, they're quite interesting. From there, I'll slowly extrapolate on my own what generalizations I can. That's no small thing, but confronted with someone who appears smart and better informed than I am, I wish for so much more.

          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
To create and maintain a classroom atmosphere that generates high expectations and enthusiasm for learning by infusing critical thinking skills, application... $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          Front End Developer SD2 (Environmental Genomics & Systems Biology) - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA   
Berkeley Lab’s Environmental Genomics & Systems Biology Division has an opening for a Front End Developer. As part of the KBase implementation team, you will
From Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Tue, 30 May 2017 19:54:31 GMT - View all Berkeley, CA jobs
          Area students receive degrees from Buena Vista University   
STORM LAKE — Kayla Corso of Newton, recently graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in biology from Buena Vista University.
          Global Forest Research Explains Tropical Biodiversity   

The diversity of woody plant species is one of the most notable aspects of forests worldwide. However, the mechanisms behind the high diversity in tropical forests and the lower diversity in temperate forests have been poorly understood. Over 50 years ago, Daniel Janzen and Joseph Connell proposed a theory that plant enemies – specialized insects, fungi and bacteria – attack and kill seedlings near their parent trees, preventing common species from dominating a forest.

Recently, Utah State University scientists joined a global collaboration to reveal an important mechanism promoting species diversity from the tropical to temperate forests. A year ago, Jonathan Myers, assistant professor of biology at Washington University in St. Louis, and Joe LaManna, a postdoctoral research associate at Washington University’s Tyson Research Center, proposed a test of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis to the principal investigators of an international network of long-term forest dynamics research sites, called the Smithsonian Center for Tropical Forest Science-Forest Global Earth Observatory (CTFS-ForestGEO).

“This is the first time we’ve had the data to do this kind of in-depth analysis and to look across temperate and tropical latitudes,” said LaManna, who is the corresponding author on the paper.

The CTFS-ForestGEO research sites involve large plots within which all woody stems larger than 1 cm in diameter are mapped using a common field methodology, so that spatial patterns of forests around the world can be directly compared.

The study found that suppression of trees near others of the same species is stronger in tropical forests than in temperate forests. Secondly, the study found that this self-suppression is stronger for rare species in the tropics compared to common species. The result helps explain why there are so many rare tree species in tropical forests. In temperate forests, self-suppression is relatively equal for all species, or slightly stronger for common species.

Utah State University Assistant Professor Jim Lutz contributed data from his three western plots – in California, Washington and Utah.

“The existence and maintenance of woody plant diversity is one of the most important features of landscapes,” Lutz said. “How plant enemies control diversity can help us understand and manage western forests. The fact that plant enemies can help stabilize forests gives us new insights to promote forest resilience.”

Utah State University graduate student Tucker Furniss, who also participated in the study said, “I am glad that the Utah plot, at the elevational limit of closed-canopy forest, could help reveal this global pattern.”

Furniss’ specific work on the Utah plot was recently published in the journal Ecosphere.

This work was carried out during the 2016 CTFS-ForestGEO Workshop in Hainan, China, supported by a National Science Foundation grant. It was also supported by the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. The data used in the primary analyses will be available at the Smithsonian Institution’s CTFS-ForestGEO database portal. [http://www.forestgeo.si.edu/group/Data/Access+the+data.]

Further information available at:
“Plant Diversity Increases with the Strength of Negative Density Dependence at the Global Scale,” Science, June 2017
“Reconciling Niches and Neutrality in a Subalpine Temperature Forest,” Ecosphere, June 2017 
“Global Forest Networks Cracks the Case of Tropical Biodiversity,” theSource, June 2017
Yosemite Forest Dynamics Plot 
Wind River Forest Dynamic Plot 
Utah Forest Dynamic Plot 

Contact: Jim Lutz, 435-797-0478, james.lutz@usu.edu
Writer: Traci Hillyard, 435-797-2452, traci.hillyard@usu.edu


          The Black Forest and Climate Change   

As the climate change progresses, droughts are expected to become more and more common and more intense in Europe, as in many parts of the globe. However, many plants are not able to handle this kind of climate.

This includes the Norway spruce, which is Germany's most important commercial tree species and accounts for the majority of trees in the Black Forest. Valentia Vitali and Prof. Dr. Jürgen Bauhusfrom the Chair of Silviculture at the University of Freiburg are thus studying other types of needle-leaved conifers to find alternatives. Conifers play a far greater role in commercial forestry and climate protection than broad-leaved trees. In their article "Silver Fir and Douglas Fir Are More Tolerant to Extreme Droughts than Norway Spruce in South-Western Germany" published in the journal Global Change Biology, the scientists concluded that the native silver fir and the Douglas fir, which was imported from the Americas, are suitable tree replacements for the Norway spruce in the long run.


          I was up all night with a puking 3-year-old, managed to get 3...   


I was up all night with a puking 3-year-old, managed to get 3 hours of sleep before I had to take my biology final. My personal life is crazy as shit right now and I’m just tired–my mind is tired, my body is tired, and my heart is tired.

What are you doing, Maygen?

What are you doing with your life?

Taking selfies on the sofa, I suppose.


          Quality Control Product Specialist – 2 Years Contract   
. . . . Basic qualifications:. . - A university certificate with scientific orientation (Bio engineer, Biology, Biotechnology, Pharmacology,…) or equivalent experience. - Practical and theoretical knowledge in the domain of laboratory activity...
          Biology: Visiting Faculty Position (Focus in Ecology) - University of Richmond - Richmond, VA   
The University of Richmond is a private, highly selective, predominantly liberal arts institution. The Department of Biology at the University of Richmond seeks...
From University of Richmond - Mon, 26 Jun 2017 14:34:40 GMT - View all Richmond, VA jobs
           Mathematical modelling of fibre-enhanced perfusion inside a tissue-engineering bioreactor    
Whittaker, Robert J and Booth, Richard and Dyson, Rosemary and Bailey, Clare and Chini, Louise Parsons and Naire, Shailesh and Payvandi, Sevil and Rong, Zimei and Woollard, Hannah and Cummings, Linda J and Waters, Sarah L and Mawasse, Lina and Chaudhuri, Julian B and Ellis, Marianne J and Michael, Vipin and Kuiper, Nicola J and Cartmell, Sarah (2009) Mathematical modelling of fibre-enhanced perfusion inside a tissue-engineering bioreactor. Journal of Theoretical Biology .
             
Jon Bon Jovi once said "map out your future - but do it in pencil."

So, do dreams change? Is the fact I wanted to be a Palaeontologist or Doctor when I was nine and then fainted in our first biology dissection experiment a bad thing?

Does the fact that some people change career paths multiple times in their lives mean they're not successful? What makes someone have so much passion and desire to achieve?

What is success?

I think success is being happy, making other people happy, and living by a set of values and beliefs that you are true to and considerate of others. I think dreams are important to have, but even more important is the ability to clearly think about what you want to do, then having the drive and ambition to achieve it. Of course, the above simplifies things as success is one of those intangible ideals which is different for each individual.

I guess that if someone thinks they themselves ARE successful, then they most certainly are. After all, what they think is all that matters. Perhaps that's what Descartes meant by "I think therefore I am" (although my Philosophy lecturers would shudder to read that).

One of my blind students in Vietnam (Bao, pictured below) once told a radio interviewer that he wanted to be a jet fighter pilot when he grew up. The radio interviewer wasn't sure whether he was joking or not. I told him that it was definitely something to aspire to. Who knows what medical breakthroughs for sight and what technological advances might happen in this boy's lifetime?

If a blind person can drive on the Daytona race track, then anything is possible.



"Success is falling nine times and getting up ten."
Yet another pearler from Jon Bon Jovi
(who would have thought this 80s rock legend would be so sage???!!!??)
          Consider the Rats: On the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the City’s Most Reviled Rodent   
Where do they come from, and how do they get around? Fordham biologists produce the world’s first in-depth genetic study of brown rats, and investigate the mysterious, wily ways of New York’s biggest scourge. New Yorkers love to hate their rats, shuddering whenever a pointy nose or a scaly tail peeks from behind a trash [...]
          leahlefler on HubPages   
+Leah Lefler lives in Western New York, but was born in the warm and wonderful Newport Beach, California. Graduating from the University of California, Irvine in 1999 with a biology degree, she obtained a position as a manufacturing chemist with a biotechnology company in Ventura,...
          ASCIT and GSC Honor Excellence in Teaching   
The annual awards celebrate outstanding professors and TAs
Rob Phillips giving a Bi 1 lecture.
Rob Phillips giving a Bi 1 lecture.
Credit: Caltech

The Associated Students of Caltech (ASCIT) and Caltech's Graduate Student Council (GSC) on June 14 announced the honorees of their annual teaching awards, celebrating professors, TAs, and mentors for outstanding teaching in the 2016–17 academic year.

Based on voting by undergraduates, the ASCIT Teaching Awards honored professors Paul Asimow (MS '93, PhD '97), the Eleanor and John R. McMillan Professor of Geology and Geochemistry; Rob Phillips, the Fred and Nancy Morris Professor of Biophysics and Biology; Adam Wierman, professor of computing and mathematical sciences; and Evan Kirby, assistant professor of astronomy. The TAs honored were Chinmay Nirkhe (BS '17) and graduate students Dylan Freas (CCE), Eugene Tang (PMA), and Todd Norton (PMA).

The GSC's Teaching and Mentoring Awards, which honor those who have "made an extraordinary impact on graduate students," went to a professor, a TA, and a mentor; two honorable mentions were named as well.

Xie Chen, assistant professor of theoretical physics, won the teaching award; Michael Wong (MS '14), a graduate student in GPS, won the TA award; and Beverley McKeon, the Theodore von Karman Professor of Aeronautics, won the mentoring award. The two honorable mentions went to Heather Knutson, professor of planetary science; and Laura Flower Kim, associate director of International Student Programs.


          Analytical Laboratory Technologist - Burnaby Laboratory - Burnaby, BC   
Science field (i.e Biochemistry, biology, immunology)) or suitable college-level qualifications. Must have exceptional pipetting skills and previous experience...
From Indeed - Mon, 03 Apr 2017 18:07:43 GMT - View all Burnaby, BC jobs
          Amgen looking for Senior Scientist in Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism   

Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.

Post: Senior Scientist – Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism



          CBMR invites application for Junior Research Fellow   

The Centre of Biomedical Research (CBMR) at Lucknow established with aims to promote and strengthen multidisciplinary areas of research and to create opportunity for extraordinary talented scientists to research at the interface between Chemical, Biological, Medical Sciences and NMR Spectroscopy. The centre focuses research in interfacing small molecule synthesis with Biology for developing future medicines and therapies. The government has generously invested in CBMR to create state-of-the-art facilities in molecular synthesis for Drug development and Discovery, Chemical Biology, Cell Biology, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and NMR Spectroscopy.

Centre of Bio-Medical Research (CBMR), Lucknow invites application for a Junior Research Fellow from motivated candidates with Organic Chemistry background for a DST-SERB sponsored project



          Applications Invited at IIAR for the Post of Project Assistant   

Located on the banks of River Sabarmati, Gujarat, Land of Mahatma Gandhi, Institute of Advanced Research is a University established under the "Gujarat Private Universities Amendment Act 2011" with an aim to create Excellence in Research and Education.  The University has been set up by "The Puri Foundation for Education in India" a Registered Charitable Trust.

WALK – IN INTERVIEW FOR THE POSITION OF PROJECT ASSISTANT IN DBT SPONCERED PROJECT AT CELL BIOLOGY , IIAR, GANDHINAGAR, GUJARAT



          Canadian Naturalist - Lindblad Expeditions - Pond Inlet, NU   
10014 (Head Office)*. Bachelor’s degree in natural sciences – i.e. marine biology, wildlife biology, the environment, ornithology, or related disciplines or 3...
From Indeed - Tue, 02 May 2017 00:31:51 GMT - View all Pond Inlet, NU jobs
          The broiler chicken intestine – an apt target for proteomic studies   
With chickens soon to become the most widely consumed meat in the world, efficiency in growth and feed utilization are essential to the industry. The chickens' intestines play a crucial role in this and their health and well being, making the intestine a prominent area of poultry research. Here to discuss this field is Emily O’Reilly, author of a research paper recently published in Proteome Science.
          Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 helps to treat diabetic wounds   
Members of the Faculty of Biology and A.N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, a unit of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, have tested on a mouse model a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, helping to treat diabetic wounds.
          How To Enhance Breast Size Naturally With Foods   

http://pebible.d0wnload.link/25jPP4L How To Enhance Breast Size Naturally With Foods tags: Cock Ring And Penis Pump Do Testosterone Boosters Make Your Penis Bigger What Is Turgidity In Biology Ways To Make Ur Penis Bigger How To Make My Dick Biger Penis Pump Before After Pics Where Can I Buy Man1 Man Oil Average Erect Penile Length By Race Food Good For The Pennis How To Grow Male Penus Biggest Panis In The World Smallest Penis In The World Big Panic In The World Photos Whats The Average Size For A Pennis Remove Hair On Penile Shaft How To Make Your Penis Bigger During Puberty Natural Male Enhancement Free Trial Which Food Is Good For Pennis Enlargement How To Make My Cock Bigger Penile Extension Surgery Before And After
          Circulating tissue kallikrein levels correlate with severity of carotid atherosclerosis   
Porcu, Paolo and Emanueli, Costanza and Desortes, Elisa and Marongiu, Giovanni M. and Piredda, Franco and Chao, Lee and Chao, Julie and Madeddu, Paolo Roberto (2004) Circulating tissue kallikrein levels correlate with severity of carotid atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, Vol. 24 (6), p. 1104-1110. eISSN 1524-4636. Article.
          Professor/Associate/Assistant Professor of Bio-medical Sciences at The American University of Nigeria (AUN)   
The American University of Nigeria (AUN) was established in 2003. The institution was conceived as Africa&#39;s first Development University. Its mission is to pioneer service learning and build leaders who will be prepared to tackle societal concerns. Located in Yola, Adamawa State, the University is a world-class career-oriented institution missioned to be an agent of change in the development of the region. AUN has a strong commitment to providing the skills and the leadership essential to solving the continent&#39;s critical social and economic problems.This position is a local one open to indigenous and/or legal residents of Nigeria and expatriate. We are seeking for a suitable and qualified candidate to fill the vacant position below:Job Title: Professor/Associate/Assistant Professor of Bio-medical SciencesLocation:&nbsp;Yola, AdamawaStarting Date: Starting date for the position is August 2017.&nbsp;Department: School of Arts and SciencesSummary of PositionAUN is seeking a motivated Assistant/Associate/full Professor of Biomedical Sciences in the Department of Natural and Environmental Sciences.The successful candidate will be responsible for teaching, research and community service as may be requested by the Dean.The candidate will contribute to preparing students to be applied and practical, critical thinkers and problem solvers through innovative teaching and research.S/he will work closely with the Chair of the Natural and Environmental Sciences Program and the Dean of the school of Arts &amp; Science to deliver effective teaching and learning in line with the program philosophy and the development philosophy of the American University of Nigeria. Asides the teaching responsibilities, the successful candidate is also expected to mentor students and to contribute to the department&rsquo;s administration and scholarly work by carrying out and disseminating high quality research.The post holder will be required to instruct biomedical science courses, both introductory and advanced levels, including advanced courses related to his or her area of expertise. The successful candidate will have a PhD in Molecular Biology or a related discipline and an established, or potential to establish, record of excellence in teaching, research, and service.Candidates should possess a strong record of academic publications in reputable peer-reviewed journals, commensurate with career stage. International experience is preferred.Strong written and verbal communication, and, interpersonal skills are required. The right candidate must also have a strong command of English.&nbsp;

Apply at https://ngcareers.com/job/2017-06/professor-associate-assistant-professor-of-bio-medical-sciences-at-the-american-university-of-nigeria-aun-767/


          Descubren cómo se fijan los recuerdos en el cerebro   
Un nuevo estudio ha descubierto cómo se fijan los recuerdos en el cerebro y que existen diferentes formas de memoria en el seno de una misma neurona. También que cada recuerdo está asociado a moléculas diferentes sobre las cuales se puede intervenir para borrar memorias traumáticas específicas.
Descubren cómo se fijan los recuerdos en el cerebro
Una nueva investigación ha determinado que existen diversos mecanismos neuronales para la fijación de recuerdos en el cerebro, lo que permitirá tratamientos para la eliminación selectiva de recuerdos patológicos.

En un artículo publicado en Current Biology, los investigadores explican que diferentes formas de memoria cohabitan en el seno de una misma neurona y que cada una puede ser manipulada por separado.

También señalan nuevos descubrimientos sobre cómo se produce la fabricación de recuerdos y la eliminación selectiva de algunos de ellos, lo que permitirá diseñar tratamientos para tratar algunas enfermedades mentales como la ansiedad.

...

Tendencias 21 (Madrid). ISSN 2174-6850

          Lecturer/Assistant Professor - Nine - University of Prince Edward Island - Charlottetown, PE   
Our undergraduate students may graduate with a BSc or Honours- General biology degree, a specialization (Life Sciences, Environmental Biology) or an articulated...
From University of Prince Edward Island - Mon, 15 May 2017 22:25:51 GMT - View all Charlottetown, PE jobs
          From Science: “Cancer studies pass reproducibility test”   
Science Magazine Jun. 27, 2017 Jocelyn Kaiser Though researchers have had general success reproducing cancer results, studies involving mice have proven difficult to replicate. Adva/Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0) A high-profile project aiming to test reproducibility in cancer biology has released a second batch of results, and this time the news is good: Most of the […]
          "NEBET-HET GISH": An X-FILES X-EGESIS   

"...The necessity of the story, the myth or the legend in a culture is almost universal. We think of myths as things that entertain or instruct, but their deeper purpose is often to explain, or make fanciful, wishes, desires or behavior that society would otherwise deem unacceptable. Myths often disguise thoughts that are simply too terrible to think about, but because they are conveyed in a wrapping of untruth - the story - these thoughts become harmless fiction." - Chris Carter, "Irresistible"


Here's the piece that started it all. The Secret Sun, Our Gods Wear Spandex, The Complete X-Files - none of it would exist without this X-Egesis, which I did in 2004.  I'd recommend that neophytes refer to the X-Files and Alien Dreaming posts on The Secret Sun to go deeper into what I think this is all about, the Mystery religions, entheogens and human intelligence, dimensions of experience beyond the physical and so on and so forth.


Bear in mind that The X-Files made repeated references to ancient myths throughout its run, namedropping Zeus, Odin, Pandora, Janus, Demeter, Orpheus and other figures, as well as drawing heavily on the symbolism and sacred use of entheogens, the hallucinogenic plants that are at the core of the ancient Mystery religions (see "Excelsis Dei," "Field Trip, "Via Negativa" and many, many others).

Also bear in mind that the recent X-Files revival explicitly featured the quintessential drama of the ancient Mystery cults, the "descent to the Underworld," in conjunction with magic mushroom use, which most scholars today see as the driving force behind the cults of Isis, Demeter, Mithras and other major gods and goddesses.

The source material we'll be exploring seems to be primarily drawn from Plutarch's On Isis and Osiris, so we're dealing with a Roman-era interpretation of Egyptian symbolism, as filtered through the Mystery religions.

And considering this is a writer who recently planned on writing a series based on Dante's Inferno, using each canto as the basis for each episode, I think we can make a fair assumption....





In its seventh season, The X-Files transformed from a show about a conspiracy (ending with "One Son") to a show about a very specific mythology. The writers and producers of The X-Files ingeniously recast the show, starting with "Biogenesis" to retell one of the most ancient and influential myths in history- one that also informs films like The Lion King, the Matrix films, the Star Wars series, and many would convincingly argue, the New Testament of the Bible. In "Biogenesis", Fox Mulder reaches his apotheosis and becomes an alien or a "god." And from the seventh season of the show into the ninth, the mystery play unfolded

GODHOOD
The central myth of Ancient Egypt, particularly the later kingdoms and in the Ptolemaic Age was that of Osiris and Isis. Here is the short version- Osiris ("Strength of the Eye") and Isis ("Throne") were brother and sister and husband and wife. Osiris was the ruler of Egypt and Isis was his queen. Isis' sister was Nephthys ("Mistress of the House"), who married to yet another sibling, the evil Set ("Pillar"). The dominions these gods ruled over changed over the years, and indeed, changed after the telling of this story.


THE SEDUCTION
In her quest to bear a child (either Set was sterile or Nephthys was infertile, depending on the version of the myth), Nephthys, disguised herself as Isis and seduced a drunken Osiris. Their union bore a son, Anubis ("Young Dog"), the dog-headed god of the dead and embalming.


THE FIRST ABDUCTION AND MURDER
Set learned of this and hatched a plan to kill Osiris and take his throne. He built a magnificent coffin fit just for Osiris and with the aid of a multitude of conspirators (72 in the story), offered the coffin to anyone whom it fit. Osiris was tricked, entered the coffin, where it was sealed and cast into the Nile. Alone, Isis searched the known world for the coffin and she finally found it lodged in a tamarisk tree somewhere in modern day Lebanon.


THE SECOND ABDUCTION/MURDER
Isis freed Osiris from the coffin and had him brought to life by Thoth ("Balance," god of wisdom and the gods' scribe), but Set found out and had Osiris hacked to pieces. He scattered the body parts.


THE SEARCH
Isis, aided by Anubis, the dog-headed god and Nephthys (who had left Set because of his cruelty) searched the world for Osiris' dismembered body. All the pieces were found except his penis, which was eaten by a crab. Thoth and Anubis restored his body and Osiris was magically revived by Isis.


THE MAGICAL INSEMINATION
Isis then fashioned a penis out of either earth or wood (depending on the story), descended over him in the form of a kite and impregnated herself. Osiris then descended in the Underworld, where he became Lord of the Dead, a title formerly held by Anubis. The fruit of Osiris and Isis' magical union was Horus, ("the Avenger")
Horus was a magical child raised by Isis and Nephthys in the wilderness, and in some stories also by a grandmotherly version of Hathor (Hathor was an incarnation of the goddess, most often intertwined with Isis, but married to Horus. Her name comes from the Egyptian Het-Hert, "House of Horus." It is believed by many scholars that Hathor was a precursor of Isis and was recast to be Horus' wife as Asian influences changed the Egyptian religion. The Holy Trinity- Osiris - Lord of the Dead, Isis- Heavenly Mother and Horus- Pharaoh of Pharaohs is believed to have been imported into Egypt by Asiatic invaders from Mesopotamia.)

HORUS ENDANGERED AS A INFANT
Horus faced many dangers as an infant, as a wrathful Set sent scorpions and other beasts to kill him. The magic of Thoth and Isis revived the child. Horus later grew up to challenge and defeat the evil Set, whose rule had brought Egypt to ruin. After a long series of 'contendings', Horus defeats Seth, restores the throne of Osiris and banishes Set to the Libyan desert.






OK, there's the original story. An obsessive X-Phile would probably hear bells and whistles going off while that tale was told. For the retelling of this ancient story, let me first introduce our cast...
Fox Mulder will be playing the part of Osiris
Dana Scully
will be playing the part of Isis
CGB Spender, Alien Bounty Hunter, Jeffrey Spender and Alex Krycek,
and DD Kersh will all be playing the part of Set
John Doggett
will be playing the part of Anubis
Diana Fowley
and most importantly, Monica Reyes will be playing the part of Nephthys
Walter Skinner
will be playing the part of Thoth
and appearing for the first time as Horus is William Scully-Mulder


The chronology and some of the details will be shuffled a bit, but let's walk through the Osiris story and it's retelling in The X-Files . Germane details will be added.


GODHOOD
By exposure to the divine ship in "The Sixth Extinction", Mulder becomes fully alien and Scully's fertility is restored and her possible immortality (prophesied in "Clyde Bruckman's Final Repose") is granted. In this story arc, they become Osiris and Isis. Mulder is of otherworldly biology, and in the context of the show's eschatology, he is a god.
DR. BARNES: You're wrong. There is no God. What's out there on the water... is only what we call "God"... What we call "creation"-- the spark that ignited the fire that cooked the old primordial soup... made animate from inanimate... made us.
AMINA NGEBE: I believe he is mad from the sun.
DR. BARNES: Mad? I'm perfectly sane... because today I understand everything, beginning and end, alpha and omega, everything in between. It's all been written. But the word is "extraterrestrial."
SCULLY: You're sick, Dr. Barnes. You need to get off your feet, lie down.
DR. BARNES: You think you're going to take the credit? This is my discovery.
SCULLY: I'm only here to help my friend.
DR. BARNES: You can't help him. You're wasting your time reading it.
SCULLY: It has power.
DR. BARNES: It IS power... the ultimate power. Your friend just got too close.
Shape of craft suggests a "winged disk", also triangle or pyramid shape



THE SEDUCTION
Again in "The Sixth Extinction'', Osiris' tryst with Nephthys is foreshadowed as Mulder is in bed and is being nursed by Diana Fowley. Almost extraneously in the context of the exoteric narrative, Fowley is pictured about to seduce Mulder sexually while he, like Osiris, is not at his full capacity.


Diana Fowley's identity as Nephthys is again cleverly depicted. Just as Nephthys seduces Osiris while he was drunk, Diana goes to seduce Mulder as he is intoxicated by the alien radiation. 


Nephthys' name ("mistress of the house") is depicted as Diana stands in front of a print of a townhouse while talking to CGB Spender-Set and then undressing. Her status as a "mistress", that is adultress, is illustrated by the presence of Scully-Isis in the scene.


THE FIRST ABDUCTION AND 'MURDER'

Just as Set sought to usurp Osiris' power, so does CGB seek
after Mulder's "godhood"- his alien physiology

In a first cycle of the story, Mulder is abducted following his tryst with Diana-Nephthys by Cancerman-Set (symbolized by his father/brother CGB- the brother connection made through Jeffrey Spender-Chris Owens played both) and "dies"-the Christ imagery drawing a clear parallel to the similarities in the Christ/Osiris myths.


In the "Sixth Extinction: Amor Fati'', Diana-Nephthys helps Scully-Isis find him and "revive" him, though she discovers Mulder-Osiris on her own as in the ancient myth.


ABOVE: Scully enters, a solar eclipse behind her, another foreshadowing of the coming Horus. Mulder is bound and imprisoned and Scully frees him.



As a revived Mulder-Osiris embraces Scully-Isis, the final sequence of the Sixth Extinction story prophesies William/ Horus, unmistakably signified by the commonly (yet ahistorically) known Eye of Horus pyramid.
William/Horus proclaims his identity by emerging from the Sun and wearing it as his crown, as Horus did.


THE MAGICAL INSEMINATION

Shuffling the order a bit: In "all things", Scully is inseminated by a post-apotheosis/CGB-abduction Mulder in the opening "teaser". Isis' insemination by Osiris using the artificial penis is neatly mirrored in the visual metaphor of Mulder's faucet. Scully's insemination by Mulder (pictured sleeping or "dead") is signaled by the faucet.



In Scully's vision in the Buddhist temple, an image of Mulder morphs into Scully's dying former lover. The clear implication is that Scully's relationship with this man was a torrid sexual affair, and the opening and closing scenes of Mulder and Scully's intimacy in this episode act to further the sexual innuendo and therefore the connection to the Isis/Osiris mythos.

Scully's lover's death (and revival by Scully-Isis) is another reminder of the death of Osiris and he is linked visually to the dead and resurrected Mulder in a scene in a temple.


THE SECOND ABDUCTION/MURDER


Details from Osiris' first abduction/murder are alluded to in this second story, but the story retains the same curvature of meaning.


The action takes place in the episode Requiem.

During a case returning Scully and Mulder to the site of their first case together, Mulder is lured into the alien ship by the assembled multitude of abductees, and is soon confronted by Set, here in the form of the Alien Bounty Hunter.

The '72 Conspirators' of the myth is coincidentally alluded to by the episode number- 7.22. Even the title of the episode "Requiem" ("to search again" in the original Latin) fits the narrative perfectly. Notice the "pillar" of light, referring to Set.

"Having first assured himself of 72 accomplices, he invited his brother to a banquet. A marvelously fashioned coffer was brought in. This chest, would belong to whomsoever it fitted exactly. Osiris lay down in the coffer and the conspirators closed the lid and nailed it firmly down. They threw it into the Nile, whence it was carried to the sea and across to Byblos, south of nowadays Lebanon. "

SCULLY: There was something out there in that field. It knocked me back. Because it didn't want me. Mulder thinks that it's me that's in danger of being taken.
FROHIKE: When it's Mulder who's in danger. ----
"Requiem"


The scenario of the crashed ship "fits" Mulder's quest exactly.

• Mulder is further enticed by the assembled abductees but the trap is sprung and the Set character appears.
• Instead of being carried into the Nile, he is carried into it's celestial counterpart, the Milky Way of a rural night sky.
• In what is possibly a homage/clue, the idea of Set laying an invisible perimeter in the forest was used in Doctor Who and the Pyramids on Mars in 1975.


Again, this more serious abduction/murder scenario borrows from both the first and the second scenario of the Osiris story.


• Just as Set constructs a coffin especially for Osiris, the ship constructs a force-field that repels everyone else but Mulder.
• Just as Osiris imprisoned in his casket is washed into the sea in the first murder, Mulder imprisoned in the alien ship is flown out into space.
• Just as Osiris was cut into pieces by Set in the second murder, so is Mulder cut and mutilated by the alien stand-ins for Set.


THE SECOND SEARCH

Isis and Anubis, meet Scully and Doggett
"This time she had helpers, for Nephthys left her wicked husband Set and came to join her sister. And Anubis, the son of Osiris and Nephthys, taking the form of a jackal, assisted in the search. "
This time, Scully doesn't search for Mulder alone. In the episode "Within", the entire FBI is also searching for him, but their search reminds one more of Set's 72 accomplices. Scully/Isis already has her Thoth in Walter Skinner. Skinner is the administrator that handles the X Files, signifying his role as Thoth, scribe of the gods. (Note pens)


In "Within", following the second murder and the search for the mutilated Mulder-Osiris, she gets an Anubis. At their first meeting, Scully splashes a cup of water given to her by Doggett in his face.



Isis-Scully splashing water into Anubis-Doggett's face is a reference to two apocryphal legends of Anubis. First is that the god was Anubis was baptized as a Christian and became identified with St. Christopher by Coptic (Egyptian) Christians.


Second is that Anubis himself was a baptizer and baptized Horus. This "baptism" also brings to mind the similarity between the name of Isis and Jesus' Greek name "Iesous", a fact that caused early Christians considerable grief.


Replacing CGB Spender and the Alien Bounty Hunter is Deputy Director Alvin Kersh, who does all he can to hamper Mulder-Osiris' recovery. Kersh's identity as the new Set ("pillar") is clearly depicted in the small pillars placed behind his desk. The alien bounty hunter also makes an appearance as Set, impersonating Mulder-Osiris at the episode's conclusion.

And in the opening credits, Mulder's identity as Osiris ("Strength of the Eye") is visually indicated as he falls into the X Files eye. That's Gillian Anderson's eye, by the way.

THE SECOND DEATH

In "This is Not Happening", one of the most crucial episodes in the new mythology, the agents/gods search for UFO sightings across a number of places in the country, symbolizing the search for the scattered body parts of Osiris.


A new Nephthys is introduced- Monica Reyes/Nephthys' identity as Set's wife is signaled by her pack of Morley's in "This is Not Happening." This symbolically 'weds' her to the first incarnation of Set- CGB Spender, the Cigarette Smoking Man.


An incredibly fortuitous bit of cryptographic synchronicity emerged in casting Annabeth Gish as Monica Reyes.

Nephthys' Egyptian name was 'Nebet Het'. There is an immediate homonymic similarity between Annabeth and Nebet-Het (names have been made of far, far, far less), but it goes deeper. 'Annabeth' is encoded into 'Nebet Het'.


Nebet Het- N-e-bet- Het
N- E- BETH- et = 'Ehn'- 'Eh'- BETH = Annabeth



Was this coincidence or did this land Gish the gig? Mysteries abound.


At the conclusion of "This is Not Happening," Mulder-Osiris' body is found at the compound of the good alien cultists, and Jesus again makes a cameo in the form of faith-healing alien, Jeremiah Smith. Smith is taken by the evil aliens, echoing Jesus's ascension into heaven, and also the death of a character in the Isian drama. Here is the historic parallel:
"Set and his companions took the chest which held the body of Osiris and cast it into the Nile; and Hapi the Nile-god carried it out into the Great Green Sea where it was tossed for many days until it came to the shore of Phoenicia near the city of Byblos. Here the waves cast it into a tamarisk tree that grew on the shore; and the tree shot out branches and grew leaves and flowers to make a fit resting place for the body of the good god Osiris and very soon that tree became famous throughout the land."


LEFT: Scully (as Isis), Doggett (as Anubis) and Reyes (as Nephthys) search for Mulder, whose body is finally found underneath a tree in a far-off land. Again, the details are juggled from the first story, but the essential story is the same.


RIGHT: Realizing that Mulder is dead and Smith has ascended, Scully-Isis let's loose a blood-curdling scream, "THIS IS NOT HAPPENING!!! NOOOOOO!"
Again, back to the myth-"When the chest which had become the coffin of Osiris was given to her, Isis flung herself down on it with so terrible a cry of sorrow that little Dictys* died at the very sound." Plutarch - Isis and Osiris

* Dictys--Fisherman or shepherd of Seriphos. Dictys gave shelter to Perseus and his mother Danae when the tide washed them up on his island. 'Fisherman' and 'Shepherd' are both terms for Christ, symbolizing that the Christ-like Jeremiah Smith, who was taken by the aliens at the time of Mulder's death (presumably to be killed himself), plays the part of Dictys from Plutarch's story.
ABOVE: Just as Nephthys, Anubis and Isis find the body of Osiris, so do Monica, Doggett and Scully find Mulder's body

RESURRECTION
"Yet Isis would not despair. She implored the help of her sister Nephthys, kind Nephthys, to guide her and help her find the pieces of Osiris. Long did they search, bringing each piece to Thoth that he might work magic upon it. When all the pieces were together, Thoth went to Anubis, lord of the dead. Anubis sewed the pieces back together, washed the entrails of Osiris, embalmed him wrapped him in linen, and cast the Ritual of Life. When Osiris' mouth was opened, his spirit reentered him and he lived again."- The Legend of Osiris
In "DeadAlive", Billy Miles is found to be alive when his mouth moves, paralleling the ritual of the opening of the mouth. On this information, Skinner (Thoth) recruits Doggett (Anubis) to have Mulder exhumed.

DOGGETT: I'll say it again. We're opening up more than a grave here.
SKINNER: I respect that, Agent Doggett, but under the circumstances I think not digging it up would be far more regrettable, don't you?
DOGGETT: No. I think this is insanity.
SKINNER: Yeah, well, personally, I couldn't live with the doubt.
DOGGETT: That what? That we buried a man alive? We found Mulder, you and me together. We saw the same body. Mulder wasn't just dead, he'd been dead for days. Had to have a closed casket. For crying out loud, the body was too far gone and that was three months ago.

SCULLY-ISIS IMPLORES SKINNER-THOTH FOR MAGICAL RESSURECTION POWERS
"She then went to Thoth, wise Thoth, who knows all secrets, and implored his help. She asked him for magic that could bring Osiris back to life. Thoth, lord of knowledge, who brought himself into being by speaking his name, searched through his magic. He knew that Osiris' spirit had departed his body and was lost. To restore Osiris, Thoth had to remake him so that his spirit would recognize him and rejoin. Thoth and Isis together created the Ritual of Life, that which allows us to live forever when we die."

from "DeadAlive":
SKINNER: What are the chances this could be due to an alien influence? Could it be a virus?
SCULLY: Why are you asking me this? Sir, if you know something... look, we-we're working against the clock here. This, this could happen to Mulder. And until we know what it is we have to do everything to control it.
SKINNER: There may be a vaccine.
SCULLY: Where?
SKINNER: It doesn't come without a price.
SCULLY: This is about saving a man's life.

Skinner was referring to an alien antidote offered by Set-Krycek, who demands that William-Horus be aborted in exchange for his help.


As Mulder lay in a death-like state, Skinner-Thoth and Doggett-Anubis fumble with the details, but ultimately set the stage for Mulder's resurrection by failing to administer Krycek/Set's antidote.



In the end, just as in the myth, Mulder is resurrected by Isis-Scully's magic. She has already impregnated herself with Mulder-Osiris child after the first abduction, again reversing the chronology.


BIRTH OF HORUS/WILLIAM
"Isis managed to escape and was forced to hide in the swamp of the Delta, for she was carrying a child, Horus, destined to grow up and defeat Set; thus avenging his father's death. As an infant, Horus was watched over by various gods and marsh-nymphs in a place in the swamp called Chemmis. Among these was Nephthys, the sister and wife of Set-as she had left her husband due to his cruelty."

http://www.touregypt.net/DeltaCy.htm


William/Horus is born in the episode "Existence" in circumstances echoing the Egyptian myth.
LEFT/MIDDLE: Just as Isis and Nephthys flee to the marsh so Horus may be born, so do Scully and Nephthys flee to the ghost town so William may be born. It is John Doggett's birthplace, linking to Nephthys' own maternity and signifying Anubis' role as Isis' protector.
RIGHT: In some versions of the myth, Horus' birth is attended by a host of other gods. In "Existence", William's birth is attended by the alien replicants.


Again conflating the Osirian myth with the Jesus stories, The Lone Gunmen appear as the Magi, bringing gifts to the world's savior. Horus was also known as the savior in Egyptian religion.
"Yet nothing that has died, not even a god, may dwell in the land of the living. Osiris went to Duat, the abode of the dead. Anubis yielded the throne to him and he became the lord of the dead. There he stands in judgment over the souls of the dead. He commends the just to the Blessed Land, but the wicked he condemns to be devoured by Ammit."

So here Osiris leaves the world of the living. Soon after Horus-William's birth, Mulder goes "underground", paralleling Osiris' descent into the Underworld. The last we see of him in this cycle, it's as a silhouette in a shower. This harkens back to the fact that Osiris was identified with moving water.


As if the creators wanted there to be absolutely zero doubt as to William's identity as Horus, the preceeding image was followed by this one, in the episode "Nothing Important Happened Today."

In ancient Egyptian symbolism, the obelisk and the reflecting pool were symbols of Osiris impregnating Isis. The rising sun on the horizon is a symbol of Horus, "horizon" taking it's root word from Horus.



In the same episode, William is seen turning the star mobile over his crib, a symbolic reference to Horus being "Lord of the Sky."


HORUS ENDANGERED AS AN INFANT
In fear of Set, Isis raised Horus in seclusion. The boy was bitten by beasts, stung by a scorpion, and suffered intense pains throughout his childhood, and only his mother's witchcraft managed to save him.- Cliff Notes on Mythtology

"Isis took refuge in the swamps and there gave birth to Horus. But she had no means to support herself and the child, and was therefore forced to go out begging. One day, when she had been out all day, leaving the baby Horus hidden in the reeds. Set, who was unable to enter the marshes in his real form, had taken the form of a poisonous snake and had crept up on Horus and bitten him. She came back to find him writhing about and half dead. Isis was in despair, seemingly alone in the world: her father, her mother and her elder brother (Osiris) were dead."-Plutarch
In "Provenance", Set appears in a new guise. The "beasts" he sends to kill William/Horus are represented in this episode by rogue FBI agent Robert Comer, who tries to kill the infant to prevent him from reaching his inheritance as the alien Messsiah king, just as Set tries to prevent Horus from ascending to his father's throne.

In the story, Scully is out rking with Reyes and Doggett trying to decipher documents concerning a new "Eye of Horus" spaceship found in Canada, and William is attacked by Comer. The parallel is clear, deprived of her "queenship" (signified by Mulder's absence)



William's identity as Horus the Sun is indicated here when Scully screams at her assassin that William is "her son," a fact obviously not in dispute.

However, this strange outburst is merely a set up for our next look at Comer's face, on the front page of the SUN. This is a way of using audio-visual juxtaposition to show that William is her "sun" as well as her "son."Notice how bundle of paper's above the Sun have the ON, seperated from OPIONI.

ON is yet another epithet for Okanagan, BC jobs
          Prescriptive Ought Part 2: The Revenge!   


Maverick Christian (hereby MC) took the time to respond tomy post on his conception of a “prescriptive ought” and I’ve just had too much going on in the real world to craft a proper reply till now.   

In the interim he’s also been busy on a few Facebook threads on the Real Atheology page giving some additional descriptions on how he grounds his prescriptive ought, which I’ll be responding to here as well. 


So at first there seems to be some confusion on what MC has meant regarding his prescriptive ought, since I had taken him to mean that the “prescriptive ought” couldn’t have a descriptive component to it.  This was the basis of my rejecting the concept of a prescriptive ought in my previous post, and why I thought even well-established theistic apologists would reject MC’s description.
As it turns out, MC says in his reply that:

“Prescriptive oughts cannot be purely descriptive but they can have at least some descriptive characteristics, such as being ontologically grounded in God's divine commands or providing reasons for action.”

So ultimately the prescriptive ought MC describes is grounded in descriptive facts – on various Facebook threads he’s stated that god’s nature has the property of “ought to be obeyed”.   That’s a descriptive property of a non-moral fact – a fact about a supernatural being (assuming one existed).   
Given this conception, I don’t really have as much of a problem with the concept of a prescriptive ought as I thought I did when we had conducted our debate or my last post, since I thought it entailed rejecting any kind of descriptive component at all.

MC is still far off base when he says that atheism can’t ground this kind of ought however, and I still think that part of an actions moral qualities depend on ones desires to some degree – as I tried to tease out in the Bret vs. Chet thought experiment in my last post.

To show where MC goes off lets step back for a moment and consider what else MC means by “prescriptive ought”, he quotes philosopher Michael Jordan:

"Moral reasons are reasons for all human persons, regardless of what goals or desires they may have."

OK, this seems fair enough, I’d agree that there are some classes of “ought” that would apply regardless of goals or desires one has.   This is what would normally be called “normativity”.

One instance would be rational normativity:  The idea that we ought to believe the conclusion of a valid argument with true premises.   Or that we ought to believe rigorously proven mathematical truths.  Or that we ought to believe the conclusions of empirical science.  

All of this “ought to be done” regardless of whether we want it to be true or not, and regardless of what our goals are.

I don’t have a problem saying that morality falls under this kind of normativity.  We “ought not torture babies for fun” regardless of our other desires. 

So how can atheists provide a ontological grounding to this kind of moral ought?

Well in much the same way MC does with his eventual grounding.  MC says moral oughts are grounded in the nature of god, in that he has the property “ought to be obeyed”.

Well a moral naturalist could say that our “moral obligation to uphold the good and stop the bad” is grounded in the nature of living in a society of moral agents.   Moral agents by their nature are forced into a society, and it is the fact that they exist in that society which impinges on them to behave morally.  Note that this is NOT saying that moral values are relative to a society. 

Here “good” and “bad” would be moral values that are described ultimately by the brute facts of our nature, and the fact that we’re in a society would ground the obligation, not define what is good and bad.   I would define society as the total subset of moral agents that can causally interact with each other. 

This isn’t where the moral naturalists story has to end, and this is a fairly simplistic case – but it would provide the basis for an objective moral system to govern all moral agents in a universe without any supernatural beings.

Conversely, I could reject that idea and become a moral non-naturalist that thinks moral claims don’t reduce down to natural facts, but at the same time don’t have any ‘ontologically weighty implications’ either. 

Here the moral non-naturalist could still agree with the naturalist about what makes something “good” or “bad” – truths established by the brute facts of our biology.  So “being in pain for its own sake” is a “bad-maker”, etc.   What the non-naturalist would say is that this fact is not the same thing as “pain=bad” in an ontological sense.  

When it comes to moral duties, or what we ought to do, they can ground that in the nature of the moral facts combined with being recognized by an agent.  

Consider the following:

  1. All men are mortal.
  2. Socrates is a man.
  3. Therefore Socrates is moral.
Contrast with:
  1. Torturing people for fun is intrinsically bad.
  2. Babies are people.
  3. Torturing babies for fun is bad.
In the moral case, we’re not talking about what ought to be done yet, we’re only making statements about values themselves. 


The non-naturalist would then say that as we recognize the validity and truth of the non-moral syllogism and so then have an obligation to believe the conclusion, even if we really wished Socrates was immortal.


Similarly, by recognizing the moral fact of the matter regarding certain actions, we would then have an obligation to act morally when faced with that situation. 


In either case, both the non-naturalist and the naturalist have a grounding to get the kind of ought that applies regardless of our desires and applies equally to all people.  There’s nothing clear in these concepts that makes it the case that we MUST appeal to a god in order to ground this kind of oughtness.  


In fact MC never makes it clear exactly how appealing to his god’s nature as a ground provides any extra work here, that’s just his preferred stopping point. 


Note that this isn’t about moral semantics or moral enforcement, we’re talking about moral ontology.  MC would have quite a lot of work to do in order to show some kind of contradiction in the concepts here in order to rule out the naturalist and non-naturalist options.


This is why even Christian philosophers such as Richard Swinburne reject the moral argument and consider moral truths to be necessary truths, even if a god exists – that is moral truths don’t depend on god.   It’s also why Christian philosophers like Paul Moser also reject the moral argument, including MC’s formulation of it. 


Moral ontology, by the nature of the topic itself, allows for these kinds of options.  Atheism may be deficient when it comes to universal moral enforcement, but not ontology. 

          NAZI Political Biology: The Hotwiring of Power Politics, Naturalism, Environmentalism & Racism   
by Mark Musser, author of the book Nazi Oaks, who will be our guest at Gulag Night, 10pm-Midnight, ET, tonight Adolf Hitler once proclaimed, “we will not only create a Germany of power, but also a Germany of beauty.”  Much earlier, and spoken at a time when Germany had been financially suffering for many years […]
          Research Scientist/ Research Fellow/ Technical Assistant - CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University - Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu   
Sundaramanickam, Assistant professor, CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine sciences, Annamalai University Parangipettai-608502 Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu,India...
From Indeed - Tue, 02 May 2017 17:50:13 GMT - View all Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu jobs
             
Self-Assembling Batteries:  "Researchers at MIT have designed a rechargeable lithium-ion battery that assembles itself out of microscopic materials. This could lead to ultrasmall power sources for sensors and micromachines the size of the head of a pin. It could also make it possible to pack battery materials in unused space inside electronic devices."  Earlier related story:  Batteries That Assemble Themselves: "Biology may be the key to producing light-weight, inexpensive, and high-performance batteries that could transform military uniforms into power sources and, eventually, improve electric and hybrid vehicles. Angela Belcher, an MIT professor of biological engineering and materials science, and two colleagues, materials science professor Yet-Ming Chiang and chemical engineering professor Paula Hammond, have engineered viruses to assemble battery components that can store three times as much energy as traditional materials by packing highly ordered materials into a very small space."
          Auburn University scientists make breakthrough discovery on the evolution of the innate immune system   

The laboratory of Kenneth Halanych, the Schneller Endowed Chair in the Department of Biological Sciences at Auburn University, has made a discovery that could have widespread implications for how scientists study the function of the human immune system. Led by doctoral student Michael Tassia, the team’s research revealed that humans and their closest invertebrate relatives share core components of their innate immune systems, components that date back more than 500 million years.

“Humans belong to a group called ‘Deuterostomes’ that include vertebrate animals as well as invertebrate animals like sea stars, sea urchins, sea squirts and acorn worms,” said Tassia.

“All of these groups had gill slits, much like fish, early in their history,” added Halanych.

Tassia and the team in the Halanych lab studied genetic datasets of more than 40 different deuterostome species including human and invertebrate. The research showed evidence that humans and other deuterostomes share a common evolutionary history of their innate immune systems.

“Humans and other vertebrates possess two types of immune systems–innate and adaptive,” said Tassia. “The adaptive immune system is the one we are more familiar with. It contains components such as antibodies that allow for ‘immunological memory,’ which is why immunizations are an effective tool against diseases and pathogens. Whereas the adaptive immune system must ‘learn’ to recognize a pathogen, the innate immune system is prepared from the get-go. The innate immune system relies on a suite of molecules called ‘pattern-recognition receptors’ which, over long periods of evolution, have adapted to recognize common molecular patterns associated with bacteria, fungi and viruses. So, if bacteria like E. coli get into somewhere they shouldn’t, such as a really nasty paper cut, cells in your body sporting these pattern-recognition receptors are ready to mount a rapid immune response, causing inflammation, recruiting more immune cells and destroying those bacteria.”

Tassia explained that the adaptive immune system is exclusive to vertebrates. Components of the innate immune system, on the other hand, predate vertebrates and are present in groups as old as jellies, whose last common ancestor with vertebrates existed more than 500 million years ago. As a result, he began his work by comparing the most well-known pattern-recognition receptors, “Toll-like receptors,” or TLRs, from more than 40 different invertebrate and vertebrate species.

“In our research, we looked at the much bigger system, starting with the diversity of TLRs in each of our species and continuing further by examining whether or not all the other important components required for the system to work are present across deuterostomes,” said Tassia. “Our findings indicate that nearly all the components are present across all the major deuterostome groups, suggesting their innate immune system was present in the last common ancestor more than 500 million years ago and was expanded upon in vertebrates and other groups. Our study also used phylogenetic methods to evaluate the similarity of TLRs between major animal lineages. Interestingly, we were able to identify a group of TLRs very closely related to a mammalian TLR that is critical for recognizing viruses, suggesting this particular method for antiviral defense may be more evolutionarily ancient than previously expected and could predate the origin of vertebrates.”

The realization that the innate immune system of vertebrates and their close invertebrate relatives is similar opens the door to developing more controllable laboratory experiments to understand immune system evolution.

“Often the generation time and ability to keep invertebrates in the laboratory can make them logistically favorable for studying vertebrate systems,” said Halanych.

The research findings are the result of years of study, beginning with Halanych’s dissertation and long-standing interest in the evolution of hemichordates and echinoderms–marine invertebrates–and continuing with the work of doctoral students in the Halanych lab, as well as publically available information from the National Institutes of Health. Tassia gathered several terabytes of genetic data from the previous research efforts and spent approximately two years developing a bioinformatic, computational framework that allowed him to confidently identify and perform analysis on specific genes.

“This work is a great example of how bioinformatics tools can help answer important questions of organismal biology,” said Halanych. “The Tassia et al. paper has helped push the laboratory, and Auburn University, further into the forefront of marine invertebrate genomics.”

The research results were published in the prestigious scientific journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, or PNAS, in a paper titled, “Toll-like receptor pathway evolution in deuterostomes”.

PNAS is one of the top scientific journals and is run by the National Academy of Sciences, an association of the world’s top scientists across many disciplines. Intellectual and scientific standards for the journal are very high, signifying that work published in PNAS is likely to have a significant impact on the field of study.


           墨西哥鸟儿会叼烟头回巢 因尼古丁能驱虫(图)    
  中新网7月1日电 据外媒报道,生物学杂志《Journal of Avian Biology》发表的一篇文章说,一些鸟类学会了收集烟头和“装饰”它们的巢穴,以用尼古丁吓唬寄生虫。 资料图:朱雀。   几年来,墨西哥国立大学的学者康斯坦丁・加西亚(Constantino Garcia)和他的同事们对朱雀(....
          Research Associate - University of British Columbia - Okanagan, BC   
This research requires advanced knowledge of the soil nitrogen cycle, the biology of crown gall disease in grape, and of quantitative molecular techniques....
From University of British Columbia - Tue, 20 Jun 2017 12:51:32 GMT - View all Okanagan, BC jobs
          Development Associate - Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine (CCRM) - Canada   
In bioengineering, chemical engineering, bioprocess, biotechnology, cell biology, or a related field; As a Development Associate at CCRM, you will be part of a...
From Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine (CCRM) - Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:38:46 GMT - View all Canada jobs
          Director of Operations - Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine (CCRM) - Canada   
PhD or Master’s degree in science (bioengineering, chemical engineering, bioprocess, biotechnology, cell biology, microbiology, chemistry etc.)....
From Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine (CCRM) - Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:25:06 GMT - View all Canada jobs
          Master Grower - Horticulture - Fox D Consulting - Greater Toronto Area, ON   
Understanding of biotechnology, molecular biology and genomics preferred. NIAGARA ONTARIO, CHATHAM ONTARIO, MUSKOKA REGION, BRANT REGION, GTA.... $50,000 - $100,000 a year
From Indeed - Wed, 28 Jun 2017 12:14:28 GMT - View all Greater Toronto Area, ON jobs
          Development Associate - General Electric - Toronto, ON   
In bioengineering, chemical engineering, bioprocess, biotechnology, cell biology, or a related field; GE is an Equal Opportunity Employer ....
From GE Careers - Wed, 21 Jun 2017 13:37:42 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute: Postdoctoral Fellow - Experimental Malaria    
GBP31115 - GBP39004 per annum + excellent benefits: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute: The Sanger Institute Malaria Programme integrates genomic and experimental genetic approaches to tackle fundamental questions in malaria biology, and to identify new targets for drug and vaccine development. Cambridgeshire, England
          Исследования карельских ученых опубликованы в одном из самых авторитетных научных журналов мира   
Молодые ученые институтов биологии и прикладных математических исследований Карельского научного центра РАН обнаружили, что процесс роста некоторых сфагновых мхов подчиняется биологическому ритму с периодом около 30 суток и может быть связан с лунным циклом. Подобные биоритмы ранее не были известны среди мохообразных. О своем открытии ученые опубликовали статью в компетентном научном журнале Chronobiology International . Сфагнум, или Торфяной мох - род мхов, обычных обитателей верховых и переходных болот, в том числе, и в Карелии. Эти растения, активно поглощающие и удерживающие влагу - в 20 - 25 раз превышая массу самого мха, - способствуют быстрому заболачиванию территории. В то же время, сфагнумы издревле использовались людьми, как бактерицидный и теплоизолирующий материал и даже, благодаря уникальным гигроскопическим свойствам, как "памперсы" для младенцев. Сегодня эти мхи успешно применяются в медицине и в строительном деле в качестве изоляционного материала - в виде пластинок или порошка, имеющего к тому же дезодорирующие свойства. В течение двух лет карельские ученые наблюдали сезонное развитие быстрорастущего мха Sphagnum riparium - многие читатели наверняка видели его ровные зеленые ковры в болотных топях. - Изучая рост побегов, а они за сезон могут вырастать более чем на полметра, - рассказал Виктор Миронов, автор статьи, ведущий биолог лаборатории болотных экосистем Института биологии, - мы обратили внимание на закономерное чередование периодов с высокой и низкой скоростью их роста. Обработав данные по скорости роста с помощью математических методов, мы обнаружили довольно четкую околомесячную ритмику. Насколько нам известно, это первый случай подобной ритмичности среди мохообразных. Ее биологическое значение может заключаться в синхронизации роста побегов в составе сфагнового ковра, чтобы придать ему устойчивость к неблагоприятным факторам среды. - В ходе совместной работы с биологами был проанализирован большой объем данных, - продолжил соавтор статьи младший научный сотрудник лаборатории математической кибернетики Института прикладных математических исследований Алексей Кондратьев. - Помимо классических методов прикладной статистики мы применили также методы, используемые при обработке временных рядов. В статье представлены предварительные результаты исследования, остальные данные мы собираемся опубликовать в специальных работах. В исследовании была использована недавно запатентованная методика, автором которой является Виктор Миронов. Именно она позволила провести столь детальное исследование и выполнить измерения прироста большого количества побегов. - В работе, - отмечает Виктор Леонидович, - использовался недавно разработанный метод геотропических изгибов стебля, благодаря которому с апреля по октябрь в течение двух лет были выполнены измерения в общей сложности 40 тысяч побегов с интервалом около 3 дней. Всего существует около десятка методов изучения роста сфагновых мхов, но, в отличие от нашего, они не позволяют подробно отслеживать прирост побегов, поэтому ритмичность не обнаружили раньше. Исследователи указывают значительное совпадение ритма роста мхов с лунным циклом. Подобная связь доказана для небольшого количества наземных растений, например, для некоторых деревьев и кактусов. Тем не менее, авторы пока не спешат ставить точку в вопросе о связи ритмов роста со стадией лунного цикла. - Действительно, - констатирует ученый, - ритмы роста мхов и синодический лунный ритм значительно совпадают, но мы пока не уверены в причинах этого. Необходима дополнительная проверка на предмет случайного совпадения процессов, поэтому мы планируем продолжать исследование. Если предварительные данные подтвердятся, то это будет означать, что около новолуний мох растет активнее, чем около полнолуний. Связь с лунным циклом намного подробнее исследована у животных и человека, чем у растений. Ее изучение требует сбора большого количества данных и длительного подробного ряда наблюдений, что ставит работу исследователя в очень жесткие рамки. В перспективе результаты исследования могут быть использованы при восстановлении выработанных торфяников с помощью сфагновых мхов. Это направление активно развивается в европейских странах под названием Sphagnum farming . В будущем биологи и математики планируют продолжить междисциплинарное исследование и проверить, отражается ли обнаруженная ритмика на других процессах этого вида, а также выяснить, встречается ли она у других представителей рода Sphagnum .
          Research Associate - University of British Columbia - Okanagan, BC   
To learn about the Irving K. The Biology department at UBC's Okanagan campus is housed in the vibrant Irving K....
From University of British Columbia - Tue, 20 Jun 2017 12:51:32 GMT - View all Okanagan, BC jobs
          Is King James about to be given the contract for Texas biology textbooks?   
itunes pic
Is King James about to be given the contract for Texas biology textbooks? Pratt on Texas morning update for Wednesday, 19 April 2017
             
programa de prácticas de Biología Contemporánea

GENERALIDADES
La asistencia a los trabajos prácticos es OBLIGATORIA. Toda inasistencia debe ser justificada dentro de los plazos establecidos por la Escuela.
Los trabajos prácticos bajo ninguna circunstancia son recuperables, por lo que la inasistencia justificada no implica una nueva oportunidad para su realización. Cada trabajo práctico, se evaluará a través de una interrogación escrita previa a la realización del laboratorio y por medio de un informe, el cual se entregará UNA SEMANA después.
Las notas de las interrogaciones e informes se promediarán y corresponderán al 25 % de la nota final del curso. Las normas de evaluación y aprobación son aquellas determinadas por el reglamento de la escuela.

PROGRAMA
A) El curso contempla 5 actividades prácticas, con el objeto de abordar experimentalmente los conceptos y características básicas de la organización celular.

• Laboratorio Nº 1 "Microscopia y niveles de organización celular"
• Laboratorio Nº 2 “Membranas biológicas y proteínas”
• Laboratorio Nº 3 “Bioenergía”
• Laboratorio Nº 4 “Mitosis”
• Laboratorio Nº 5 “Meiosis”


A) Será OBLIGACIÓN DE CADA ESTUDIANTE estar al tanto de su horario así como de la fecha que le corresponde asistir al laboratorio. No se aceptaran alumnos después del comienzo de la actividad, siendo este motivo de ausencia injustificada.
B) Los estudiantes deberán presentarse al laboratorio con bata blanca y mantenerlo durante todo el tiempo de trabajo.
C) Los estudiantes deberán tener una conducta apropiada durante todo el desarrollo del trabajo práctico y acatar las normas e instrucciones que le entreguen los profesores a cargo del grupo. Los profesores se reservan el derecho de SOLICITAR LA SALIDA del laboratorio a cualquier estudiante que no respete estas normas.
D) Cada estudiante debe disponer de una guía de trabajo práctico que posee las instrucciones de cada ensayo a realizar. Tanto esta guía como los antecedentes teóricos y metodológicos que sustentan el trabajo práctico deberán de ser ESTUDIADOS por el estudiante previo a la realización del trabajo. Finalizado el trabajo deberá confeccionar un informe, en hoja tamaño carta, escrito a mano con letra clara o en computador con tamaño de letra mínimo 12. Se exigirá orden y buena ortografía. Este informe deberá ser presentado una semana después de realizada
la actividad y debe incluir:

Introducción: Indicar los objetivos y fundamentos teóricos del trabajo que realizó. Máximo 1 página y media.

Materiales y Métodos: Describir los métodos y materiales. Incluir todo lo necesario para que su informe sirviera de base a una tercera persona que realizare la práctica. Máximo 1 página.

Resultados: Debe incluir las observaciones realizadas así como dibujos de las preparaciones, datos experimentales, y si es necesario un ejemplo de los cálculos realizados. Cada vez que se describa la observación de una preparación al microscopio, debe utilizar el siguiente esquema:

a) Objetivo: referido al porque se realiza la observación (Ej. observación de núcleo)
b) Material: es el órgano o tejido del que se obtuvo la preparación (Ej. riñón de rata)
c) Método: se refiere a la técnica histológica usada para elaborar la preparación (a fresco
o permanente) y a la tinción utilizada. (Ej. Preparación a fresco de células catafilo de cebolla)
d) Aumento: la amplificación del objeto observado y depende del ocular y del objetivo.
Aumento = aumento del objetivo x aumento del ocular.
e) Observaciones: considere describir la forma celular; relación con otros elementos presentes, tamaño celular; forma, número y posición del núcleo y algunas características
del citoplasma.
Máximo 1 página y media

Discusión: Debe de analizarse los resultados obtenidos. Además, incluir si fuera
necesario las limitaciones de las técnicas y procedimientos utilizados.

Conclusiones: Indicar las conclusiones más relevantes derivadas del trabajo
Realizado

Literatura consultada: Señalar del material bibliográfico utilizado título, autor, edición, editorial y páginas.

Todos los informes deben ser confeccionados según el formato y número de hojas indicado (7 hojas máximo). En el caso de no cumplir con estas normas o de un atraso en su entrega, el informe será calificado con NOTA n/p sin apelación.



Literatura Sugerida:

• Básica:
B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, J.D. Watson
“MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL”
Garland Publishing Inc., New York, USA. Third Edition 1994.
E.M.F. De Robertis, J. Hib, R. Ponzio
“BIOLOGIA CELULAR Y MOLECULAR”
Editorial El Ateneo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 13ª Edicion, 2000.

• Complementaria:
H. Lodish, D. Baltimore, A. Berk, S.L. Zipursky, P. Matsudaira, J. Darnell
“MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY”
W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, USA. Third Edition 1995.

          Research Assistant/Lab Assistant - Futureceuticals - Irvine, CA   
Develop and author SOPs. Candidate should possess minimally a bachelor degree in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics or related fields....
From Indeed - Mon, 10 Apr 2017 22:55:48 GMT - View all Irvine, CA jobs
          CBSE Class-12 Exam 2017 : All India Scheme Question Paper, Biology   
 
Class 12 papers

CBSE Special TX: 

GENERAL: 
Subjects: 
Exam: 

          Biology: Visiting Faculty Position (Focus in Ecology) - University of Richmond - Richmond, VA   
The University of Richmond is a private, highly selective, predominantly liberal arts institution. The Department of Biology at the University of Richmond seeks...
From University of Richmond - Mon, 26 Jun 2017 14:34:40 GMT - View all Richmond, VA jobs
          Biology/Science 9th-12 Grade Teacher - Latin Builders Academy Charter High School - Hialeah Gardens, FL   
Develops and implements a data-driven, strategic planning system including course, unit and lesson plans. To create and maintain a classroom atmosphere that... $40,000 - $55,000 a year
From Indeed - Thu, 15 Jun 2017 14:03:57 GMT - View all Hialeah Gardens, FL jobs
          Postdoctoral Researcher - Computational Systems Biology - Penn State University - University Park, PA   
The project will integrate computational analysis (by graph theoretical and dynamic modeling methods) and experimental investigation to develop dynamic models...
From Penn State University - Fri, 30 Jun 2017 01:47:00 GMT - View all University Park, PA jobs
          Systems Biology: International Research and Development   

          BIOLOGY AND GEOLOGY, ESO 1   

La entrada BIOLOGY AND GEOLOGY, ESO 1 aparece primero en La reina de Ebooks.


          Postdoctoral Research Fellow   
University Health Network - Toronto, ON - arthritis (PsA) and psoriasis (Ps). We are currently looking for an experienced and motivated Postdoctoral candidate with PhD in biochemistry... in mass spectrometry and cell culture. Qualifications: PhD in biochemistry, molecular biology or related discipline obtained within last 4...
          Medical Laboratory Technologists(MLT) - Microbiology, Core Labs (Chem, Hem, TM)   
Nova Scotia Health Authority - Cape Breton, NS - will be required to work in Microbiology or the Core Lab (Biochemistry/ Hematology / Transfusion Medicine Section) of the Laboratory Department. Job duties...
          Vérificateur qualite medicale/Medical Device Quality Auditor   
Intertek - Montreal, QC - U.S. (biology or microbiology; chemistry or biochemistry; computer and software technology; electrical, electronic, mechanical or bioengineering...
          36 Calls for Submissions in June 2017 - Paying Markets   
There are three dozen calls for submissions in June.

Every genre and every form is welcome! All are paying markets. There are no submission fees.

Many of these journals have recurring calls for submissions, so if you miss this window, you can always submit during the next reading period.

For more literary journals seeking submissions and to get a jump on next month's open calls see: Paying Markets.
___________________

The Head & The HandGenre: Short stories, creative nonfiction, poetry. "Our new Shockwire Chapbook Series recognizes the need to raise the storytelling stakes in response to intimidation, fear, and isolation. We are interested in works of literary and speculative short fiction and creative nonfiction up to 7,500 words in length and collections of between 5 and 10 poems." Payment: Not specified. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

ContraryGenre: Original commentary, fiction, and poetry. Payment: $20. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

Onyx Neon ShortsGenre: Poetry on the theme of American Upheaval. "The world is reacting to a drastic shift in administration—and those reactions are raw, loud, and critical. We want poems that add to the political conversation." Payment: A percentage of the final product based on how many poems are in the collection. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

Eternal Haunted SummerGenre: Original poetry and short fiction about the Gods and Goddesses and heroes of the world’s many Pagan traditions. Also reviews, interviews, and essays. Payment: $5. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

SliceGenres: Short fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. Theme is "Borders." Payment: $250 for stories and essays and $75 for poems. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

Goblin Fruit. Genre: Poetry that treats mythic, surreal, fantasy and folkloric themes, or approaches other themes in a fantastical way. Payment: $15.00. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

Helen: A Literary JournalGenre: Flash fiction, essays, CNF, poetry focusing on Southern Nevada. Payment:Token to semi-professional. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

Corporate Cthulhu is a Lovecraftian horror anthology about the intersection of the Cthulhu Mythos and corporations or other large bureaucracies. Genre: Horror. Payment: 3 cents per word for original, previously unpublished fiction. Deadline: June 1, 2017.

Splickety: Spark Anthology. Theme: Out of my League. "There is nothing better than winning the heart of the one you love. Sometimes it’s a tough call and sometimes it’s an out-of-the-park homerun. This issue we want stories that take us out to the ballgame, keep us on the edge of our seat, and delight us with an unexpected winning play." Genre: Any. Short stories. Payment: 2 cents/word. Deadline: June 2, 2017.

Fantasia Divinity. Goddesses of the Sea Anthology: Mermaids and Sea Maidens Anthology. Genre: Sci-fi/fantasy. "The sea is a dark and mysterious place. What lurks within the deepest caverns, unseen by those above? A haunting melody drifts across the waves, a beautiful figure floats in the shallows. Do you follow? Do you answer the sea's hypnotic call? An anthology for mermaids, sea goddesses, sirens, and other mysterious creatures of the deep." Word Count: 500-15,000. Payment: One half-cent per word, with a minimum payment of $5.00 and a maximum of $15.00. Deadline: June 5, 2017. Reprints accepted.

Salomé is an online and in-print literary magazine for emerging female writers. Genres: Poetry and fiction. Theme: The Body. Payment: £50. Deadline: June 9, 2017.

Riddled with Arrows. Genre: "Meta- and writing-related-writing in keeping with our editorial focus. However, we are especially interested in work with a seasonal bent; give us heatstroke words, flavor words, words that stick to the skin like sand and salt. Give us skinny dipping words, tequila and lime words. Give us meta-sex and blooms and literary joie-de-vivre." Payment: 3¢/word, minimum $5, maximum $25 for previously unpublished poetry or prose and a $5 flat payment for reprints. Deadline: June 10, 2017. Reprints accepted.

A Murder of Storytellers. Genre: Short stories. Theme: "The Misbehaving Dead is an anthology about rebels--the dead that won't stay down. Maybe their business isn't finished, or maybe Hell spat them back out, but no matter how strong the grave, they just refuse to stay in it. These are the misfits of biology, abominations that aren't alive but don't care. They'll get shit done anyway. They'll get what they want." Payment: $15 and contributor’s copy. Deadline: June 13, 2017. Reprints accepted.

Eye to the Telescope: GarbageGenre: Poetry that addresses all aspects of garbage in the speculative realm. Payment: US 3¢/word. Deadline: June 15, 2017.

Alternating Current. Genre: Poetry. "Submit up to 10 pages (or one long poem if over 10 pages) of POETRY to Alternating Current Press to consider for The Luminaire Award for Best Poetry and open-reading publication on our daily literary journal, The Coil." Payment: Not specified. Deadline: June 15, 2017.

Liminal. Genre: Short stories. "We like stories that are strange and unsettling, sharp-edged and evocative.  Although we will consider any genre, we have a soft spot for weird fiction, magical realism, soft science fiction, and those uncategorizable stories that straddle the line between genres." Payment: US 6¢/word. Deadline: June 15, 2017.

Freeze Frame Fiction. Genre: Flash fiction, all genres, no content restrictions. "We want your science fiction, fantasy, horror, mystery, drama, literary works, satire, or anything else you can come up with or mix together. The only rule? 1000 words or less. The more original, the better.” Payment: $10 per accepted piece. Deadline: June 15, 2017.

UnderstoreyRestrictions: Open to writers in Canada who identify as women or non-binary. Genre: Fiction, poetry or creative nonfiction on theme of "Service." Payment: Honorarium. Deadline: June 15, 2017.

ArsenikaGenres: Flash fiction (up to 1,000 words), poetry. Payment: $60 USD for fiction and $30 USD for poetry. Deadline: June 15, 2017.

The Chromatic Court: Tales of the Lovecraftian Arts. Genre: Horror. "Fresh takes on the Cthulhu Mythos, Chambers’ mythology (the Yellow Mythos), and Cosmic Horror. This isn’t the place for Lovecraftian clichés. The more it feels like a “lost” Lovecraft story, or relies on the clichés of the genre, the less interested we are. Creativity is the watchword." Payment: 5% of the gross profit will be paid for each accepted story. These payments will be issued to you at quarterly intervals. Stories under 1,500 words will only receive 4% of the gross profit. Deadline: June 15, 2017.

Black RabbitGenre: Short story, 1,000-1,500 words (that word limit being pretty flexible) "with a literary tone and weird tendencies," poetry. Payment: $25. Deadline: June 21, 2017.

The PuritanGenres; Essays, Interviews, Fiction, Poetry. Payment: $100 Per Interview, $100 Per Essay, $100 Per Review, $50 Per Work Of Fiction, And $15 Per Poem (OR Page, Capped At $60 For Poems Running Four Pages Or More). Deadline: June 25, 2017.

Chicken Soup for the SoulGenre: True stories and poems on theme of My Crazy Family! "We do love our families but they can also drive us crazy! It’s fun to read about all those wacky relatives and compare them to our own. These true stories, either serious or hilarious, will touch your heart or make you laugh… or both. They will make you see that other families are not that different from your own, and that when push comes to shove, we all need our crazy families. Please submit using your real name. We will let you use a pen name if necessary when it comes time to publish your story." Payment: $200. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

Alban Lake: The Mad Visions of al-HazredGenre: Horror. "About 730 AD, an Arab named Abdul Al-Hazred wrote the Al-Azif, a grimoire and memorial to the Old Ones. For this crime, he was driven insane and eventually devoured by a vengeful god in full view of horrified onlookers. What drove him to write this loathsome tome? What terrible visions haunted him so badly he felt he had to risk his soul to put them down on paper?" Payment: $25. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

The Threepenny Review.  Genres: Fiction, poetry. Payment: $200/poem, $400/story. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

The Binge Watching Cure 2Genre: Horror: Payment: $200 for stories under 5,000 words and $500 for stories 5,000 words and longer. Deadline: June 30, 2017. Accepts reprints.

LadybugGenre: Stories and poems for children ages 3 - 6. Theme: Animal Kingdom - "retellings of folktales, creative nonfiction, poems, action rhymes, and proposals for short comics about our scaly, feathered, and furry friends. Send us your lively writing about wild creatures, pets, and animals seen only in your imagination. Our readers like simple yet strong plots, memorable characters, and humor. We prefer short work for young children (stories may be up to 800 words, poetry up to 20 lines)." Payment: Stories and articles: up to 25¢ per word. Poems: up to $3.00 per line; $25.00 minimum. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

Inklings Perception Anthology: BulliesGenres: Short fiction, nonfiction, and poetry for children. This series is focused on helping educators and parents discuss tough topics with children. The theme for this volume is the difficult yet important topic of Bullies. Payment: $20 per story, $3 per poem. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

Downstate StoryGenre: Short stories. Payment: $50. Deadline: June 30, 2017. (Snail mail only.)

EVENTGenres: Fiction, nonfiction, poetry. Payment: $25/page. Deadline: June 30, 2017. (May not be open to submissions by then. Check site for details.)

The Wyrd. Genre: Speculative fiction. "We’re looking for works that cross, combine or redefine traditional genre boundaries. We enjoy stories that come with a heavy dose of the uncanny, the strange, and blend literary, science-fiction, fantasy, mystery and horror tropes." Length: 1000-5000 words. Payment: $10. Deadline: June 30, 2017. Reprints accepted.

Broken Eye BooksGenre: Speculative fiction. "We want weird fiction set in a modern-day Miskatonic University. Stories should be set within or be inspired by the Cthulhu Mythos. We want to see the Mythos continue to grow and evolve, to expand as a shared literary world and not be tied to outdated and limiting sensibilities. We are not interested in stories with bigoted views on race and gender." Payment: 8 cents/word. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

Subprimal Poetry Art "looks for poetry and flash fiction that is crafted, urgent, lyrical, compelling, mythical, concerned with spiritual revelation, uses rhythmic sensual, vivid imagery and deals with fundamental truths. We're looking for work that enables the reader / listener to experience something that they might not otherwise in their regular life and causes them to think. We like pieces that use language in new ways. We have a special fondness for prose poems. Voices outside of the status quo keep us awake at night." Genres: Short prose, poetry. Payment: $20. Deadline: June 30, 2017. Accepts reprints.

The Well Review. Genres: Poetry. Payment: Not specified. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

AlyssGenres: Poetry, fiction, creative non-fiction and art, by female identifying writers/artists. Payment: $5. Deadline: June 30, 2017.

Sisters Anthology. Genre: Essays, poetry. "We’re looking for essays and poems for In Celebration of Sisters, an anthology of reflections celebrating the wonderful world of sisterhood. Do you have any tales to tell of special sisters? Humorous stories of your female siblings? We’re looking for a range of emotions – from serious, loving, tributes to humorous tales that have us laughing in agreement with you. Sentimental or comical, it’s your call, although overall theme of the book is positive and uplifting." ESSAYS: Essays should be in the range of 1,000 – 1500 words. Original works only. No reprints. POETRY; Minimum, twelve lines. No maximum. Up to two submissions accepted per person. Payment: ESSAYS: $50, plus two printed copies. POETRY: $25, plus two printed copies. Deadline: June 30, 2017.
          CreativeMarket Back to school illustration 353663   
Back To School Illustration

CreativeMarket Back to school illustration 353663

Stock Graphic \ School \ Student \ Notebook \ Vector \ Teaching \ Studying \ Pencil \ Study \ Class
Back to school, studying and teaching, education and knowledge, vector illustration on white and blue background This archive contains editable .eps vector format (10th version) and high resolution .jpg image. There is no limit to you creating your own combinations: you can change colors and backgrounds, mix icons together and scale them without any loss of quality as they are 100% vectors. The vectors can be used wherever you want. For example. E commerce websites Web and mobile applications Your blog or pages on social networking Banners and ads Brochures, advertising leaflets and flyers Greeting cards As an illustration for related articles in magazines Buy Now 10 Back to school illustration by Allevinatis Studio Photos Graphics Templates Themes Fonts Add Ons 3D All Search
          High School Biology/Science Teacher - Math Plus Tutors - Sarnia, ON   
Math Plus Tutors inspires success by tackling learning challenges. We have an exceptional team of local professionals ready to meet the need of your children.... $21.50 - $23.00 an hour
From Indeed - Sun, 28 May 2017 22:39:37 GMT - View all Sarnia, ON jobs
          HIGH SCHOOL MATH / SCIENCE TUTOR - Oxford Learning Centers - Kanata, ON   
Advanced functions, data management, calculus, physics, chemistry, and biology. HIGH SCHOOL MATH / SCIENCE TUTOR....
From Oxford Learning Centers - Mon, 24 Apr 2017 21:44:17 GMT - View all Kanata, ON jobs
          Killing superbugs with star-shaped polymers, not antibiotics   

The study, published today in Nature Microbiology, holds promise for a new treatment method against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (commonly known as superbugs).

The star-shaped structures, are short chains of proteins called 'peptide polymers', and were created by a team from the Melbourne School of Engineering.

read more


          Ground squirrels use the sun to hide food   

Jamie Samson and Marta Manser from the Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental 1Studies at UZH studied colonies of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in the wild at the Kalahari Research Center in South Africa. The diurnal rodents temporarily store their food reserves in several hiding places. As their habitat is very arid and sparsely vegetated, points of reference in the environment, such as trees or bushes, are few and far between. The UZH researchers have now discovered how the social rodents orient themselves to find their way back to their temporary food stashes.

read more


          Quality Assurance Staff - Ram Food Products - Manila   
Preferably with experience in a food manufacturing plant. Graduate of BS Food Technology/Microbiology from reputable University....
From Ram Food Products - Tue, 27 Jun 2017 16:50:21 GMT - View all Manila jobs
          Studies in the Biology of the Leech. VI, The Anatomical Basis for Certain Leech Behavior   
Studies in the Biology of the Leech. VI, The Anatomical Basis for Certain Leech Behavior Miller, John A. Author Institution: Department of Zoology and Entomology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
          Photography and Film Scholarships and Internships   
Photography and Film Scholarships and Internships

Do you have the photography bug? On the other hand, perhaps, moving pictures are your passion. Do you love shooting at every angle and capturing every moment?

If you answered yes, then keep reading because these scholarships are seriously right up your alley!

Whether you’re interested in photography or film-making as a hobby or seriously taking it on as a part of your career, you might want to look into the world of photography and cinematography scholarships.

As you probably already know, being a great photographer takes more than just a great photo – it takes great photographers years of study to develop the skill set to create seemingly perfect shots.

The same goes for the art of film-making – those shots don’t create themselves! Someone is behind the camera, creating every angle and capturing every moment.

With photography or film-making scholarships, you’ll have the unique opportunity to pursue your passion and, ultimately, become a professional in the field if that’s what you decide you’d like to do.

Fastweb’s database is loaded with opportunities for students looking for photography and film scholarships and is ready to help link you with opportunities to fulfill your dreams.

To help better organize your scholarship search, please note that the following photography and film-making scholarships and internships are listed according to deadline, with the earliest deadline appearing at the top of the page.

Deadlines that vary will appear at the bottom of the list.

Check out the following list of photography and film scholarships and internships:

Building Strong Foundations


Deadline: 8/12/17

Available to: High School Sophomores through Graduate Students, Year 5

Award Amount: Varies

The Building Strong Foundations is available to high school, undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at an accredited college or university. You must be at least 16 years of age and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 to be eligible for this award. Additionally, you must submit an essay and a brief, , 15-30 second summary of your essay via Instagram, YouTube, Vimeo or similar broadcasting platform to our Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/OlshanFoundation.

Learn more about the Building Strong Foundations.

$2,000 Disaster Preparation Scholarship


Deadline: 11/01/17

Available to: High School Freshmen through College Seniors

Award Amount: 3 Awards of $2,000

The $2,000 Disaster Preparation Scholarship is open to current high school and college students. You must create a video that shows how properly planning for a hurricane or other flood disaster can be a valuable tool and upload it to YouTube in order to be considered for this award.

Learn more about the $2,000 Disaster Preparation Scholarship.

One Earth Young Filmmakers Contest


Deadline: 1/14/18

Available to: High School Freshmen through College Seniors

Award Amount: 4 Awards from $75 - $1,000

The One Earth Young Filmmakers Contest is open to students who are at least eight years of age. You must submit a video between three and eight minutes that shares and highlights solutions to the issues discussed in the chosen sustainability topic(s) chosen from the list on the sponsor's website.

The film entry’s theme must be solution-based. The film should talk about an environmental/sustainability problem and then discuss what could be a potential solution to this problem. Videos may be submitted by either an individual or a group and animated videos of no more than 45 seconds will also be considered.

Learn more about the One Earth Young Filmmakers Contest.

Kodak Professional Photography Scholarship


Deadline: Varies

Available To: College Freshmen through College Seniors

Award Amount: 1,000

The Kodak Professional Photography Scholarship is open to photojournalism students at Western Kentucky University.

Selection is based demonstrated scholarship, leadership and professional development.

Get more information on the Kodak Professional Photography Scholarship.

Lone Star EMMY Scholarship



Award: Varies

Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Sophomore through College Senior

Provided by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (Lone Star Chapter), the Lone Star EMMY Scholarship is available to sophomores, juniors and seniors enrolled in an institution of higher learning in the State of Texas.

You must be majoring in radio, television, film, broadcast journalism or other related major and have a minimum GPA of 2.5 to be eligible for this award.

Learn more information about the Lone Star EMMY Scholarship.

Audition/Portfolio Review Scholarship


Deadline: Varies

Available To: College Freshmen through College Seniors

Award Amount: Varies

The Audition/Portfolio Review Scholarship is open to students at Montana State University, Bozeman.

You must participate in music or theatre auditions, art or photography reviews, or screenings of videotapes or films to be eligible for this award.

Get more information on the Audition/Portfolio Review Scholarship.

Camera Ready Award


Deadline: Varies

Available To: College Freshmen through College Seniors

Award Amount: Varies

The Camera Ready Award is available to students at SUNY Morrisville State College.

You must be a journalism student and demonstrate achievement in layout, design and photography to be eligible for this award.

Get more information on the Camera Ready Award.

Photography, Cinematography and Videography Internships

Conservation Photography/Biology Summer Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

Sponsored by Discover Life in America, the Conservation Photography/Biology Summer Internship is available to students with an interest in conservation.

Responsibilities and opportunities vary and may include web/brochure design, photography and editing, specimen identification, photo-documentation/direct participation in scientific research in the Great Smoky Mountains, and coordination/innovation in public outreach, awareness, and fund-raising.

Learn more information about the Conservation Photography/Biology Summer Internship.

HPM News Digital Lab Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

The HPM News Digital Lab Internship is open to students who are interested in newsroom technology. Intern duties may include working with the website, social media, visual media and other duties as needed.

You must have strong digital skills and be able to work independently in order to be considered for this internship.

Preference is given to students who specialize in one of the following fields: data, social, photography or videography.

Learn more information about the HPM News Digital Lab Internship.

Time Out New York Photo Internship



Deadline: May 30 (Fall); Dec. 15 (Spring); March 15 (Summer)

Available to: College Sophomore through College Senior

The Daily Herald Photojournalism Internship is open to second-year or later photojournalism students.

You must have basic working photographic equipment (submit a list of personal equipment with application) to qualify for this award.

Learn more information about the Daily Herald Photojournalism Internship.

Blue Man Group Video Studio Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through Graduate Students, Year 5

The Video Studio Internship is open to students with an interest in videography.

Intern duties may include shooting, editing and post-production, participating in department meetings, attending video shoots and other duties as needed.

You must have working knowledge of Final Cut Pro, After Effects and Photoshop, be comfortable in operating cameras as well as basic lighting and sound equipment in order to be considered for this internship.

Learn more information about the Video Studio Internship.

Dreamworks Animation SKG Production Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Junior through College Senior

The Dreamworks Animation SKG Production Internship is open to full-time juniors or seniors attending an accredited college or university.

To be eligible, you must be a BA/BS candidate currently enrolled in a communications, media studies, film or cinema program.

In addition, you must be well organized, demonstrate excellent communication skills and have knowledge of office management software packages (Excel, Word, Netscape Communicator and Messenger and FileMaker Pro).

Learn more information about the Dreamworks Animation SKG Production Internship.

The Maury Show Production Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Sophomore through College Senior

The Production Internship is available to college sophomores, juniors and seniors who are majoring or have an interest in television, film, communications or media studies.

Interns will assist the production and office staff in a variety of tasks.

You must be at least 18 years of age, be detail oriented, knowledgeable in pop culture, organized and highly proactive to be considered for this internship.

Learn more information about the The Maury Show Production Internship.

PBS General Audience Programming Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Sophomore through College Senior

The General Audience Programming Internship is available to students majoring in communications, broadcasting, or film and television.

Interns will support all functions of the PBS General Audience Program Development and Independent Film Department, including program and proposal log-in, requesting all necessary documentation with regard to submissions, and data entry.

Interns will also review and write coverage for program and proposal submissions and enter comments and decisions into department database.

Learn more information about the PBS General Audience Programming Internship.

Film Internship – Museum of the Moving Image



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Senior through Graduate Student, Year 5

The Film Internship at the Museum of the Moving Image is available to undergraduates entering their senior year, college graduates and graduate students.

Interns will assist in the development of content for web-based projects and with the logistical details and preparations of off-site museum programs.

You must submit a cover letter and resume, a statement of interest and one letter of recommendation from a current or past professor to be eligible for this award.

Learn more information about the Film Internship – Museum of the Moving Image.

Disney College Program Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through Graduate Students, Year 5

The Disney College Program Internship is open to students who are enrolled in an accredited college or university and have completed at least one semester.

You must be at least 18 years of age to be eligible for this internship. Internship roles include: attractions, custodial, guest relations, guest research, parking cashier, PhotoPass photographer, resort transportation and parking, ticket taker, hopper and main entrance operations.

All internships take place at Walt Disney World theme parks and resorts.
All majors are welcome to apply.

Learn more information about the Disney College Program Internship.

Photography Conservation Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Junior through Graduate Year 2

The Art Institute of Chicago offers a Photography Conservation Internship for college-level juniors, seniors and graduate students.

Interns will assist in conservation, record keeping, database management and exhibition preparation.

You must have a basic knowledge of photographic history and technique, a careful and attentive manner, an ability to work well with people, concentration, discipline, and manual dexterity to be considered for this internship.

Learn more information about the Photography Conservation Internship.

Social Media, Communications Intern – Eastman Kodak Company


Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

The Social Media, Communications Intern is available to students pursuing a degree in public relations, journalism, English, communications or a related field.

You must demonstrate superior writing skills and full familiarity in the use of Word, PowerPoint and Photoshop to be considered for this position.

As an intern, you will support development of new communications plans and campaigns – helping transition the traditional focus to more focus on social/online.

Learn more information about the Social Media, Communications Intern – Eastman Kodak Company.

Journalism Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

The journalism internship is open to students with an interest in journalism, writing, editing and other related fields.
Intern duties may include researching, writing, pitching and producing features and other duties as needed.

You must have some journalism and writing experience, as well as copy-editing skills, HTML and photoshop experience to be considered for this internship.

Learn more information about the Journalism Internship.

ALEXANDRIA – Internship Opportunity – Virginia Photography


Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

The ALEXANDRIA – Internship Opportunity is available to students majoring in marketing, social media and promotions. You must be open-minded and knowledgeable about different religions, photoshop / InDesign / After Effects experience and Spanish-speaking (a plus!) to be considered for this internship.

As an intern, you will will work directly in consultation with the film’s producers and social media strategists.

Learn more information on the ALEXANDRIA – Internship Opportunity – Virginia Photography

Conservation Photography/Biology Summer Internship


Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

Sponsored by Discover Life in America, the Conservation Photography/Biology Summer Internship is available to students with an interest in conservation.

Responsibilities and opportunities vary and may include web/brochure design, photography and editing, specimen identification, photo-documentation/direct participation in scientific research in the Great Smoky Mountains, and coordination/innovation in public outreach, awareness, and fund-raising.

Get more information on the Conservation Photography/Biology Summer Internship.

Holography Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

The Holograpy Internship is available to students with an interest in holography. You will assist with work in a laser lab creating and copying holograms.

You will also assist with work in an art gallery: fabricating displays, creating sculptural and computer generated art, work in cinematography and assist in the running of the business of the gallery.

A personal holography project may be part of your work.

Learn more information about the Holography Internship.

Mayo Clinic Video Post-production Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Senior

The Video Post-production Internship is available to undergraduate and graduate students majoring in film, mass media, or electronic media.

Undergraduate students must have completed their junior year of studies and graduate students must be in at least their second year of a master's program.

This internship provides a learning experience during which interns will participate in all aspects of video production and post-production.

To be considered, you must submit a demonstration reel of work you have developed provided online or DVD, a one-page personal statement, and a letter of reference from a faculty adviser.

Learn more information about the Video-Post-production Internship.

Time Out New York Photo Internship



Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Sophomore through College Senior

The Time Out New York Photo Internship is open to students who have an interest in online publishing.

You must have the motivation to learn about the field of photography within a publishing environment to qualify for this internship.

Learn more information about the Time Out New York Photo Internship.

Social Media Marketing Internship – The Strong National Museum of Play


Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through Graduate Students, Year 5

The Social Media Marketing Internship is available to undergraduate and graduate students with experience in digital photography desired.

You must have strong written and verbal communication skills and be able to work with staff and museum guests to be considered for this position.

As an intern, your duties include writing social media content for multiple platforms; photography; researching, and reporting on best practices; benchmarking other institutions; and assisting with other activities as necessary.

Learn more information on the Social Media Marketing Internship – The Strong National Museum of Play.

Graphic Design Internship – The Global FoodBanking Network


Deadline: Varies

Available to: College Freshmen through Graduate Students, Year 2

The Global Hunger Conference Planner is available to current undergraduate and graduate students.

Intern duties may include translate existing educational information about hunger, food waste, food banks and other relevant topics into compelling visual images for use on GFN website and social media to be considered for this internship.

Learn more information about the Graphic Design Internship – The Global FoodBanking Network.

GLSEN Student Ambassador


Deadline: Varies
Available to: College Freshmen through College Seniors

Provided by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), the GLSEN Student Ambassador program is open to students in grades eight through 12 who are interested in sharing their stories in all kinds of media.

Student ambassadors will have access to exclusive online training and workshops on telling your story, political advocacy, blogging, write op-eds for newspapers, create web videos, and more.

You and your work will be featured on GLSEN's website, blog, YouTube channel, and social media profiles.

Learn more information about the GLSEN Student Ambassador.


          34 Weird (But Cool) College Majors   
34 Weird (But Cool) College Majors

Chances are, if you have a passion, you can get a degree in the subject. And, if typical majors aren’t your thing, there are plenty of unusual majors to choose from.

The following list includes some weird-but-cool college majors, along with an example of a college that offers it, details of what students in the field study and the jobs that students pursue after graduation, as listed on each example college's website.

(Please note that many of these aren’t the only schools which offer the academic subjects, just an example of one of the schools.)

Check out the following unusual majors – perhaps your future calling is on the list!

1. Adventure Education


What you study: Teaches “you how to use the Great Outdoors to expose children, adults and at-risk populations to challenging adventures, personal growth and self-discovery.”

Where you can get the degree: Plymouth State University

Example courses: Rock Climbing Fundamentals, Canoe Paddling Fundamentals, Wilderness Expedition and Whitewater Kayaking

Job prospects: Working in outdoor education at a state or national park, Outdoor/adventure programs

2. Astrobiology


What you study: “The exploration of life outside of Earth and to the investigation of the origin and early evolution of life on Earth.”

Where you can get the degree: University of Washington or Penn State

Example courses: Planetary Habitability, Astrobiology Field Experience

Job prospects: Astrobiology researcher, scientist or educator

3. Auctioneering


What you study: How to be an auctioneer, from learning the “auctioneer’s chant,” obtaining and appraising items to running an auction from start to finish.

Where you can get the degree: Harrisburg Area Community College

Example courses: Audience Communications, Auctioneering Law, Procurement and Appraisal of Merchandise, Preparations for the Auction

Job prospects: You guessed it – an auctioneer

4. Bagpiping


What you study: Bagpiping, “a program of study where a person can get a complete grounding in music as well as specific instruction on the instrument.”

Where you can get the degree: Carnegie Mellon University

Example courses: Studio, Theory, History

Job prospects: A bagpiper or teaching the bagpipes

5. Bakery Science


What you study: The degree program “trains students for administrative, research, production, and executive positions in the baking industry.”

Where you can get the degree: Kansas State University

Example courses: Introduction to Grain Science and Industry, Cereal Science, Flour and Dough Testing, Baking Science

Job prospects: Careers within restaurants, caterers, hotels, clubs, food manufacturers, testing laboratories, and large and small bakeries

6. Beatles, Popular Music and Society


What you study: The degree program lets students “examine the significance of the music of The Beatles in the construction of identities, audiences, ethnicities and industries, and localities.”

Where you can get the degree: Liverpool Hope University (UK)

Example courses: Understanding
Popular Music, Musicology and The Beatles and Topics in History: Liverpool

Job prospects: Popular music studies specialist, Beatles historian

7. Bowling Industry Management and Technology


What you study: “Overall learning and preparation for employment” within the bowling industry.

Where you can get the degree: Vincennes University

Example courses: Lane and Pinsetter Maintenance, Bowling Lanes Management, Pro Shop Operations and Instruction

Job prospects: Entry-level positions within the bowling industry in center management, sales, marketing, and technical fields.

8. Citrus


What you study: Students learn about “planting, irrigating, weed management, pruning, fertilizers, pest identification and management, and other aspects of tree management working with our on-campus collection of many varieties of citrus trees.”

Where you can get the degree: Florida Southern College

Example courses: Introducti