Eating the Globe: Syria   

I was in San Francisco for work and celebrated a productive morning with an out-of-the-way lunch. This is Palmyra.

I got the Kibbi platter, which consists of:
Four shells of mashed cracked wheat stuffed with ground beef, sauteed onions, and pine nuts served with a side of hummus, cucumber salad, pita, garlic sauce, and hot sauce.

The kibbi was/were delicious. Not greasy or heavy at all. My only complaint was that it only came with four pieces.

Countries tried so far:
Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, South Africa
Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam, Yemen
Europe: Albania, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden
North America: Belize, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Trinidad & Tobago, USA
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela
Oceania: Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
          Burma: Drop Charges Against 3 Journalists   

A reporter looks at an article about the three detained journalists in the Democratic Voice of Burma newsroom in Rangoon, Burma, June 29, 2017.

© 2017 Reuters

(Bangkok) – Burmese authorities should immediately drop charges against three journalists for news gathering at a public event organized by the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA) in northern Shan State, Human Rights Watch said today.

On June 26, 2017, the Burmese military detained Aye Nai and Pyae Phone Naing from the Democratic Voice of Burma and Thein Zaw, also known as Lawi Weng, from The Irrawaddy after stopping their car as they returned from a TNLA drug-burning ceremony marking the United Nations International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. On June 28, the reporters were charged under section 17(1) of Burma’s colonial-era Unlawful Associations Act of 1908, local media reported. All three have been detained at Hsipaw prison in Shan State and are next scheduled to appear in court on July 11.

It’s appalling that the Burmese authorities are charging journalists for simply doing their job.

Phil Robertson

Deputy Asia Director

“It’s appalling that the Burmese authorities are charging journalists for simply doing their job,” said Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director. “Burma’s government, which consists of many former political prisoners held on similarly dubious grounds, should drop these charges immediately and ensure the three are released.”

During the nearly three days the military held the journalists without charge, their location was unknown. Four other people were reportedly also arrested and detained.

Section 17(1) of the Unlawful Associations Act carries a sentence of up to three years in prison for anyone who “is a member of an unlawful association, or takes part in meetings of any such association, or contributes or receives or solicits any contribution for the purpose of any such association, or in any way assists the operations of any such association.” This broadly worded provision has been routinely used for decades to punish people suspected of having any contact with an opposition armed group.

Ta’ang National Liberation Army soldiers burn an opium field in northern Shan State, January 16, 2014.

© 2014 Reuters

The TNLA is among more than a dozen ethnic minority armed groups that for decades have been fighting Burma’s central government, and has been designated an “unlawful armed group” by the Burmese authorities. While the TNLA is not a signatory to the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement signed in October 2015, representatives of the armed group attended the second round of the Panglong Peace Conference held by the Burmese government in the capital, Naypyidaw, in May 2017.

Arresting journalists who are gathering news about an armed group is a serious blow to media freedom in Burma. While the government may place restrictions on the media for national security reasons, these restrictions must be strictly necessary for a legitimate purpose and not be overbroad. They may not be used to suppress or withhold information of legitimate public interest not harmful to national security, or to prosecute journalists for reporting such information.

For the government to fulfill this responsibility, journalists must be able to speak and meet with a variety of people without fear of arrest or harassment – including those who are in conflict with the government or military.

The arrest of the three journalists appears to conflict with Burma’s News Media Law. Section 7(a) of the law, in force since June 2015, states that a journalist “shall be exempt from being detained by a certain security related authority, or his/her equipment being confiscated or destroyed,” while gathering news in areas “where wars break out, and where conflicts or riots and demonstrations take place.”

“The Burmese military is using the Unlawful Associations Act to attack the country’s news providers,” Robertson said. “All charges under section 17(1) should be dropped and the provision rescinded so that journalists can accurately cover the country’s ethnic conflicts.”


          Burma : Three journalists jailed after covering illegal armed group's event   
Publisher: Reporters Without Borders - Document type: Country News
          Burma: Drop Charges Against 3 Journalists   
Publisher: Human Rights Watch - Document type: Country News
          Sunday Salon: ...and the crud stayeth   
 Better late than never I always say.  And late has been the theme of the week.  Not only did my son and I continue on with the crud (sore throat that morphs into congestion that morphs into cough that morphs into gastro), but my daughter had it too.  I don't like this.  I can't recuperate in peace, they are demanding and whiny, and also there is stress because of so much missed homework.  Pray that next week improves in this category.

I did crawl out to Polish class and book club on Wednesday night, despite my hacking and spewing.  I wanted to force some kind of normalcy.  For this meeting we read "5 People You Meet in Heaven", and most did not likey which made me feel a bit better about my negativity.  Such hokey, manipulative crap.  Next month we'll be discussing "Eleanor & Park" which should go much better.

I cannot believe how the holidays have snuck up on me.  Normally, my routine is to mail those Christmas cards out the day after Thanksgiving.  Not sure that will happen this year...don't even have a picture!  (My kids have an extreme aversion to pictures it seems.)  I've done nothing!  I guess there has to be a first year to blow my record. I get overwhelmed with all the chaos...do you guys?  I have to figure out how to manage it.  Downsize, simplify, find peace.

So Tuesday I strategically scheduled an eye appointment at Costco with the release of Stephen King's new release "Revival".  Very similar to the last time I stormed the store for his latest book, there were none to be seen.  The book-stocking girl SWORE there were none, but I didn't take that for an answer.  I got the Manager to check inventories, and sure enough, they were there in receiving, hidden in the corner.  SCORE!  Sadly, I've made very little progress.  Not much reading done this week.

Audios, as usual, is where it's at more than anywhere else.  I finished "The Art of Hearing Heartbeats" for my other book club, and while it was a sweet, sentimental book, it may have been a little TOO sweet for my cynical heart.  The story takes place in Burma which is interesting, and is a generational love story (narrated by Cassandra Campbell who excels at stories like this).  It just seemed like the author was trying too hard to make me cry, and also threw some pretty obvious twists in there that I think were supposed to be shocking but just made me slap my forehead.  I'm now launching into what will probably be a part print/part audio experience of "The Paying Guests" by Sarah Waters.  Love her, but I am feeling hesitant because the reviews on this one haven't been stellar.  It's a long book, so this will take me awhile.

So today (or what is left of it) will probably be spent trying to read "Revival" and doing some child management in the area of overwhelming homework catch-up.  I'll be having a cocktail by 5:00 I predict.

So tell me...are you ready for Thanksgiving and Christmas?  Are you excited about the idea of shopping and decorating or not?  How do you cope with the crazy schedule?  I need tips. 




          Free Burma   

Free Burma!

          Racist slight against the Rohingyas draws no criticism from ASEAN   
Myanmar's Outrageous Racism Excused
Asia Sentinel, 12 Feb 09


A racist slight against the Rohingyas draws no criticism from ASEAN

The reputation and so-called solidarity the Association of Southeast Asian Nations hit a new low this week with the Myanmar envoy to Hong Kong indulging an extraordinary racist outburst against brown people from his own country. Undiplomatic though his words were, they are the sort of remarks that come easily to the lips of some other Southeast and East Asians for whom brown skins have always been a sign of low class if not actual racial inferiority.

Consul General Ye Mint Aung wrote to his fellow diplomats in Hong Kong explaining that the Rohingyas were not actually Myanmese and were not accepted as one of the ethnic groups of his country, or indeed as citizens. He wrote: "You will see in the photos that their complexion is 'dark brown'" in contrast to the complexion of Myanmese which was "fair and soft, good looking as well."

He went on to claim that his own complexion was typical of a Myanmar gentleman and fellow diplomats could contrast their "handsome colleague" with the "ugly as ogres" Rohingyas whose pictures were in the newspapers.

The Myanmese belief in racial purity and the superiority appearance of pale skin, as well as not being Buddhist, seem the basis of refusal to admit the Rohingyas as citizens even though they have lived in the Rakhine (formerly Arakan) division of Myanmar for hundreds of years. Doubtless it would have been better for them if the British imperialist had drawn the map between Bengal and Burma differently but that border hill country is an ethnic patchwork. In reality the Rohingyas speak a version of Bengali and have a physical appearance akin to Bengalis.

It seems that the Mynmar representative can issue crude, written racist remarks not only about his fellow Asean members but which are deeply offensive to their populous neighbors to the west – Bangladesh and India.

Judging by the way that Thailand has been treating these stateless refugees, calling them economic migrants and pushing them off in engineless boats, with possibly hundreds dying at sea, Thai officials seem to agree with their Myanmar colleague that such dark-skinned "ogres" should not be allowed even to stop temporarily in Thailand in their search for security. Thai Prime Minister, the suitably "fair and soft" complexioned fourth generation Thai Chinese, Abhisit Vejjajiva, has been vocal in defending the army's murderous actions and calling the Rohingyas "economic migrants" despite their denial of citizenship in an Asean country.

The cringing attitudes shown by Asean towards Myanmar and the racist attitudes of some Asean countries is stunning. While pushing off the Rohingyas, who anyway wanted to go to Muslim countries, Thailand has turned a blind eye to the hundreds of thousands, perhaps a million, "fair complexioned" Myanmese who work as cheap and expendable labor on Thai building sites and fishing boats. As for Asean, which supposedly now has a Human Rights agenda, it does nothing.

Malaysia once had a sympathetic attitude to the Rohingyas. Some 10,000 to 20,000 now live there having originally been offered succor as oppressed Muslims. But Malaysia has shifted towards appeasement of Myanmar and a suspicion of foreign workers generally, Muslim or not, despite the role that undocumented foreigners play in the economy.

Asean is supposed to discuss the Rohingyas refugee issue at its end February summit in Thailand. But do not expect anything other than platitudes, let alone any action to help these stateless people or condemn Myanmar.

Click on image to see enlarged version

          ASEAN should stop "passing the buck" on Burma   
This is a Oct 2007 report from ALTSEAN-Burma. You can either download it here or carry on reading,

ASEAN should Stop Passing the Buck on Burma
Get your own at Scribd or explore others: Politics Campaigns and Electi Burma

          Burma's best given brutal prison sentences   
Commentary
By KYAW ZWA MOE
The Irrawaddy
Tuesday, November 11, 2008

The family members of 39 Burmese dissidents have tears in their eyes today.

Fourteen leading activists of the 88 Generation Students group, including five women, were given 65-year prison sentences in a court in Insein Prison. At the same time, 25 other activists, including five monks and women who took part in the September 2007 uprising, were sentenced to up to 26 years imprisonment. The well-known labor activist Su Su Nway was sentenced to 12 and half years.

The lengthy sentences demonstrate that the oppressive regime is determined to crack down on pro-democracy groups in keeping with its slogan “annihilation of destructive elements and foreign stooges.” It also shows that the regime is simply ignoring calls from the international community for the release of political prisoners.

Among the 14 activists were Min Zeya, Jimmy (known as Kyaw Min Yu) and his wife, Nilar Thein, and Mie Mie, another prominent female activist. Most had also served lengthy imprisonment following the 1988 pro-democracy uprising.

Jimmy and Nilar Thein served 15 years and seven years imprisonment respectively. Many readers are familiar with the couple and have great sympathy for them and their young daughter, who remains with her grandparents ever since her father was jailed last year and while her mother was in hiding before her arrest in September.

Many of the activists are in their late 30s and 40s. If they have to serve their full sentences, many will die in prison. After 1988, the ruling regime generally gave dissidents three to five years as a basic sentence. In 1990s, the junta handed down longer imprisonment, such as up to 10 years. Now it’s different, and the future seems to be harsher and longer sentences.

How about Min Ko Naing, the leader of the 88 Generation Students group? Min Ko Naing and eight other members of the group were transferred to Maubin Prison in the Irrawaddy delta on 31 October as punishment two days after the group was sentenced to six months imprisonment for contempt of court. It’s expected that they will soon receive sentences of 65 years or longer.

The longer sentences are designed to discourage dissent. And the new, harsher policy is also being directed at attorneys who are brave enough to represent activists. In October and November, three lawyers who represented dissidents also were sentenced to from four to six months for contempt of court.

Just before his arrest, attorney Aung Thein told The Irrawaddy that justice would win in the end—and he quoted Buddhist teaching. “Ah-dhhamma (injustice) is winning now, but one day dhamma (justice) will win.”

Three lawyers Aung Thein, Khin Maung Shein and Nyi Nyi Htwe, are now being detained in Insein Prison. Four other defense lawyers who are representing several dissidents have also been barred from representing their clients since early November.

But even such a harsh policy hasn’t stifled the spirit of dissent.

After hearing his sentence this morning, Min Zeya, a leading member of the 88 Generation Students group, loudly ridiculed the sentence, “Only 65 years!”

Mie Mie, one of the female activists, shouted, “Never frightened!” Their determination and courage is beyond words.

Sadly, however, the history of the 20 year uprising has proved that spirit alone can’t achieve the democracy movement’s goal. All dissident groups have been seriously beaten down by the military regime. The government plans to hold an election in 2010 but many dissidents are very likely to be serving sentences in prison by then.

The international community has pushed the regime to reconcile with pro-democracy groups, especially Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy which was the winner of the 1990 election. But the regime simply ignores the pleas.

The military leaders understand well that the world is divided into at least two camps: a sanctions-oriented policy versus engagement-oriented.

The world is divided and the junta has benefited. If the world united behind a single policy that combined elements of both strategies, some progress might be possible, using a combination of economic sanctions, engagement and other creative approaches.

New ideas and tactics are needed. Otherwise, the leading activists who were just sentenced to 65 years will languish in prison. Thet Win Aung, 34, died in Mandalay Prison in 2006 while serving his 59-year imprisonment. His elder brother, Pyone Cho, a leading member of the 88 Generation Students group, is now in Maubin Prison and is expecting a long sentence, together with his colleagues including Min Ko Naing.

It’s clear the regime is getting even tougher.

It’s past time for the international community to come up with new policies designed to counter such inhuman, brutal treatment of freedom-loving activists.
          28 year old Burmese blogger, Nay Phone Latt, sentenced to 20 years in prison   
Two reports about Nay Phone Latt,

Young Burmese Blogger Sentenced to more than 20 Years in Jail
By SAW YAN NAING, The Irrawaddy, Monday, November 10, 2008


A young Burmese blogger who was a major source of information for the outside world on the brutal regime crackdown on the September 2007 uprising was sentenced to 20 years and six months imprisonment on Monday.

Nay Phone Latt, 28, was sentenced by a court in Rangoon’s Insein Prison, according to his mother, Aye Than. He was convicted of contravening Public Offense Act 505 B by posting a cartoon depicting junta leader Snr-Gen Than Shwe on his blog site.

Nay Phone Latt’s colleague Thin July Kyaw was sentenced to two years imprisonment, Aye Than reported.

Another dissident who ridiculed the regime, Saw Wai, was sentenced to two years imprisonment for publishing a poem mocking Than Shwe in the weekly Love Journal, according to Rangoon sources. The first words of each line of the Burmese language poem spelled out the message “Senior General Than Shwe is foolish with power.”

Nay Phone Latt’s blogs during the September 2007 uprising provided invaluable information about events within the locked-down country.

Two Rangoon journalists, Htun Htun Thein and Khin Maung Aye, of the privately-owned weekly News Watch, were arrested on November 5 and are being detained in Insein Prison. The media rights organizations Reporters without Borders and Burma Media Association have demanded their immediate release.

The current regime crackdown is also aimed at silencing legal attempts to ensure fair trials for dissidents now appearing before judges in closed court sessions.

Two weeks ago, three defense lawyers, Nyi Nyi Htwe, Aung Thein and Khin Maung Shein were imprisoned for between four and six months for contempt of court after complaining of unfair treatment.

Four other defense lawyers, Kyaw Hoe, Maung Maung Latt, Myint Thaung and Khin Htay Kyew have been barred from representing their clients since November 5, according to Kyaw Hoe. The lawyers are representing several dissidents, including members of the 88 Generation Students group.

“I asked a prison authority why I was not allowed to appear in court,” said Kyaw Hoe. “He said there was no reason and that the order had come from higher officials.”

Members of the 88 Generation Students group were now appearing daily in court without their defense lawyers, Kyaw Hoe said.

Two lawyers, Myint Thaung and Khin Htay Kyi, who represent the prominent labor activist Su Su Nway, withdrew from court proceedings at the weekend, citing unfair treatment, according to the accused’s sister, Htay Htay Kyi.

Htay Htay Kyi said Su Su Nway would be sentenced on Tuesday. The winner of the 2006 John Humphrey Freedom Award was originally charged with “threatening the stability of the government,” under articles 124, 130 and 505 of the penal code, but new charges have now been added.

In a statement in Washington, the US State Department criticized the imprisonment of the four defense lawyers and urged the Burmese regime to drop all charges and release them.

Deputy Spokesman Robert Wood called on the junta to stop harassing and arresting citizens for peacefully practicing their internationally recognized human rights, to release all political prisoners, and to start a genuine dialogue with democratic forces and ethnic minority groups for democratic reform in Burma.

Court sentenced blogger for over 20 years, poet for two years
by Than Htike Oo, Mizzima News, Monday, 10 November 2008


Chiang Mai – A court in Rangoon's notorious Insein prison on Monday has sentenced a popular Blogger Nay Phone Latt to over 20 years in prison.

Nay Phone Latt, who was arrested on 29 January, on Monday was sentenced by the Insein prison court on three counts including charges under section 505 (b) of the Penal Code - crime against public tranquillity.

The Blogger's mother Aye Aye Than, told Mizzima that her son was sentenced to two years under section 505(b) of the Penal Code, three and half years under sections 32(b)/36 of the Video Law and 15 years under section 33(a)/38 of the Electronic Law.

"We were waiting outside during the court proceedings and after the court session we asked the judge about the quantum of punishment. The judge and prosecutor informed us regarding the judgement," she said.

The 28-years-old, Nay Phone Latt, a famous blogger, is also a youth member of Burma's main opposition party - National League for Democracy. He runs internet cafés in several townships in Rangoon including "The Explorer" in Pabedan Township, and "Heaven" in Thingangyun Township.

His mother Aye Aye Than said that she had no idea why they had sentenced her son to such a long term in prison.

"He is the first ever blogger to be arrested in Burma. I have no idea why they punished my son with such a harsh judgement. Blogging is perhaps a very serious crime in the opinion of the authorities," his mother said.

Meanwhile, Nay Phone Latt's defense counsel, Aung Thein, was also sentenced to four months prison-term in absentia on November 7, for a charge of contempt of the court.

Similarly, poet Saw Wei was also sentenced to two years in prison on Monday with charges of 'inducing crime against public tranquillity'.

He was arrested in February, after his poem entitled 'February 14' was published in the Weekly 'Ah Chit' (love) Journal. In his Burmese poem, putting together of the first words of all the lines spells out 'Power Crazy Snr. Gen.Than Shwe', which provokes the authorities and he was immediately arrested.

"I am worried about his health. I want to arrange proper medical treatment outside the prison for him, where X-ray facility would be available in order to diagnose his back and waist pain. Currently, he cannot get these treatments inside the prison. He has to cover his body with a towel all the time. This morning too at the court, he could not sit for a long time and had to stand up frequently to ease his pain when speaking," Saw Wai's wife told Mizzima.

Soe Maung, the defense counsel of Saw Wai said, despite of the court's verdict, he will continue filing appeals for revision, as he thinks the trial were not free and fair enough.

"We will file an appeal against this judgment at all levels of the courts including an appeal for a revision case. We intend to do as much as the law and judicial proceedings permit us to, within the legal framework, until we reach the last stage. I am preparing for an appeal on my client's instruction," Soe Maung said.

Meanwhile, media watchdogs the Reporters Without Frontiers (RSF) and Burma Media Association (BMA) has slam the junta for its unfair trials on the two writers – Nay Phone Latt and Saw Wai – and the verdict to sentenced them.

The two organisations said, they are appalled by the combined sentence of 20 years and six months in prison that a special court in Insein prison passed on Nay Phone Latt and two years to poet Saw Wai.

"This shocking sentence is meant to terrify those who go online in an attempt to elude the dictatorship's ubiquitous control of news and information, and we call for his immediate release. Saw Wai, for his part, is being made to pay for his impertinence and courage as a committed poet," the two organisations said in a press statement.

The two media watchdogs also call on all bloggers and poets around the world to show their solidarity towards Nay Phone Latt and Saw Wai.

"There is an urgent need now for bloggers all over the world to demonstrate their solidarity with Nay Phone Latt by posing his photo on their blogs and by writing to Burmese embassies worldwide to request his release. Similarly, we call on poets to defend their fellow-poet, Saw Wai, who has been jailed just because of one poem," said the two organisations.
          5 Home style tips to borrow from India   
5 Home style tips to borrow from India

India is as diverse as it is big. With more than 1.2 billion people calling India home, the variation of housing and the disparity in living conditions is profound. Essentially, housing is dependent on region and socioeconomic status; from multi-million dollar mansion to poverty struck slums, there is a clear dichotomy in the Indian way of living.

While 22% of the population still live below the poverty line, India’s burgeoning middle class has grown exponentially over the past 15 years. The growth of the middle class has seen a boost in the Indian economy and a shift, albeit slight, in the standard of living for many Indians. Even so, as a result of the extreme contrast in living conditions still ever present across the nation , it can be said there isn’t a ‘fundamental’ Indian home. Instead, aspects of tradition, religion, culture and Western influence shape what we know as Indian homes today.

Here are 5 common interior trends that can bring a little Indian style into the home.

Indian home style 

1. Add bright colours

Colour plays a huge role in not just interior design in India, but in every aspect of their culture. While there may be a profound contrast in living conditions depending on region, wealth and population, it is the universality of the meaning of colour that connects India as a community. Colours are associated with emotion, status, religion, politics, festivals and celebrations; so it’s understandable why it plays a huge role in the home too.

Popular for their positive connotations and deep-rooted meanings, colours such as blue, green, deep red, and gold are all ideal palette choices for decoration in Indian homes. Blue is associated with one of the most favoured Gods in India, Lord Krishna and is therefore well liked and commonly used around the home. Green symbolises happiness, harvest and new beginnings, particularly because of India’s rich agricultural economy. In a general sense, Indians believe green is a symbol of nature and therefore an expression of God himself. On the other hand, deep reds and golds are symbols of great wealth and grandeur. Symbolising affluence and prosperity, gold is a favoured choice of colour for those Indians who are of higher socioeconomic status.  

Typically, Indians use colours in the home to represent particular feelings, certain beliefs and desired prophetic outcomes. While in the western world colour is usually selected based on personal preference and particular taste, in India colours are steeped in tradition and history, playing a role that extends far beyond aesthetic appeal.

Add bright colours 

2. Incorporate wooden furniture

Many furnishings found in the Indian home are made from a vast range of woods. Wood is favoured for its longevity, timelessness and strength. In India, there are five different types of traditional woods. For items such as chests of drawers and shoe racks, Marandi wood is the material of choice. It’s commonly known as cedar wood and is not only durable, but aesthetically pleasing too.

For bedroom and kitchen cabinets, sofa sets, dining sets and even flooring, Sheesham or Indian Rosewood is one of the most sought-after materials on the market. Sheesham is a hardwood popular for its versatility and ability to withstand fluctuating temperatures.  

Sal Wood is common for the structures in Indians homes, such as door frames, beams and window frames. It’s one of the most durable wood options and has the ability to endure the effects of water and underground conditions. Satin Wood can be found in many decorative pieces of furniture in Indian homes. This type of wood can be sourced from both central and southern India. While it is a durable, it is difficult to upkeep.  

And the most commonly used wood for furniture in India is Teak Wood. Locally produced as well as imported from Ghana and Burma, Teak Wood is a good all-rounder option, ideal for door frames, cabinets, tables, decorative items and many other common furnishings found in an Indian home.

 using wood in indian style

3. Use muslin and different materials

Indian has many different materials locally grown and easily available that are used around the home. One of the most popular materials in India is Muslin. Originating in Bangladesh, muslin is finely woven, breathable fabric perfect for Indian’s unwavering heat. Commonly used to make garments of clothing, muslin is popular for its durability, natural fibres and ability to soften over time. Muslin is also used around the house, particularly in the kitchen.   

Silk is also a very popular material in India. Known as a material of luxury, silk possess a natural lustre and shine and is a premium material compared to others, like cotton. Similar to Muslin, silk is commonly used for clothing, but has also made its way into the home as a decorative item.

Different materials - Indian style 

4. Marigold and lotus flowers

There are around 15,000 flowering plant species in India. Different areas of India produce specific flowers, making some flora more popular in certain areas than others. The Lotus flower is the national flower of India and has a strong tie to religion. The Lotus flower is rich in meaning, symbolising divinity, fertility, wealth and knowledge. The Lotus is an aquatic plant with broad floating leaves and a pink flower. For those who have a pond in the garden, it’s typical for Lotus flowers to decorate the space.

Native to India, the Marigold flower is grown all throughout the nation year-round. Not only are they visually appealing, flowering in a bright orange and yellow, they also omit a strong perfume perfect for keeping bugs away. Marigold is the perfect flower for those who live in crop areas, as they repel any mosquitoes from coming close to the harvest.

Flower in the home 

5. Adopt a little Vastu shastra

Religion plays an integral role in the Indian way of living. Many cultural practices in India are shaped by religion, particularly Hinduism, which is the one of the four major religions found in India. Vastu shastra is a traditional Hindu system of architecture, which translates in a literal sense to the “science of architecture”. Essentially, it is an ancient Indian science of harmony and prosperous living. It encourages individuals to rid their life of any negativity and increase the level of positive energy, in particular energy found in the home. Indians believe that because people spend a lot of time inside, whether it is at work or at home, it’s imperative that there is positive energy within these places of confinement. Vastu shastra links buildings with mother-nature so that those who occupy a particular space live balanced, happy and harmonious lives.  

As such, Vastu shastra is a commonly adopted practice in many Indian homes. It is a philosophy dependent on different energies originating from the atmosphere, such as solar energy from the sun, lunar energy from the moon, as well as thermal, magnetic, light and wind energy too. The way Vastu shastra is achieved is through, for instance, the way the home is decorated, the correct placement of furniture, the direction in which one sleeps, how objects sit in relation to each other, what certain elements of the home are made from, the height of doors, the number of doors, the level of lighting, the size of the windows, and so on. While the criteria of a home deemed Vastu shastra may seem extensive, when executed correctly, the home will be a place of balance, contentment, peace and harmony.

Consult a hipages interior decorator on how to bring more Indian style into your home. 


          2 villagers killed as hundreds flee clashes between Burma Army and TNLA   
At least two villagers were killed by shelling and another 300 fled their homes amid fighting between Burmese armed forces and the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA) in northern Shan State. According to TNLA’s news and information department, two local people in Wan Penghoi Village, Kutkhai Township, were killed and another was seriously injured earlier […]
          Hâkimden sanığa: Bu ceza sana az bile   
Hâkimden sanığa: Bu ceza sana az bile
İstanbul’da 74 yaşındaki kadının 12 burma bileziği ile parasını dolandıran Orhan K., 10 yıl hapis ve 150 bin TL para cezasına çarptırıldı. İbretlik cezayı veren mahkeme başkanı sanığı bir de azarladıDevamı için tıklayınız
          Comment on Sino-Indian standoff must be defused by mg   
It is high time that India got its acts together and went for once in the offensive– instead of being defensive and reacting to after the fact– and then even so— BARELY. India should be employing the SAME tactics that the Chinks are using to keep them on their toes. India should be putting and going into defense, strategic, economic, political, business, commercial and all other relationships possible with countries in the South China Sea– specially Vietnam. Then they should not only stop there but expand their role with Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Phillipines, Sri Lanka and whoever they can get them to be on board with them. AND they must start now and start simultaneously so that the chinks have no idea where to pay attention. Give it to them the same way—ONLY 50times harder and stronger. SECOND: Indians should STOP buying and purchasing any items from China... Let the government of India encourage the Indian consumers to stop buying – -just like the chinks do. And then see them squirm. Nothing gets them more than when people start boycotting their dam products. Finally: It is high time that India should start displaying arrogance towards the chinks. Having a friendly relations with them will not help. Last of all, India should STOP sending any pilgrims to China. In fact, India should start a serious campaign informing its pilgrims that all Hindu and Buddhism sites in China have been contaminated by its very presence for being in China and within China. They should stop promoting ANY pilgrims going to China for it and instead inform that the same CAN be achieved by doing similar stuff in India or in Nepal or even at home. As soon as the Indian official start this sort of a thinking... even if it doesnt catch up, you will see how the chinks start squirming for nothing hits them hardest than MONEY... They earn hundreds of millions from all the pilgrims and this must be stopped. Nothing draws a chinks attention more than money does.
          Burma says it will not let outside world investigate Rohingya 'genocide' claims   
Officials say an ongoing domestic investigation is 'sufficient' to look into the allegations
          Wildzerlege- und Grillkurs am FB Forchheim   
Martin Burmann bei der Arbeit
Wildbret als Weihnachtsbraten ist „in aller Munde“ und wird am Forstbetrieb Forchheim jeweils ab Oktober stark nachgefragt. Darauf, dass Wildfleisch aber auch bestens für den Grill geeignet ist, wollte der Forstbetrieb am 17.06.2017 mit...
          Waqar Zaka in Myanmar Burma – Help or Hack Pakistanis   

He is not the favorite among the majority, He isn’t seeking out for some fame this time but to help stranded Muslims in Myanmar ( Burma) , Waqar Zaka happens to be only individual from Pakistan who has reached out there to help Poor Muslims. What he went through he shared in his video on the […]

The post Waqar Zaka in Myanmar Burma – Help or Hack Pakistanis appeared first on INCPak.


           7.7. (Fr): Abenteuer Burma - Meine Reise durch den Dschungel (Burma's Secret Jungle War with Joe Simpson)   
Abenteuer Burma - Meine Reise durch den Dschungel: GEO Television (Pay-TV), Start: 07.07.
          NYAFF ’17: The Road to Mandalay   
It sounds exotic, but Hope & Crosby never traveled like Lianqing and Guo. The Burmese migrants will pay stiff fees and endure rough conditions, just so they can work like dogs in Bangkok. Things ought to be easier if they stick together, but it might not necessarily work out that way in Midi Z’s The Road to Mandalay (trailer here), which screens during this year’s New York Asian Film Festival.

Upon arriving in Bangkok, Lianqing gets a surprisingly frosty reception from her cousin. It seems the embittered Hua has recently lost her job due to lack of proper documentation and expects Lianqing will fare even worse. The only people to show her any kindness are their other roommate Cai and Guo, who took her place in the trunk during the arduous trek over the border. Although awkward, he is clearly determined to romantically pursue her—and she cannot deny his work ethic.

Unfortunately, they have different medium-term goals. She wants to attain Thai citizenship (or at least a passable facsimile) so she can ultimately work in Taiwan, whereas he would like to open a clothes-hawking stall in Bangkok. The more circumstance force them together, the more their conflicting goals cause tension in their relationship.

Probably no filmmaker has been more proactive documenting the experiences of refugees, migrant workers, and the generally dispossessed than Z has, in both his documentaries and narrative films. His star ought to be sky-rocketing right now, but the Taiwan-based Burmese expat has focused on his countrymen and other ethnic minorities in China. The sad truth is the world does not care about Buddhist immigrants from Burma. The professionally compassionate can only be bothered with Muslim immigrants, preferably from Syria. The Burmese need not apply.

Indeed, that is the reception that waits for Lianqing in Thailand. Of course, Bangkok being Bangkok, the threat of sexual exploitation always lurks in the background. Perhaps it is intended as a symbolic interlude, but when the film finally descends into the world of prostitution, it becomes bizarrely disturbing, in a way viewers will never expect.

Without question, Road is the most muscular and focused narrative of Z’s career. As usual, his regular muse Wu Ke-xi is absolutely arresting as the innocent-but-tougher-than-she-looks Lianqing. In a drastic change of pace, Tiny Times co-star Kai Ko plays the confused and brooding Guo, wearing his heart and his resentments on his sleeve. He and Wu convincingly show us the couple’s good days and bad.

Road will leave viewers angry but unsure at whom or what—possibly Z.  He certainly isn’t afraid of strong reactions, that’s for sure. He also shows an acute sensitivity towards the poor and marginalized, while Wu once again delivers a mature, eerily expressive performance. Recommended for patrons of topical art cinema and fans of Z or Wu, The Road to Mandalay screens this Monday (7/3) at the Walter Reade, as part of the 2017 NYAFF.
          turquoise zuni bear cluster silver pendant. real turquoise pendant. Zodiac jewelry. GUARDIAN. moss agate citrine tiger eye. star sign Gemini by StoneSavvyJewelry   

22.00 USD

turquoise zuni bear silver pendant. real turquoise pendant. Zodiac jewelry. GUARDIAN. moss agate citrine tiger eye. star sign Gemini. cluster pendant.

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Always respect Mother Nature. Especially when she weighs 400 pounds and is guarding her baby. ~James Rollins
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look at the gorgeous color on this wonderful genuine turquoise Zuni bear. I've accented it with a dangle of little gemstones; moss agate, citrine and tiger eye. if you believe, all these gemstone have special meaning for Gemini (May 21 to June 21). read more below.

total length is 1" including the 7mm bail. you will receive the pendant shown in the photos.

just the stone pendant is included, not the leather.
leather cords are available here:
https://www.etsy.com/listing/197555211/leather-cord-necklace-black-or-brown

want something to match? please ask!
matching turquoise.
https://www.etsy.com/shop/StoneSavvyJewelry/search?search_query=turquoise
more moss agate.
https://www.etsy.com/shop/StoneSavvyJewelry/search?search_query=moss+agate
more citrine.
https://www.etsy.com/shop/StoneSavvyJewelry/search?search_query=citrine
more tiger eye.
https://www.etsy.com/shop/StoneSavvyJewelry/search?search_query=tiger+eye

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According to Zuni mythology, the Bear fetish is the Guardian of the West and has the power to heal and transform human passions into true wisdom. They believe that Bear is invaluable whenever you are faced with change and transition and that it can be your ally when you are attempting to resolve conflict, forgive yourself or others for errors of the past, or when you are faced with new challenges in your spiritual path. There is a particular kind of depression of the spirit sometimes associated with the deep introspective stage of transition and change. When this occurs, Bear is a reminder that there is a parallel between depression and the natural state known as hibernation, when involvement with the outer world is minimized in order to focus more energy on the inner processes necessary for a successful transition.

Bear reminds us that one of the great powers we have is the power of turning to solitude and introspection through which we integrate new experience and change. If you are feeling overwhelmed by events, Bear can help you meditate on the symbolic parallels between your present state of mind and the bear at the door of the cave. You may be reluctant to step out of the cave into the sunshine after a long period of hibernation. You may retreat into the cave again and return to a state of solitude. However, you may be assured that no matter what the circumstances, you can choose peace instead of the conflict or disturbance you are feeling.

Bear represents the healing power within every living thing. Many of us are unprepared to make use of the potential power we possess in our capacity for introspection and solitude. The wisdom of Bear can help you realize this power and use it during those times in your life when the change created by cataclysmic events feels overwhelming.

Bennett, HZ. Zuni Fetishes: Using Native American Objects for Meditation, Reflection, and Insight. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1992, p.97-100

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turquoise has been revered for thousands of years! Crusaders discovered this stone in Turkey. its name means "Turkish stone" in French, a reference to where Persian material passed on its way to Europe. Native Americans have long considered it a holy stone. they also believed it was a magic stone protecting them against harm. objects of turquoise have been discovered in tombs, indicating that the ancient Egyptians and Greeks also believed the stone to have protective properties. in the middle ages, it was thought to give women a sense of happiness and contentment and guarantee success and power to men. the most beautiful specimens are found in Arizona.

tiger eye is a quartz with rich yellow and brown stripes, and a fine golden luster. when viewed from the opposite direction, the colors are reversed. the oriented fibers of crocidolite are twisted or crumpled instead of straight, reminiscent of sand and sunlight. tigereye is also vitreous (hard, unbendable and glasslike). with its strong chatoyance, the gemstone gets its name from its resemblance to the eye of a tiger. Roman soldiers reportedly wore tigereye for protection in battle, and the stone was thought to be all-seeing due to its ocular appearance. however, tigereye made its gemstone debut sometime in the late 19th century. tigereye is found mainly in South Africa, but also in Australia, Burma, Namibia and California in the USA.

agates are among the oldest good luck and healing stones. the name is said to come for the Achates River in Sicily. it was described by the Greek philosopher Theoprastus in 350 B.C. and in Byzantium, people already knew how to enhance the color of agate by burning. because of its layered structure, agate was often used for cameo engraving of heads and coats of arms against a deeper underlying color. agate can be found wherever there were former volcanos.

like bits of moss floating in a clear river, moss agate has intriguing mottled patterns of moss-like inclusions of hornblende (a basic silicate mineral). this stone has long been thought to be helpful to farmers. worn when planting, it ensures a good crop. it is often called the “gardener’s stone”.

the name citrine is derived from the Latin word citrus, meaning 'lemon'. until the Middle Ages this name was used to describe a wide variety of yellow stones. for nearly 6,000 years citrine has been regarded as a gemstone and a healing stone. the soldier's in Caesar's legions wore citrine on their chests because it was believed to have life-saving proprieties in battle. befitting its color, citrine is recognized as the stone of light, sun and life.

the role played by silver in ancient civilizations is similar to that played by gold. until the eighteenth century silver was considered almost as valuable as gold. silver jewelry has been found as early as the fourth millennium B.C. Saxony was the main supplier of silver for a long time and as a result, became very rich. the discovery of the America's and subsequent silver mining in the United State and Mexico were responsible for the drop in value. silver is a precious metal, not a mineral. today the largest deposits of silver are found in Mexico, Australia and Russia.

->->-> for those who believe ;)

-- turquoise --
cleansing, protection, valor
birthstone - December
star sign:
Aquarius ~ turquoise is effective for Aquarius in counteracting and moderating mood swings.
Gemini ~ turquoise protects Gemini from negative influences. it also absorbs unhealthy vibrations.
Libra ~ turquoise brings together within itself the blue vibration of the heavens and the green of the earth; ideal for Libra who is always looking for harmony and balance.

-- tiger eye --
confidence, clear thinking
star sign:
Leo ~ tiger eye reinforces Leo's mental powers and helps her become more inward-looking.
Gemini ~ this gemstone encourages Gemini to direct the gaze within and supports clear thinking.
Virgo ~ tiger eye lightens the burdens of daily life for Virgo.

-- moss agate --
"the gardener's stone"
cleanses the soul, restores the wit
star sign:
Capricorn ~ agate helps Capricorn feel safe and relaxed.
Gemini ~ moss agate offers Geminis insight and understand of different cultures and lifestyles.

-- citrine --
comfort, creativity, confidence
November birthstone
star sign:
Capricorn ~ this gemstone brings Capricorn self-confidence and warm-heartedness.
Pisces ~ citrine prevents Pisces from allowing her feelings to go unexpressed.
Taurus ~ citrine provides Taurus with the send of safety and security that is so important to her.
Gemini ~ citrine lights Gemini's path, providing emotional clarity she needs to find her way through difficulties.
Leo ~ citrine brings Leo relaxation and rest. it awakens compassion.
Virgo ~ this is the stone of self-confidence and individuality. in times of confusion and frustration, it provides Virgo with good cheer.

-- silver --
some believe that silver transmits and intensifies the power of healing stones, so that when they are set in silver they become even more powerful. turquoise and coral are examples. like gold, silver symbolizes wealth and prosperity. those prone to outbursts of anger and rudeness can be pacified by silver.

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5% of each sale is donated to the American Hospice Association and 5% to alz.org

click here for both shipping info and jewelry care https://www.etsy.com/shop/StoneSavvyJewelry/policy

return to my shop www.etsy.com/shop/StoneSavvyJewelry
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          Retribution Road by Antonin Varenne   
Retribution Road by Antonin Varenne English | 2017 | Adventure, Thriller | EPUB | 487 KB Burma, 1852. Arthur Bowman, a sergeant in the East India Company, is sent on a secret mission during the Second Anglo-Burmese War. But the …

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          90s Oversize Light Grey Sport Tee by AndVintageClothing   

38.00 USD

Soft and slouchy tee with sporty material.
LABEL: Burma Bileas // SIZE ON LABEL: XL // ACTUAL SIZE: Small - XL depending on preferred fit // MATERIAL: 75% Rayon Polynosic, 25% Polyester // COLOR: Light Grey // CONDITION: Excellent, like new.
MEASUREMENTS: Shoulder -24 " // Sleeve - 10" // Chest - 50" // Length - 29"
MODEL: Height- 6’1” // Size - Medium


          Burma : Three journalists jailed after covering illegal armed group’s event   
News
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) calls for the release of three journalists who were arrested after covering an event organized by an illegal armed group, and urges the authorities to drop the charges brought against them under the draconian Unlawful Associations Act.

The three journalists – Aye Naing and Pyae Phone Naing of Democratic Voice of Burma and Thein Zaw of The Irrawaddy – were charge


          Burma: Govt to refuse entry to UN team probing Rohingya abuses   

BURMA (Myanmar) will refuse entry to members of a United Nations probe focusing on allegations of killings, rape and torture by security forces against Rohingya Muslims, an official said on Friday.

The post Burma: Govt to refuse entry to UN team probing Rohingya abuses appeared first on Asian Correspondent.


          Book Review - Chandni Chowk – The Mughal City of Old Delhi by Swapna Liddle   
“The royal mind…pays full attention to the planning and construction…the majority of buildings he designs himself, and on the plans prepared by skilful architects, after long consideration he makes appropriate alternations and amendments…..” Abdul Hamid Lahori, chief historian of Shahjahan’s reign. (p.3 Chandni Chowk)

Mirza Shahabuddin Baig Muhammad Khan Shah Jahan, third son of Jahangir, also known as Salim, and grandson of the great Mughal emperor, Akbar, ascended the throne on 14th February 1628 in Agra. Akbar had presided over some remarkable developments in arts, paintings and architecture, but his grandson Shah Jahan, was obsessed with monuments and architecture, like his great grandfather Timur, who built the city of Samarkand.

It is during his reign that Shah Jahan commissioned a number of buildings, best known among them the Taj Mahal for his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Once the Taj Mahal was completed, Shah Jahan’s attention went on to build another monument like the Agra Fort, but at a much larger scale. A mission was sent around to find the next spot and Delhi, by the Yamuna River was chosen to be where the Red Fort was to be constructed. On 12th May, 1639, the foundation stone was laid, exactly 368 years ago!

In her book, Chandni Chowk, author and historian Swapna Liddle recounts with vivid detail the making of the historic, now an UNESCO World Heritage Site from 2007, Red Fort , and the growth of the area around it to be known as Shahjahanabad, which is now called Chandini  Chowk.  The book has borrowed from her unpublished Ph.D thesis in some chapters like 4 and 5. The scholar and historian of the 19thCentury, Delhi, has in this book, covered the entire period of Shah Jahan’s reign in Delhi and the final take over by his own son Aurangzeb, when Shah Jahan fell quite ill and died on May 9, 1666. Mayhem ruled thereafter, as Aurangzeb beheaded Dara Sikoh, the eldest son and heir apparent of Shah Jahan much to the grief and disgust of the people of Shahjahanabad. Then until 1809, a reign of instability continued till the British take over in 1809.

What I especially liked in the book, is the ‘feel of Shahjahanabad’ and it gave me a taste of the culture of the place and although the Mughal women were much in pardah then as well, when you look at this fact that  the area called Chandni Chowk, was designed mainly by Shah Jahan’s favourite daughter, Jahanara.

All the important mosques in the city were built by members of the royal family. Somewhat to the west of Fatehpuri mosque…which was built by Fatehpuri Begam, was Sirhindi Masjid, built by Sirhindi Begam. At the northern end of Faiz Bazar was the Akbarabadi Masjid, built by Akbarabadi Begum. All the ladies were wives of Shahjahan, and were known by appellations that referred to the towns where they came from, instead of having their personal names taken in public.” (p.17, Chandni Chowk)

There was a general hustle bustle around Shahjahanabad, alive from morning to night with activities – jewellery, elaborately embroidered clothing, horses, horse-cart, entertainment halls, rich men’s havelis, and the like. As the Mughal empire weakened over the years more people came from outside and made their living quarters there. It was however, Nadir Shah, who traveled from Turk and decisively defeated the Mughal force. Since Shah Jahan, it really never was the same. Gradually, in 1809, the British wanting to increase their territory came into Red Fort and took the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah and put him in exile in Burma. After many years of ups and downs, an era of stability reigned under the Company’s Rule, to be disturbed by the 1857 Mutiny, which started in Meerat and continued briefly in Delhi at Chandni Chowk. Soon the British were to make their new Capital City in Delhi and they would put a cover on Shahjahanabad as ‘unfavourable’ for their Imperial capital city.

The author, Swapna Liddle, has packed in a lot in this one book and really it must be read, if you love Delhi. But more so, if you want to preserve in your mind and on your bookshelf/Kindle, the history which is fast erasing out as new politics spread across the country.

I quote from a review which best describes what has gone into the book, “Swapna Liddle draws upon a wide variety of sources, such as the accounts of Mughal court chroniclers, travellers’ memoirs, poetry, newspapers and government documents, to paint a vivid and dynamic panorama of the city from its inception to recent times.”(Ref: HERE )

Parting lines, I would so much love to quote from the book –

A famous courtesan of the times was Nur Bai, who enjoyed a rich lifestyle ….Apart from being an accomplished singer; she had a critical taste for poetry, brilliant conversational skills and an extremely sophisticated manner… It is rumoured that many had squandered their fortunes for the pleasure of her company. Those less talented could rely on sensationalism. One courtesan was notorious for her style of dress, for instead of wearing any garment on her lower limbs, she would have her skin painted to mimic fabric. This would then show through her sheer outer clothing, and until closely scrutinized, would give the appearance of a garment.”   (p.59, Chandni Chowk)

Just imagine! She had set up a fashion we are following now, 368 years later!





















Publisher: Speaking Tiger 
Pages: 176 with Notes
Price: Hard Cover: INR 300
To Buy CLICK HERE  

          ပြည်သူလူထုက YBS စနစ်လွဲမှားမှုများအပေါ် သည်းခံပေးနေဆဲဟု ဦးဝင်းထိန်ပြောဆို   

ပြည်သူလူထုဘက်မှ NLD အပေါ် မေတ္တာ မပျက်သေး သဖြင့် YBS ယာဉ်လိုင်းသစ် စနစ် လွဲမှား မှုများအပေါ် သည်းခံနေကြခြင်း ဖြစ်သည်ဟု ပါတီ ၏ ပြောခွင့်ရပုဂ္ဂိုလ် ဦးဝင်းထိန်က ယူဆထားသည် ။ ဦးဝင်းထိန်က “YBS ဆိုတာ အရင်တုန်းက ကျနော်တို့တသက်လုံး စီးလာတဲ့ မထသ လိုဖြစ်လာတာဆိုတော့ ဒီလိုဖြစ်နေတာပေါ့။ သို့သော်လည်း ပြည်သူလူကသည်းခံတဲ့ အတိုင်းအတာ တော်တော်ကိုကြီးတယ်။ အဲဒီလို ကြီးတယ် ဆိုတာ ပြည်သူလူထုက ကျနော်တို့ကို မေတ္တာမပျက်သေးဘူးလို့ ယူဆရတာပေါ့” ဟု ယမန်နေ့ ညနေပိုင်းက ရန်ကုန်မြို့ နည်းပညာ တက္ကသိုလ် များမှ ကျောင်းသားသမဂ္ဂများနှင့် နေပြည်တော်၊ စည်ပင်ဧည့်ရိပ်သာတွင် တွေ့ဆုံစဉ် ပြောကြားခဲ့သည်။ YBS စနစ်သည် ရန်ကုန်တိုင်းဝန်ကြီးချုပ် ဦးဖြိုးမင်းသိန်း […]

The post ပြည်သူလူထုက YBS စနစ်လွဲမှားမှုများအပေါ် သည်းခံပေးနေဆဲဟု ဦးဝင်းထိန်ပြောဆို appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          မြန်မာ့ဂုဏ်ဆောင် ကမ္ဘာ့ချန်ပီယံ အောင်လအန်ဆန်း   

ရှုံးပွဲမရှိသူ ကမ္ဘာ့ချန်ပီယံဟောင်း ဘစ်တာလီ ဘစ်ဒက်ရှ်အတွက်တော့ သူ၏ MMA ဖိုက်တာဘ၀ ရှုံးနိမ့်သူအမည် စာရင်းတွင် မြန်မာနိုင်ငံမှ အောင်လအန်ဆန်းက ထိပ်ဆုံးမှ ပါဝင်သွားခဲ့ပြီ ဖြစ်သည်။

The post မြန်မာ့ဂုဏ်ဆောင် ကမ္ဘာ့ချန်ပီယံ အောင်လအန်ဆန်း appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          Michelin က ထုတ်လုပ်မယ့် တာယာနည်းပညာသစ် အကြောင်း တစေ့တစောင်း   

Vision လို့ အမည်ပေးထားတဲ့ တာယာစနစ်က တာယာတမျိုးတည်း ဖန်တီးထားတဲ့ စနစ်သစ် မဟုတ်ပဲ ဘီးနဲ့ အတူ ပူးတွဲ ဖန်တီးထားတဲ့ စနစ်သစ်ပါ။ လေထိုးစရာ မလိုပါဘူး။

The post Michelin က ထုတ်လုပ်မယ့် တာယာနည်းပညာသစ် အကြောင်း တစေ့တစောင်း appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ်အရေး အစိုးရအဖွဲ့ အထူးအစည်းဝေးပြုလုပ်   

ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ်အရေးကိစ္စဆိုင်ရာ အထူးအစည်းအဝေးတစ်ရပ်ကို ဒေါ်အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည် အပါအဝင် အစိုးရအဖွဲ့ဝင်များ သမ္မတအိမ်တော်မှာ ယမန်နေ့ နေ့လည်ပိုင်း က ပြုလုပ်ကြောင်း နိုင်ငံတော် အတိုင်ပင်ခံရုံးက သတင်းထုတ်ပြန်ပါတယ်။

The post ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ်အရေး အစိုးရအဖွဲ့ အထူးအစည်းဝေးပြုလုပ် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          နိုင်ငံရေး ဆွေးနွေးပွဲ မူဘောင် အားနည်းချက်ပြင်ရန် ကရင်အဖွဲ့များ ကြိုးပမ်း   

ရေးဆွဲ အတည်ပြုထားသည့် ကရင်အမျိုးသားအဆင့် နိုင်ငံရေးဆွေးနွေးပွဲ မူဘောင်၌ အားနည်းချက်များ ရှိခဲ့ သည်ဟု သုံးသပ်ထား၍ ပြင်ဆင်၊ ဖြည့်စွက်နိုင်ရန် ပြည်ထောင်စု ငြိမ်းချမ်းရေး ဖော်ဆောင်မှု ပူးတွဲ ကော်မတီ(UPDJC) သို့ ပေးပို့မည် ဖြစ်ကြောင်း

The post နိုင်ငံရေး ဆွေးနွေးပွဲ မူဘောင် အားနည်းချက်ပြင်ရန် ကရင်အဖွဲ့များ ကြိုးပမ်း appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          အဂတိလိုက်စားမှု တိုက်ဖျက်ရေး ကော်မရှင် အသစ်ပြန်ဖွဲ့မည်   

အဂတိလိုက်စားမှု တိုက်ဖျက်ရေး ကော်မရှင်ကို အသစ်ပြန်လည် ဖွဲ့စည်းရန် ရှိကြောင်း အမျိုးသား လွှတ်တော် ဥပဒေ ကြမ်း ကော်မတီ ဥက္ကဌ ဦးဇော်မင်းက နေပြည်တော်ရှိ သတင်းထောက်များကို ပြောသည်။

The post အဂတိလိုက်စားမှု တိုက်ဖျက်ရေး ကော်မရှင် အသစ်ပြန်ဖွဲ့မည် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ထိုင်း ရွှေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမား ဥပဒေသစ် ယာယီဆိုင်းငံ၊ ဖမ်းဆီးများလည်းရပ်ဆိုင်း   

“ဒီဥပဒေက အလုပ်သမားအတွက်ရော၊ အလုပ်ရှင်အတွက်ပါ အင်မတန် ကြောက်စရာ၊ လန့်စရာ ကောင်းတဲ့ ဥပဒေကြီးပါ၊ ဒါကို ရပ်ဆိုင်းလိုက်ပြီး ရက်ပေါင်း ၁၂၀ အချိန်ပေးလိုက်တာတော့ ကျေးဇူးတင်ရမှာပါ”

The post ထိုင်း ရွှေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမား ဥပဒေသစ် ယာယီဆိုင်းငံ၊ ဖမ်းဆီးများလည်းရပ်ဆိုင်း appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          KIO အပါအဝင် ၄ ဖွဲ့ကို UNFC မှ နုတ်ထွက်ခွင့်ပြု   

ညီညွတ်သောတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ ဖက်ဒရယ်ကောင်စီ (UNFC) က ၎င်းတို့တပ်ပေါင်းစုထံ နုတ်ထွက်စာတင်ထားသော ကချင်လွတ်လပ်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (KIO) အပါအဝင် တိုင်းရင်းရင်းသား လက်နက်ကိုင် ၄ ဖွဲ့ကို နှုတ်ထွက်ခွင့်ပြုလိုပြီဖြစ်သည်

The post KIO အပါအဝင် ၄ ဖွဲ့ကို UNFC မှ နုတ်ထွက်ခွင့်ပြု appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          သာသနာ့အလံကို တလွဲအသုံးပြုပါက အရေးယူမည်   

သာသနာ့အလံကို နိုင်ငံရေး၊ လူမှုရေး စသည့် လောကီရေးရာ ကိစ္စရပ်များနှင့် မသင့်လျော်သော နေရာများတွင် အသုံးပြုပါက ဥပဒေနှင့်အညီ အရေးယူ ဆောင်ရွက်မည်ဖြစ်ကြောင်း

The post သာသနာ့အလံကို တလွဲအသုံးပြုပါက အရေးယူမည် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          သူနာပြုလောက ပြုပြင်ပြောင်းလဲရေး လုပ်မည်ဟု ကျန်းမာရေးဝန်ကြီးပြော   

ပြည်သူ့ကျန်းမာရေးအတွက် အရေးပါသောဝန်ထမ်းတရပ်ဖြစ်သည့် သူနာပြုလောက ပြုပြင် ပြောင်းလဲမှုများကို ပြည်ထောင်စု အစိုးရအဖွဲ့သို့တင်ပြ၍ ဆောင်ရွက်ပေးသွားမည်ဖြစ်သည်

The post သူနာပြုလောက ပြုပြင်ပြောင်းလဲရေး လုပ်မည်ဟု ကျန်းမာရေးဝန်ကြီးပြော appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ပြည်ပအလုပ်သမား ဥပဒေအကျပ်အတည်း ဖြေရှင်းရန် ထိုင်းဝန်ကြီးချုပ် ကတိပြု   

ထိုင်းနိုင်ငံ၏ ပိုမိုတင်းကျပ်လာသည့် နိုင်ငံခြား အလုပ်သမားဥပဒေကြောင့် အိမ်နီးချင်း တိုင်းပြည် များမှ လာရောက်သည့် အလုပ်သမားများ ထွက်ခွာမှုများ ဖြစ်ပေါ်နေသည့် ပြဿနာများကို ဖြေရှင်းပေးမည်ဖြစ်ကြောင်း ဝန်ကြီးချုပ် ပရာယွဒ် ချန်အိုချာက ယနေ့ကတိပြုပြောကြားလိုက်သည်။

The post ပြည်ပအလုပ်သမား ဥပဒေအကျပ်အတည်း ဖြေရှင်းရန် ထိုင်းဝန်ကြီးချုပ် ကတိပြု appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ကျောက်ဖြူမြို့နယ် လယ်သမားများသို့ ပေးချေရမည့် မြေလျော်ကြေးငွေများ ပျောက်ဆုံးနေ   

ယခင် အရပ်သားတပိုင်း အစိုးရသည် ထိုရေကာတာ စီမံကိန်းကို ကြီးကြပ်ခဲ့ပြီး ထိုဆည်သည် နောင်တွင် တည်ဆောက်မည့် ကျောက်ဖြူ အထူးစီးပွားရေးဇုန် စီမံကိန်းကို ရေပေးဝေမည် ဖြစ်သည်။

The post ကျောက်ဖြူမြို့နယ် လယ်သမားများသို့ ပေးချေရမည့် မြေလျော်ကြေးငွေများ ပျောက်ဆုံးနေ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          မီဒီယာဖိနှိပ်မှု ကန့်ကွက်ပွဲ ရန်ကုန် မြို့တော်ခန်းမ ရှေ့တွင် ပြုလုပ်   

သတင်း မီဒီယာသမားများအပေါ် ဆက်သွယ်ရေးဥပဒေ၊ မတရားအသင်း ဆက်သွယ်မှု ဥပဒေများဖြင့် ဖမ်းဆီး တရားစွဲဆို နေခြင်းများနှင့် ပတ်သက်ပြီး ကန့်ကွက်ကြောင်း လက်မှတ်ထိုး လှုပ်ရှားမှုကို ဇွန်လ ၃၀ ရက် နေ့လယ်ပိုင်းက ရန်ကုန် မြို့တော် ခန်းမရှေ့တွင် ပြုလုပ်သည်။

The post မီဒီယာဖိနှိပ်မှု ကန့်ကွက်ပွဲ ရန်ကုန် မြို့တော်ခန်းမ ရှေ့တွင် ပြုလုပ် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          အမေရိကန်က ထိုင်ဝမ်သို့ လက်နက်ရောင်းချမှု တရုတ်ဒေါသထွက်   

အမေရိကန်က ထိုင်ဝမ်သို့ ဒေါ်လာ ၁.၄ ဘီလျံ တန်ဖိုးရှိ လက်နက်များ ရောင်းချရန် အတည်ပြုလိုက် သည့် အတွက် တရုတ်သံအမတ်က အဆိုပါ သဘောတူညီချက်သည် သမ္မတ ထရမ့်နှင့် သမ္မတ ရှီကျင့်ဖျင်တို့ အကြား ဆွေးနွေးချက်ဖြင့် ဆန့်ကျင်နေသည်ဟု ပြောကြားကာ ကန့်ကွက်လိုက်ပါတယ်

The post အမေရိကန်က ထိုင်ဝမ်သို့ လက်နက်ရောင်းချမှု တရုတ်ဒေါသထွက် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ထိုင်းရောက် တရားမဝင် အလုပ်သမားများကို ဖမ်းဆီးချုပ်နှောင်မှုများ မလုပ်ရန် မြန်မာအစိုးရ ညှိနှိုင်းနေ   

တရားမဝင် အလုပ်သမားများသည် ထိုင်းနိုင်ငံ ဥပဒေအသစ်အရ ဘတ်ငွေ ၂ သိန်းမှ လေးသိန်း အထိ ဒဏ်ငွေ ပေးဆောင်ရနိုင်ကြောင်း၊ ထောင်ဒဏ်များကျခံ နိုင်ကြောင်း အလုပ်သမား များသို့ သတိပေးပြောဆိုခဲ့သည်။

The post ထိုင်းရောက် တရားမဝင် အလုပ်သမားများကို ဖမ်းဆီးချုပ်နှောင်မှုများ မလုပ်ရန် မြန်မာအစိုးရ ညှိနှိုင်းနေ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          BURMAY, Vladimir   
BURMAY, Vladimir Petrovich Age 77, of Jefferson, passed away June 27, 2017. Services July 1, 10:00am at Memorial Park South Chapel, Flowery Branch,...
          Burmay, Vladimir Petrovich   
Age 77, of Jefferson, passed away June 27, 2017. Services July 1 , 10:00am at Memorial Park South Chapel. Memorial Park South, Flowery Branch , GA. ...
          BIAFRA-NIGERIA WAR: 'How can I authorize an invasion of my own people'? - US Secret Documents reveal how GOWON initially refused to be pushed into WAR by Northern Emirs   
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Secret American diplomatic dispatches, spread over 21,000 pages, provide previously unknown information about the Nigerian Civil War
Early in the morning of 1 July 1967, Nigeria’s young head of state, Colonel Yakubu Gowon, was feeling uneasy in his office at the Supreme Headquarters, Dodan Barracks in Lagos. The unease was a result of his being ceaselessly pressured to authorize a military invasion of the breakaway Republic of Biafra.
Thirty officers had been recalled from courses abroad. Trains and truck convoys, bearing fuel, supplies and men, were still leaving Kano and Kaduna for the south of River Benue.
Colonel Mohammed Shuwa of the First Area Command had moved his command headquarters southwards and set it up in Makurdi. The 2nd Battalion was already headquartered in Adikpo. Schools and private homes had been commandeered for the use of Major Sule Apollo and his 4th Battalion in Oturkpo. They were itching for action. The same day, Major B.M. Usman “a member of the intimate northern group around Gowon” told the American defense attaché: “I do not know what in hell he is waiting for; the boys are all ready to go. They are only waiting on his word.”
Members of the Supreme Military Council, who had been meeting twice daily, were waiting for his word. The whole nation was waiting. Biafra, which was on high alert, was also waiting.
On 27 June 1967, Cyprian Ekwensi, famous writer and Biafra’s Director of Information Service, through the Voice of Biafra (formerly Enugu Radio), urged Biafrans to be prepared for an invasion on June 29 since “Northerners have often struck on 29th day of the month.” He was alluding to the day northern officers, led by Major T.Y. Danjuma, seized Gowon’s predecessor, Major- General Aguiyi-Ironsi, and killed him in a forest outside Ibadan.
Gowon, then 31, had been running the affairs of 57million Nigerians for 10 months. It had not been easy. Chief Obafemi Awolowo, his 58-year old trusted deputy and adviser, was with Okoi Arikpo and Philip Asiodu, permanent secretaries of the ministries of External Affairs and Trade and Industries respectively.
They were preparing to put the noose on the neck of the Anglo-Dutch oil giant, Shell-BP, which had frozen royalty payments due to the Federation Account on 1 June 1967 and had offered to pay the Biafran government £250,000.
Lieutenant Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, Biafran leader, had ordered all oil companies to start paying all royalties to Enugu because they were operating in a new country or risk heavy penalties.
Specifically, he demanded a minimum of £2million from Shell-BP. The Federal Government had imposed an economic blockade on Biafra. It entailed barring all merchant vessels and sea tankers from sailing to and from Koko, Warri, Sapele, Escravos, Bonny, Port Harcourt, Calabar ports, which Ojukwu had declared part and parcel of Biafra.
Biafra controlled the land on which the oil installations sat; the Nigerian government controlled the coastal entrance and exit to those lands. Shell-BP was confused as to whose order should be obeyed. Sir David Hunt, the British High Commissioner to Nigeria, told his American counterpart after the meeting with the Nigerian delegation: “Awolowo is very firmly in control of Ministry of Finance and he is giving Stanley Gray, Shell’s General Manager and other experts from London a very difficult time for the past three days.” They persuaded Awolowo to accept a deal that would favour the Nigerian government and, at the same time, would predispose oil workers and the £150million investment to danger in the hands of Biafran military forces. Awolowo refused, arguing that anything short of the status quo was recognition of Biafra and concession to the rebels. As for security of investments and personnel, he argued that once royalties were paid, the Nigerian government would have the capacity to fund whatever action it would take on the rebels and Shell-BP’s investments would be safe.
Gowon paced to the large outdated map of the country by the door to his office. When he asked Awolowo to come and join his government, Awolowo said he would accept only if Gowon did something about the dominance of North over the rest of the nation. A month before, Gowon had broken up the North into six states, but the map by the door still showed the old Nigeria, with an imposing North at the top. He ran his finger around the boundaries of Biafra and asked himself: “How can I authorize an invasion of my own people?” He knew what it meant to be resented. He was not the most senior officer in the army. He was not a Muslim Hausa or Fulani from Kano, Kaduna or Sokoto. He was a Christian from one of the small minorities that dot the North and yet, events had promoted him to the position of the Head of State and Commander-in-Chief–to the chagrin of many northern officers, politicians, and emirs.
He knew the Igbo were resented in the North for succeeding where indigenes had failed. His Igbo lover, Edith Ike, told him her life was threatened twice in Lagos since she returned from the North in March.
According to the secret US document of 1 July 1967, Edith’s parents, having lived in the North for 30 years, where she too was born, had fled back to the East in October 1966 because of that year’s massacre of the Igbo. Not 30,000 but around 7,000 were killed, according to the American documents. Donald Patterson of the Political Section and Tom Smith of the Economic Section travelled from the US Embassy in Lagos to the North after the pogrom. “The Sabon-Garis were ghost towns, deserted, with the detritus of people, who had fled rapidly, left behind. Most Northerners we talked to had no apologies for what had happened to the Ibos, for the pogrom that had killed so many. There were exceptions, but in general, there was no remorse and the feeling was one of good riddance.
“One day, our Hausa gardener attacked and tried to beat up our Ibo cook. We fired the gardener, but not long afterwards, the cook left for the East,” said Patterson.
Earlier that week, Gowon called the West German Ambassador in Lagos. The Germans were eager to be in the good graces of the Gowon administration. A war loomed. And in wars, buildings, roads, bridges, and other infrastructure are destroyed. These would need rebuilding. The contract for the 2nd Mainland Bridge (later called Eko Bridge) was signed two years earlier by the Ambassador, CEO of Julius Berger Tiefbau AG and Shehu Shagari, Federal Commissioner for Works and Survey. That was Julius Berger’s first contract in Nigeria. It was due for completion in less than two years and they wanted more bilateral cooperation. The ambassador assured Gowon over the phone that he had taken care of all the details and guaranteed the safety of Edith, the nation’s “First Girlfriend”.
On the evening of 30 June, just before her departure on a commercial airline, Edith told the American Defense Attaché Standish Brooks, and his wife, Gail, that she actually wanted to go to the UK or USA, but Jack, as she affectionately called Gowon, insisted that she could be exposed to danger in either of the two countries. Germany, he reasoned, would be safer.
To Major B.M. Usman and other northern officers around Gowon, who had attributed his slow response to the secession to the fact that his girlfriend was Igbo and that her parents were resettled in the East, it was such a huge relief that at the Supreme Military Council meeting of 3 July 1967, Gowon authorized the long awaited military campaign.
Edith had safely landed in West Germany. Gowon told the gathering: “Gentlemen, we are going to crush the rebellion, but note that we are going after the rebels, not the Ibos.” The military action, which was to become the Nigerian Civil War or the Biafran War or Operation Unicord, as it was coded in military circles, officially started on 6 July 1967 at 5 a.m.
The North was minded to use the war as a tool to reassert its dominance of national affairs. Mallam Kagu, Damboa, Regional Editor of the Morning Post, told the American consul in Kaduna: “No one should kid himself that this is a fight between the East and the rest of Nigeria. It is a fight between the North and the Ibo.” He added that the rebels would be flushed out of Enugu within six weeks. Lt. Colonel Hassan Katsina went further to say with the level of enthusiasm among the soldiers; it would be a matter of “only hours before Ojukwu and his men were rounded up”.
The northern section of the Nigerian military was the best equipped in the country. To ensure the region’s continued dominance, the British assigned most of the army and air force resources to the North. It was only the Navy’s they could not transfer. All the elite military schools were there. The headquarters of the infantry and artillery corps were there. Kaduna alone was home to the headquarters of the 1st Division of the Nigerian Army, Defense Industries Corporation of Nigeria (Army Depot), Air Force Training School and, Nigerian Defence Academy.
Maitama Sule, Minister of Mines and Power in 1966, once told the story of how Muhammadu Ribadu, his counterpart in Defence Ministry, went to the Nigerian Military School, Zaria, and the British Commandant of the school told him many of the students could not continue because they failed woefully. When Ribadu thumbed through the list, Sule said, it was a Mohammed, an Ibrahim, a Yusuf or an Abdullahi. “You don’t know what you are doing and because of this you cannot continue to head the school,” an irate Ribadu was said to have told the commandant.
Shehu Musa Yar’Adua was one of the students for whom the commandant was sacked. “You can see what Yar’Adua later became in life. He became the vice president. This is the power of forward planning,” Sule declared.
Unknown to the forward planners, according to the US documents, Ojukwu had been meticulously preparing for war as early as October 1966, after the second round of massacre in the North. He had stopped the Eastern share of revenues that were supposed to accrue to the Federation Account. By 30 April 1967, he had recalled all Igbos serving in Nigeria embassies and foreign missions and those that heeded his call were placed on the payroll of the government of Eastern Region. The 77,000 square kilometres of the Republic of Biafra–a mere 8 per cent of the size of Nigeria–was already divided into 20 provinces, with leaders selected for each. They had their own judiciary, legislative councils, ministries and ambassadors. Alouette helicopters and a B26 bomber were procured from the French Air Force through a Luxemburg trading company. Hank Warton, the German-American arms dealer, had been flying in Czech and Israeli arms via Spain and Portugal since October 1966. The military hardware, they could not get, they seized. A DC3 and a Fokker F27 were seized from the Nigerian Air Force in April. NNS Ibadan, a Nigerian Navy Seaward Defence Boat (SDB) that docked in Calabar Port, was quickly made Biafran.
Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu, who was supposed to be in Enugu in prison for his role in 1966 coup, joined in training recruits in Abakaliki. Foreign mercenaries were training indoctrinated old people, young men and teenagers recruited as NCOs [Non-commissioned Officers] in jungle warfare, bomb making, mortar and other artillery firing. Ojukwu, through speeches, town hall meetings, market square performances and radio broadcasts, succeeded in convincing his people that their destiny was death or a separate state. All his performances in Ghana that culminated in the Aburi Accord of January 1967, or discussions with the Awolowo-led National Conciliation Committee five months later, turned out to be ruse.
The underground war preparations, the secret arms stockpiles openly manifested themselves as Ojukwu’s stubborn refusal to accept offers or concessions during these peace meetings.
But the Biafrans knew that their vulnerable line was along Ogoja, Ikom, Calabar, Port Harcourt, and Yenogoa. Support from the six million people making up the Eastern minorities was very much unsure. The minorities viewed their leaders in Biafra high command as traitors. And without the minorities, Biafra would be landlocked and most likely, unviable as a state. More so, their vast oil and gas resources were the reason they contemplated secession in the first place. The Biafra high command believed that if there was going to be any troop incursion from there, they are going to be transported through ship. They already had a B26 bomber to deal fire to Nigeria’s only transport ship, NNS Lokoja, anytime it approached the Biafran coastline.
The Biafrans also knew that Gowon wanted to respect the neutrality of Midwest and not invade through Niger Bridge, which would have driven the people of the Midwest into waiting Biafran hands. But if Gowon changed his mind and there was a general mobilization of the two battalions of the federal troops there, they had trustworthy men there that would alert Enugu. And if that failed, according to the US documents, the Niger Bridge had been mined using “explosives with metal covering across the roadbed at second pier out from the eastern side”.
The Biafrans also knew that the Yoruba, who were sworn enemies of the Northern hegemony, would never join the North militarily or politically against the Biafrans. When Gowon vouched to “crush the rebellion,” progressive Yoruba intellectuals deplored the language. Professor Hezekiah Oluwasanmi, Vice Chancellor of University of Ife, described the use of the word as unfortunate. Justice Kayode Eso of the Western Court of Appeal said: “Crushing the East was not the way to make Nigeria one.”
Mr. Strong, the American consul in Ibadan, whom they had been speaking to, confidentially wrote: “As intellectuals and modernizers, they see the conflict in terms of continuing determination of conservative North to dominate the more advanced South and they expressed fear that once North subdues East, it will seek to assert outright dominance over the West. The centre of trouble might then swing back to the West, where it all started.”
The Biafrans understood, therefore, that their strongest defence perimeter would be along Nsukka, Obudu, Gakem and Nyonya in Ogoja province, where they share border with the North. That was where they concentrated. On 8 July after three days of fighting, only four Biafran troops were dead and nine wounded in Obudu, while up to 100 Nigerian troops were dead, according to the Irish Embassy official, Eamon O’tuathail, who visited the Catholic Mission Hospital in Obudu. He said: “Forty five (45) of the dead had already been buried and the villagers were seen carrying the heads of the remaining around town.” In June before fighting started, Ojukwu charged on Biafra Radio: “Each Biafran soldier should bring back ten or twenty Hausa heads.”
At Nyanya, Nigerian troops attempted to seize the bridge linking Obudu and Ogoja, but were beaten back by the Biafran troops on 7 July at 1400hrs. According to the New York Times’ Lloyd Garrison’s dispatch of 8 July: “The Biafran Air Force–a lone B-26 fighter bomber–flew sorties from Enugu today, bombing and strafing enemy columns. Asked what damage it had inflicted, its European pilot replied: “Frankly, I don’t know. But we made a lot of smoke. Hundreds of Enugu pedestrians waved and cheered each time the plane returned from a mission and swooped low over the city buzzing Ogui Avenue.”
Tunde Akingbade of the Daily Times, who was returning from the frontlines, said the first Nigerian battalion in Ogoja area was “almost completely wiped out by a combination of mines and electrical devices (Ogbunigwe)”.
In the first few weeks of the war, the Biafrans were clearly on top. “Enugu is very calm,” the confidential cable of 13 July 1967 noted. “Ojukwu is dining with Field Commanders in State House tonight.”
On the federal side, confusion reigned. They had grossly underestimated Biafran capabilities. “Gowon and his immediate military advisers believe they can carry out a successful operation putting their trust in the superiority of the Hausa soldier,” the British High Commissioner, Sir David Hunt, told his American counterpart on 31 May 1967. He said further: “A northern incursion would be hastily mounted, ill-conceived and more in the nature of a foray.”
Even the Nigerian infantry, which advanced as far as Obolo on Oturkpo-Nsukka Road, was easily repelled. It ran out of ammunition. At the Supreme Headquarters in Lagos, they were accusing Shuwa, the commander, of not sending enough information about what was going on. Shuwa counter-accused that he was not getting enough and timely orders. Requests for ammunition and hardware procurement were chaotically coming to the Federal Armament Board from different units, not collectively from the central command.
Major S.A. Alao, acting commander of Nigerian Air Force (after George Kurubo defected to Biafran High Command) together with the German adviser, Lieutenant Colonel Karl Shipp, had travelled to many European cities to buy jets. They were unsuccessful. Gowon had written to the American president for arms. The State Department declined military assistance to either side. Gowon replied that he was not requesting for assistance, but a right to buy arms from the American market. That too was rejected.
The CIA had predicted a victory for Ojukwu, but American diplomatic and consular corps in Nigeria predicted victory for the Federal side and concluded that a united Nigeria served American interests better than the one without the Eastern Region. Two conflicting conclusions from an important department and a useful agency. The American government chose to be neutral. Dean Rusk, America’s Secretary of State said: “America is not in a position to take action as Nigeria is an area under British influence.”
The British on the other hand were foot-dragging. At the insistence of Awolowo, “the acting prime minister” as he was called in diplomatic circles, Gowon approached the Soviet Union.
According to a secret cable (dated 24/08/67) sent by Dr. Martin Hillenbrand, American Ambassador in East Germany, to his counterpart in Lagos, MCK Ajuluchukwu, Ojukwu’s special envoy, met Soviet Ambassador to Nigeria, Alexandr Romanov, in Moscow in June 1967. Romanov said that for USSR to recognize Biafra and supply it arms, the latter had to nationalize the oil industry. Ojukwu refused, saying that he had no money to reimburse the oil companies and that Biafrans did not have the expertise to run the oil installations.
A month later, Anthony Enahoro, the Federal Commissioner for Information and Labour, went to Moscow, signed a cultural agreement with Moscow and promised to nationalize the oil industry, including its allied industries once they got arms to recapture them from the Biafrans. Within days, 15 MiGs arrived in sections in Ikeja and Kano airports, awaiting assemblage. There was no nationalization.

Meanwhile, buoyed by the confidence from early success, the Biafrans went on the offensive. Their B26 (one of the six originally intended for use against the Nigerian Navy) was fitted with multiple canon and 50mm calibre machine gun mounts. It conducted bombing raids on Makurdi airfield, Kano and Kaduna. Luckily for Nigeria, the two transport DC3s had gone to Lagos to get more reserve mortar and 106-artillery ammo. In Kano, there were no fatalities, only a slight damage to the wing of a commercial plane.
Kaduna, however, was not that lucky. On 10 August 1967, the B26 dropped bombs on Kaduna airbase, damaging many buildings and the main hangar. The German consulate in Kaduna confirmed that a German citizen, a Dornier technician tasked with maintaining Nigerian military planes, was killed and two others injured.
A week later, the senior traffic control officer, A.O. Amaku, was arrested for sabotage. He was accused of failing to shut off the airport’s homing device, thus giving the Biafran plane navigational assistance. His British assistant, Mr. Palfrey, was similarly suspected. He resigned and immediately returned to the UK. However, Major Obada, the airbase commanding officer and an Urhobo from the Midwest, strongly defended the accused.
The daring bomb raid provoked many more Northern civilians to run to the nearest army base and enlist to fight.
According to a report by US Ambassador Elbert Matthews, cabled to Washington on 3 July 1967, unidentified men tried to bomb the police headquarters in Lagos on the night of 2 July. They attempted to drive an automobile into the compound, but the guards did not open the gate. They packed the car across the street near a small house opposite a petrol station. Leaving the car, the men fled and within seconds, an explosion took place. The house was demolished and all its occupants killed, but the petrol station was unaffected. Eleven people, including some of the guards at the police headquarters, were injured.
Two hours later, a second explosion, from explosives in a car parked by a petrol station, rocked Yaba. This time, the station caught fire. The ambassador remarked: “It is possible this is a start of campaign of terrorism…public reactions could further jeopardize safety of Ibos in Lagos.” And sure it did.
A Lagos resident, who visited the police headquarters after the attack, told the Australian ambassador “Ibos must be killed.”
There was panic all over Lagos. Anti-Igbo riots broke out. Northern soldiers at the 2nd Battalion Barracks in Ikeja used the opportunity to launch a mini-version of the previous year’s torture and massacre of the Igbo in the North. On 7 July 1967, Lagos State governor, Lieutenant Colonel Mobolaji Johnson, condemned the bombing in a radio broadcast. “A good number of Igbos in Lagos is innocent and loyal to the federal government. It is only fair that they be allowed to go about their business unmolested so long as they abide by the law and are not agents and evildoers,” Johnson said.
He called for Lagosians to join civil defence units and for Easterners to come and register with the police.
Meanwhile, the corpses of troops and soldiers wounded in Yahe, Wakande, Obudu and Gakem that arrived Kaduna by train on 11 July 1967 sparked enormous interest in enlistment and volunteering. Recruitment centres were established in Ibadan, Enugu, Lagos and Kano. But it was at the Kano centre, headquarters of the 4th Battalion of the Nigerian Regiment that generated the biggest number of recruits. According to the US confidential cable of 17 July 1967, 20,000 of these were veterans, who had been recruited to fight on the British side in Burma. The Burma veterans marched angrily to the recruitment offices to replace those that had been killed or injured. Around 7,000 were accepted. Of these, 5,000 were immediately sent to the frontline. They said they needed no training; only guns.
As they advanced, towards the outskirts of Ikem, 4km southeast of Nsukka, when mortal fires from the Biafran artillery landed close by, inexperienced recruits ducked for cover behind their transport columns out of fear and incompetence in bush warfare. Not these Burma veterans. Damboa, the Regional Editor of the Morning Post, was embedded with some of these veterans under the command of Major Shande, formerly of the 5th Battalion, Kano, which Ojukwu commanded in 1963.
One day, at about 2a.m, Biafran forces began firing from the jungle in the hope of drawing a return fire if the enemy was ahead. “But the veterans were too smart and began to creep towards the source of firing. After some time, the Biafran troops began to advance thinking that there were no federal troops ahead since there was no return of fire. They walked straight into the pointing guns of these veterans, their fingers squeezed the triggers,” said Damboa to a US Consulate officer named Arp.
These veterans were shooting at innocent Igbo civilians, too. Damboa further told Arp, when he came back from the frontlines on 17 September 1967, that “federal troops were shooting most Ibo civilians on sight, including women and children except for women with babies in their arms. Initially they observed the rules laid down by Gowon on the treatment of civilians. Then, after the takeover of the Midwest, they heard stories that Ibo soldiers had killed all the northerners they found residing in the Midwest. Since that time, Federal troops have been shooting Ibo civilians on sight,” added Damboa.
The Midwest Invasion
Something was happening to Biafran soldiers, which the Federal troops observed but could not explain. Indeed, the fortunes of the Federal troops were improving. Colonel Benjamin Adekunle’s 3rd Marine Commando had landed on 25 July 1967 at Bonny Island, establishing a heavy presence of federal forces in the creeks. Two L29 Delfins fighter jets from Czechoslovakia (NAF 401 and NAF 402) were at the Ikeja Airport and battle ready.
Five more, on board Polish vessel Krakow, were a week away from the Apapa Ports. Major Lal, an ammunition ordnance officer seconded from the Indian Army to Nigeria, had arrived from Eastern Europe, where he had gone to acquire information necessary to utilize Czech aerial ordnance. Sections of 15 Soviet MiG bombers hidden in NAF hangars were being assembled by 40 Russian technicians lodging in Central Hotel, Kano. Bruce Brent of Mobil Oil was flying jet oil to Kano to fuel these bombers. Captain N.O. Sandburg of Nigerian Airlines had flown in seven pilots, who had previously done mercenary work in South Africa and Congo, to fly the MiGs. Names, birthdates and passport numbers of 26 Russians, who were to serve as military advisors had been passed to Edwin Ogbu, Permanent Secretary, External Affairs Ministry. They were in Western Europe awaiting a direct flight to Lagos.
But George Kurubo, the Federal Air Force Chief of Staff, who had earlier joined the Biafran high command, had defected back to the fold and had been sent to Moscow as ambassador to facilitate the flow of more arms from the Soviets.
Lt. Colonel Oluwole Rotimi, Quartermaster-General of the Nigerian Army, went to western Europe with a fat chequebook.
What followed was the arrival of Norwegian ship, Hoegh Bell, bearing 2,000 cases of ammunition; and British ship, Perang, which discharged its own 2000 cases of ammunition. A German ship Suderholm also arrived. Those in charge of it claimed she was in Apapa to offload gypsum. But the US defense attaché reported that it was carrying “300 tonnes of 60mm and 90mm ammo.” The Ghanaian vessel, Sakumo Lagoon, was already in Lome, heading to Apapa to discharge its own ammo. A cache of 1,000 automatic fabriquenationale rifles had arrived Lagos by air on 8 August 1967 from the UK.
Speaking secretly to UK Defence Attaché, Lt. Colonel Ikwue said he too had gone to the German Defence Firm, Merex, to buy ammunition: 106mm US recoilless rifles at $86 per round; 84mm ammo for the Carl Gustav recoilless rifles at $72 per round; 105mm HEAT- High Explosive Anti-Tank warheads at $47 per round. Ikwue also bought three English Electra Canberra, eight Mark II Bombers at $105,000 each, 15 Sabre MK VI-T33 Jets at $100,000 each.
With all of these, Awolowo, rejected Hassan Katsina’s request for funding of 55, 000 more rifles for new recruits. However, he agreed once Gowon intervened and assured him it was not a request inspired by fraudulent intentions.
Federal troops had captured Nsukka, 56km from Enugu. Over 200 non-Igbo Biafran policemen had fled across the Mamfe border into Cameroun. In Ogoja, the Ishibori, Mbube and other non-Igbo Biafrans welcomed the federal troops after driving out the Biafran troops in a fierce battle.
The Biafrans blew up the bridge over the Ayim River at Mfume as they retreated.
The momentum was with the Federal side, but they knew their victories were not only because of their military superiority. At critical stages of battle, even when the Biafrans were clearly winning, they suddenly withdrew. An instance was on 15 July 1967, to the west of Nsukka on the route to Obolo. According to a conversation Colonel J.R. Akahan, Nigeria’s Chief of Army Staff, had with British Defence Advisor, the Nigerian infantry companies of the 4th Battalion, totally unaware of the presence of the 8th Battalion of the Biafran army, were buried under a hail of bullets and mortar.
Yet, the Biafran forces began to retreat. This enabled the remnants of the federal infantry company to regroup and successfully counter-attack. Even more senior Biafran commanders that should have been aware that the area had come under federal control were driving into the arms of the federal side. Nzeogwu and Tome Bigger (Ojukwu’s half-brother) were victims of the mysterious happening. Ojukwu initially put this down to breakdown of communication in the chain of command. During a special announcement over Biafran radio on 15 July 1967, Ojukwu said: “Yesterday, a special attack, which would have completely sealed the doom of enemy troops in the Nsukka sector of the northern front, was ruthlessly sabotaged by a mysterious order from the army high command…Our valiant troops were treacherously exposed to enemy flanks.”
At 9.30p.m on 8 August 1967, Biafran forces invaded the Midwest. In the recollection of Major (Dr.) Albert Nwazu Okonkwo, military administrator of Midwest, made available in confidence through an American teacher living in Asaba to Clinton Olson, Deputy Chief of Mission in Lagos on 1 November 1967, it was known by 4 August 1967 in Asaba that the Midwest, West and Lagos would soon be invaded.
On 5 August, Ojukwu had warned the Midwest government, headed by Colonel David Ejoor, that if northern troops were allowed to stay in the Midwest, the region would become a battleground. Many Midwestern officers knew of the plans; some of them had gone to Biafra earlier to help in the preparations. Lt Col. Nwawo, Commander of the Fourth Area Command at Benin, was probably aware. Lt Col. Okwechime, according to the document, certainly knew of it. Lt Col. Nwajei did not know and was never trusted by the anti-Lagos elements in the Midwest. “After the Biafran takeover, Nwajei was sent back to his village of Ibusa, where he was said to be engaged in repainting his home until just the arrival of Nigerian troops in the area,” disclosed the document.
Major Albert Okonkwo, later appointed military administrator, did not know in advance. Lieutenant (later Major) Joseph Isichei and Lieutenant Colonel Chukwurah were not informed in advance. “Major Samuel Ogbemudia participated in the invasion, properly by prior agreement,” the document stated.
That night of 8 August, Biafran army units blazed across the Onitsha Bridge and disarmed the Asaba garrison that was then stationed at St Peter’s Teachers’ Training College. Then they went on to the Catering Rest House, where Midwest officers were living, and disarmed the officers. The only exception was Major Asama, the local commander, who escaped and drove to Agbor at about 22.30hrs.
There were no casualties except for one officer with a gunshot wound in the leg. The invading force drove to Agbor, where it split into three columns. One column drove northwards towards Auchi and Aghenebode. A second column went to Warri and Sapele.
“The main force led by Victor Banjo was supposed to drive on to Benin and capture Ijebu-Ode, reach Ibadan on 9 August, reach Ikeja near Lagos by 10 August, setting up a blockade there to seal off the capital city,” the document quoted Okonkwo as saying.
However, this main column stopped in Agbor for six hours, reaching Benin at dawn. There was no real resistance in Benin, where no civilian was killed. The main column left Benin for Ijebu-Ode early in the afternoon. It stopped at Ore, just at the Western Region’s border.
According to US Defense Attaché report, three weeks before, Ejoor informed the Supreme Headquarters that he had information that Ojukwu was planning to send soldiers in mufti to conquer the Midwest. So, the 3rd Battalion, which was heading towards the Okene – Idah route to join the 1st Division on the Nsukka frontline, was ordered to stop at Owo. The first Recce Squadron from Ibadan, which had already reached Okene, was reassigned to take care of any surprise in the Midwest. By the time Lagos heard of the invasion, this squadron was quickly upgraded from company strength to a battalion, with troops of Shuwa’s 1st Division across the river, and another battalion was stationed at Idah to hold a defensive alignment against any Biafran surprise from Auchi.
Upon receiving the telephone call from Major Asama about the Biafran invasion at Asaba, Ejoor hurriedly left his wife and children at the State House, went to his friend, Dr Albert Okonkwo at Benin Hospital to borrow his car. He then sought asylum in the home of Catholic Bishop of Benin, Patrick Kelly.
In his first radio address to the people of Midwest on 9 August 1967, Banjo said Ejoor was safe and “efforts were being made to enlist his continued service in Midwest and in Nigeria.” Ejoor stayed in the seminary next door to the bishop’s house for almost two weeks, receiving visitors including Banjo, Colonels Nwawo and Nwajei, Major (Dr.) Okonkwo, who were trying to persuade him to make a speech supporting the new administration.
Ejoor refused. He was told that he was free to go wherever he wished without molestation. Not trusting what they might do, he went back to Isoko his native area, where he remained till federal forces captured it on 22 September 1967.
Before Banjo knew the full score, he met with Mr. Bell, UK Deputy High Commissioner, the evening of Benin invasion. Bell summarized his and Banjo’s words as:
a. There were no fatal casualties though some were wounded.
b. Ejoor and two senior officers were not in Benin when Eastern troops arrived. Bell had firm impression that they had been warned about the day’s event.
c. All the Midwest is now under the control of combined East/Midwest forces.
d. East was asked to cooperate by certain Midwest officers because an invasion of the Midwest by the North was imminent.
e. That he does not agree with Ojukwu on the separate existence of Biafra. He is convinced that a united Nigeria is essential.
f. Bell said he saw only three officers at the army headquarters: one was a Midwestern medical officer (Major Okoko). All others were Easterners.
An IDP (internally displaced person) camp along the Thailand-Myanmar border. Photo by Suphak Nosten


Most of my work focuses on health issues along the Myanmar-Thailand border and while there has been a decrease in fighting recently, in the very near past there was active civil war and sporadic flows of refugees seeking safety in the mountains on the Thai side of the border. By the early 1980s there were many small refugee and internally displaced person camps scattered along the border. In the mid-1990s (between 1994 and 1998) most of these smaller camps were consolidated into one of 9 currently existing camps. Today, Maela refugee camp, roughly 60 kilometers north of Mae Sot, Thailand, is the largest of these camps with a current population of roughly 37,000. It has been in existence now for over 30 years.

One thing that is easy to miss in an age of constant news bombardment is that these populations, these refugee camps, don’t just disappear with the news cycle. Sometimes refugee camps last for a very long time. Today there are second-generation refugees who were born, and continue to live, in Maela camp.

Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, a field station of the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, operated the only antenatal clinic in Maela camp until this past December (2016). Recently we analyzed records and data from our experiences in providing contraceptives to refugee women in this long, drawn-out refugee setting. Given the current dire refugee situation of the world, we thought our experiences might have relevance not only for the current refugee situation but also for the future, given that many people will likely be living in large refugee settings for the foreseeable future.

The first thing that became obvious from our analysis is that obtaining a good understanding of basic demographics can be rather difficult.  Information really is a first casualty of war – gaining a handle on data about the population can be difficult even decades later. Furthermore, population counts can have political implications, or conversely, population estimates are sometimes the result of political sentiments.  For Maela camp there are two main sources of population counts – one comes from the humanitarian agency that provides food (the Thai-Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)) and the other is from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) that provides humanitarian and social services. Until very recently UNHCR counts have systematically been much smaller than TBBC counts.

Population estimates have varied widely by the reporting source. We estimated the reproductive age female population for Maela camp by year using data from both TBBC (black) and UNHCR (blue) population estimates.  A loess curve (solid line) is fit to the data points and 95% confidence intervals for the curve are shown in dark gray.


Our data also show that, when provided in a socio-cultural appropriate manner, men and women in refugee settings willingly uptake contraceptives. The population we work with can properly be considered a high fertility (or natural fertility) population meaning that, with some exception, families are large and people are happy with that. But even in a high fertility population contraceptives have important health implications.  Men and women should be able to regulate their family size and spacing if they choose. Unintended pregnancies can result in incredible burdens, especially in already difficult settings, with health consequences for children, families, and entire communities leading to intergenerational transfers of poverty and nutritional deficits [1,2]. Households with few working-age adults and many dependents tend to be households with economic and nutritional deficiencies.




We also note that funding has a huge impact on the uptake of contraceptives and even the type of contraceptives that are chosen. Yes, men and women in the camp chose to readily use contraceptives, but the availability of contraceptives and the type of contraceptives available were directly influenced by funding. In this setting and in others, most of that funding could best be described as “rescue funding”, with reproductive health services normally operating on small and dwindling budgets but occasionally being “rescued” by a new source of funding. Given the importance of reproductive health (including the availability of contraceptives) and the dependence of reproductive health services on funding, funding agencies should carefully consider what they fund and should give careful consideration to funding cuts.


It is hard to draw direct, causal relationships between something like reproductive health funding and reductions in morbidity and mortality because there are complex relationships between health care delivery and health outcomes. However, we do know that during the time that SMRU operated the antenatal clinic in Maela camp both maternal and neonatal mortality decreased drastically. From 1986 to 1990 there were about 499 maternal deaths for every 100,000 births while in 2006 – 2010 there were 79 per 100,000 births [3].  In 1996 there were approximately 43.5 deaths for every 1,000 neonates and by 2011 there were 6 per 1,000 [4,5].

When funding was available, refugees in Maela camp willingly chose to use contraceptives leading to safer, better-planned pregnancies, which leads to health improvements of mother and child. A focus on reproductive health in conflict and refugee settings is extremely important and can have a drastic impact on population health. When people are given the opportunity to be more in charge of important parts of their lives, they are more likely to break out of difficult poverty cycles, and subsequently go on to live healthier lives. We believe this is a good thing.

photo by Suphak Nosten

A link to our new paper here

SrikanokS., Parker D.M., Parker A.L., Lee T., Min A.M., Ontuwong P., Tan S.O.,Sirinonthachai S., McGready R. Empirical lessons regarding reproductivehealth in a protracted refugee setting: a descriptive study from Maela camp onthe Thai-Myanmar border 1996-2015. PLoS One.



1. Wagmiller Jr RL, Adelman RM. Childhood and intergenerational poverty: The long-term consequences of growing up poor [Internet]. Columbia University Academic Commons. 2009. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:8870

2. Corak M. Do poor children become poor adults? Lessons from a cross country comparison of generational income mobility [Internet]. IZA Discussion Paper. 2006. Available: http://ftp.iza.org/dp1993.pdf

3. McGready R, Boel M, Rijken MJ, Ashley E a., Cho T, Moo O, et al. Effect of early detection and treatment on malaria related maternal mortality on the north-western border of Thailand 1986-2010. PLoS One. 2012;7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040244

4. Luxemburger C, McGready R, Kham A, Morison L, Cho T, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, et al. Effects of malaria during pregnancy on infant mortality in an area of low malaria transmission. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154: 459–465. 

5. Turner C, Carrara V, Aye Mya Thein N, Chit Mo Mo Win N, Turner P, Bancone G, et al. Neonatal Intensive Care in a Karen Refugee Camp: A 4 Year Descriptive Study. PLoS One. 2013;8: 1–9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072721



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Mata Uang Dunia
          Burmese Toddy   
Visiting the imminently-opening country of Myanmar (Burma) was amazing and I highly recommend it.  (Though you might have to keep an eye on the news to avoid sectarian violence in certain places.)  An embarrassment of ancient Buddhist temples and some of the friendliest people you'll find anywhere.




Beer-wise, it's much like the rest of southeast Asia - almost exclusively macro light lager.  Our bus drove by a very new-looking and certainly government- or crony-owned brewery in Yangon that brews Myanmar, Tiger, ABC and other beers under contract, for domestic consumption.




Far from the macro brewery, along the roadside near the Bagan temple area in central Burma, are palm sugar "factories."  These are really just stands of sugar palms punctuated occasionally by a family-run thatched hut where the sugar is refined.  Tourists can stop and see the process, try the wares and make a donation/purchase if so inclined.

Grinding peanuts into oil is also a merry-go-round for this kid. The ride ends when you stop whipping the ox

Collecting sugar palm juice is a little like collecting maple syrup, but requires decent climbing skills.  You lop off one of the branches at the top of the tree, and hang a pot below the wound to collect the dripping sap.


Every morning you must scale a rickety bamboo ladder lashed to the tree in order to empty the juice pots into a pot hanging off your waist belt.


This requires entwining your legs through the ladder so that your hands are free.  While you're up there, you re-score the palm branch wound with a palm knife so that the sap keeps flowing.

The result is sweet, woody juice with more than a few dead but happy ants floating in it.  Then it's off to the refining hut.


The juice is heated in metal bowls fired by the branches cut from the palms.  After some hours of boiling and reduction, followed by some drying, you get...


...palm sugar nuggets, also known as jaggery. Woody and sweet, but not nearly as toothache-inducing as table sugar.  Important in much southeast Asian cooking.

That's all well and good, but what does this have to do with beer?  Another use for palm juice is to let it sit overnight in an open container.  Wild yeast combined with the high environmental heat mean that the container will have a big, meringue-like krausen by the next morning - natural fermentation a la Belgian lambic beer.


The fermented palm juice is called toddy (at least that's what the British named it back in colonial times), and it's drunk fresh that same day as a weak beer-like beverage (probably just a couple of percent ABV).  If you wait until the next day, it has "gone off" and is considered undrinkable.  (I'm guessing the residual sugars would be largely gone by then, and the wild yeast would have produced many earthy and sour flavours.)

Unfortunately I visited early in the morning, and the toddy was not yet ready for sampling.  But it did look inviting.


This was next to the fermenting toddy - a homemade still!  The toddy is largely used to make a wash that is distilled into palm liquor.  The clay oven is again fired by palm branches.  On top of that is a pot filled with toddy, that is heated and evaporated by the fire.  The big "wok" of water on top is for cooling the toddy steam.  Underneath the wok (inside the pot) is a funnel that collects the condensate where it drips off the bottom of the wok, and feeds it through the wall of the pot, through the spigot and into the bottle sitting on the ground.  The result is a powerful schnapps-like liquor.  Aside from being a libation, the alcohol is also used to create tinctures from native roots and plants, which after a few months of steeping are used as salves, arthritis pain relievers and other curatives.

A good lesson that, as good as beer is, you can ferment practically anything to create an interesting and helpful beverage.


          Siste natt .. — Yangon (Rangoon), Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Strand, sol, HOTEL — Ngapali, Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Inle Lake..etter 3 dagers suveren trecking. — Inle Lake, Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Hjemme — Gardermoen, Norway   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Trecking — Kalaw, Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Templer og Pagodaer — Bagan, Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Mt Popa — Taungbaw, Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Ny administrativ hovedstad — Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Golden Rock — Kyaikto, Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Yangon - Downtown and Swedagon Pagoda — Yangon (Rangoon), Myanmar   
Burma/Myanmar. 3 jenter og 1 mann, 3 uker med 4 sekker.
          Thailand backtracks on labour law after migrant workers flee   
BANGKOK: Thailand's military government said it will delay enforcing new labour regulations after thousands of migrant workers fled home to neighbouring countries this week fearing arrest and heavy fines under the new decree.

The scramble is the latest chaos triggered by Thailand's efforts to regulate the millions of foreign workers who prop up its economy with jobs in factories, fishing boats and other low-paid work.

The junta has trumpeted a flurry of campaigns aimed at registering migrant workers and cracking down on illegal smuggling routes, but the efforts are often ad-hoc and short-lived.

As a result, much of the migrant work force remains undocumented and vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers and unscrupulous employers.

On Friday the junta said it would suspend parts of a new foreign labour law, which came into effect on June 23, for 120 days after the regulations sparked a panic among migrant workers and their employers.

"(During this window) there will be no arrests or crackdown on illegal workers except for those who violate human trafficking laws," Deputy Prime Minister Wissanu Krea-ngam told reporters.

The reprieve comes after thousands of labourers fled home to neighbouring Myanmar and Cambodia fearing arrest and fines of up to US$3,000 (RM12,882) under the law which punishes migrant workers lacking valid work permits.

Employers can also be fined up to 800,000 baht (US$24,000) for each undocumented worker they hire.

In Samut Sakhon, a seafood industry hub known as "Little Burma" for its concentration of Myanmar migrant workers, around 500 labourers have been returning home daily during the past week, said Suthasinee Kaewleklai from the Migrant Worker Rights Network (MWRN).

"These workers don't have any documents and have to return to Myanmar as they fear needing to pay a heavy fine," she told AFP.

The advocacy group also warned that traffickers frequently profit from such mass movements of migrants, with smugglers and border agents exacting fees from undocumented workers looking for a safe passage home.

A police chief in Myanmar's Karen state said around 6,000 migrant workers had returned home from Thailand since Thursday.

Meanwhile on the Cambodian border, the number of migrants streaming home has been increasing daily since the new law came to into effect, said Thai immigration officer Benjapol Robsawad.

Since Wednesday nearly 2,000 workers have crossed back to Cambodia through the Poipet checkpoint, he told AFP.

In 2014 some 250,000 Cambodians fled Thailand after fears that the newly-installed junta government would arrest and deport undocumented workers. They slowly trickled back in the following weeks. — AFP
          Ethnic Media Conference demands end to laws that oppress media freedom   

Category: 

The 5th Ethnic Media Conference ended with a decision to request an end to laws that are oppressing freedom of speech and the press.

The request appeared in a statement published on the last day of the three day conference held from June 26-28 in Loikaw city, Kayah State.  

“We heard the news that the military had arrested one journalist from Irrawaddy and two journalists from DVB Multimedia group who went to cover a drug-burning event organized by the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA) on the first day of the conference.That is why all representatives from media groups requested the release of the detained journalists and termination of laws oppressing media freedom,” said Nai Kasuah Mon from Burma News International which led the conference.

During the conference, Ethnic media organizations came up with four statements and decided to hold the 6th Ethnic Media Conference in Kayin State.

They also decided to continue negotiating with the government, press council, and other respective organizations and discuss media laws, and weaknesses in ethnic media. The June 28 statement also said they would hold Awareness Dialogues with state legislature/government and society.

During the period of building a democratic federal union, they plan to make a policy to get media freedom and amend the role of ethnic media.

176 representatives from ethnic media organizations from 7 states, main media organizations based in Yangon and Mandalay, government, and international organization attended the 5th Ethnic Media Conference.


          7/1/2017: LIVES REMEMBERED: A survivor of evil IRA boat bomb   

COUNTESS Mountbatten of Burma was one of three survivors of the 1979 IRA bomb that killed her son, mother-in-law and father Earl Mountbatten. The bomb blew up her father’s boat, Shadow V when it was just off the coast of Sligo in August 1979. Earl...
          HISTORY AND CENTRAL THAI SHARED DISHES   







Thai cuisine is the national cuisine of Thailand. Thai cuisine places emphasis on lightly prepared dishes with strong aromatic components. Thai cuisine is known for being spicy. Balance, detail and variety are important to Thai cooking. Thai food is known for its balance of the five fundamental taste senses in each dish or the overall meal: hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty, and (optional) bitter.

Although popularly considered a single cuisine, Thai food would be more accurately described as four regional cuisines corresponding to the four main regions of the country: Northern, Northeastern (or Isan), Central, and Southern, each cuisine sharing similar foods or foods derived from those of neighboring countries and regions: Burma, the Chinese province of Yunnan and Laos to the north, CambodiaLaos and to the east and Malaysia to the south of Thailand. In addition to these four regional cuisines, there is also the Thai Royal Cuisine which can trace its history back to the palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom (1351–1767 CE). Its refinement, cooking techniques and its use of ingredients were of great influence to the cuisine of the Central Thai plains.
The culinary traditions and cuisines of Thailand's neighbors have influenced Thai cuisine over many centuries. Regional variations tend to correlate to neighboring states as well as climate and geography. Southern curries tend to contain coconut milk and fresh turmeric, while northeastern dishes often include lime juice. The cuisine of Northeastern (or Isan) Thailand is heavily influenced by Lao cuisine. Many popular dishes eaten in Thailand were originally Chinese dishes which were introduced to Thailand mainly by the Teochew people who make up the majority of the Thai Chinese. Such dishes include chok (rice porridge), kuai-tiao rat na (fried rice-noodles) and khao kha mu (stewed pork with rice). The Chinese also introduced the use of a wok for cooking, the technique of deep-frying and stir-frying dishes, and noodles and soy products.







Central Thai shared dishes


Tom Yum 


Tom Yum is the most famous of Thai soups, being very popular in Thai restaurants in the US. It is a clear sour soup which is flavored with fresh lemon grass and kaffir lime leaf. The most well-known version uses shrimp (in Thai: goong, koon, kung), but you may also use firm white-flesh fish (see Tom Yum Taleh) or chicken (gy, gai or kai).







Red curry




Red curry (Thai: แกงเผ็ด; spicy curry) is a popular Thai dish consisting of curry paste to which coconut milk is added. The base is properly made with a mortar and pestle, and remains moist throughout the preparation process. 
Red curry paste itself is the core flavouring for a number of other non-related dishes such Thot man pla (fish cakes) and sai ua (grilled Chiang Mai sausage).
Red Curry with Roasted Duck is one of the most popular types of curries in Thai restaurants outside of Thailand. See our website for the Homemade Red Curry Paste recipe or if you are short of time, substitute ready-made canned curry paste with great results.
Ho mok pla
Ho mok pla, fish curry paté
Ho mok pla - a paté of fish, spices, coconut milk and egg, steamed in a banana leaf cup and topped with thick coconut cream before serving.


Thot man 
Thot man pla krai with fried basil

Thot man - deep fried fishcake made from knifefish (Thot man pla krai, Thaiทอดมันปลากราย) or shrimp (Thot man kung, Thaiทอดมันกุ้ง).
Thot man pla is made by deep frying small patties of minced fish (most often plakrai) mixed with red curry paste, finely chopped yardlong beans (tua fak yao, Thai: ถั่วฝักยาว), and finely shredded kaffir lime leaves (bai makrut, Thai: ใบมะกรูด). The same recipe with minced prawns, instead of fish, will make you thot man kung (Thai: ทอดมันกุ้ง). The fried leaves seen in the photo are those of Thai holy basil (bai kraphao, Thai: ใบกะเพรา). Thot man pla is served with a sweet chilli dip sauce which normally contains diced cucumber and crushed peanuts. This dish can be eaten as a snack, a starter, or as one of the dishes in a Thai buffet style meal.
Phak bung fai daeng: fried morning-glory
Phak bung fai daeng - stir fried morning-glory with yellow bean paste. 

 (Phat) phak boong fai daeng (Thai: ผัดผักบุ้งไฟแดง): Literally it means "(fried) red fire morning-glory". The basic recipe is morning-glory (Ipomoea aquatica) stir-fried with garlic, chillies, Thai yellow bean sauce (taochiao), oyster sauce and fish sauce. For the correct taste, one needs to get the cooking flames in to the pan. This vegetable dish is extremely popular in Thailand.

Pla sam rot
Pla sam rot
Pla sam rot
Pla sam rot - literally "Three flavours fish": deep fried fish with a sweet, tangy and spicy tamarind sauce.
Pla samrot (Thai: ปลาสามรส) or pla thot samrot: Deep fried three flavours fish. Here made with pla thapthim (Thai: ปลาทับทิม, Oreochromis niloticus, Nile Tilapia). The sticky, sweet, spicy and tangy sauce's main ingredients are tamarind, chillies and garlic. The dish is garnished with roughly chopped coriander (cilantro) leaves. The fish is approximately 25 cm (10 inches) in length.


Phat khana mu krop
Phat khana mu krop - khana (gailan) stir fried with crispy pork
Phat phak kana mu krop: Thai style stir fried Chinese broccoli (pak kana, Thai: ผักคะน้า) with crispy pork (mu krop Thai: หมูกรอบ). The recipe also includes sliced large red chillies, sliced garlic, oyster sauce and soy sauce. Here it is served rat khao, meaning "together with rice".






Bone Appetite
Hew kaow

          Burma says it will not let outside world investigate Rohingya 'genocide' claims   
Burma says it will not let outside world investigate Rohingya 'genocide' claims
          Hundreds Protest Detainment of Journalists, Repressive Laws   

Myanmar press members and civil society groups in Yangon call for the release of jailed reporters and the repeal of the online defamation law.

The post Hundreds Protest Detainment of Journalists, Repressive Laws appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Soldier Photographs Reporters at Article 66(d) Hearing   

Journalists file a complaint with the police against the intrusion.

The post Soldier Photographs Reporters at Article 66(d) Hearing appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Five Inmates Escape from Mon State Labor Camp   

Authorities in Paung Township are searching for five escapees who attacked a police officer with a hammer to escape.

The post Five Inmates Escape from Mon State Labor Camp appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Thousands of Myanmar Migrants Return from Thailand   

Thai authorities crack down on illegal workers after changes to labor laws.

The post Thousands of Myanmar Migrants Return from Thailand appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Myanmar Says it Will Refuse Entry to UN Fact-Finding Mission   

U Kyaw Zeya from the foreign ministry says ‘no reason’ to let the UN mission come to investigate human rights abuses in Rakhine, Kachin, and Shan states.

The post Myanmar Says it Will Refuse Entry to UN Fact-Finding Mission appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Mark Leon Goldberg & Matthew Lee   
You're either part of the solution or you're Monsanto ... The bailout: Matthew is surprised to side with the right wing ... Southern Sudan the new Kashmir, Kashmir the new Afghanistan ... Ban Ki-moon: too much secretary, not enough general? ... Why Ban hasn't spoken out against oppression in Burma ... Serbia's impending Kosovo resolution: who's voting how? ...
          Kumpulan nama ilmiah dan nama indonesia Tumbuhan Langka yang Dilindungi di Indonesia   
Tumbuhan Langka di Indonesia.
Indonesia sangat terkenal dengan keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan. Bahkan Indonesia diklaim sebagai negara dengan keanekaragaman jenis tumbuh-tumbuhan nomor 2 di dunia. Kita tentu saja patut berbangga bahwa sebenarnya negara kita tercinta Indonesia ini menyimpan kekayaan yang tak ternilai. Namun dibalik semua itu rupanya kita menyimpan keprihatinan bahwa diantara keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan yang kita miliki tersebut, beberapa diantaranya sudah masuk dalam kriteria langka atau nyaris punah.
Sangat disesalkan bahwa masih banyak orang Indonesia yang tidak menyadari bahwa akibat kekurang pedulian kita, tumbuhan-tumbuhan langka di Indonesia perlahan-lahan punah. Lihat saja kasus pembalakan hutan secara serampangan, ilegal logging, jual beli tanaman langka, pembakaran hutan dan lain sebagainya. Sadarkah kita bahwa kelakuan seperti ini menyebabkan tanaman-tanaman langka akan “lenyap” dari bumi Indonesia tercinta ini?
Berikut ini beberapa nama tumbuhan langka di Indonesia yang patut dilindungi dan dilestarikan.
1. Balam Suntai (Palaquium walsurifolium)
2. Bayur (Pterospermum sp)
3. Bulian, Ulin Eusideroxylon zwageri
4. Cendana (Santalum album)
5. Damar, Kopal Keruling (Agathis labillardieri)
6. Durian (Durio Zibethinus)
7. Enau (Arenga pinnata)
8. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp)
9. Hangkang (Palaquium leiocarpum)
10. Hongi / saya (Myristica argentea)
11. Imba (Azadirachta indica)
12. Jambu Monyet (Agathis Lalillardieri)
13. Jelutung (Dyera sp)
14. Kapur Barus (Dryobalanops camphora)
15. Katiau (Ganna metloyauma)
16. Kayu Bawang (Scorodocarpus borneensis)
17. Kayu Hitam (Diospyros sp)
18. Kayu Kuning (Cudrania sp)
19. Kayu Manis (Cinnamomun burmannii)
20. Kayu Sepang (Caesalpina sappan)
21. Kemenyan (Styra sp)
22. Kemiri ( Dipterocarpus sp)
23. Keruling (Dipterocarpus sp)
24. Ketimunan (Timonius sericcus)
25. Kulit Lawang (Cinnamomun cullilawan)
26. Ipil (Instsia amboinensis)
27. Malam Merah (Palaquium gutta)
28. Massoi (Cryptocaria massoi)
29. Mata Buta / Garu (Excoecaria agallocha)
30. Mata Kucing / Damar (Shorea sp)
31. Purnamasada (Cordia subcordata)
32. Sawo Kecik (Manilkata kauki)
33. Sonolkeling (Dalbergia latifolia)
34. Suren (Toona sureni)
35. Taker, Benuang (Duabanga moluccana)
36. Tembesu (Fagraea fragrans)
          Comment on Teaching a workshop in Sicily — October 2017 by Burma travel guide   
Its looks so nice the photos! I hope that you have a lovely day! Hello from Burma.
          Burma: Repeal Section 66(d) of the 2013 Telecommunications Law    

Concerned by reports that the Burmese authorities will retain the criminal defamation provision of Section 66(d) during a review of the Telecommunications Law, 61 national and international human rights organizations are urging the Burmese authorities, and in particular the Ministry of Transport and Communication and the Parliament, to ensure it is repealed in the amended law.  

Section 66(d) of the 2013 Telecommunications Law provides for up to three years in prison for “extorting, coercing, restraining wrongfully, defaming, disturbing, causing undue influence or threatening any person using a telecommunications network.” In the last two years, this law has opened the door to a wave of criminal prosecutions of individuals for peaceful communications on Facebook and has increasingly been used to stifle criticism of the authorities. According to the 2013 Telecommunications Research Group, which has been documenting prosecutions under Section 66(d), at least 71 people are known to have been charged for online defamation under the law. 

The current review of the Telecommunications Law offers an important opportunity to repeal Section 66(d) and bring the 2013 Telecommunications Law fully in line with international human rights law and standards.[1] Failure to do so would raise serious questions about the government’s commitment to freedom of expression. It would, worryingly, leave people in the country at risk of imprisonment simply for sharing opinions online. It would also undermine the government’s reform and responsible business agenda, by chilling or even silencing the ability of the public and the media to report on public sector mismanagement, harmful and illegal business practices, and corruption.

Vaguely-Worded, Section 66(d) Has Allowed for an Abusive Application of the Law

One of the most problematic aspects of Section 66(d) is its vagueness. Under international human rights law and standards, restrictions on the human right to freedom of expression are allowed for certain, narrowly defined purposes only, including to protect the rights and reputation of others.[2] Restrictions should be clear, detailed and well-defined in law, limited to those specified purposes, and necessary and proportionate to achieve their aim.

Section 66(d) does not adequately define what actions would be considered “disturbing”, or “causing undue influence.” These terms are overly broad and subject to widely different interpretations. Previous military governments for example, deemed the views of people who promoted democracy and human rights to be “disturbing.”

This vagueness carries risks. Section 66(d) has been used to stifle criticism of both the civilian government and the military. For instance, individuals have been imprisoned for Facebook posts calling Burma’s President Htin Kyaw an “idiot” and “crazy” and for posts mocking the Burmese Army. One criminal prosecution revolved around the posting of an image depicting the Army’s Commander-in-Chief with a women’s htamein (a sarong-like garment) on his head.

It is important to keep in mind that under international law, the purpose of laws covering defamation, libel, slander and insult is to protect the rights and reputations of people, not to prevent criticism of the government or of individual officials. According to UN Special Rapporteurs on the right to freedom of expression and the UN Human Rights Committee, public figures are necessarily subject to a greater degree of criticism than private citizens because of their institutional role, to ensure open debate about matters of public interest.[3]

The high volume of cases brought under Section 66(d) has also been facilitated by the fact that it allows anyone to file a complaint, even individuals other than the person who has allegedly been defamed. As a result, in Burma people have filed complaints on behalf of State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and President Htin Kyaw, as well as members of the military.

In the past year we have also seen a surge in the number of criminal prosecutions initiated by private Facebook users against each other for posts that they believe to be untrue, insulting, offensive, or otherwise objectionable. These include, for example, Facebook posts saying that someone was a cheat, warning people against using specific businesses, or complaining about land disputes.

Defamation Should Never Be Criminalized – Where it Occurs There Are Other Ways to Address It

Although international human rights law and standards do not prohibit the use of defamation laws for purposes such as protecting the rights and reputations of people, international authorities including the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to freedom of expression and the UN Human Rights Committee have affirmed that defamation should never be a criminal offence.[4] This is because imprisoning someone for defaming another person is disproportionate and can threaten the right to freedom of expression itself. The threat of imprisonment can prevent people from peacefully speaking out on sensitive issues and lead to self-censorship.

There are other ways to address defamation, including online defamation, which do not involve imprisonment, for example through making it a matter of civil rather than criminal law. In addition, those responsible could be made to issue an apology, a public rectification or clarification in order to restore the reputation that has been harmed.  

Our organizations are deeply concerned that some members of the administration appear to view Section 66(d) as a solution to address advocacy of hatred. We recognize that Burma has a growing problem in this regard and welcome attempts to address this. However, Section 66(d) has done little to prevent such activity. Instead, it has enabled an environment of intolerance and conflict by allowing anyone who deems a Facebook post “offensive” to sue the author.

As the government has expressed its intention to adopt a separate law on hate speech, we would like to stress that any prohibition of advocacy of hatred must be formulated precisely and not unlawfully restrict freedom of expression. Beyond legislation, our organizations believe authorities at all levels should speak out against discriminatory rhetoric and ensure broader policy measures are undertaken to tackle the root causes of intolerance, including for instance by promoting intercultural dialogue and education on diversity and pluralism.

Recommendations

In light of the above, our organizations are urging the Burmese authorities to:

  • Repeal Section 66(d) of the 2013 Telecommunications Law;
  • Or at a very minimum, amend it to ensure that: defamation is no longer criminalized and that where recognizably criminal acts such as “extortion,” “coercion,” “wrongful restraint,” and “threats” occur in the law they are clearly defined in line with international human rights law, so as to ensure it is not used to criminalize the peaceful expression of views.

As long as Section 66(d) remains, people in Burma – especially those who criticize officials and government policies online – will be at risk of being imprisoned for their peaceful exercise of the right to freedom of expression.

List of Signatories:
  1. Alin Mee Ain 
  2. Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (Altsean-Burma) 
  3. All Arakan Students’ and Youths’ Congress (AASYC) 
  4. Amnesty International 
  5. Arakan Rivers Network (ARN)
  6. Area Peace and Development Forward 
  7. ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR) 
  8. Assistance Association for Political Prisoners – Burma (AAPP-B) 
  9. Association of Human Rights Defenders and Promoters (HRDP) 
  10. Association Suisse Birmanie (ASB)
  11. Burma Campaign UK (BCUK)  
  12. Burma Human Rights Network (BHRN) 
  13. Burma Link 
  14. Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK
  15. Charity-Oriented Myanmar 
  16. Cherry Images  
  17. Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW)
  18. CIVICUS
  19. Civil Rights Defenders (CRD)  
  20. Colors Rainbow 
  21. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)  
  22. Equality Myanmar (EQMM) 
  23. Farmer Rights and Development Organization 
  24. Farmer Union, Magway 
  25. Fortify Rights  
  26. Free Burma Campaign (South Africa) 
  27. Free Expression Myanmar (FEM) 
  28. Future Light Center 
  29. Gender Equality Network  
  30. Green Network Sustainable Environment Group 
  31. Human Rights Documentation-Burma (ND-Burma) 
  32. Human Rights Educators Association (HREA) 
  33. Human Rights Educators Network (HREN) 
  34. Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM) 
  35. Human Rights Watch (HRW) 
  36. Info Birmanie (France) 
  37. Institute for Asian Democracy  
  38. International Campaign for the Rohingya
  39. International Commission of Jurists (ICJ)  
  40. International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) 
  41. Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) 
  42. Korean House for International Solidarity
  43. Magway EITI Watch Group
  44. Mon Youth Educator Organization (MYEO) 
  45. Mwetaung Area Development Group 
  46. Myaing Youth Development Organization 
  47. New Generation (Shan State) 
  48. Nyein Chan Yar 
  49. Norwegian Burma Committee
  50. Odhikar 
  51. Peace and Justice Myanmar (PJM)  
  52. Progressive Voice (PV) 
  53. Promotion of Indigenous and Nature Together (POINT) 
  54. Reporters Without Borders (RSF)  
  55. Shwechinthae Social Service Group (Shwe Bo) 
  56. Swedish Burma Committee  
  57. The Seagull: Human Rights, Peace & Development 
  58. United-ACT  
  59. US Campaign for Burma
  60. Women and Peace Action Network (Shan State) 
  61. Women Peace Network

[1] For recommendations on how to bring the entire 2013 Telecommunications Law into line with international human rights law and standards see: Article 19: Myanmar Telecommunications Law (2013), Legal Analysis, 8 March 2017, https://www.article19.org/data/files/medialibrary/38665/Myanmar-analysis--8-Marc....

[2] Other purposes for which restrictions on the right to freedom of expression are permitted are for the protection of national security, public order, public health or morals. In addition, advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence must be prohibited. See for instance Article 19(3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

[3] See Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Ambeyi Ligabo, to the Human Rights Council, UN Doc. A/HRC/7/14, 28 February 2008, para. 85; and the Joint Declaration by Ambeyi Ligabo UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Freimut Duve OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, and Eduardo Bertoni OAS Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, 2002.

[4] The Human Rights Committee has also stated that “States parties should consider the decriminalization of defamation.” Human Rights Committee, General comment No. 34, Article 19: Freedoms of opinion and expression, UN Doc. CCPR/C/GC/34, 12 September 2011, para. 47.


          Photonz ‎– Memories Of Burma / Cosmic Club ‎– CCC-517 (EU12")   
none
          ◆CME董事長預測亞洲期貨將「大幅成長」 2009.10.8   
CME董事長預測亞洲期貨將「大幅成長」 ( 2009/10/08 18:05 中央社 ) (中央社台北2009年10月08日電)世界最大期貨交易所芝加哥商品交易所集團(CME Group)執行董事長杜菲(Terry Duffy)表示,由於經濟成長,CME預測亞洲的衍生性金融商品將「大幅成長」。 杜菲今天在香港的訪談中說:「這是我來香港的原因之一。我們要確定CME持續在美國以外市場拓展事業,我們必須參與其中。」 CME上個月表示,CME將買進馬來西亞交易所(Burma Malaysia Bhd)衍生商品部門25%股權,並授權其棕櫚油結算價可以作為棕櫚油避險需求之用。根據國際貨幣基金(IMF)預測,發展中亞洲經濟體今年將成長6.2%,2010年將成長7.3%。 杜菲除了與新加坡和南韓有「策略性的夥伴關係」外,也正與中國和印度發展「新關係」。他又說:「所有產品的管理風險都要持續更全球化,我不認為中國可以置身事外。」
          Some young people in black & white. 2005- 2007   







All Photos on this blog, copyright Dj-ingen photography 2015!

          A few people   



All Photos on this blog, copyright Dj-ingen photography 2011!

          Burmay, Vladimir P.   
Died June 27, 2017 Vladimir P. Burmay, 77, of Jefferson died Tuesday. Funeral service, 10 a.m. Saturday, funeral home chapel. Memorial Park South...
          RECI   
O reči moje
od uglja crnje
prošarane
zviždukom zmijskog jezika moga
zar ste se vratile
da sudite meni
ili onako šeretski

oko groba mi plešete


          Hâkimden sanığa: Bu ceza sana az bile   
İstanbul’da 74 yaşındaki kadının 12 burma bileziği ile parasını dolandıran Orhan K., 10 yıl hapis ve 150 bin TL para cezasına çarptırıldı. İbretlik cezayı veren mahkeme başkanı sanığı bir de azarladı.
          Water for the Rohingya: A Looming Humanitarian Crisis   
by Sarah Straubinger Water is of the utmost importance in Burma currently. Nationwide droughts and delayed monsoons have created a near water crisis for communities across Burma. As widespread drought continues to worsen in Burma, the access to clean and safe water becomes increasingly scant. Access to water is limited in average working class communities, […]
          Adzan   

 

 

 

 
 




Allahu Akbar!!


ADAB MENDENGAR AZAN


Kematian itu pasti menjelma. Hanya masa Dan waktunya
Yang tidak Kita ketahui.Coba Kita amati.. Mengapa
Kebanyakan orang yg nazak, hampir ajal tidak dapat
Berkata apa-apa.. Lidahnya kelu, keras Dan hanya mimik
Mukanya yang menahan kesakitan ' sakaratulmaut' .
Diriwayatkan sebuah hadis yg bermaksud: 'Hendaklah
Kamu mendiamkan diri ketika azan, ji ka tidak Allah
Akan kelukan lidahnya ketika maut menghampirinya. '
Ini jelas menunjukkan, Kita disarankan agar mendiamkan
Diri, jangan berkata apa-apa pun sewaktu azan
Berkumandang . Sebagai orang beragama Islam Kita wa ji b
Menghormati azan Banyak fadhilatnya . Jika lagu
Kebangsaan Kita diajar agar berdiri tegak Dan diamkan Diri.
Mengapa ketika azan Kita tidak boleh mendiamkan diri?
Lantas siapa yang berbicara ketika azan, Allah
Akan kelukan lidahnya ketika nazak . Kita takut dengan
Kelunya lidah Kita semasa ajal hampir tiba maka Kita
Tidak dapat mengucap kalimah 'Lailahaillallah. .' yang
Mana sesiapa yang dapat mengucapkan kalimah ini ketika
Nyawanya akan dicabut Allah dgn izinNya menjan ji kan
Syurga untuk mereka. Dari itu marilah kita sama-sama
menghormati azan dan mohon kepada Allah supaya lidah
ini tidak kelu semasa nyawa kita sedang dicabut.
'Ya Allah! Anugerahkanlah kematian kami dengan kematian
yang baik lagi mulia, lancarkan lidah kami mengucap kalimah 'Lailahaillallah. .'
semasa sakaratul maut menghampiri kami... Amin... amin.. amin Yarobbala'lamin. .'

Sesuatu yang tak pernah terjangkau di akal fikiran ku ini.
Subhanallah. ..

Ketahuilah bahawa pada setiap waktu, ribuan bilal di merata dunia akan mengalunkan azan,

mengakui 'Bahawa Allah Saja Yang Patut Disembah,
dan Nabi Muhammad Adalah Rasul Allah.'Diawali dengan Indonesia yang terletak dibahagian timur dengan ratusan kepulauan-nya dan jumlah
penduduknya sebanyak 180 juta.

Sebaik masuk waktu Subuh, Azan mulai berkumandang dari kawasan ini dengan ribuan Bilal yang akan melaungkan
Ke-Agungan Allah S..W.T Dan Nabi Muhammad S.A.W.

Proses ini akan bergerak kearah barat kepulauan Indonesia .

Perbedaan waktu antara timur dan barat Indonesia adalah 1-1/2 jam.Belum alunan
Azan merata Indonesia selesai, dimulai pula di Malaysia .

Berikutnya di-Burma dan dalam waktu satu jam selepas Azan dialunkan di-Jakarta,
tiba giliran Dacca di Bangladesh.

Berikutnya alunanannya akan kedengaran di Calcutta dan terus ke Srinagar dibarat India .

Perbedaan waktu dikota-kota Pakistan adalah 40 menit jadi dalam jangka waktu ini,

Azan akan berkumandang diseluruh Pakistan.Belum berakhir
di-Pakistan,

Azan akan bermula pula di Afghanistan dan Muscat.Perbedaan waktu antara Muscat dan Baghdad adalah satu jam.
Dalam jangka waktu
ini, Azan akan berterusan dilaungkan di UAE, Makkah, Madinah, Yaman , Kuwait dan Iraq .

Proses ini berterusan setiap detik sehingga ke pantai timur Atlantik.

Jarak masa Azan mula dialunkankan di Indonesia sehingga ke pantai timur Atlantik
adalah 9-1/2 jam.Belumpun Azan Subuh berkumandang di pantai Timur Atlantik, Azan Zuhur kini sudah mula dilaungkan di Indonesia.

Ini berterusan
bagi setiap waktu sembahyang, tidak putus-putus.

Subhanallah, begitu hebat dan agungnya Islam!

Kalaulah setiap kawasan boleh memasang pengeras suara, akan bergetar satu dunia dengan alunan Azan yang tidak putus-putus.

Allahu Akhbar!

Kita boleh mengirimkan ribuan 'jokes' dan ' surat berantai' melalui

e-mail tetapi bila mengirimkan yang berkaitan dengan ibadah seringkali
berfikir 2 atau 3 kali......FIKIRKAN LAH, tepuk dadamu tanya imanmu.

.............................................................................

 


 

 

--------------
DISCLAIMER:
--------------
This email is confidential. If you are not the  intended recipient, 
any form of usage of the content and/or attachments in this email is unlawful. If you receive this email accidentally notify us by email 
and delete this email and its attachments.
 

          Countess Mountbatten of Burma 1924 - 2017: A survivor of evil IRA boat bomb   


Countess Mountbatten of Burma was one of three survivors of the 1979 IRA bomb that killed her son, mother-in-law and father Earl Mountbatten.
          The hottest chart in economics, and what it means   
The "elephant chart" explains the rise of populism in the developed world and so much more.

The “elephant chart” explains the rise of populism in the developed world and so much more. Economics correspondent Paul Solman discusses with economist Branko Milanovic.

Editor’s Note: The Elephant Chart. Rarely has one economic picture had as much impact as this one. Tonight’s Making Sen$e Thursday story on the PBS NewsHour profiles its creator, economist Branko Milanovic. It explains the rise of populism in the developed world and so much more.

When I met with Milanovic, we discussed his chart in greater detail than a NewsHour story could explore. So here’s a more in-depth look at the implications of his increasingly famous visualizing.

— Paul Solman, Economics Correspondent


BRANKO MILANOVIC: In June 2012, the first time I saw what would later become the elephant chart, I was immediately struck. I still remember that day, because I thought, well that’s exactly what we all knew had happened. I mean it really worked very intuitively, but we have not seen the numbers to confirm that.

PAUL SOLMAN: And what is it that we knew?

BRANKO MILANOVIC:  We knew that people in China and large numbers of groups in Asia who were not rich, compared to Americans, have done very well. We knew that lower and middle class Americans and Japanese and Germans have not done well. And that’s exactly what the chart shows. And we also knew that the top 1 percent in the rich countries have done well.

PAUL SOLMAN: But this is four years before Brexit, four years before Donald Trump.

BRANKO MILANOVIC: Yes, these processes were already going on from the late 1980s to mid-1990s. There was a discussion among the small group of people who worked on rising inequality in the U.S. We knew that China was growing much faster than the rich world. All the components were there. Actually putting them all together and seeing them as one picture was the novelty.

PAUL SOLMAN: I’ve seen the elephant chart used in a classroom in a way that was suggesting, perhaps subliminally: “Hey, inequality isn’t really so bad because look how many people are benefiting from economic growth around the world. Global inequality is actually decreasing.”

BRANKO MILANOVIC: You know, there is some truth to that. Let me point out two things. The first one is that if you actually look at this chart, you basically don’t see any group of people who have a decline in income. Everybody on that chart is above the point where we actually have zero growth. The second good thing: If you really were to be very cosmopolitan and look at the world as if it were one country, you would say, “Look, we have a situation that a large hunk of people — two and a half billion — have done extremely well. The level of global poverty has actually gone down. These people not only now have sewage and electricity, some have even become tourists. They have better jobs.” This is mainly resurgent Asia.

So then you say, “Well, what’s the big deal?”

The problem is that this is a very abstract view of the world, which doesn’t take any cognizance of the political reality. Because the political reality is there are all these people who have done poorly relative to the rest of the world. They feel poor people in Asia breathing down their necks because of outsourcing, because of imports and so on. And then they also see that the top 1 percent in their own countries have done very well.

They are feeling fear from both ends — from one end because the other people are catching up to them and from the other, as people from their own countries are moving further and further ahead.

PAUL SOLMAN: And that’s why the elephant graph has such oomph to it, right? Because you can see, relative to either side of the trough, that it’s the formerly middle class people of the developed world whose outcomes are so different from everybody else in this period.

They are feeling fear from both ends — from one end because the other people are catching up to them and from the other, as people from their own countries are moving further and further ahead.

BRANKO MILANOVIC: Yes, the middle class in the rich countries is where the political game is being played. They are voting in elections in the U.S., U.K., France and Germany. They are working people in the upper part of the global income distribution. They might on average be happy that the Chinese are doing well, but they are not happy that the Chinese are doing well relative to them.

PAUL SOLMAN: Do you explain the rise in populism in the post-industrialized world in terms of the graph?

BRANKO MILANOVIC: Broadly speaking, yes. But let me just make a caveat. People believe, sometimes argue, that the graph overemphasizes the role of globalization. Globalization is one factor but there is also technological change, though in my opinion that is not completely unrelated to globalization, because though there is technological change in iPhones, for example, they are being produced physically thanks to globalization in Burma or Vietnam. It would be different if they were being produced in the U.S. or Sweden.

The third factor is policy: the decline in tax rates, reduced taxation of capital and all of that.

All three elements played a role. But I really believe that, of the three, globalization is probably the most important one.

PAUL SOLMAN: But most economists would say it’s technological change and maybe policy as well. I think most economists would relegate globalization to the third spot on the list.

BRANKO MILANOVIC: Well, the studies that relate to China and Chinese penetration of the U.S. market show that U.S. labor is actually losing. Not only do people lose the jobs themselves, but over the longer term, they go for jobs that pay much less. I believe that people who emphasize technology do it somewhat naively. They believe technological change is some kind of manna from heaven, which happens unrelated to the underlying globalization. I think it’s wrong. It’s actually that you have technological change which pays off in the globalized world.

PAUL SOLMAN: Back around the turn of the millennium, Ralph Gomory and William Baumol did a study in which they said, “Hey, it’s entirely possible that trade and freer trade will hurt lots of Americans, because the rest of the world will start producing what we have been producing. The world may be better off; the American consumer may be better off. But lots of American workers will be worse off.” That argument was treated with great skepticism at the time.

BRANKO MILANOVIC: I don’t understand why people are sometimes surprised by globalization’s effects. This is not something new. We know that in the same process of globalization in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, Indian manufacturing, which was really textiles, was essentially wiped out by English competition. So it’s not like something that is now happening with deindustrialization of the West that has never happened to anybody before.

In every culture, you have really dramatic dislocation. We had it in the U.K. during the industrial revolution. We had it in India, which was conquered by British textiles and colonialism.

PAUL SOLMAN:  But don’t you think that for every population that experiences something like this, it comes out of left field? Because it isn’t something you’ve experienced before. You haven’t read economic history; you haven’t looked at the enclosure movement in England and said, “Oh, what the hell. This is old news.”

BRANKO MILANOVIC: I agree. The reaction of the people is totally understandable. I’m just saying that the economists who are somewhat surprised by the effects of globalization/technological progress have not paid enough attention to economic history. But for individual people, obviously, they are in shock. One thing was promised to them. Essentially with globalization, they would all get better off and then gradually they see that their wages are stagnant, and they’ve been stagnant for 20 years.

Watch Making Sen$e’s latest story on the hottest curve in economics right now.

PAUL SOLMAN:  Do you think that the economics establishment sold people a false bill of goods?

BRANKO MILANOVIC: Well I think there are two areas where the economics establishment didn’t pay much attention, and they recognize that now. One is economic history, and the other is equality. If you look at the last 25 years, economic history was relegated to the very lowest rank of anything that was done in economics.

PAUL SOLMAN:  A lot of academic economic history departments shut down.

BRANKO MILANOVIC:  They were shut down. And also, in terms of resources and respect, inequality and income distribution were left even further behind. Today, really important issues have come to the fore because of globalization and Brexit and Trump and all of that which have really been totally unstudied or understudied in economics.

I was at the World Bank and a commission reviewed our work on inequality for the U.S. Congress or somebody, and the head of the commission said to us: “You are spending taxpayer money to study issues like inequality? Which goes directly against capitalism and growth.” That was the perception, that it should not be studied.

In the U.S. when people like me started writing things about inequality, the economic journals had no classification for inequality. I couldn’t find where to submit my inequality papers because there was no such topic. There was welfare, there was health issues, there was trade obviously. Finance had hundreds of sub groups.

PAUL SOLMAN:  But now, one of Donald Trump’s top economic advisors, Peter Navarro, whom we’ve talked to, does talk about the effects of globalization on inequality.

So, in the end, what is your interpretation of the elephant chart?

BRANKO MILANOVIC: My interpretation is that it reflects a period of high globalization, which is rebalancing economic power between Asia and Europe and leading to the relative decline of the middle class of the Western countries.

PAUL SOLMAN: Is that a bad thing or a good thing?

BRANKO MILANOVIC: It’s a bad thing for those people who have actually declined. But it could be a good thing for the rest of the world because their incomes went up.

The post The hottest chart in economics, and what it means appeared first on PBS NewsHour.


          Comment on Velominati Super Prestige: Men’s World Championship Road Race 2016 by poker online   
India too is seeing its justifiable share of development in the sport of Poker with people taking it up both online and offline. Is easiest the second largest on-line Poker site in India that provides ‘No Limit Texas Maintain'em' poker sport. By the end of the 2nd degree, there were more than a hundred gamers and the final depend on the end of late entries, one degree later, could be 104 players. The Information Know-how Act, 2000 is the only real cyber regulation of India and very few regulation companies and lawyers are practicing on this novel discipline. Nudurumati was managing the position of Expertise Leader for multiple enterprise verticals in US, Europe, Asia-Pacific and India. The games offered on to play with Real Cash are Texas Hold'em, Omaha, Seven Stud and these are games which undoubtedly require skill and intelligence. The choice of Indian Supreme Courtroom may arrange legality or illegality of on-line video video games like rummy, poker, and so forth. In 2008, I noticed how Scotty Nguyen gained $50,000 H..R.S.E. World Championship and since then I've been taking part in poker ardently. It is the perfect place for exhilarating reside poker gaming experience with personalised but unobtrusive service to put your bets. Tie-ups with multiple banks and funds gateways to process funds of players ensures Clients can have a problem free technique to deposit and withdraw payments. That is undoubtedly one of the most important components of choosing an internet poker site. Casino Royale, Goa - Anchored on the Mandovi River within the state capital of Panaji (also referred to as Panjim), the On line casino Royale Goa is the biggest floating casino in India. Future Gaming will now have the ability to legally offer actual cash on-line betting and gaming providers within the state. Judging by the pattern where Indian players passionately rush to play poker online in large numbers to play thrilling poker games on-line. Nowhere the Supreme Courtroom has held that of online poker, on-line rummy, on-line card video games, and many others are legal in India. We believe that any online poker web site of India that needs to interact in authorized business must adjust to Indian laws like Indian Penal Code, 1860, Code of Felony Procedure, 1973, Indian Info Know-how Act, 2000, the Public Gambling Act, 1867, Overseas Trade Management Act (FEMA) 1999, etc. A gaming enthusiast who need to take pleasure in and improve his skills is never barred from enjoying poker. Bharat Agarwalla, a poker visionary was chargeable for instituting the IPS which has since, gone on to turn into an everyday tourney with occasions on alternate months at licensed casinos round India. It is believed that the net gaming market in Singapore was price as much as SG$376 million (round US$299.6 million). In association with few new born poker rooms like High 5, it organizes massive tourneys which have elicited poker pros in current instances from several cities together with Kolkata, Delhi and Guwahati. According to a report from The Times of India , local police within the city of Ahmedabad, which is within the Indian state Gujarat, have moved to crack down on the games at the Lodge Ramada. I would suggest higher recommend that you purchase 2 SmileDrive or SH units of a hundred chips. The net poker websites are also required to ensure that their payment gateways are duly authorised by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). They've lately signed a maintain the WPT World Poker Tour to variety a formidable partnership. On-line poker is laid out on a large number of Multi Desk Tournaments and for varying skill levels and variants.Online poker tournaments, Texas Holdem tournaments, Omaha, multi desk tournaments, in vast numbers are constantly engaged on Poker Nation. This is the first signal of an aggressive promoting campaign by Indian poker web sites, which have been providing real-cash poker since 2011. It's specifically submitted by him that no officer of the police station visited the membership in question and directed suspension of the game of poker thereat. Patni is kicked about not just January however the remainder of the 12 months's IPC schedule as properly, Once I received the Spadie at ACOP, one of many first thoughts that came to my thoughts was the dearth of the event scene in India. Media experiences suggest that there are not less than 10-15 gaming web sites, that are being frequented by Indian players. A number of the owners are Rishi Kajaria , joint MD, Kajaria Ceramics and Ruchiransh Jaipuria of Jaipuria Group (Delhi); Mehul Shah, unique promoter of Anchor Electrical (Mumbai); Kunal Shah, cofounder of FreeCharge (Bengaluru); Amit Shah, Karan Bhagat and Yatin Shah of IIFL Wealth Management (Hyderabad); Ankkit Bahadur of Playboy, North India and Taarun V Jain of Legend Group (Kolkata); Gaurav Mohan of Eventwala (Goa); and Purrshottam Bhaggeria of Filatex Group (Rajasthan). Before we start our assessment of the authorized background to real money poker inside India, I'll just make a mention of some useful poker pages here on winmoney101. In this online poker variant, a player has to use two out of 4 hole playing cards and three from the board to make a excessive hand or a low hand combination. Knights, Barons and High Citizens all receive lavish money prizes for their on-line poker abilities. In case you ask me, one of the lovely aspects about poker is that it does not matter where you come from. A bunch, named the Public Curiosity Litigation, filed a case towards various gaming organizations including the Mahalaxmi Cultural Affiliation, Madras Metropolis Membership (India) Pvt Ltd, Madras Darkhorse Farm & Land Improvement Pvt Ltd, and Madras Sakthi Recreation Centre. Named as Poker Sports activities League (PSL), this venture will contain three seasoned games fanatic: Dabur's Amit Burman, Adda52's Anuj Gupta and Pranav Bagai, who's the founding father of India Poker Legend. Spartan Poker has been a pioneer in starting on-line tourney tradition in India, it is a true instance of selling the sport in occasions which can be being deliberate and executed are simply getting higher by the day, I remember simply logging in to before an IPC reside event to play whole occasion bundle online satellites that were hosted on TheSpartanPoker. Along with that, several of the perfect online poker websites accept players from India resembling 888poker, Tigergaming, Betsafe, Netbet, bet365, Pokerdom, Planetwin365, Intertops and Vbet. Because no Indian law exists that prohibits online poker, there is no penalty for taking part in poker at considered one of our Indian on-line poker gambling websites. So far as taking part in in India is worried, we have a central legislation on taking part in usually referred to as Public Playing Act of 1867. Even in money video games at dwelling, I get the sensation that many gamers really feel like rock stars. Gamers ought to verify with the native tax authorities for details and specifics concerning the correct strategy to file taxes and the correct quantity to pay. He then explained me what the sport is about and how he cannot quit without calling time after successful. It created a much wanted platform for lot of gamers to pursue poker as a occupation. On this sport of life, the hand dealt represents determinism, the way through which you play it is free will ! It is changing into increasingly more frequent to see players from India at the remaining tables of among the best on-line poker occasions. Ignoring the web intermediary legal responsibility and cyber legislation due diligence (PDF) by online poker entrepreneurs in India will be legally deadly. In brief, the web sites of online poker, online rummy, online card games, and so on are operating at their very own risks and so are the players who play at these web sites. Now I'm thought-about one of the best gamers on the planet." Etymological fact: the word poker derives from pochen, German for bragging. Joss Wood - A former editor of Poker Industry Professional, Joss Wooden is a graduate in English from the University of Birmingham. It is very straightforward to withdraw from India, however many are concerned about it. What I did with an HDFC Bank was merely give moneybookers my SWIFT code, Money Bookers will then ask for bank verification and I gave them my debit card particulars, they verified my account and I acquired my cash in a couple of days. A protracted overdue victory for Abhishek who has put in some terrifically consistent performances which can little question see him at the high of the India Participant of the 12 months (IPOY) leaderboard. http://mykoperasi.coop/?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=2209639
          Comment on Velominati Super Prestige: Men’s World Championship Road Race 2016 by poker online   
India too is seeing its justifiable share of development in the sport of Poker with people taking it up both online and offline. Is easiest the second largest on-line Poker site in India that provides ‘No Limit Texas Maintain'em' poker sport. By the end of the 2nd degree, there were more than a hundred gamers and the final depend on the end of late entries, one degree later, could be 104 players. The Information Know-how Act, 2000 is the only real cyber regulation of India and very few regulation companies and lawyers are practicing on this novel discipline. Nudurumati was managing the position of Expertise Leader for multiple enterprise verticals in US, Europe, Asia-Pacific and India. The games offered on to play with Real Cash are Texas Hold'em, Omaha, Seven Stud and these are games which undoubtedly require skill and intelligence. The choice of Indian Supreme Courtroom may arrange legality or illegality of on-line video video games like rummy, poker, and so forth. In 2008, I noticed how Scotty Nguyen gained $50,000 H..R.S.E. World Championship and since then I've been taking part in poker ardently. It is the perfect place for exhilarating reside poker gaming experience with personalised but unobtrusive service to put your bets. Tie-ups with multiple banks and funds gateways to process funds of players ensures Clients can have a problem free technique to deposit and withdraw payments. That is undoubtedly one of the most important components of choosing an internet poker site. Casino Royale, Goa - Anchored on the Mandovi River within the state capital of Panaji (also referred to as Panjim), the On line casino Royale Goa is the biggest floating casino in India. Future Gaming will now have the ability to legally offer actual cash on-line betting and gaming providers within the state. Judging by the pattern where Indian players passionately rush to play poker online in large numbers to play thrilling poker games on-line. Nowhere the Supreme Courtroom has held that of online poker, on-line rummy, on-line card video games, and many others are legal in India. We believe that any online poker web site of India that needs to interact in authorized business must adjust to Indian laws like Indian Penal Code, 1860, Code of Felony Procedure, 1973, Indian Info Know-how Act, 2000, the Public Gambling Act, 1867, Overseas Trade Management Act (FEMA) 1999, etc. A gaming enthusiast who need to take pleasure in and improve his skills is never barred from enjoying poker. Bharat Agarwalla, a poker visionary was chargeable for instituting the IPS which has since, gone on to turn into an everyday tourney with occasions on alternate months at licensed casinos round India. It is believed that the net gaming market in Singapore was price as much as SG$376 million (round US$299.6 million). In association with few new born poker rooms like High 5, it organizes massive tourneys which have elicited poker pros in current instances from several cities together with Kolkata, Delhi and Guwahati. According to a report from The Times of India , local police within the city of Ahmedabad, which is within the Indian state Gujarat, have moved to crack down on the games at the Lodge Ramada. I would suggest higher recommend that you purchase 2 SmileDrive or SH units of a hundred chips. The net poker websites are also required to ensure that their payment gateways are duly authorised by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). They've lately signed a maintain the WPT World Poker Tour to variety a formidable partnership. On-line poker is laid out on a large number of Multi Desk Tournaments and for varying skill levels and variants.Online poker tournaments, Texas Holdem tournaments, Omaha, multi desk tournaments, in vast numbers are constantly engaged on Poker Nation. This is the first signal of an aggressive promoting campaign by Indian poker web sites, which have been providing real-cash poker since 2011. It's specifically submitted by him that no officer of the police station visited the membership in question and directed suspension of the game of poker thereat. Patni is kicked about not just January however the remainder of the 12 months's IPC schedule as properly, Once I received the Spadie at ACOP, one of many first thoughts that came to my thoughts was the dearth of the event scene in India. Media experiences suggest that there are not less than 10-15 gaming web sites, that are being frequented by Indian players. A number of the owners are Rishi Kajaria , joint MD, Kajaria Ceramics and Ruchiransh Jaipuria of Jaipuria Group (Delhi); Mehul Shah, unique promoter of Anchor Electrical (Mumbai); Kunal Shah, cofounder of FreeCharge (Bengaluru); Amit Shah, Karan Bhagat and Yatin Shah of IIFL Wealth Management (Hyderabad); Ankkit Bahadur of Playboy, North India and Taarun V Jain of Legend Group (Kolkata); Gaurav Mohan of Eventwala (Goa); and Purrshottam Bhaggeria of Filatex Group (Rajasthan). Before we start our assessment of the authorized background to real money poker inside India, I'll just make a mention of some useful poker pages here on winmoney101. In this online poker variant, a player has to use two out of 4 hole playing cards and three from the board to make a excessive hand or a low hand combination. Knights, Barons and High Citizens all receive lavish money prizes for their on-line poker abilities. In case you ask me, one of the lovely aspects about poker is that it does not matter where you come from. A bunch, named the Public Curiosity Litigation, filed a case towards various gaming organizations including the Mahalaxmi Cultural Affiliation, Madras Metropolis Membership (India) Pvt Ltd, Madras Darkhorse Farm & Land Improvement Pvt Ltd, and Madras Sakthi Recreation Centre. Named as Poker Sports activities League (PSL), this venture will contain three seasoned games fanatic: Dabur's Amit Burman, Adda52's Anuj Gupta and Pranav Bagai, who's the founding father of India Poker Legend. Spartan Poker has been a pioneer in starting on-line tourney tradition in India, it is a true instance of selling the sport in occasions which can be being deliberate and executed are simply getting higher by the day, I remember simply logging in to before an IPC reside event to play whole occasion bundle online satellites that were hosted on TheSpartanPoker. Along with that, several of the perfect online poker websites accept players from India resembling 888poker, Tigergaming, Betsafe, Netbet, bet365, Pokerdom, Planetwin365, Intertops and Vbet. Because no Indian law exists that prohibits online poker, there is no penalty for taking part in poker at considered one of our Indian on-line poker gambling websites. So far as taking part in in India is worried, we have a central legislation on taking part in usually referred to as Public Playing Act of 1867. Even in money video games at dwelling, I get the sensation that many gamers really feel like rock stars. Gamers ought to verify with the native tax authorities for details and specifics concerning the correct strategy to file taxes and the correct quantity to pay. He then explained me what the sport is about and how he cannot quit without calling time after successful. It created a much wanted platform for lot of gamers to pursue poker as a occupation. On this sport of life, the hand dealt represents determinism, the way through which you play it is free will ! It is changing into increasingly more frequent to see players from India at the remaining tables of among the best on-line poker occasions. Ignoring the web intermediary legal responsibility and cyber legislation due diligence (PDF) by online poker entrepreneurs in India will be legally deadly. In brief, the web sites of online poker, online rummy, online card games, and so on are operating at their very own risks and so are the players who play at these web sites. Now I'm thought-about one of the best gamers on the planet." Etymological fact: the word poker derives from pochen, German for bragging. Joss Wood - A former editor of Poker Industry Professional, Joss Wooden is a graduate in English from the University of Birmingham. It is very straightforward to withdraw from India, however many are concerned about it. What I did with an HDFC Bank was merely give moneybookers my SWIFT code, Money Bookers will then ask for bank verification and I gave them my debit card particulars, they verified my account and I acquired my cash in a couple of days. A protracted overdue victory for Abhishek who has put in some terrifically consistent performances which can little question see him at the high of the India Participant of the 12 months (IPOY) leaderboard. http://mykoperasi.coop/?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=2209639 <p><b>VSP PICKS (2nd Rest Day Swaps):</b></p><ol><li>04.03.81.03.23</li></ol>
          President-Elect Trump Plans To Slash Taxes On Businesses — Including His Own   
During the presidential campaign, Donald Trump promised the biggest tax cut since Ronald Reagan's conservative revolution swept into Washington in the 1980s. A big part of that tax cut would go to corporations. The president-elect says that will fuel investment and growth. Skeptics say the plan would explode the federal budget deficit. Top business tax rate slashed Trump's proposal would slash the top business tax rate from 35 percent, the highest in the industrial world, to 15 percent — but he says that, at the same time as he's cutting tax rates, he'll also close lucrative tax loopholes. One of them, known as "carried interest," allows billionaire hedge fund managers to halve the taxes on large proportions of their income. During the campaign, Trump called carried interest "one of the greatest provisions, for people like me." "I'll be honest with you," he said. "I give up a lot when I run." Len Burman, a co-director of the independent Tax Policy Center , says that — far from being
          Keganasan Bisa Ular pada Darah Manusia   
Bisa ular pasti berbahaya. Tapi, kita akan makin yakin ketika melihat ganasnya racun ular saat tercampur dalam darah. Seorang pengguna YouTube dengan nama akun Fragrancemad memperlihatkan rekaman video kerja bisa ular dalam darah. Video ini telah disaksikan lebih dari 1,8 juta kali di YouTube.

"Saya melakukan beberapa penelitian untuk parfum Cobra oleh Arthes Jeannes. Saya menemukan video ini tentang bisa ular secara kebetulan. Ini begitu luar biasa. Saya hanya mengunggah ke YouTube," tulis pengguna dalam bagian info video.

"Pada dasarnya, setetes racun diteteskan ke cawan berisi darah. Dalam hitungan detik, gumpalan darah menjadi sebuah bongkahan tebal materi padat," katanya.

"Sebagian besar insiden gigitan ular terjadi di Srilanka, Burma, dan India. Ini merupakan ular yang sangat berbahaya. Anggota besar dari beberapa spesies ular beracun dengan mudah dapat memberikan dosis yang mematikan pada manusia. Korban biasanya akan mengeluh sakit di lokasi gigitan. Mereka mengalami pembengkakan yang dapat terlihat," jelas Dr. Terence M. Davidson, M.D, dari Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas California, San Diego seperti dikutip dari Huffington Post.

Selain gangguan perdarahan, bisa ular juga menimbulkan gejala seperti kelopak mata bengkak, kesulitan berbicara dan kelemahan pada bagian tubuh. Bahkan, racun ini juga mengakibatkan gagal ginjal akut.

Ancaman racun ular memang terdengar menakutkan. Tapi, bisa ular sangat berguna bagi manusia. Dalam studi yang dipublikasikan tahun lalu di Journal of Biological Chemistry, para peneliti mencatat penggunaan medis dari material yang mengancam ini.

"Bisa ular berisi sejumlah besar racun yang menargetkan protein dalam trombosit," kata Yonchol Shin selaku profesor spesialis racun ular di Universitas Kogakuin kepada Science Daily.

"Beberapa dari racun itu mencegah trombosit dari pembekuan. Ini dapat menyebabkan perdarahan hebat pada korban gigitan ular. Fungsi lainnya, bisa ular sangat kuat dalam mengaktifkan trombosit yang menyebabkan pembekuan darah. Identifikasi target molekul dari banyak racun ini telah memberikan sumbangsih besar bagi pemahaman kami tentang aktivasi trombosit dan penyakit terkait," sebutnya.

Jika Anda tidak percaya coba saksikan video keganasan bisa ular dibawah ini :


Sumber : vivanews
          Gorelal Burman Mp3 Song Download   
gorelal burman mp3 song download
          Crossing to ‘Burma’. A 6 Day Ride in Myanmar.   
Crossing from outside countries into Myanmar (Burma) by private vehicles has been prohibited for years, if not decades. Six friends and I received special permission to enter on our motorcycles for a six day adventure.
          Binbir Renkli Sevgi Dansı...   
Deniz doğumgünüm için yelken yepelek beni görmek istediğini söylediğinde, bir hediyesi var herhalde, dedim…

Aklıma hiç bu gelmemişti…

Geldi ki, elinde kolunda bir sürü çantalar, torbalar. “Yine ağır bir çantayla seyahat ediyor.” dedim.

Aklıma hiç bu gelmemişti…

Evin içinde bir oraya koştu, bir buraya… Baktım küçük bir kutuda pasta getirmiş… Çay suyu koydum…

Aklıma hiç bu gelmemişti…

Uzun seyahatin yorgunluğu, durgunluğu, biraz da dinginliği hala üzerimde, onun bu telaşlı haliyle tam bir tezat haldeyiz…

Aklıma hiç bu gelmemişti…

Mutfaktan salona geldim, yüzünde kocaman bir gülümseme, gözleri ışıl ışıl, elinde de devasa bir torba… “Aaa, abarttın, bu ne böyle?” dedim…

Aklıma hiç bu gelmemişti…

Nasıl sevinçli, yerinde duramıyor, hatta ara ara zıplıyor gibi durduğu yerde…

Aklıma hiç bu gelmemişti tabii…

Koskocaman torbayı aldım, nispeten hafif, içimden “ne ola ki” diyorum…

Nereden aklıma gelsin…

Kurdeleyi açtım… Torbanın içinden dantelli örtüsüyle bir kutu çıktı, içinde de renk renk zarflar… Çoğu Deniz’in adresine gelmiş… Tam kavrayamadım, şaşkınlık içinde kutuyu elimde tutuyorum…

Deniz –tanıyanların gözünün önüne geliyordur- zıp zıp…

Aklıma hiç bu gelmemişti…

Uzunlu, kısalı, yeşilli, pembeli, büyüklü, küçüklü, çiçekli bir sürü zarf… Birkaçının üzerinde gönderenlerin ismini gördüm, tanıdıklar… Deniz’in yüzüne baktım…

Meğer bu kutunun içinde 41 tane mektup varmış, dostlar –tanıdık, tanımadık- doğumgünüm için birer mektup yazmış… Yaşamlarına nasıl dokunduğumu anlatmış…


Uzun hissettiğim bir süre öylece kalakaldım… Nasıl özel ve değerli bir hediye… Bunca yıllık yaşamımda hiç böyle bir sürprizle karşılaşmadım… İlk tepkim büyük bir şaşkınlık…

Sonra büyük bir merak… Kimler var acaba?

Deniz’in acelesi var, gidecek… Hızlıca hikayeyi anlattı… Geçen sene yürekten iletişim eğitiminde Nada; oğlunun 30. yaş günü için 30 dosttan 30 mektup hediye etmiş olduğunu anlatmıştı. Eğitimde çeviri yapıyordum, bu sözleri Türkçe söylerken, gözlerim dolmuştu. O insani bağlantı, o duygu yoğunluğu yüreğime dokunmuş, hatta iyice yüreğimin içine işlemişti… İnsanın başına gelebilecek en güzel şeylerden diye düşünmüştüm… Ama bir gün benim için yapılacağı hiç aklıma gelmemişti, hatta ah yapılsa bile dememiştim… Hatta unutmuşum bile… O an insanlar arasındaki bu derin bağlantıyı duymayı kutlamışım bir tek…

Deniz unutmamış… Aklına yazmış… Aylarca uğraşmış… Ayak üstü anlattığına göre, Seda’nın da (Talaakar) desteğiyle, dostlara ulaşmışlar… Çabayı, gayreti, emeği hayal bile edemiyorum, öyle farklı yerden dostlar var ki… Bu kadar çok insanla bağlantı kurmuşlar, nasıl oldu hiç haberim olmadı, müthiş… Tam bir sürpriz…

Kucağımda yürekler dolu bir sepet, öylece duruyorum… Bu derin bağlantının şaşkınlığı ve keyfini yaşıyorum… Deniz’e de ne diyeyim bilemiyorum, öyle sustu dilim, zihnim… Yüreğin aleminde geziniyorum… Bu kadar özel, bu kadar değerli bir hediye…

Bu daha başlangıçmış, mektupları okumaya başlayınca, başka bir aleme geçiş…

Deniz mektupları geliş sırasına dizmiş, ilk mektup taaa Ağustos ayında gönderilmiş… Biraz önce kapı çaldı, bir mektup daha geldi… Biri de yoldaymış… Zamana yayılmış bir enerji…

Mekana da yayılmış… İstanbul’dan, Samsun’dan, Ankara’dan, Bodrum’dan, İzmir’den, Nusaybin’den, İngiltere’den, Kanada’dan, Norveç’ten, hatta Burma’dan…

Tek tek mektupları açıyorum…

Çok eski dostlar, birlikte nice badireler atlatılmış dostlar, çeşitli vesilelerle derin bağlantılar yaşanmış dostlar, yeni dostlar, hiç yüz yüze görüşülmemiş dostlar, hiç tanımadığım dostlar, dünyevi olarak bu projeden haberi olmayan ama kartı sepetin içine evrenin düzenlemesiyle giren dostlar… Hatta şu an dünyada olmayan dostlar da ortak dostları vesile kılmış…

Bolca gözyaşı…

Bolca kahkaha…

Bolca şaşkınlık…

Yoğun bir sevgi enerjisi…

Hani “sevginin yaşama geçmiş hali olalım” niyetimiz vardı ya, daha ne olsun…

Bin bir renkle sevgi dansı… Her dans hem biricik, hem birin içinde… Bu dansın tanığı olmak, içinde olmak, gözünde olmak… nicelerine nasip olsun…

Nasıl bir incelik… Nasıl derinden bağlantılar… Nasıl yaratıcılıklar… Nasıl bir özen… Nasıl bir sevgi akışı… Sözler bitiyor işte… Kalbim yerinden çıkacak gibi…

Ara ara zorlanıyor sistemim bu yoğunluğu kaldırmakta ve hem yazanlara, hem tüm dünyaya, evrene bu güzelliğin katlanarak yayılmasını diliyorum can-ı gönülden… Gözler hep biraz nemli… Bu kadar güzel bir sevgi enerjisinin bir araya gelmesi çok özel… Buradan etkisinin büyüyerek dalga dalga yayılmasını diliyorum… Tüm insanlığa sevgiyi, dayanışmayı, paylaşmayı, dostluğu, derin bağlantıları hatırlatmasını diliyorum…

Henüz bir kere okuyabildim mektupları… Ancak kelimelerin, resimlerin, fotoğrafların, kitapların, taşların, kartların ardındaki enerjinin yoğunluğuyla hala zor nefes alıyorum… Ara vereyim dediysem de, merak yoğun basıyor… Her mektupla enerji daha da yoğunlaşıyor… Bakıyorum herkes kendi güzelliğini anlatıyor bir yandan, ne mutluluk böyle bir ağ’da olmak…

Çok güzel içgörülere vesile oluyor nicesi… Yaşam bilgelikleri, hatırlatıcılar yoğun… Hakikaten hiç fark etmediğim, hatta bilmediğim güzellikler de paylaşmış dostlar, içimde hep şükür kelimeleri…

Yine ben en iyisi bir 41 günlük (aslında kaç mektup oluyorsa) yürüyüşe başlayayım… Her gün bir mektubu tekrar okuyup, iyi dileklerde bulunayım yazana, yazanın ağ’ına, tüm yazanlara, tüm dostlara, tüm insanlara, tüm varlıklara- bu birleşmiş müthiş enerji burada tıkalı kalmasın, yayılsın artarak… Katılmak isteyen olursa, malum yürek; dostluğu, sevgiyi, dayanışmayı birlikte kutlamaya hep hazır… Dilekler herkesin de bunları yaşamasına...

Bugün biiir...

İlk Deniz’den başlayayım… :)

Yürekten taşan sevgiyle...

          Pakistan is the 7th Largest Source of Foreign-Born Citizens of Rich OECD Nations   
Nearly 100,000 Pakistanis migrated to and another 50,000 acquired citizenship of the rich industrialized nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2015, according to International Migration Outlook 2017 released by the Organization.

OECD Migration Report 2017: 

Nearly 50,000 Pakistani immigrants became citizens of the rich industrialized countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2015, according to International Migration Outlook 2017 recently published by the Organization.

Source: International Migration Outlook 2017

India topped the list with 130,000 Indians acquiring citizenship of OECD nations in 2015, followed by Mexico (112,000) ranked 2nd, the Philippines (94,000) ranked 3rd, Morocco (94,000) ranked 4th, China (78,000) ranked 5th, Albania (52,000) ranked 6th and Pakistan (50,000) ranked 7th.

In addition, Pakistan was the 18th largest source of immigrants with 99,000 Pakistanis migrating to OECD nations in 2015. India is 5th on this list with 268,000 Indians migrating to OECD countries.

Source: International Migration Outlook 2017

Humanitarian migration of refugees, rather than migration for better economic prospects, dominated OECD inflows during 2015. War-torn Syria was the second largest source with 430,000 migrants in 2015, the report said.

Pew Research Data: 

India is the world's largest exporter of labor with 15.8 million Indians working in other countries. Bangladesh ranks 5th with 7.2 million Bangladeshis working overseas while Pakistan ranks 6th with 5.9 million Pakistanis working overseas, according to Pew Research report released ahead of International Migrants Day observance on Sunday, December 18, 2016.

International Migration: 

Countries of Origin of Migrants to the United States Source: Pew Research




Pew Research reports that nearly 3.5 million Indians lived in the UAE, the world’s second-largest migration corridor in 2015. While most of the migration is from low and middle income countries to high-income countries, the top 20 list of migrants' origins also includes rich countries like the United States (ranked 20), United Kingdom (11), Germany (14), Italy (21) and South Korea (25).

Top 25 Sources of Migrants:

Here is the list of top 20 countries of origin for international migrants:


1. India 15.9 million

2. Mexico 12.3 million

3. Russia 10.6 million

4. China 9.5 million

5. Bangladesh 7.2 million

6. Pakistan 5.9 million

7. Ukraine 5.83 million

8.  Philippines 5.32 million

9.  Syria 5.01 million

10. Afghanistan 4.84 million

11. United Kingdom 4.92 million

12. Poland 4.45 million

13. Kazakstan 4.08 million

14. Germany 4.0 million

15. Indonesia 3.88 million

16. Palestine 3.55 million

17. Romania 3.41 million

18. Egypt 3.27 million

19. Turkey 3.11 million

20. United States 3.02 million

21. Italy 2.9 million

22. Burma (Myanmar) 2.88 million

23. Colombia 2.64 million

24. Vietnam 2.56 million

25. South Korea 2.35 million

Declining Labor Pool in Developed Economies: 

The world population is aging with slowing labor force growth. It is particularly true of the more developed nations with aging populations and declining birth rates.  In an recent report titled "Asian Economic Integration Report", the Asian Development argued that migration within Asia can help deal with regional labor imbalances. It said as follows:

"In Asia and the Pacific, many economies could expand their role as the source or host economy for migrant workers.

Labor supply is still growing in developing economies—such as Cambodia, Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines—and they could export labor across the region. In contrast, developed but aging economies such as Hong Kong, China; the Republic of Korea; Japan; and Singapore are unable to meet labor demand with their dwindling workforce.

Hence, these economies would benefit from immigrant labor. Kang and Magoncia (2016) further discuss the potential for migration to reallocate labor from surplus to deficit economies and offer a glimpse of how the demographic shift will frame Asia’s future population structure, particularly the future working age population. Among the issues explored is the magnitude of labor force surpluses and deficits within different economies in Asia."

Pakistan's Growing Labor Force:

Pakistan has the world’s sixth largest population, sixth largest diaspora and the ninth largest labor force with growing human capital. With rapidly declining fertility and aging populations in the industrialized world, Pakistan's growing talent pool is likely to play a much bigger role to satisfy global demand for workers in the 21st century and contribute to the well-being of Pakistan as well as other parts of the world.



With half the population below 20 years and 60 per cent below 30 years, Pakistan is well-positioned to reap what is often described as "demographic dividend", with its workforce growing at a faster rate than total population. This trend is estimated to accelerate over several decades. Contrary to the oft-repeated talk of doom and gloom, average Pakistanis are now taking education more seriously than ever. Youth literacy is about 70% and growing, and young people are spending more time in schools and colleges to graduate at higher rates than their Indian counterparts in 15+ age group, according to a report on educational achievement by Harvard University researchers Robert Barro and Jong-Wha Lee. Vocational training is also getting increased focus since 2006 under National Vocational Training Commission (NAVTEC) with help from Germany, Japan, South Korea and the Netherlands.



Pakistan's work force is over 60 million strong, according to the Federal Bureau of Statistics. With increasing female participation, the country's labor pool is rising at a rate of 3.5% a year, according to International Labor Organization.

With rising urban middle class, there is substantial and growing demand in Pakistan from students, parents and employers for private quality higher education along with a willingness and capacity to pay relatively high tuition and fees, according to the findings of Austrade, an Australian government agency promoting trade. Private institutions are seeking affiliations with universities abroad to ensure they offer information and training that is of international standards.


Trans-national education (TNE) is a growing market in Pakistan and recent data shows evidence of over 40 such programs running successfully in affiliation with British universities at undergraduate and graduate level, according to The British Council. Overall, the UK takes about 65 per cent of the TNE market in Pakistan.

It is extremely important for Pakistan's public policy makers and the nation's private sector to fully appreciate the expected demographic dividend as a great opportunity. The best way for them to demonstrate it is to push a pro-youth agenda of education, skills developmenthealth and fitness to take full advantage of this tremendous opportunity. Failure to do so would be a missed opportunity that could be extremely costly for Pakistan and the rest of the world.

Growth Forecast 2014-2050. Source: EIU


In the high fertility countries of Africa and Asia family sizes are continuing to decline. And in low fertility countries family sizes will continue to remain below replacement levels. Why? Because the same juggernaut forces are operating: increasing urbanization, smaller and costly housing, expanding higher education and career opportunities for women, high financial costs and time pressures for childrearing and changing attitudes and life styles.

Source: BBC



Countries With Declining Populations:

115 countries, including China (1.55), Hong Kong (1.17),  Taiwan (1.11) and Singapore (0.8) are well below the replacement level of 2.1 TFR.  Their populations will sharply decline in later part of the 21st century.

 United States is currently at 2.01 TFR, slightly below the replacement rate.  "We don't take a stance one way or the other on whether it's good or bad," said Mark Mather, demographer with the Population Reference Bureau. Small year-to-year changes like those experienced by the United States don't make much difference, he noted. But a sharp or sustained drop over a decade or more "will certainly have long-term consequences for society," he told Utah-based Desert News National.

Japan (1.4 TFR) and Russia (1.6 TFR) are experiencing among the sharpest population declines in the world. One manifestation in Japan is the data on diaper sales: Unicharm Corp., a major diaper maker, has seen sales of adult diapers outpace infant diapers since 2013, according to New York Times.

Median Age Map: Africa in teens, Pakistan in 20s, China, South America and US in 30s, Europe, Canada and Japan in 40s.


The Russian population grew from about 100 million in 1950 to almost149 million by the early 1990s. Since then, the Russian population has declined, and official reports put it at around 144 million, according to Yale Global Online.

Reversing Trends:

Countries, most recently China, are finding that it is far more difficult to raise low fertility than it is reduce high fertility. The countries in the European Union are offering a variety of incentives, including birth starter kits to assist new parents in Finland, cheap childcare centers and liberal parental leave in France and a year of paid maternity leave in Germany, according to Desert News. But the fertility rates in these countries remain below replacement levels.

Summary:

Overzealous Pakistani birth control advocates need to understand what countries with sub-replacement fertility rates are now seeing: Low birth rates lead to diminished economic growth. "Fewer kids mean fewer tax-paying workers to support public pension programs. An "older society", noted the late Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker, is "less dynamic, creative and entrepreneurial." Growing labor force n Pakistan can not only contribute to Pakistan's prosperity but also help alleviate the effects of aging populations and declining labor pools in more developed economies. I believe that Pakistan's growing population and young demographics should be seen as a blessing, not a curse.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Pakistan's Expected Demographic Dividend

Pakistan's Growing Human Capital

Upwardly Mobile Pakistan

Pakistan Most Urbanized in South Asia

Hindu Population Growth Rate in Pakistan

Do South Asian Slums Offer Hope?




          Do You Remember These Men?   


Sterling Hayden, US Marines and OSS. Smuggled guns intoYugoslavia and parachuted into Croatia.

James Stewart, US Army Air Corps. Bomber pilot who rose to the rank of General.

Ernest Borgnine, US Navy. Gunners Mate 1c, destroyer USSLamberton.

Ed McMahon, US Marines. Fighter Pilot. (Flew OE-1 Bird Dogs over Korea as well.)

Telly Savalas, US Army.

Walter Matthau, US Army Air Corps. , B-24 Radioman/Gunner and cryptographer.

Steve Forrest, US Army. Wounded, Battle of the Bulge.

Jonathan Winters, USMC. Battleship USS Wisconsin and Carrier USS Bon Homme Richard. Anti-aircraft gunner, Battle ofOkinawa.

Paul Newman, US Navy Rear seat gunner/radsioman, torpedo bombers of USS Bunker Hill.

Kirk Douglas, US Navy. Sub-chaser in the Pacific. Wounded in action and medically discharged.

Robert Mitchum, US Army.

Dale Robertson, US Army. Tank Commander in North Africa under Patton. Wounded twice. Battlefield Commission.

Henry Fonda, US Navy. Destroyer USS Satterlee.

John Carroll, US Army Air Corps. Pilot in North Africa. Broke his back in a crash.

Lee Marvin US Marines. Sniper. Wounded in action on Saipan.

Art Carney, US Army. Wounded on Normandy beach, D-Day. Limped for the rest of his life.

Wayne Morris, US Navy fighter pilot, USS Essex. Downed seven Japanese fighters.

Rod Steiger, US Navy. Was aboard one of the ships that launched the Doolittle Raid.

Tony Curtis, US Navy. Sub tender USS Proteus. In Tokyo Bay for the surrender of Japan.

Larry Storch . US Navy. Sub tender USS Proteus with TonyCurtis.

Forrest Tucker, US Army. Enlisted as a private, rose to Lieutenant.

Robert Montgomery, US Navy.

George Kennedy, US Army. Enlisted after Pearl Harbor, stayed in sixteen years.

Mickey Rooney, US Army under Patton. Bronze Star.

Denver Pyle, US Navy. Wounded in the Battle of Guadalcanal.Medi call discharged.

Burgess Meredith, US Army Air Corps.

DeForest Kelley, US Army Air Corps.

Robert Stack, US Navy. Gunnery Officer.

Neville Brand, US Army, Europe. Was awarded the Silver Star and Purple Heart.

Tyrone Power, US Marines. Transport pilot in the Pacific Theater.

Charlton Heston, US Army Air Corps. Radio operator and aerialgu nner on a B-25, Aleutians.

Danny Aiello, US Army. Lied about his age to enlist at 16. Served three years.

James Arness, US Army. As an infantryman, he was severely wounded at Anzio, Italy.

Efram Zimbalist, Jr., US Army. Purple Heart for a severe wound received at Huertgen Forest.

Mickey Spillane, US Army Air Corps, Fighter Pilot and later Instructor Pilot.

Rod Sterling. US Army. 11th Airborne Division in the Pacific. He jumped at Tagaytay in the Philippines and was later wounded in Manila.

Gene Autry, US Army Air C corps. Crewman on transports that ferried supplies over "The Hump" in the China-Burma-IndiaTheater.

William Holden, US Army Air Corps.

Alan Hale Jr, US Coast Guard.

Harry Dean Stanton, US Navy. Battle of Okinawa.

Russell Johnson, US Army Air Corps. B-24 crewman who was awarded Purple Heart when his aircraft was shot down by the Japanese in the Philippines.

William Conrad, US Army Air Corps. Fighter Pilot.

Jack Klugman, US Army.

Frank Sutton, US Army. Took part in 14 assault landings, including Leyte, Luzon, Bataan and Corregidor.

Jackie Coogan, US Army Air Corps. Volunteered for gliders and flew troops and materials into Burma behind enemy lines.

Tom Bosley, US Navy.

Claude Akins, US Army. Signal Corps., Burma and thePhilippines.

Chuck Connors, US Army. Tank-warfare instructor.

Harry Carey Jr., US Navy.

Mel Brooks, US Army. Combat Engineer. Saw action in the Battle of the Bulge.

Robert Altman, US Army Air Corps. B-24 Co-Pilot.

Pat Hingle, US Navy. Destroyer USS Marshall

Fred Gwynne, US Navy. Radioman.

Karl Malden, US Army Air Corps. 8th Air Force, NCO.

Earl Holliman. US Navy. Lied about his age to enlist. Discharged after a year when they Navy found out.

Rock Hudson, US Navy. Aircraft mechanic, the Philippines.

Harvey Korman, US Navy.

Aldo Ray. US Navy. UDT frogman, Okinawa.

Don Knotts, US Army, Pacific Theater.

Don Rickles, US Navy aboard USS Cyrene.
  
Harry Dean Stanton, US Navy. Served aboard an LST in the Battle of Okinawa.

Robert Stack, US Navy. Gunnery Instructor.

Soupy Sales, US Navy. Served on USS Randall in the South Pacific.

Lee Van Cleef, US Navy. Served aboard a sub chaser then a mine sweeper.

Clifton James, US Army, South Pacific. Was awarded the Silver Star, Bronze Star, and Purple Heart.

Ted Knight, US Army, Combat Engineers.

Jack Warden, US Navy, 1938-1942, then US Army, 1942-1945. 101st Airborne Division.

Don Adams. US Marines. Wounded on Guadalcanal, then served as a Drill Instructor.

James Gregory, US Navy and US Marines.

Brian Keith, US Marines. Radioman/Gunner in Dauntless dive-bombers.

Fess Parker, US Navy and US Marines. Booted from pilot training for being too tall, joined Marines as a radio operator.

Charles Durning. US Army. Landed at Normandy on D-Day. Shot multiple times. Awarded the Silver Star and Bronze Star and three Purple Hearts. Survived Malmedy Massacre.

Raymond Burr, US Navy. Shot in the stomach on Okinawa and medically discharged.

Hugh O'Brian, US Marines.

Robert Ryan, US Marines.

Eddie Albert, US Coast Guard. Bronze Star with Combat V for saving several Marines under heavy fire as pilot of a landing craft during the invasion of Tarawa.

Cark Gable, US Army Air Corps. B-17 gunner over Europe.

Charles Bronson, US Army Air Corps. B-29 gunner, wounded in action.

Peter Graves, US Army Air Corps.

Buddy Hackett, US Army anti-aircraft gunner.

Victor Mature, US Coast Guard.

Jack Palance, US Army Air Corps. Severely injured bailing out of a burning B-24 bomber.

Robert Preston, US Army Air Corps. Intelligence Officer

Cesar Romero, US Coast Guard. Coast Guard. Participated in the invasions of Tinian and Saipan on the assault transport USS Cavalier.

Norman Fell, US Army Air Corps., Tail Gunner, Pacific Theater.

Jason Robards, US Navy. was aboard heavy cruiser USSNorthampton when it was sunk off Guadalcanal. Also served on the USS Nashville during the invasion of the Philippines, surviving a kamikaze hit that caused 223 casualties.

Steve Reeves, US Army, Philippines.

Dennis Weaver, US Navy. Pilot.

Robert Taylor, US Navy. Instructor Pilot.


Randolph Scott. Tried to enlist in the Marines but was rejected due to injuries sustained in US Army, World War 1.


Ronald Reagan. US Army. Was a 2nd Lt. in the Cavalry Reserves before the war. His poor eyesight kept him from being sent overseas with his unit when war came so he transferred to the Army Air Corps Public Relations Unit where he served for the duration.

John Wayne. Declared "4F medically unfit" due to pre-existing injuries, he nonetheless attempted to volunteer three times (Army, Navy and Film Corps.) so he gets honorable mention.

And of course we have Audie Murphy, America's most-decorated soldier, who became a Hollywood star as a result of his US Army service that included his being awarded the Medal of Honor.


Would someone please remind me again how many of today's Hollywood elite put their careers on hold to enlist in Iraq or Afghanistan?

The only one who even comes close was Pat Tillman, who turned down a contract offer of $3.6 million over three years from the Arizona Cardinals to enlist in the US Army after September, 11,  2001 and serve as a Ranger in Afghanistan, where he died in 2004. But rather than being lauded for his choice and his decision to put his country before his career, he was mocked and derided by many of his peers and the Left.


Ladies and Gentlemen, I submit to you that this is not the America today that it was seventy years ago. And I, for one, am saddened.

My generation grew up watching, being entertained by and laughing with so many of these fine people, never really knowing what they contributed to the war effort.  Like millions of Americans during the WWII, there was a job that needed done, they didn't question, they went and did it, those that came home returned to their now new normal life and carried on, very few ever saying what they did or saw.  They took it as their "responsibility", their "duty" to Country, to protect and preserve our freedoms and way of life, not just for themselves but for all future generations to come.  As a member of that "First" generation, I'm forever humbly in their debt.






          Viljuškarista Karaburma, opština Palilula - Bulevar-resursi HR doo - kadrovske usluge - Posao Beograd   

Privredno društvo BULEVAR &ndash; resursi HR D.O.O. registrovano je i posluje kao podrška drugim kompanijama u sektoru obezbeđivanja i ustupanja ljudskih resursa, pružanjem kadrovskih usluga, tražimo: Viljuškaristu Opis posla:
          Comment on Profitable Technology Niches: Concepts To Consider Before Joining The Industry by hoasupportgroup.com   
The Public Gambling Act of 1867 was handed by the British, one hundred fifty years again, prohibiting gambling. Our staff of specialists has taken great care in screening only one of the best on your safe online poker experience. Cyber due diligence for Paypal and online fee transferors in India must even be ensured. We've got satellite tv for pc tournaments the place you can pay less, win extra and luxuriate in poker online with actual cash in India. The poker scene usually operates in plush neighbourhoods in top cities in pleasant classes. With a population of over a billion people, it could possibly only be a great factor for players to have loads of choice during which poker site to play at. A bench of Justices Madan B Lokur and S A Bobde famous that online rummy and different card games had not been subject matter of any courtroom order relating to their legality or otherwise, and therefore any problem pertaining to online rummy provided by such websites was pre-mature. These amateurs who're of the opinion that poker is a sport of luck can try to play some video games with experienced professionals and lose their stakes. Virtually everybody from India chooses Moneybookers , Entropay, or Neteller Moneybookers is easy as a result of you may just open an account, and you probably have a friend they can transfer you cash as a substitute of getting to wait and put money in your self. A very powerful of these was a ruling by the Indian Supreme Court in August of 2015. It was Delhi's Tanuj Moorjani who knocked out 2 players in a single hand and ensured that he together with the remaining 7 players would go residence with a share of the spoils. He quoted a variety of attainable income forecasts, suggesting that in time India might produce between $eighty million and $a hundred and fifty million per 12 months. There are a number of key factors with making certain most safety for their players: Collusion tracking, Chip dumping, Chat abuse, Id Theft, A number of accounts and a lot more. Poker, a game of excessive talent, requires intensive mental acumen in mathematics and chance, as well as in understanding participant psychology. Whether or not enjoying for severe cash, or simply to be entertained and loosen up, Internet poker fills a genuine place in the enjoyment lexicon for a lot of Indians. Has built-in the most safe native payment gateways for safe cash deposit and withdrawal. The play by Jay Farber in this hand was not only one of the vital daring and great moves in poker play but also reveals the importance of bluffing and the ability behind it. Siddharth's been sharpening his poker expertise for years whereas working at an occasion administration firm. Once a desk is mastered, poker sport players can shortly fold over and transfer their stakes to a different prepared table. Though the betting and blinds are identical as in Omaha however the recreation play and showdown is different. Our buyer pleasant website is straightforward to access the place you will have all the main points associated to poker games on the principle page. Common for Golden Aces Poker League (GAPL), this poker site was opened in Could'eleven. However the story would not finish right here, we being coolest on-line Indian poker web site, redeem your free chips as real money. The Delhi Excessive Court docket's verdict, which will be binding and have precedential worth, is likely to provide some conclusive readability on the legality of on-line poker. Now because the Supreme Court docket has refused to decide in regards to the legality or illegality of working web sites of online poker, online rummy, on-line card video games, and so forth, it's crucial that they comply with varied techno legal laws of India on this regard. When even the Bitcoin exchanges of India are below regulatory scanner, individual on-line poker web sites experiment with Bitcoins is really dangerous. Along with Spartan Poker Group Mentor Rohit Bhalla, the addition of Mohan as Crew Professional has powered up this new team and might be anticipated to do some great issues in the coming months. Players hardly ever encounter issues with our advisable Internet gambling websites, but when you do, we suggest first contacting that site's customer support straight. The league will provide poker gamers in India an opportunity to have a good time their love for the game, as well as hone their poker expertise. PokerNation additionally lays roads for the Citizen to reach for larger titles, Knight, Baron and better by providing free poker. On-line poker is passing by the use of an attention-grabbing half in Unites States (U.S.). Nonetheless, it's nonetheless to be seen whether or not on-line poker could be banned or allowed in U.S. New Jersey has reported a very good starting for on-line playing inside the state. Principally Indians are playing at these poker rooms and because of the fact, that Poker and Texas Maintain'em are relatively new video games in India, the competitors is soft and the games are very juicy. Earlier many poker players from India had no choice aside from to take part in International poker tournaments in numerous countries where they could or may not get a chance to make it huge. This rising popularity has been popular primarily as a result of Supreme Court docket's ruling that legalized poker and rummy card games in India. It is your one stop poker vacation spot with limitless poker action in a secure and pleasant interface. Competition between poker operators is fierce - you might already have famous that there are dozens of various poker rooms to select from from. Greater than 500 gamers can play 5 Card Poker, Texas Hold'em Poker, Mini flush, Flush, Baccarat, On line casino Warfare and lot many video games onboard. As most of the extreme-rollers don't disclose the provision of the money they spend gambling, the casinos are additionally unable to keep an account of the same," said an I-T sleuth. This devoted online poker gaming web site offers a consumer-pleasant interface, unlimited free games, detailed information, and far more. Among the homeowners are Rishi Kajaria , joint MD, Kajaria Ceramics and Ruchiransh Jaipuria of Jaipuria Group (Delhi); Mehul Shah, authentic promoter of Anchor Electrical (Mumbai); Kunal Shah, cofounder of FreeCharge (Bengaluru); Amit Shah, Karan Bhagat and Yatin Shah of IIFL Wealth Administration (Hyderabad); Ankkit Bahadur of Playboy, North India and Taarun V Jain of Legend Group (Kolkata); Gaurav Mohan of Eventwala (Goa); and Purrshottam Bhaggeria of Filatex Group (Rajasthan). Before we begin our review of the authorized background to actual money poker within India, I'll simply make a mention of some helpful poker pages here on winmoney101. The first on-line gaming license (paywall) awarded in India was issued by the state of Sikkim, for on-line lottery, back in November 2014. For the reason that threat is off, players can calm down and play a gripping recreation like Texas Holdem without getting nervous. With that being mentioned, apart from in Maharashtra, there are no legal guidelines which clearly state it is unlawful for an Indian resident to gamble online. The Indian poker scene remains to be very young, however annually the game turns into more and more common as players around the country are exposed to it. For many years it was difficult for players to benefit from the game, since Indian casinos were not allowed to offer table video games. Is the preferred of these online web sites and has a participant database of greater than a hundred,000 making it the biggest on-line poker website in India. Talking about the potential of the league, Mr. Amit Burman, Founder, Poker Sports League mentioned, Poker is a popular thoughts sport throughout the globe and has gained large traction inside India, amongst individuals seeking to problem their mind, grit and decision making abilities. Mohan has fairly the player resume with multiple wins within and outdoors India together with a win at the inaugural Asian Poker Tour, Asian series' Principal Event in Goa again in 2012. I simply want they'd supplied a extra robust packaging to hold all the chips in place as soon as removed from the unique packaging. That's not his actual title," I protest, Come on." Kunal insists that it is, and that in 2003, the American accountant gained the World Series of Poker in Las Vegas not after a hefty purchase-in, or a sponsored float, but by laying USD 39 on a PokerStars online satellite, then successful entry to the primary occasion, where this nobody out of nowhere walked away with USD 2.5 million, the first face of a proletariat poker increase that's now gone global. http://hoasupportgroup.com/?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=440141
          Comment on Profitable Technology Niches: Concepts To Consider Before Joining The Industry by hoasupportgroup.com   
The Public Gambling Act of 1867 was handed by the British, one hundred fifty years again, prohibiting gambling. Our staff of specialists has taken great care in screening only one of the best on your safe online poker experience. Cyber due diligence for Paypal and online fee transferors in India must even be ensured. We've got satellite tv for pc tournaments the place you can pay less, win extra and luxuriate in poker online with actual cash in India. The poker scene usually operates in plush neighbourhoods in top cities in pleasant classes. With a population of over a billion people, it could possibly only be a great factor for players to have loads of choice during which poker site to play at. A bench of Justices Madan B Lokur and S A Bobde famous that online rummy and different card games had not been subject matter of any courtroom order relating to their legality or otherwise, and therefore any problem pertaining to online rummy provided by such websites was pre-mature. These amateurs who're of the opinion that poker is a sport of luck can try to play some video games with experienced professionals and lose their stakes. Virtually everybody from India chooses Moneybookers , Entropay, or Neteller Moneybookers is easy as a result of you may just open an account, and you probably have a friend they can transfer you cash as a substitute of getting to wait and put money in your self. A very powerful of these was a ruling by the Indian Supreme Court in August of 2015. It was Delhi's Tanuj Moorjani who knocked out 2 players in a single hand and ensured that he together with the remaining 7 players would go residence with a share of the spoils. He quoted a variety of attainable income forecasts, suggesting that in time India might produce between $eighty million and $a hundred and fifty million per 12 months. There are a number of key factors with making certain most safety for their players: Collusion tracking, Chip dumping, Chat abuse, Id Theft, A number of accounts and a lot more. Poker, a game of excessive talent, requires intensive mental acumen in mathematics and chance, as well as in understanding participant psychology. Whether or not enjoying for severe cash, or simply to be entertained and loosen up, Internet poker fills a genuine place in the enjoyment lexicon for a lot of Indians. Has built-in the most safe native payment gateways for safe cash deposit and withdrawal. The play by Jay Farber in this hand was not only one of the vital daring and great moves in poker play but also reveals the importance of bluffing and the ability behind it. Siddharth's been sharpening his poker expertise for years whereas working at an occasion administration firm. Once a desk is mastered, poker sport players can shortly fold over and transfer their stakes to a different prepared table. Though the betting and blinds are identical as in Omaha however the recreation play and showdown is different. Our buyer pleasant website is straightforward to access the place you will have all the main points associated to poker games on the principle page. Common for Golden Aces Poker League (GAPL), this poker site was opened in Could'eleven. However the story would not finish right here, we being coolest on-line Indian poker web site, redeem your free chips as real money. The Delhi Excessive Court docket's verdict, which will be binding and have precedential worth, is likely to provide some conclusive readability on the legality of on-line poker. Now because the Supreme Court docket has refused to decide in regards to the legality or illegality of working web sites of online poker, online rummy, on-line card video games, and so forth, it's crucial that they comply with varied techno legal laws of India on this regard. When even the Bitcoin exchanges of India are below regulatory scanner, individual on-line poker web sites experiment with Bitcoins is really dangerous. Along with Spartan Poker Group Mentor Rohit Bhalla, the addition of Mohan as Crew Professional has powered up this new team and might be anticipated to do some great issues in the coming months. Players hardly ever encounter issues with our advisable Internet gambling websites, but when you do, we suggest first contacting that site's customer support straight. The league will provide poker gamers in India an opportunity to have a good time their love for the game, as well as hone their poker expertise. PokerNation additionally lays roads for the Citizen to reach for larger titles, Knight, Baron and better by providing free poker. On-line poker is passing by the use of an attention-grabbing half in Unites States (U.S.). Nonetheless, it's nonetheless to be seen whether or not on-line poker could be banned or allowed in U.S. New Jersey has reported a very good starting for on-line playing inside the state. Principally Indians are playing at these poker rooms and because of the fact, that Poker and Texas Maintain'em are relatively new video games in India, the competitors is soft and the games are very juicy. Earlier many poker players from India had no choice aside from to take part in International poker tournaments in numerous countries where they could or may not get a chance to make it huge. This rising popularity has been popular primarily as a result of Supreme Court docket's ruling that legalized poker and rummy card games in India. It is your one stop poker vacation spot with limitless poker action in a secure and pleasant interface. Competition between poker operators is fierce - you might already have famous that there are dozens of various poker rooms to select from from. Greater than 500 gamers can play 5 Card Poker, Texas Hold'em Poker, Mini flush, Flush, Baccarat, On line casino Warfare and lot many video games onboard. As most of the extreme-rollers don't disclose the provision of the money they spend gambling, the casinos are additionally unable to keep an account of the same," said an I-T sleuth. This devoted online poker gaming web site offers a consumer-pleasant interface, unlimited free games, detailed information, and far more. Among the homeowners are Rishi Kajaria , joint MD, Kajaria Ceramics and Ruchiransh Jaipuria of Jaipuria Group (Delhi); Mehul Shah, authentic promoter of Anchor Electrical (Mumbai); Kunal Shah, cofounder of FreeCharge (Bengaluru); Amit Shah, Karan Bhagat and Yatin Shah of IIFL Wealth Administration (Hyderabad); Ankkit Bahadur of Playboy, North India and Taarun V Jain of Legend Group (Kolkata); Gaurav Mohan of Eventwala (Goa); and Purrshottam Bhaggeria of Filatex Group (Rajasthan). Before we begin our review of the authorized background to actual money poker within India, I'll simply make a mention of some helpful poker pages here on winmoney101. The first on-line gaming license (paywall) awarded in India was issued by the state of Sikkim, for on-line lottery, back in November 2014. For the reason that threat is off, players can calm down and play a gripping recreation like Texas Holdem without getting nervous. With that being mentioned, apart from in Maharashtra, there are no legal guidelines which clearly state it is unlawful for an Indian resident to gamble online. The Indian poker scene remains to be very young, however annually the game turns into more and more common as players around the country are exposed to it. For many years it was difficult for players to benefit from the game, since Indian casinos were not allowed to offer table video games. Is the preferred of these online web sites and has a participant database of greater than a hundred,000 making it the biggest on-line poker website in India. Talking about the potential of the league, Mr. Amit Burman, Founder, Poker Sports League mentioned, Poker is a popular thoughts sport throughout the globe and has gained large traction inside India, amongst individuals seeking to problem their mind, grit and decision making abilities. Mohan has fairly the player resume with multiple wins within and outdoors India together with a win at the inaugural Asian Poker Tour, Asian series' Principal Event in Goa again in 2012. I simply want they'd supplied a extra robust packaging to hold all the chips in place as soon as removed from the unique packaging. That's not his actual title," I protest, Come on." Kunal insists that it is, and that in 2003, the American accountant gained the World Series of Poker in Las Vegas not after a hefty purchase-in, or a sponsored float, but by laying USD 39 on a PokerStars online satellite, then successful entry to the primary occasion, where this nobody out of nowhere walked away with USD 2.5 million, the first face of a proletariat poker increase that's now gone global. http://hoasupportgroup.com/?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=440141
          ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းအလုပ္သမား ေတြကိုဖမ္းတဲ့ ဥပေဒသစ္ ထိုင္းေရႊ႕ဆိုင္း    


 ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံကို ျပန္ၾကတဲ့ အလုပ္သမားေတြကို ထိုင္းျမန္မာ နယ္စပ္ ျမဝတီ ၉၉၉ ဂိတ္မွာဇြန္လ ၃၀ ရက္က ေတြ႕ရစဥ္
ထိုင္းနိုင္ငံက ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္း အလုပ္သမားေတြနဲ႔ ပတ္သက္ၿပီး ဥပေဒသစ္ ထုတ္ျပန္ ၿပီးတဲ့ေနာက္ ဖမ္းဆီး အေရးယူမွုေတြ ျဖစ္ခဲ့ၿပီး ေနာက္ပိုင္း အဲဒီ ဥပေဒကို ထိုင္းဘက္က အခ်ိန္ ေလးလ ေရႊ႕ဆိုင္းလိုက္ ပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္း အလုပ္သမားေတြနဲ႔ ပတ္သက္လို႔ ျမန္မာ အစိုးရ ဘက္က ပန္ၾကားခဲ့ၿပီးေနာက္ အခုလို ရက္ေရႊ႕ဆိုင္းတာလို႔ ဘန္ေကာက္က ျမန္မာ သံ႐ုံးရဲ့ အလုပ္သမားကူညီ ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ေရး ေကာ္မတီဝင္လည္းျဖစ္ ျမန္မာ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္း အလုပ္သမားမ်ား အေရးပူးတြဲလွုပ္ရွားမွု ေကာ္မတီ ဥကၠဌ လည္းျဖစ္တဲ့ ဦးမိုးႀကိဳးက ေျပာပါတယ္။

ထိုင္းအစိုးရက ဇြန္လ ၂၂ ရက္ေန႔က အလုပ္သမား ဥပေဒသစ္ ျပ႒ာန္း လိုက္ၿပီးတဲ့ေနာက္ တရားမဝင္ အလုပ္သမားေတြ အျဖစ္ သတ္မွတ္ခံရတဲ့ အလုပ္သမား ၅၀ဝ၀ ေက်ာ္ အဖမ္းခံ ခဲ့ရတဲ့အထဲမွာ ျမန္မာအလုပ္သမား ၃၅၀ဝ ေလာက္ ပါဝင္ တယ္လို႔ သူက ေျပာပါတယ္။

ၿပီးခဲ့တဲ့ရက္ပိုင္းကေတာ့ ထိုင္းမွာရွိတဲ့ တရားမဝင္ ျမန္မာ အလုပ္သမားေတြက သူတို႔ ဖမ္းဆီးခံရမွာ စိုးရိမ္လို႔ ေထာင္နဲ႔ခ်ီၿပီး ကိုယ့္ေနရပ္ကို ျပန္ခဲ့ၾက ပါတယ္။

ဒီဥပေဒသစ္ အရ မွတ္တမ္းမဝင္တဲ့ အလုပ္သမား ေတြကို ခန္႔တဲ့ အလုပ္ရွင္ ေတြက အလုပ္သမား တစ္ေယာက္ခ်င္းစီ အတြက္ ဘတ္ေငြ ေလးသိန္း ကေန ၈ သိန္း အထိ ႀကီးေလးတဲ့ ေငြဒဏ္ ေပးေဆာင္ရမွာ ျဖစ္သလို အလုပ္သမားေတြ ကိုယ္တိုင္ကလည္း ဒဏ္ေငြ ဘတ္ႏွစ္ေသာင္း ကေန တစ္သိန္း အထိ က်ခံရမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

အခု ထိုင္းအစိုးရရဲ့ ထပ္တိုးတဲ့ အခ်ိန္ ေလးလ ေက်ာ္ရင္ေတာ့ စာရြက္စာတမ္း အေထာက္အထား ျပည့္စုံေအာင္ မလုပ္တဲ့ အလုပ္သမားေတြကို ဆက္လက္ ဖမ္းဆီး အေရးယူတာေတြ ဆက္လုပ္မွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ထိုင္းနိုင္ငံမွာ ေနထိုင္ အလုပ္ လုပ္ကိုင္ခြင့္ ရဖို႔ အလုပ္ လုပ္ကိုင္ခြင့္ ပါမစ္ နဲ႔ ယာယီ နိုင္ငံကူးလက္မွတ္ ဒါမွ မဟုတ္ နိုင္ငံကူးလက္မွတ္ ရွိဖို႔ လိုပါတယ္။

ထိုင္းနိုင္ငံေရာက္ ျမန္မာ အလုပ္သမားေတြ အေရးနဲ႔ ပတ္သက္လို႔ ျမန္မာ အစိုးရ ဘက္က အတတ္နိုင္ဆုံး ကူညီေဆာင္ရြက္ေနၿပီး ထိုင္းဖက္က လိုက္ပါ ေဆာင္ရြက္ျခင္း မရွိတဲ့ အတြက္ အခက္အခဲေတြ ရွိေနတယ္လို႔ ဦးမိုးႀကိဳးက ေျပာပါတယ္။

BBC Burmese
http://www.bbc.com/burmese
          One Championship မစ္ဒယ္ ဝိတ္တန္း ခ်န္ပီယံ ေအာင္လအန္ဆန္    


 ေအာင္ျမင္မွု ရယူလိုရင္ အမ်ားႀကီး ေပးဆပ္ရမယ္
ျမန္မာ့ စပါးအုံး ရယ္လို႔ နိုင္ငံတကာ သိုင္းနည္း ေပါင္းစုံသုံး လက္ေဝွ႕ ေလာကမွာ ေက်ာ္ၾကားတဲ့ ကခ်င္ႏြယ္ဖြား ေအာင္လအန္ဆန္ တစ္ေယာက္ One Championship ရဲ့ မစ္ဒယ္ဝိတ္တန္းမွာ ကမၻာ့ခ်န္ပီယံ ျဖစ္လာ ခဲ့ပါၿပီ။

သုဝဏၰၿမိဳ႕ အားကစား႐ုံမွာ ႐ုရွနိုင္ငံသား လက္ရွိ ခ်န္ပီယံ ဗစ္တာလီ ဘစ္တက္ရွ္ကို ေအာင္လက ရွုံးေႂကြးဆပ္ အနိုင္ယူ လိုက္တာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ေအာင္လ ဟာ ပထမ အခ်ီမွာ အသာစီး နဲ႔ ထိုးသတ္ နိုင္ခဲ့ၿပီး ေနာက္ အခ်ီေတြမွာ သူတင္ကိုယ္တင္ ျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ေနာက္ဆုံး ငါးခ်ီ ေျမာက္မွာ ႏွစ္ေယာက္စလုံးက အနိုင္ရဖို႔ အစြမ္းကုန္ အားထုတ္ လာတဲ့အတြက္ ပြဲက အေတာ္ေလး ၿမိဳင္ဆိုင္ၿပီး ၾကည့္ေကာင္းခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ငါးခ်ီ ျပည့္ ထိုးသတ္ ၿပီခ်ိန္မွာေတာ့ ဒိုင္ေတြ အားလုံး က ေအာင္လ ကို အမွတ္ျပည့္ေပးၿပီး တညီတညာထဲ အနိုင္ေပးခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ဂ်ကာတာပြဲတုန္းက ေအာင္လကို နိုင္ခဲ့တဲ့ ဗစ္တာလီ ဘစ္ဒက္ရွ္ တစ္ေယာက္ေတာ့ ရန္ကုန္ေျမမွာ ခ်န္ပီယံ ခါးပတ္ လက္လႊတ္ ခဲ့ရသလို MMA ၿပိဳင္ပြဲေတြမွာ ပထမဦးဆုံး ရွုံးပြဲ ၾကဳံေတြ႕ သြားျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

အခုပြဲမွာ ေအာင္ပြဲ ရယူနိုင္ဖို႔ သူ႔ အေနနဲ႔ အစားအေသာက္ အေနအထိုင္ကအစ အင္မတန္ ဂ႐ုစိုက္ ခဲ့ရသလို မိသားစုနဲ႔ ေတြ႕ဆုံခ်ိန္ပါ အလြန္ နည္းသြားတဲ့ အထိ ျပင္ဆင္ ခဲ့ရတာ ျဖစ္တယ္လို႔ ကမၻာ့ ခ်န္ပီယံ အသစ္စက္စက္ ေအာင္လက ပြဲအၿပီး ဘီဘီစီနဲ႔ သီးသန္႔ ေတြ႕ဆုံခန္းမွာ ေျပာခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ေအာင္ျမင္မွု ရယူလိုရင္ အမ်ားႀကီး ေပးဆပ္ ရမွာ ျဖစ္တယ္လို႔လည္း ခ်န္ပီယံ ေအာင္လက ေျပာပါတယ္။

သူ႔ကို တခဲနက္ အားေပးၾကတဲ့ ျမန္မာ ပရိသတ္ အားလုံးကိုလည္း ေအာင္လက အထူး ေက်းဇူး တင္တယ္ ဆိုၿပီး ဘီဘီစီကေန တဆင့္ ေျပာသြားပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာ နိုင္ငံသား ပရိသတ္ေတြ ဆက္လက္ ဂုဏ္ယူ သြားနိုင္ေအာင္ သူ႔ရဲ့ ကမၻာ့ခ်န္ပီယံ ခါးပတ္ကို ဆက္လက္ ကာကြယ္ သြားမယ္ ဆိုၿပီး ေအာင္လက ေျပာပါတယ္။

BBC Burmese
http://www.bbc.com/burmese
          UNFC တပ်ပေါင်းစု အနာဂတ် ဘာလဲ၊ ဘယ်လဲ   

UNFC သည် စုပေါင်းနိုင်ငံရေး အပေးအယူပြုလုပ်ရာတွင် အရေးပါသော အဖွဲ့အစည်း ဖြစ်နေသေးသည်။ သို့ သော် အဖွဲ့ဝင်များ ထပ်မံနှုတ်ထွက်လျှင် ရည်မှန်းချက်များတည်ဆောက်ပုံနှင့် စေ့စပ်ညှိုနှိုင်းမှုများသည် ရေစုန်မျောလိမ့် မည်။

The post UNFC တပ်ပေါင်းစု အနာဂတ် ဘာလဲ၊ ဘယ်လဲ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          မသန်စွမ်းသူများ ပညာရေးကောလိပ်ဝင်ရောက်ခွင့် ပယ်ချခံနေရ   

အဲဒီ ၂ ယောက်တည်း မဟုတ်ဘူး။ အဲဒီလိုဖြစ်နေတဲ့ လူ ၄ ယောက်စာ ပေးပို့လိုက်တာ။ မသန်စွမ်းမှုကို အကြောင်းပြုပြီး ကန့်သတ်လိုက်တာ။ မသန်စွမ်းမှုဖြစ်လို့ကို မပေးချင်တာမျိုးဖြစ်နေတာ

The post မသန်စွမ်းသူများ ပညာရေးကောလိပ်ဝင်ရောက်ခွင့် ပယ်ချခံနေရ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          UNFC ထဲမှာ အားနည်းသလိုတော့ ဖြစ်သွားတယ်   

အဓိက တိုင်းရင်းသား အင်အားစုတွေကြားထဲမှာ နီးစပ်မှုနဲ့ နားလည်မှု အကောင်းဆုံးဖြစ်အောင် စည်းလုံးညီညွှတ်မှု အကောင်းဆုံးဖြစ်အောင် ဒါကို အဓိကထားပြီး ကြိုးပမ်းသွားမယ်။

The post UNFC ထဲမှာ အားနည်းသလိုတော့ ဖြစ်သွားတယ် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          အစိုးရက ရခိုင်ဒေသ ရေရှည် တည်ငြိမ်ရေး ဆက်လက် လုပ်ဆောင်မည်   

ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ်တွင် ဒေသတွင်း ရေရှည်တည်ငြိမ်ရေးနှင့် ငြိမ်းချမ်းရေး ဖော်ဆောင်ရေးအတွက် ဆက်လက် ဆောင်ရွက်မည်ဖြစ်ပြီး ပြည်သူများ အတွက် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးတိုးတက်မှု အကူအညီများနှင့် ကူညီကယ်ဆယ်ရေး လုပ်ငန်းများ ဆက်လက် ထောက်ပံ့သွားမည်ဟု နိုင်ငံတော် အတိုင်ပင်ခံရုံး သတင်းထုတ်ပြန်ရေး ကော်မတီက ယနေ့ ထုတ်ပြန်ကြေညာလိုက်သည်။

The post အစိုးရက ရခိုင်ဒေသ ရေရှည် တည်ငြိမ်ရေး ဆက်လက် လုပ်ဆောင်မည် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          မိမိအတွက် သင့်လျော်မယ့် အဲယားကွန်းကို ရွေးချယ်မယ်   

ဘယ်လို စနစ်တကျ တွက်ချက်ရမှာလဲဆိုရင်တော့ မိမိရဲ့အခန်းအကျယ်နဲ့ အဲယားကွန်းရဲ့စွမ်းဆောင်ရည်ကို အ ချိုးကျ ပြန်ကြည့်ပြီးမှ မိမိ ဝယ်ယူလို့တဲ့ အမှတ်ဆိပ်နဲ့ ဈေးနှုန်းကို စဉ်းစား ဝယ်ယူရမှာ ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။

The post မိမိအတွက် သင့်လျော်မယ့် အဲယားကွန်းကို ရွေးချယ်မယ် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          အနုပညာရှင်တချို့ကို တောင်းပန်လိုက်ရတဲ့ ကိုင်လီနဲ့ကန်ဒယ်လ်တို့ညီအမ   

သူတို့ဟာ အဆိုပါ အနုပညာရှင်တွေရဲ့ ခွင့်ပြုချက်မရဘဲ သူတို့ရဲ့ ရုပ်ပုံများကို အသုံးပြုပြီး အင်္ကျီများကို အွန်လိုင်းမှတဆင့် ရောင်းချခြင်းများ ပြုလုပ်ခဲ့တာကြောင့်လို့ ဆိုပါတယ်။

The post အနုပညာရှင်တချို့ကို တောင်းပန်လိုက်ရတဲ့ ကိုင်လီနဲ့ကန်ဒယ်လ်တို့ညီအမ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ကမ္ဘာကျော်ခဲ့သည့် ဈေးချိုတော် ညဈေးတန်း ပျောက်ဆုံးတော့မည်လော   

လွတ်လပ်ရေးရပြီးနောက် ၁၀ နှစ်ကျော်လ ၁၉၅၉ ခုနှစ် ညဈေးတန်းကို ဖွင့်လှစ်ခဲ့ပါတယ်။ အတိအကျပြောရ ရင် ၁၉၅၉ ခုနှစ် ဖေဖော်ဝါရီလ ၁၈ ရက်နေ့မှာ စတင်ဖွင့်လှစ်ခဲ့တာပါ။ နေရာက ဈေးချိုတော်ရုံကြီး ၁၂ရုံ မျက်နှာစာနဲ့ ဈေး ချို တိုက်တန်းကြီးတွေကြား၊ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်အောင်ဆန်းလမ်းမကြီးပေါ်မှာပါ။ “ဈေးချိုတော် ညဈေးတန်း”လို့ သုံးနှုန်းခေါ်ဆိုကြ တယ်။

The post ကမ္ဘာကျော်ခဲ့သည့် ဈေးချိုတော် ညဈေးတန်း ပျောက်ဆုံးတော့မည်လော appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          အောက်တိုဘာမှာ ဈေးကွက်ထဲ စတင်ရောင်းချတော့မယ် ကားပျံများ   

ပေါ်တူဂီ အခြေစိုက် PAL-V ကုမ္ပဏီက သူတို့ရဲ့ Personal Air and Land Vehicle (Pal-V)တွေကို လာမယ့် အောက်တိုဘာကနေ စတင်ပြီး ထုတ်လုပ်ရောင်းချတော့မယ်။

The post အောက်တိုဘာမှာ ဈေးကွက်ထဲ စတင်ရောင်းချတော့မယ် ကားပျံများ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          အင်းလေးကန်နားက ဝါးကျောင်းလေး   

ပုံမှန်မြင်နေကျ ပုံစံမျိုးမဟုတ်ဘဲ ထူးထူးခြားခြားဒီဇိုင်းရှိပြီး သဘာဝပတ်ဝန်းကျင်နဲ့ရော အဆောက်အအုံ ဘေးပတ်ဝန်းကျင် နေရာတွေနဲ့ပါ အက်စပ်တဲ့ပုံစံမျိုးနဲ့ ကျောင်းကို ဆောက်ချင်တဲ့ရည်ရွယ်ချက်ကြောင့် ဝါးကို အသုံးပြုဆောက်လုပ်ခဲ့ရခြင်း ဖြစ်တယ်လို့ သူကဆိုပါတယ်။

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          Liv/99 - Sciroppo   

Può agire favorevolmente sul benessere delle funzioni epato-biliari.

  • il ginepro (Juniperus communis L.) bacche, di questa pianta si sfruttano le proprietà aromatizzanti che caratteristicamente conferiscono alla bevanda un sapore gradevolissimo. Infatti le bacche sono da sempre utilizzate per preparare liquori come il gin e il vermut. Il ginepro svolge una azione rigenerante a livello dell’epatocita e completa  la sua azione depurativa, agendo direttamente sul rene dove riduce il riassobimento di acqua, sviluppa così un aumento della diuresi, contribuendo in tal modo alla azione depurativa.
  • il carciofo (Cynara scolymus L.) foglie, è una pianta sicura, supportata da sufficienti studi clinici. Di natura rinfrescante, svolge, a patto che ne venga conservato l’intero fitocomplesso, azione regolatoria sulla coleresi e sulla contrazione biliare, nonché protettiva del distretto epatobiliare rispetto a tossici ambientali. (Molto interessante è l’azione di antagonismo competitivo svolta dal cinaroside sulla cascata enzimatica intracellulare  che porterebbe alla riduzione della sintesi del colesterolo). Tale azione si somma all’azione meccanica volta alla limitazione del riassorbimento intestinale del colesterolo grazie all’ incremento delle funzioni biliari.
  • il limone (Citrus limonum [L.] Burman. F.) frutto, possiede capacità veicolanti dei cataboliti acidi e di altri prodotti di degradazione verso gli emuntori; utile come disintossicante epatico.
  • l’ acerola (Malpighia puncifolia) bacche, è nota per le proprietà antiossidanti e depurative.
  • il tarassaco (Taraxacum officinale Weber) radice, contribuisce ad attivare le funzioni digestiva ed epatica, soprattutto grazie alla azione colagoga (contrazione della cistifellea) e coleretica (secrezione biliare). A completare l’azione depurativa della pianta si associa anche un discreto miglioramento della funzione renale e della diuresi. Tutto ciò si traduce in una azione sul ricambio generale, un’ aumentata eliminazione di scorie e un alleggerimento del distretto epato-renale.
  • il combreto (Combretum micranthum) foglie, è una pianta di origine africana, ricca di principi attivi tra cui ciclitoli (inostolo) le cui foglie forniscono una droga denominata in loco “kinkàliba”. Al  decotto  si ascrivono proprietà nei riguardi della produzione dei succhi biliari e sui processi digestivi.
  • cicoria (Cichorium intybus L.) foglie; i preparati a base di cicoria agiscono favorevolmente sul sistema digestivo con particolare riguardo al sistema epatico.
  • schizandra (Schisandra chinenesis B.) foglie, originaria della Cina, ricca di lignani, che contribuiscono a limitare la tossicità epatica. Essa presenta proprietà antiossidanti a livello mitocondriale. I mitocondri appunto, rappresentano le centrali energetiche delle nostre cellule. In tale senso la pianta presenta proprietà disintossicanti -  rivitalizzanti.
  • cardo mariano (Silybum marianum Gaerthner) frutto, ottimo disintossicante epatico, contiene
  • la silimarina ed altri suoi isomeri (silicristina). La silimarina viene utilizzata per contrastare gli effetti epatolesivi di svariati tossici, grazie alla sua attività rigenerante del parenchima epatico, che si evidenzia sia attraverso un’azione diretta sulla sintesi proteica a livello cellulare, che attraverso una azione antiossidante e quindi protettiva di membrana.
  • curcuma (Curcuma longa L.), negli ultimi anni se ne sono dimostrate le proprietà antiossidanti, e coadiuvanti del distretto epatico. I curcuminoidi svolgono una azione protettiva sulle cellule nervose, ed epatiche determinando un aumento del glutatione, di fondamentale importanza per ridurre l’impatto delle tossine sul fegato. La loro azione si associa ad una piu’ specifica attività sulla bile di cui aumenta il flusso migliorando così la digestione degli alimenti ricchi di grassi.
  • boldo (Pneumus boldus Molina) foglie, i preparati a base di boldo sono tradizionalmente impiegati come coleretici e colagoghi e per facilitare le funzioni della minzione  renale e la funzione digestiva.
  • salsapariglia (Smilax medica Schlech. e Cham) radice, per le sue proprietà, noto nell’antichità,  come medio antitoluetico, oggi se ne apprezzano le proprietà disintossicanti a livello generale.
  • rosmarino (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) foglie, buon epatoprotettore le cui proprietà antiossidanti sono dovute all’acido rosmarinico e ai diterpeni

CONSIGLI D’USO:
due cucchiai due volte al dì in  acqua o tisana calda.

N.B. Il prodotto è privo di alcol, e questo è fondamentale per preservare il benessere del fegato.

Associazioni: Desmodio cps, Eco liv cps,


          Comment on China-Burma-India: The Lost Theater, Part I by BioSlim Burn Review   
My relatives always say that I am killing my time here at web, but I know I am getting know-how every day by reading thes pleasant articles.
          Human Rights Watch Country Profiles: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity   

The following are excerpts from the Human Rights Watch 2017 World Report  that relate to the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people. The report, released in January 2017, documented events of 2016. In some cases, we have added updates from the first half of 2017.

The countries are all listed below in alphabetical order. This compilation is not comprehensive. If a country is not listed, that means there was no mention of LGBTI/SOGI issues for that country in the 2017 World Report. For example, many of the smaller Caribbean countries and some African countries are omitted due to research limitations, but most have anti-LGBT laws on the books and pervasive homophobia and transphobia. On the other hand, several countries that are not included here made progress in the 2016-2017 period: Belize, Nauru and the Seychelles all decriminalized consensual same-sex conduct, for example. Human Rights Watch has only recently begun investigating the rights of intersex people, so there are few references to intersex rights.

This is a living document which will be updated regularly to reflect new events and further Human Rights Watch research.

Last updated: June 23, 2017

***

Argentina

In 2010, Argentina became the first Latin American country to legalize same-sex marriage. The Civil Marriage Law allows same-sex couples to enter into civil marriages and affords them the legal protections of marriage enjoyed by opposite sex couples, including adoption rights and pension benefits. Since 2010, nearly 15,000 same-sex couples have married nationwide. In 2012, the landmark Gender Identity Law established the right of individuals over the age of 18 to choose their gender identity, undergo gender reassignment, and revise official documents without any prior judicial or medical approval.

Armenia

Activists reported that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LBGTI) people face discrimination, harassment, and violence. The government has not addressed hate speech or discrimination against LGBTI people. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not included as protected grounds in anti-discrimination or hate speech laws, limiting legal recourse for many crimes against LGBTI people. Following the October 2015 Rainbow forum, organized by Armenian LGBTI-friendly groups to discuss protection and promotion of minority rights, anonymous people targeted some participants with intimidation and threats, mostly on social media, including to burn and kill them. Authorities refused to launch a criminal investigation into the threats, citing lack of evidence. In June 2016, the LGBT rights group, PINK Armenia, published a survey revealing that 90 percent of the population is hostile to LGBTI people and support limits on their rights. In July 2016, PINK Armenia released a report documenting 46 cases of violence and discrimination against LGBTI people in 2015. The government has not taken meaningful steps to combat stereotypes and discrimination against LGBTI people.

Australia

Australia does not recognize the right of same-sex couples to marry. The Australian government announced a plebiscite on the right of same-sex couples to marry, but political opponents blocked it, arguing a plebiscite is expensive and wasteful and that the issue should be determined by a parliamentary free vote.

Australia continued its policy of intercepting asylum seekers and forcibly transferring them to Nauru and, until 2016, to Manus Island in Papua New Guinea. Asylum seekers or refugees perceived to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex (LGBTI) face harassment and abuse despite the recent decriminalization of same-sex conduct in Nauru. In Papua New Guinea, such conduct remains criminalized.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh witnessed a spate of violent attacks against secular bloggers, academics, gay rights activists, foreigners, and members of religious minorities in 2016. Prominent gay activists Xulhaz Mannan, the founder of Roopbaan, Bangladesh’s first lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) magazine, and Mahbub Rabby Tonoy, the general secretary of the group, were  murdered in April. Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS) claimed responsibility for the killings. Fearing for their lives, many LGBT activists sought temporary refuge outside the country.

“Carnal intercourse against the order of nature” carries a maximum sentence of 10 years in prison. In May 2017, police raided a private gathering of gay and bisexual men, and allegedly paraded them in front of media, exposing them to their families and the public. Authorities said they declined to press charges under the colonial-era sodomy law because they did not catch the men in the act of sexual intercourse. The government has twice rejected recommendations to repeal the colonial-era law during its Universal Periodic Review at the UN Human Rights Council. The Bangladesh cabinet in 2014 declared legal recognition of a third gender category for hijras—a traditional cultural identity for transgender people who, assigned male at birth, do not identify as men—but the absence of a definition of the term or procedure for gaining recognition of third gender status led to abuses in implementation of the legal change. In June and July 2015, a group of hijras were subjected to harassment and invasive and abusive physical examinations at a government hospital as a requirement to join a government employment program. The Bangladesh National Human Rights Commission in 2017 agreed with LGBT civil society groups to establish a desk at the commission for reporting SOGI-related issues.

Belarus

Parliament adopted a vaguely worded bill in May 2016 on “protecting children from information harmful for their health and development.” These provisions may be used to restrict dissemination of neutral or positive information about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as “discrediting the institution of the family.”

Bolivia

In May 2016, the Plurinational Assembly passed a bill that allows people to revise the gender noted on their identification documents without prior judicial approval. Same-sex couples in Bolivia are not allowed to marry or engage in civil unions. The 2009 constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo Open Centre, the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights organization, documented 23 cases of hate speech and incitement of violence and hate and two crimes and incidents motivated by prejudice on the basis of sexual orientation and/or gender identity in the first three months of 2016. The reaction of authorities to these incidents is generally inadequate. There was no progress in police investigations into the 2014 attack on a film festival that Sarajevo Open Centre organized.

In its annual progress on Bosnia and Herzegovina published in November, the European Commission highlighted the failure of authorities to amend the constitution, in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights and to implement rulings by the Constitutional Court. The report also identified inadequate legal protection for LGBTI persons and the failure of authorities to protect adequately the rights of minorities and to ensure media freedom.

Brazil

Brazil’s Supreme Court approved same-sex marriage in 2011 and it upheld the right of same-sex couples to adopt children in 2015. But the Chamber of Deputies was, at time of writing, debating a bill that would define a family as a union between a man and a woman. The national Human Rights Ombudsman’s Office received 1,983 complaints of violence, discrimination, and other abuses experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in 2015. In the first half of 2016 the ombudsman received 879 such complaints.

Burma

Burma’s national penal code criminalizes consensual same-sex behavior between adult men. In recent years police have arrested gay men and transgender women assembling in public places, and politicians have called for the “education” of gay people.

Cameroon

Cameroon’s penal code punishes “sexual relations between persons of the same sex” with up to five years in prison. The law is regularly enforced, and in previous years, the Cameroonian authorities have subjected men arrested under this law to forced anal examinations. Although the number of arrests appeared to decrease for several years, activists reported a new uptick in arrests and prosecutions in 2016.

Chile

A “civil union” bill presented by former President Sebastián Piñera in 2011 that provides legal recognition and protection for same-sex couples became law in April 2015 and went into effect in October 2015. In September 2016, the Senate Human Rights Commission approved a bill to recognize the gender identity of transgender people, with a Senate vote expected in December.

China

China has no law protecting people from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, and there is no legal recognition of same-sex partnership. Possibly because their activism is not considered threatening to the state, LGBT individuals enjoyed some success advancing legal cases in 2016. In January, a Hunan court heard a case filed by Sun Wenlin against the local Bureau of Civil Affairs, which had refused to marry Sun and his male partner. Though the court ruled against Sun in April, his case—the first gay marriage lawsuit accepted by Chinese courts—attracted wide media attention. In June, a Henan court accepted a case filed by Yu Hu against a mental health hospital that had subjected him to 19 days of involuntary “therapy” to “cure” his homosexuality. Also in June, a Guangdong university student, Qiu Bai, sued the provincial education department over textbooks that depict homosexuality as an illness. Qiu filed a similar suit in 2015, though she withdrew it later because the department had promised to look into the matter. She decided to sue again after the authorities’ pledge failed to materialize. In June, China voted against a UN resolution creating an expert post dedicated to addressing violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

Colombia

In September 2016, the Council of the State—one of Colombia’s high courts—annulled the 2012 re-election of Alejandro Ordoñez as the country’s inspector general and dismissed him from office. Under Colombian law, the inspector general is charged with protecting human rights, but during his seven years in office, Ordoñez repeatedly sought to undermine the rights of women and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people.

In recent years, authorities in Colombia have taken several steps to recognize the rights of LGBT people. In June 2015, the Justice Ministry issued a decree allowing people to revise the gender noted on their identification documents without prior judicial approval. In November 2015, the Constitutional Court ruled that sexual orientation could not be used to prohibit someone from adopting a child, although a legislative proposal to hold a referendum on this issue remained pending at time of writing. In April 2016, the Constitutional Court upheld the right of same-sex couples to marry. In October 2016, FARC leaders met with conservative politicians and agreed to promote a definition of the family as formed by a man and a woman. The FARC backtracked after meeting with LGBT representatives days later. Conservative politicians and evangelist leaders had attacked the peace agreement claiming that it would “destroy families.” Between January and June 2016, the Ombudsman’s Office received 89 reports of cases of violence against LGBTI people.

Cote d’Ivoire

No law prohibits discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity, or intersex status. Côte d’Ivoire does not criminalize same-sex conduct, but the criminal code establishes higher penalties for same-sex couples convicted of public acts of indecency. Two men were in November convicted of public indecency and sentenced to three-month prison terms after being accused of same-sex sexual acts. Two gay men were assaulted in June 2016 after a photo was published of them signing a book of condolences to the victims of a shooting at a gay nightclub in Florida, US.

Croatia

In February, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) ruled that Croatia discriminated on grounds of sexual orientation against a woman from Bosnia and Herzegovina, by denying her the right to a residence permit in Croatia to join her female partner.

Ecuador

In 2016, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled against Ecuador in a case determining that it is discriminatory to punish officers who allegedly have homosexual sex on military installations.

Egypt

Sexual relations outside marriage are criminalized. Since 2013, authorities have pursued a campaign to intimidate, track, and arrest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, including entrapment using social media applications. Police regularly used forced anal examinations in prosecutions of those suspected of homosexual sex. Solidarity With Egypt LGBTQ+, an advocacy group, said it had recorded 114 criminal investigations involving 274 LGBT individuals launched between the end of 2013 and November 2016, 66 of which involved the authorities’ use of social media.

Estonia

The government failed to adopt amendments that would allow the Co-Habitation Act to fully enter into force in 2016. The act is progressive legislation that extends the rights of marriage to unmarried—including same-sex—couples, encompassing, among other things, child adoption and property rights.

Gambia

The government continued to resist calls to repeal laws that criminalize homosexuality, including an October 2014 law that introduced a series of new “aggravated homosexuality” offenses that impose sentences of up to life in prison. The criminalization of same-sex conduct leaves lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Gambians at risk of arbitrary arrest and detention, although fewer arrests and physical abuse of LGBT Gambians were reported in 2016.

Georgia

In August, President Giorgi Margvelashvili blocked a referendum bid on defining marriage as a union of a man and a woman, saying that the issue is already covered in the civil code. Kvirikashvili vowed to pursue a constitutional definition of marriage after the October elections, arguing that this would help counter alleged Western efforts to spread same-sex marriage “propaganda” in Georgia. Local rights groups feared this effort would further marginalize the LGBT community and intensify anti-LGBT prejudice. Authorities declined a request by LGBT activists to hold an event to mark International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia (IDAHO) on Tbilisi’s main thoroughfare, stating it was already booked for a procession by Orthodox groups to mark Family Day, an annual event established by the Orthodox Church in 2014. Activists refused to celebrate IDAHO in the alternative venue offered. The Women’s Initiatives Supporting Group (WISG), a local LGBTI rights group, said it documented almost 20 cases of attacks against transgender people in 2016. In October, a transgender woman was beaten and stabbed in what rights groups suspected was a hate crime. Police arrested a suspect on attempted murder charges, and the public defender urged authorities to examine a possible hate motive.

Honduras

Rampant crime and impunity for human rights abuses remain the norm in Honduras. Despite a downward trend in recent years, the murder rate is among the highest in the world. Journalists, peasant activists, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are among those most vulnerable to violence.

In June 2016, several United Nations agencies working in Honduras urged the government to investigate killings of LGBTI activists and noted that sexual violence against LGBTI individuals forces them into “internal displacement” or to flee the country in search of international protection.

Hungary

In August 2016, a lower court sentenced a right-wing extremist to 10 years’ imprisonment for violent attacks between 2007 and 2009, including throwing Molotov cocktails at the homes of socialist MPs and an attack on a gay bar in Budapest.

In July, the ECtHR ruled that Hungary had arbitrarily detained an Iranian gay man and failed to take into account his vulnerability in detention arising from his sexual orientation.

India

In February 2016, the Supreme Court of India allowed a challenge to section 377 of the penal code to proceed, referring the case to a five-judge bench. The colonial-era provision, which the court had upheld in 2013, criminalizes same-sex relations between adults. In June, several well-known LGBT professionals filed a petition in Supreme Court arguing that section 377 violates the right to life and personal liberty, but the Supreme Court deferred the petition to the Chief Justice. In August, the government introduced a new bill in parliament on the rights of transgender persons. The bill was flawed, however, by provisions that were inconsistent with the 2014 Supreme Court ruling that recognized transgender individuals as a third gender and found them eligible for quotas in jobs and education.

India’s voting record on rights issues at the UN was disappointing. In July, the government abstained on a resolution that created a UN expert post to address discrimination against LGBT persons and voted in favor of amendments to weaken the mandate, saying India’s Supreme Court was still to decide on the issue of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights.

Indonesia

Starting in January 2016, high-ranking Indonesian officials made a series of vitriolic anti-LGBT statements and policy pronouncements, fueling increased threats and at times violent attacks on LGBT activists and individuals. In some cases, the threats and violence occurred in the presence, and with the tacit support, of government officials or security forces. State institutions, including the National Broadcasting Commission and the National Child Protection Commission, issued censorship directives banning information and broadcasts that portrayed the lives of LGBT people as “normal” as well as so-called propaganda about LGBT lives. Ministries proposed discriminatory and regressive anti-LGBT laws. An ongoing case in the Constitutional Court is considering a petition that proposed amending the criminal code to criminalize sex outside of marriage and same-sex sexual relations. During the initial hearings, the petitioners—led by a group called the Family Love Alliance—put forward ill-informed and bigoted testimony similar to the anti-LGBT rhetoric espoused by Indonesian officials and politicians earlier that year. The government, the respondent in the case, said criminalizing sex out of wedlock would make “the sinner a criminal, and the government authoritarian,” a view echoed in testimony by the National Commission on Violence Against Women and other groups opposed to the petition. At time of writing the court had not yet ruled on the petition. While president Joko Widodo, or “Jokowi” in October 2016 declared that police must protect LGBT people and not discriminate against them, he failed to uphold that principle in action. In 2017, police raided at least two private gatherings of gay and bisexual men on the pretense of the discriminatory anti-pornography law, which construes gay sex as “deviant” and prescribes increased punishments for it, and Sharia police publicly flogged two gay men for private, consensual sex in Aceh province.

Iran

Under Iranian law, many nonviolent crimes, such as “insulting the Prophet,” apostasy, same-sex relations, adultery, and drug-related offenses, are punishable by death.

In March, the United Nations Children’s Rights Committee noted that flogging was still a lawful punishment for boys and girls convicted of certain crimes. The committee noted reports that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) children had been subjected to electric shocks to “cure” them.

Iraq

ISIS’s Diwan al-Hisba (Moral Policing Administration) and online media apparatuses have publicly announced 27 executions of allegedly gay men, at least nine of them in Iraq. The main method ISIS used to execute these men has been to throw them off the roofs of high-rise buildings.

Iraq’s penal code does not prohibit same-sex intimacy, although article 394 makes it illegal to engage in extra-marital sexual relations. Due to the fact that the law does not expressly allow same-sex marriage, it effectively prohibits all same-sex relations. In July 2016 Moqtada al-Sadr, the prominent Shia opposition cleric, stated that although same-sex relationships are not acceptable, individuals who do not conform to gender norms suffer from “psychological problems,” and should not be attacked.

Israel/Palestine

There are different legal systems in occupied Palestinian Territory. The British Mandate Criminal Code Ordinance, No. 74 of 1936 is in force in Gaza. In the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Jordanian Penal Code of 1960 applies, and does not contain provisions prohibiting adult consensual same-sex conduct. In Gaza, having “unnatural intercourse” of a sexual nature, understood to include same-sex relationships, is a crime punishable by up to 10 years in prison. In February 2016, Hamas’s armed wing executed one of its fighters ostensibly for “behavioral and moral violations,” which Hamas officials acknowledged meant same-sex relations.

Italy

As of May 2016, same-sex couples may have their relationships legally recognized as civil unions, though they do not have the right to adopt.

Japan

A bipartisan parliamentary group established in March 2015 continued to discuss legislation to address discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, but at time of writing it had yet to come up with an agreed draft bill. Japanese law treats those requesting legal recognition as transgender as having a “Gender Identity Disorder” and requires obtaining such medical diagnosis. It also requires forced sterilization, compulsory single status, not having any underage children, and being 20 years or older. While same-sex marriage is not legally recognized in Japan, Tokyo’s Shibuya ward in April 2015 became the first municipality to pass a regulation recognizing same-sex partnerships, with more municipalities recognizing such partnerships in 2016 and 2017. Bullying is a problem in Japanese schools generally, and particularly so against LGBT students. In April 2016, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) for the first time released a guidebook for teachers regarding sexual orientation and gender identity. And in 2017, MEXT announced amendments to the national bullying prevention policy to include specific mention of LGBT students for the first time.

Jamaica

Jamaica is moving toward a revision of its rape law, which currently defines rape as the penetration of the vagina with the penis without consent. A proposal has been floated for a new law that is gender neutral. The absence of a gender-neutral rape law has been put forth in the past by politicians as justification for retaining Jamaica’s colonial-era “buggery” law, which criminalizes both consensual and non-consensual sex between men. The possible promulgation of a gender-neutral law on rape or sexual assault may therefore be a first step toward decriminalization of consensual same-sex conduct.

Kazakhstan

Surveys of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people reveal that many hide their sexual orientation or gender identity—including to healthcare providers—out of fear of reprisals or discrimination. When LGBT people report abuse, they often face indifference and hostility from authorities. Transgender people must undergo humiliating and invasive procedures—including coerced sterilization—to change gender on official documents. Without identity documents, transgender people struggle to access employment, healthcare, and education. The UN Human Rights Committee called on the government to end discrimination and violence against LGBT people and review gender-reassignment surgery procedures.

Kenya

Kenya’s penal code prohibits “carnal knowledge against the order of nature,” generally understood as consensual sex between men, and “indecent practices between males.” Civil society organizations and activists filed two landmark constitutional petitions against these sections in April and June 2016, arguing that the laws violate constitutional rights, including the rights to equality and nondiscrimination, human dignity, freedom and security of the person, privacy, and health. Kenya continued the prosecution of two men on charges of “carnal knowledge” after police arbitrarily arrested them in Kwale County in February 2015. The case remained open but was suspended pending the ruling of a constitutional petition filed by the two men, asserting that state officials had violated their rights by subjecting them to a forced anal examination. The High Court rejected the petition on the grounds that the men consented to the examination, ignoring that the men were in police custody and not able to provide free and informed consent. The men have appealed the ruling. The government appealed a 2015 High Court decision ordering the Non-Governmental Organizations Board to register the National Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (NGLHRC), a civil society group. Parties were awaiting a hearing date at time of writing. The Kenya Film Classification Board overstepped its jurisdiction in asking YouTube to remove a locally produced video addressing same-sex relationships, prohibiting an alleged lesbian speed-dating event, and attempting to ban a podcast with alleged lesbian content.

In May 2017, the Attorney General established a “Taskforce on Policy, Legal, Institutional and Administrative Reforms Regarding Intersex Persons in Kenya.” Its mandate includes to “recommend comprehensive reforms to safeguard the interests of intersex persons.” The secretariat of the task force is based at the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. The task force will be open to receiving submissions on best practices from around the world, and there is a strong possibility that it will result in the establishment of policies that protect the rights of intersex people. While it will not directly address SOGI related rights, the task force may produce a rights-based framework around intersex people with aspects that will be transferrable to the advancement of LGBT rights.

Kyrgyzstan

LGBT people in Kyrgyzstan experience ill-treatment, extortion, and discrimination by both state and non-state actors. There is widespread impunity for these abuses. On May 24, 2016, the law, order and fighting crime parliamentary committee returned Kyrgyzstan’s anti-LGBT bill, which would ban “propaganda of nontraditional sexual relations,” for a repeat second reading, where it then stalled. The bill appears aimed at silencing anyone seeking to openly share information about same-sex relations in Kyrgyzstan. Following a live debate on LGBT rights on national television, Kyrgyzstan’s State Committee on National Security on June 14 summoned the editor-in-chief of Kloop.kg, an online media portal, for questioning about its coverage of the show. The television’s supervisory board also formally reprimanded its general director for airing the content. Also in June, Kyrgyzstan voted against a resolution at the UN Human Rights Council establishing the mandate of an independent expert to address violence and discrimination against LGBT people.

Latvia

According to Latvian LGBT activists, the authorities used a 2015 law on “constitutional morality education” to censor discussion about LGBT people in at least two schools in 2016.

Lebanon

Sexual relations outside of marriage—adultery and fornication—are criminalized under Lebanon’s penal code. Furthermore, article 534 of the penal code punishes “any sexual intercourse contrary to the order of nature” with up to one year in prison. In recent years, authorities conducted raids to arrest persons allegedly involved in same-sex conduct, some of whom were subjected to torture including forced anal examinations. In February 2016, a Syrian refugee, arrested by Lebanese Military Intelligence officers apparently on suspicion he was gay, was allegedly tortured while detained at Military Intelligence, Ministry of Defense, Military Police, and Jounieh police centers. In January 2017, a judge in Metn challenged the legal basis of the arrest of men for same-sex conduct, declaring that homosexuality is “not a criminal offence,” although under Lebanon’s legal system, the ruling does not create a binding precedent.

Malaysia

Discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people is pervasive in Malaysia. Article 377A of the penal code criminalizes same-sex activity between men with punishments of up to 20 years in prison and whipping. Numerous Sharia-based laws and regulations prohibiting a “man posing as a woman,” sexual relations between women, and sexual relations between men effectively criminalize LGBT people.

Both government and private actors attempted to limit expression in support of LGBT rights. In February 2017, JAKIM (the Ministry for Islamic Development) endorsed so-called “conversion therapy,” claiming that gays should seek guidance from God, “repent,” and enter into heterosexual marriages. In March, the Film Censorship Board demanded that Disney edit out four minutes of the children’s film “Beauty and the Beast” because of a “gay moment.” Disney refused to make any cuts to the film, and the board eventually backed down and allowed the unedited film to be screened in Malaysia. In May, Taylor’s University in Subang Jaya canceled a three-day Pride celebration organized by Pelangi, an LGBT rights organization. In June, the Ministry of Health, in response to strident criticism from activists and the general public, reframed the terms of a youth video competition on sexual and reproductive health, removing language and criteria that stigmatized LGBT identities in favor of language that appears to affirm them.

In February 2017 Sameera, a transgender woman, was murdered in Kuantan. In June, an 18-year-old in Penang, T. Nhaveen, died after a group of teenagers allegedly beat and raped him while taunting him with insults such as “pondan,” a derogatory Malay term for an effeminate male, a gay male, or a transgender woman.

Mexico

Same-sex marriage has been legal in Mexico City since 2010. Since then, nine states have legalized it; in 2015, the Supreme Court opened the door to recognition in all states by ruling that the definition of marriage as a union only between a man and a woman constitutes discrimination and thus violates Mexico’s Constitution. In May 2016, President Peña Nieto introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, to remove sexual orientation and gender identity as barriers to adoption, and to recognize gender identity through the reissuance of birth notices, without a doctor’s involvement. Two committees in the Chamber of Deputies voted against the initiative in November.

Morocco/Western Sahara

Moroccan courts continued to jail persons for same-sex conduct under article 489 of the penal code, which prohibits “lewd or unnatural acts with an individual of the same sex.” A Beni Mellal court convicted two men of homosexuality after a group of youths on March 9 burst into the home of one and pushed the two men naked into the street, filming the assault and later posting the clip online. The two men were freed after spending one month in prison; in April, a court imposed prison terms on two of their attackers. On October 27, police in Marrakesh arrested two girls aged 16 and 17 who were reported for cuddling in a private home. They were jailed for one week and charged under article 489, then provisionally released. In December, they were acquitted.

Authorities require but often refuse to issue permits for foreign broadcast media to film in Morocco. On April 3, police detained and then expelled a crew of the French news program “Le Petit Journal” as it tried to film in a neighborhood of Beni Mellal where the abovementioned gay-bashing assault had taken place.

Nepal

In line with a 2007 Supreme Court decision and a subsequent court order, the government in 2015 began issuing passports in three genders: “male,” “female,” and “other.” Some with “other” passports have successfully traveled abroad with their travel documents recognized by foreign governments. The new constitution recognizes that citizenship is available in three genders, and protects “gender and sexual minorities” in clauses related to equality before the law and social justice. Activists remain frustrated with the lack of implementation of a Supreme Court-mandated committee recommendation that the government recognize same-sex relationships.

Netherlands

At the start of 2016, NGOs reported threats and discrimination against LGBT asylum seekers at asylum facilities, and a Dutch independent monitoring body, the Dutch Board for Protection of Human Rights, found in February that LGBT asylum seekers at a large facility face discrimination.

Nigeria

The passage of the Same Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act, SSMPA in January 2014, has far reaching effects on members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. The law is used to legitimize abuses against LGBT people, including mob violence, sexual abuse, unlawful arrests, torture and extortion by police. On February 13, the police arrested a homosexual couple in the federal capital for allegedly attempting to conduct a wedding. The wedding sponsors and the hotel venue owner were also arrested. The penalty for entering into a gay marriage under the SSMPA is 14 years. Ironically, former President Jonathan who defied global pressure before signing the bill into law, said belatedly in June 2016 that “with the clear knowledge that the issue of sexual orientation is still evolving, the nation may, at the appropriate time, revisit the law.”

In November 2015, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights urged the Nigerian government to review the SSMPA in order to prohibit violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity and ensure access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for LGBT individuals.

Pakistan

In 2009, Pakistan’s Supreme Court called for improved police response to cases involving transgender people, and to ensure the rights of transgender people to basic education, employment, and protection. However, despite the court order, violent attacks on transgender and intersex women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province surged in 2016, with unknown assailants frequently targeting those involved in activism. Official responses have been inadequate. Human rights groups in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have recorded dozens of threats to, and attacks on, people and property, including abuses while in police custody. In September 2016, the National Commission for Human Rights called on the government to investigate the attacks, and in 2016 and 2017 local governments and parliament hearings reflected an increased amount of attention to the plight of transgender women—including a unanimous resolution in the Khyber Pakhdunkhwa assembly calling for voting rights for transgender people.

Papua New Guinea

The PNG criminal code outlaws sex “against the order of nature,” which has been interpreted to apply to consensual same-sex acts, and is punishable by up to 14 years’ imprisonment. Gay asylum seekers on Manus Island have reported being shunned, sexually abused, or assaulted by other asylum seekers.

In May, during the periodic review of PNG’s human rights record at the UN Human Rights Council, countries made more than 150 recommendations on sues including ratification of international treaties, establishing a national human rights commission, promoting gender equality, addressing domestic violence and sorcery-related violence, decriminalizing consensual same-sex relations, and abolishing or placing a moratorium on the death penalty. In September, PNG responded that it would ratify all core human rights treaties “on the basis of priorities” and that, while there are challenges to implementing reforms, it is committed to establishing a human rights commission, improving gender equality, and addressing domestic violence and sorcery-related violence. It also noted, however, that “LGBT is currently not a priority of the Government” and that the “death penalty is in our national law, however despite this, the current government directive is not to implement until further directions are issued.”

Peru

In March 2015, Congress rejected a bill to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples. In September 2016, a Congressional supporter of President Kuczynski announced that he would introduce a new legislative proposal to recognize same-sex civil unions.

People in Peru are required to appear before a judge in order to revise the gender noted on their identification documents. In an August 2016 report, the human rights ombudsman noted that courts had rejected most of these requests, often applying inconsistent criteria.

Philippines

The House of Representatives began consideration of House Bill 267, the “Anti SOGI (Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity) Discrimination Act” in June 2016. If approved, it will criminalize discrimination in the employment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, and prohibit schools from refusing to register or expelling students on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. The Senate has introduced companion legislation, Senate Bill No. 935, otherwise known as the Anti-Discrimination Bill (ADB), which had its first hearing in August. House Bill 267 will also sensitize police and law enforcement officers on LGBT issues and train them to attend to complaints. These initiatives are essential given that LGBT rights advocacy groups have warned that hate crimes against LGBT people are on the rise and that the Philippines has recorded the highest number of murders of transgender individuals in Southeast Asia since 2008. The bill would also prohibit anti-LGBT discrimination in access to health care.

Russia

Authorities continued to implement discriminatory policies and laws against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. In March, police found journalist and theater critic Dmitry Tsilikin dead in his St. Petersburg apartment from stab wounds. The perpetrator, arrested a week later, confessed that he planned to blackmail Tsilikin about his homosexuality, but killed him during a confrontation. The police did not categorize the killing as a hate crime. In January, a court in Murmansk, northwestern Russia, found LGBT activist Sergei Alekseenko guilty of violating the discriminatory “gay propaganda” law which prohibits allowing children access to positive information about LGBT relationships. The court called several publications on the website of an LGBT organization formerly run by Alekseenko “gay propaganda” and fined him 100,000 rubles (US$1,300). Authorities continued legal action against Deti-404, an online support group for LGBT children. In April, a court in the Siberian town of Barnaul ruled to ban the website. As of November, Deti 404’s website remained blocked. In September, a court in Siberia ruled to block BlueSystem.ru, a highly popular LGBT news site. As of November, the site was blocked.

In February 2017 and stretching through at least the first week in April, law enforcement and security officials in Russia’s Chechen Republic launched an unprecedented anti-gay purge. They rounded up dozens of men on suspicion of being gay, held them in unofficial detention facilities for days, humiliated, starved, and tortured them. They forcibly disappeared some of the men. Others were returned to their families barely alive from beatings. Their captors exposed them to their families as gay and encouraged their relatives to carry out so-called “honor killings.” Although Chechnya’s leader, Ramzan Kadyrov has denied the round-ups, there is evidence that high-level officials in Chechnya sanctioned them. Russia’s federal government pledged to investigate, but intense and well-founded fear of official retaliation and honor killings, and overwhelming stigma will prevent many victims from coming forward.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has no written laws concerning sexual orientation or gender identity, but judges use principles of uncodified Islamic law to sanction people suspected of committing sexual relations outside marriage, including adultery, extramarital and homosexual sex, or other “immoral” acts. If such activity occurs online, judges and prosecutors utilize vague provisions of the country’s anti-cybercrime law that criminalize online activity impinging on “public order, religious values, public morals, and privacy.” In February 2016, the Saudi Gazette reported that the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution is considering requesting the death penalty for anyone “using social media to solicit homosexual acts.”

In February 2017, Saudi police arrested 35 Pakistani citizens, some of whom were transgender women. One of them died in detention. Her family said her body bore signs of torture, while the Saudi authorities said she had died of a heart attack.

Serbia (Kosovo)

Attacks and harassment of human rights defenders continued. According to local LGBT and human rights organizations, the majority of attacks and threats against members of the LGBT community go unreported with only known LGBT activists filing complaints. In June, in Vojvodina in Northeast Serbia, an LGBT activist was attacked and kicked in the head by four unidentified perpetrators. No one had been prosecuted at time of writing. In August, LGBT activist Boban Stojanovic, one of the Belgrade Pride organizers, was punched and called a “fag” in downtown Belgrade by two unidentified men. Police were investigating at time of writing. Hundreds of police officers deployed in Belgrade to protect the LGBT Pride march in September, which occurred without violence. This was a marked improvement from previous years when protesters attacked the parade, or the government had cancelled the event citing security concerns instead of providing adequate security.

The Kosovo Constitution protects against sexual orientation-based discrimination and a 2015 anti-discrimination law enumerates protections for both sexual orientation and gender identity; however, implementation remains weak.

Singapore

The rights of Singapore’s LGBT community are severely restricted. Sexual relations between two male persons remains a criminal offense, and there are no legal protections against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. The Media Development Authority effectively prohibits all positive depictions of LGBT lives on television or radio. The annual Pink Dot Festival in support of LGBT rights celebrated its eighth year in Hong Lim Park in June 2016, supported by the sponsorship of corporations including Google, Barclays, J.P. Morgan, Goldman Sachs, BP, Bloomberg, Twitter, Apple, and Facebook. A few days after the event, the Ministry of Home Affairs warned multinational companies to stop funding the event, saying such support constitutes “foreign interference” with domestic affairs. In October, the Ministry of Home Affairs announced that, under newly promulgated rules, any entity that is not incorporated in Singapore and does not have a majority of Singapore citizens on its board is now required to apply for a permit to sponsor an event in Hong Lim Park.

Associations of more than 10 people are required to register with the government, and the Registrar of Societies has broad authority to deny registration if he determines the group could be “prejudicial to public peace, welfare or good order.” The Registrar of Societies has refused to allow any lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transsexual (LGBT) organization to register as a society on the ground that “it is contrary to the public interest to grant legitimacy to the promotion of homosexual activities or viewpoints.”

All films and videos shown in Singapore must be pre-approved by the Board of Film Censors. Theater productions must also obtain a license under the Public Entertainment and Meetings Act, and to do so must submit their scripts for approval. In June 2016, a production of “Les Miserables” was forced to delete a scene containing a same-sex kiss.

South Africa

South Africa has a progressive constitution that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and protects the human rights of LGBTI people. The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development has taken significant steps to improve coordination between government and civil society in combatting violence (including rape and murder) against lesbians and transgender men. On September 6, Home Affairs Minister Malusi Gigaba announced that due to widespread homophobic attitudes within South African society, and to protect the rights of LGBTI people, homophobic US pastor Steven Anderson and members of his church were banned from entering the country because they promote hate speech and advocate social violence. He said constitutional and legislative guarantees, including the rights of LGBTI persons, must be respected by all. Domestic LGBTI groups lauded the decision. In June 2017, at the 8th South African AIDS Conference, the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) launched the national HIV framework for LGBTI people. South Africa is the first country in the world to launch an HIV framework specifically for LGBT people as part of its national strategic plan. The objective is to “reverse the burden of disease from HIV, STIs and TB and to promote a rights and evidence-based environment for LGBTI people in South Africa.”

Some of South Africa’s votes at the United Nations were contrary to the country’s stated human rights principles. For example, in July, South Africa voted against a UN Human Rights Council resolution on the protection of human rights on the internet and abstained on a key HRC vote to appoint an independent expert on sexual orientation and gender identity. The abstention went against the country’s strong constitutional protections and domestic laws around sexual orientation and gender identity. But on November 21, in the UN General Assembly committee, South Africa voted to allow Vitit Muntabhorn, the newly appointed UN expert on sexual orientation and gender identity, to continue his work. The vote was taken after the African Group put forward a resolution to stop the operations of the UN expert who was appointed in September by the Human Rights Council.

Sri Lanka

State and non-state discrimination and abuses against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) population persist. Sections 365 and 365A of the Sri Lankan Penal Code prohibit “carnal knowledge against the order of nature” and “gross indecency,” commonly understood in Sri Lanka to criminalize all same-sex relations between consenting adults. Sri Lankan law does not specifically criminalize transgender or intersex people. But no laws ensure that their rights are protected, and police have used several criminal offenses and regulations to target LGBTI people, particularly transgender women and men who have sex with men (MSM) involved in sex work. These include a law against “cheat[ing] by personation,” and the vaguely worded Vagrants’ Ordinance, which prohibits soliciting or committing acts of “gross indecency,” or being “incorrigible rogues” procuring “illicit or unnatural intercourse.” Some trans women and MSM said that repeated harassment by police, including instances of arbitrary detention and mistreatment, had eroded their trust in Sri Lankan authorities, and made it unlikely that they would report a crime. Several people also reported discriminatory treatment at the hands of medical authorities, leading many transgender people to self-medicate rather than seeking professional assistance.

Syria

News reports in 2016 indicate that ISIS continues to execute men accused of homosexuality. In one reported case from Deir al-Zour governorate, a 15-year-old boy was thrown from a building in January 2016 after he was accused of being gay. At least 25 men have been murdered by ISIS in Syria on suspicion of homosexuality or for sodomy, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

Tanzania

Tanzanian law criminalizes consensual sexual conduct between adult males, with a penalty of 30 years to life in prison, one of the most severe punishments for same-sex intimacy in the world. Zanzibar has slightly different laws but criminalizes both male homosexual conduct and lesbianism. The laws are rarely applied, but police and other authorities use them as a pretext to extort, abuse and marginalize LGBTI people. 

Under the government of John Magufuli, Tanzania has seen an unprecedented crackdown on LGBT people. The government has shut down HIV outreach services and drop-in centers targeting men who have sex with men (MSM); banned the import of water-based lubricants, an important HIV prevention tool; and threatened to shut down LGBT organizations. Police in Zanzibar arrested nine young men, charged them with homosexual conduct, and subjected them to forced anal examinations at a government hospital in December 2016. They were released on bail, but the cases remain open. Another young man was arrested in Dar es Salaam in March 2017, and was also subjected to a forced anal exam. In June 2017, President Magufuli publicly condemned same-sex relationships.

Tunisia

The penal code punishes consensual same-sex conduct with up to three years in prison. Anal testing is used as the main evidence in order to convict men for homosexuality. In two high-profile cases in 2015, at least seven young men were arrested and subjected to anal examinations by forensic doctors, whose reports were used as evidence to convict them of sodomy and imprison them, even though it is well-documented that such exams lack medical value. On appeal, their sentences were reduced to two months in the first case, and one month in the second.

Tunisia has thus far been unwilling to consider decriminalization of consensual same-sex conduct but, in its 2017 UPR review, accepted a recommendation to end forced anal examinations. This positive development followed months of advocacy from Tunisian and international human rights groups. The United Nations Committee against Torture, in its 2016 evaluation of Tunisia, condemned the use of anal examinations as to prove homosexual conduct. Shortly before the UPR review, the national medical council issued a circular calling on medical personnel to stop conducting anal examinations without consent.

Turkey

Authorities frequently impose arbitrary bans on public assemblies and violently disperse peaceful demonstrations. For the second year running, the Istanbul governor’s office banned the annual Istanbul Gay and Trans Pride marches in June 2016, citing concerns about security threats and public order.

Turkmenistan

Under Turkmen law homosexual conduct is punishable by up to two years in prison. Widespread prejudice leads to homosexuality being treated as a disease, including by medical institutions and judicial authorities. Law enforcement officials and medical personnel subject persons detained and charged with sodomy to forced anal examinations, with the purported objective of finding “proof” of homosexual conduct.

Uganda

After nine years, the Constitutional Court finally ruled in November on a challenge to a limitation on the mandate of the Equal Opportunities Commission, which barred it from investigating any matter involving behavior “considered to be immoral and socially harmful, or unacceptable by the majority of the cultural and social communities in Uganda.” The judges determined the limitation was unconstitutional and violated the right to a fair hearing. Perversely, this provision had meant that the very mechanism designed to protect people from discrimination could blatantly discriminate against women, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people, sex workers, and anyone else who might not have been perceived to reflect the views of the majority.

Same-sex conduct remains criminalized under Uganda’s colonial-era law, which prohibits “carnal knowledge” among people of the same sex. The new NGO law raises concerns about the criminalization of legitimate advocacy on the rights of LGBTI people. In August, police unlawfully raided a peaceful pageant that was part of Gay Pride celebrations in Kampala. Police locked the venue’s gates, arrested activists, and beat and humiliated hundreds of people, violating rights to association and assembly. Police continue to carry out forced anal examinations on men and transgender women accused of consensual same-sex conduct. These examinations lack evidentiary value and are a form of cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment that may amount to torture.

Ukraine

Since 2014, the government has introduced several progressive policies supporting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, but anti-LGBT sentiment remains strong among high-level government officials and the public. In March 2016, about 200 anti-gay, far-right supporters attacked a venue in Lviv hosting a LGBT equality festival, eventually causing the event to be cancelled. The Kyiv LGBT Pride march held in June took place without the violence against participants that had marred it in previous years. Ultra-nationalist groups had threatened to make the march a “bloody mess.” Around 6,000 police officers protected the 1,500 march participants. The first LGBT Pride march took place in Odesa in August. Local authorities initially attempted to ban it, but relented when organizers changed the route. Police arrested four ultra-nationalists who attempted to disrupt the event. A new draft of the amended labor code does not include an anti-discrimination provision that would protect LGBT people in the workplace.

United Arab Emirates

The UAE’s penal code does not explicitly prohibit homosexuality. However, article 356 of the penal code criminalizes (but does not define) “indecency,” and provid

          MAHATHIR SUDAH TIDAK SEGARANG DAN SEGAGAH DAHULU.   



MAHATHIR SUDAH 90 LEBIH SUDAH TENTU SUDAH LEMAH DAN MUDAH DISERANG DENGAN PENYAKIT RISAU DAN CEPAT MENGELABAH.

DAHULU BELIAU SANGAT DITAKUTI OLEH AHLI-AHLI UMNO DAN JEMAAH MENTERI DIBAWAH BELIAU.

KINI MAHATHIR TERPALIT DENGAN SKANDAL MENJATUHKAN KERAJAAN SECARA PAKSA.

BELIAU TELAH BERJAYA MENJATUHKAN PAK LAH SELEPAS PRU 2008. WALAUPUN PAK LAH MENANG BESAR PADA PRU TAHUN 2004 SELEPAS MENGAMBIL TUGAS PERDANA MENTERI DARIPADA MAHATHIR PADA TAHUN 2002/03.

WALAUPUN NAJIB BERJAYA MENGURUSKAN NEGARA DENGAN BAIK TETAPI MAHATHIR TETAP TIDAK BERPUAS HATI KERANA NAJIB ENGGAN TUNDUK KEPADA KEHENDAK DAN PERMINTAAN BELIAU. 

LALU DIGERAKKAN SATU KOMPLOT UNTUK MENURUNKAN NAJIB SECARA PAKSA.

NAJIB BOLEH DIKATAKAN ORANG LAMA DALAM POLITIK DAN PERNAH BERSAMA TEAM WAWASAN BERSAMA ANWAR IBRAHIN DAN TAN SRI MUHYIDDIN SUDAH MASAK DENGAN PERMAINAN KOTOR DR MAHATHIR.

1993 NEGARA MELIHAT BAGAIMANA MAHATHIR MENJATUHKAN TUN GHAFFAR YANG MENGAMBIL ALIH TUGAS TIMBALAN PERDANA MENTERI DARIPADA MUSA HITAM.

MUSA HITAM ADALAH TIMBALAN PERDANA MENTERI YANG TELAH DIMATIKAN KARIER POLITIK OLEH MAHATHIR SELEPAS ISU SERANGAN DI MEMALI.

SELEPAS MEMBUNUH MUSA HITAM DAN GHAFAR BABA, TUN MAHATHIR MEMBUNUH ANWAR IBRAHIM.

SEKARANG TARING MAHATHIR SUDAH GOYANG DAN TUNGGU MASA NAK LURUH. JIKA SEEKOR SINGA ATAU HARIMAU YANG HILANG TARING BERMAKNA HILANG LAH UPAYA UNTUK BERBURU. MAKA SINGA ATAU HARIMAU TERSEBUT HANYA MENUNGGU SAAT KEMATIAN. 


"Mahathir Terketar-ketar Mengaku Bersalah Pada Clare Brown"





Ironinya mengenai keseluruhan perkara ini adalah apabila Mahathir mula-mula bertemu dengan Clare pada tahun 2015, beliau merancang untuk meletakkan Najib dalam penjara. Ketika ini pula adalah untuk membincangkan bagaimana untuk mengelakkan Mahathir dari dipenjarakan. Bagaimana keadaan telah berubah dimana pemburu telah menjadi buruan. Dan Mahathir tahu bahawa tidak disabitkan kesalahan bukan satu pilihan. Satu-satunya pilihan adalah bagaimana untuk memastikan bahawa hukuman penjara ke atasnya adalah berbentuk tahanan di rumah.




Ketika kebanyakan rakyat Malaysia sedang menikmati rendang dan ketupat hujung minggu lalu, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad berada di London bersama seluruh keluarganya, termasuk cucu-cucu. Malaysia semakin ‘panas’ sehingga Mahathir perlu ‘menyejukkannya’ sedikit. Malangnya, UK telah mengalami gelombang panas (secara literalnya) dan bulan ini adalah Jun paling hangat dalam tempoh 40 tahun.




Buat pertama kalinya dalam masa yang sangat lama Mahathir mengambil penerbangan komersil ke UK dan tidak terbang dalam jet persendiriannya kerana pentingnya dia membuat tanggapan bahawa dia tidak terlalu kaya: jadi bagaimana dia dapat mencuri RM30 bilion duit dari Bank milik rakyat?




Bagaimanapun, percutian Mahathir ke UK lebih daripada sekadar keperluan untuk melepaskan diri dari ‘kepanasan’ di Malaysia atau untuk menyejukkan diri. Ia juga untuk bertemu Clare Rewcastle Brown dari Sarawak Report. Mahathir mengesyaki bahawa Suruhanjaya Siasatan Diraja (RCI) mengenai kerugian tukaran wang asing Bank Negara Malaysia sebanyak AS $ 10 bilion tidak baik untuknya.




Dan inilah sebabnya mengapa Lim Kit Siang mahukan siasatan dan laporan seterusnya oleh Pasukan Petugas Khas untuk dijadikan publik. Kit Siang dan Mahathir telah membincangkan hal ini – dalam perkara ini Kit Siang dan Mahathir adalah seperti Kembar Siam sehingga jika seorang mati maka yang lain turut mati juga. Kit Siang perlu tahu apa yang akan berlaku supaya dia boleh mengetahui apa yang mereka perlu lakukan untuk menyelamatkan Mahathir (yang bermaksud untuk selamatkan Kit Siang dan Pakatan Harapan juga).




Mahathir tahu dia telah melakukan jenayah dan dia juga tahu bahawa kali ini dia tidak akan dapat melepaskan diri dengan mudah seperti dalam banyak kes sebelum ini. Dia tidak boleh mengatakan bahawa dia sudah melupakan segala butirannya, atau tiada apa-apa yang boleh dibuktikan, atau tidak ada bukti tentang apa-apa jenayah, atau kehilangan wang itu adalah ‘normal’ dalam perniagaan, dan lain-lain, seperti bagaimana dia telah jawab berulang kali pada masa lalu.




Kali ini ada bukti. Bank Negara sememangnya telah kehilangan US $ 10 bilion dan terdapat dokumen dan testimoni pegawai kanan Bank Negara untuk membuktikannya. Jadi tidak ada keraguan tentang itu. Dan apa yang lebih mengganggu adalah bahawa tidak kesemua AS $ 10 bilion telah hilang dalam perjudian. Sebahagiannya telah disapu dan berselindung sebagai kononnya kerugian forex.




BACA JUGA DI SINI: Mahathir and Daim lied about the forex losses


Kemudian ada kertas Kabinet yang membuktikan Kabinet diberitahu bahawa kerugian itu hanya RM5.7 bilion ketika sebenarnya ia adalah RM30 bilion. Selain itu, mereka memberitahu Kabinet bahawa kerugian itu hanya ‘perbelanjaan tertunda’ dan ‘kerugian tidak direalisasikan’. Walaupun kertas Kabinet adalah rahsia, RCI mempunyai kuasa untuk mendapatkan sebarang dokumen atau fail yang mereka perlukan walaupun ianya sangat rahsia.




Jadi itulah kesalahan kedua yang mereka lakukan.




Mahathir bertemu Clare bagi membincangkan strategi mereka untuk memastikan Mahathir tidak dihantar ke penjara dan paling teruk adalah menjadi tahanan di rumah




Lebih jauh lagi, mereka berbohong kepada Parlimen. Pada tahun 1993 mereka memberitahu Parlimen bahawa cerita tentang Bank Negara yang kehilangan banyak wang perjudian di pasaran forex adalah dusta dan hanya propaganda pembangkang. Pada tahun 1994 mereka memberitahu Parlimen bahawa Bank Negara telah, sesungguhnya, kehilangan sedikit wang dalam perjudian di pasaran forex tetapi ia hanya kerugian kecil dan kehilangan di atas kertas. Jadi tidak ada wang yang sebenarnya telah dibayar.




Dan itu merupakan kesalahan ketiga.




Satu kesalahan itu sendiri adalah jenayah yang sangat serius tetapi ketiga-tiga gabungan itu bermakna mereka akan mendakwa Mahathir dan mungkin menjatuhkan hukuman penjara selama 44 tahun seperti apa yang berlaku kepada bekas Perdana Menteri Burma Khin Nyunt (yang mana 38 orang pegawai turut menerima hukuman penjara antara 20 tahun hingga lebih daripada 100 tahun setiap orang).



BACA JUGA DI SINI: Mahathir’s money-laundering operation


Mahathir tahu dia telah kalah dan pemburu kini menjadi buruan jadi hanya masa yang akan menentukan nasibnya




Dan inilah yang menjadi masalah kepada Mahathir. Dia bersumpah bahawa dia akan berusaha untuk menjatuhkan Perdana Menteri Najib Tun Razak dan tidak akan berehat sehingga Najib telah ditendang keluar. Ini adalah pertarungan hingga hujung nyawa dengan hanya satu orang yang akan selamat dan seorang lagi bakal masuk ke dalam keranda. Itulah yang dinyatakan oleh Mahathir jadi itulah yang akan berlaku.




Sudah tentu, ketika Mahathir berkata pada awal tahun 2015 dia berpendapat Najib akan ‘menjadi sejarah’ menjelang Julai – dan kemudian Oktober dan kemudian Disember. Tetapi itu lebih daripada dua tahun lalu dan bahkan Mahathir dan Pakatan Harapan enggan mengakui bahawa Najib telah menjadi lebih kuat sejak dua tahun lalu dan bukannya lemah.




Mahathir yang membuat keputusan jadi beliau perlu terima apa juga keputusdannya. Dan ini telah menakutkan Mahathir. Anak lelaki Mahathir, Mokhzani, bercakap kepada salah seorang daripada penasihat Najib serta bertanya sama ada mereka serius untuk meletakkan orang tua itu dalam penjara. Mokhzani berkata keluarga telah membincangkan hal ini dan begitu bimbang. Mereka rasa Mahathir telah melampaui sempadan yang tidak berpatah balik dan tidak akan berpaling lagi. Tetapi mereka tidak mahu Mahathir dipenjarakan kerana lelaki tua itu tidak akan dapat bertahan dan mungkin akan mati.




Mahathir berhari raya di UK dengan seluruh keluarganya yang berkemungkinan menjadi Hari Raya terakhirnya sebagai seorang lelaki yang bebas




Mahathir tahu bahawa kali ini dia berada di penghujung jalan. Kegagalan sudah nampak dengan jelas. Hukuman terhadapnya sudah tidak boleh dielak lagi. Tidak ada lagi soalan ‘jika’ tetapi ‘bila’. Dan Mahathir tahu dia tidak akan menjadi satu-satunya mangsa. Dalam situasi sebegini, seluruh keluarga anda akan jatuh bersama dengan anda.




Dan inilah yang Tun Dr Siti Hasmah Ali paling bimbang. Suaminya sudah hampir ‘tamat’ tidak lama lagi. Ia hanya bagaimana cara pemergiannya. Tetapi anak-anak dan cucu-cucunya masih jauh untuk pergi dan mereka lebih sayang kepadanya daripada kehidupannya sendiri. Jadi sementara Siti Hasmah dapat menahan nasib yang akan menimpa suaminya, dia tidak dapat menerima realiti bahawa seluruh keluarganya akan turut karam bersama dengan kapal.




Nah, itulah yang berlaku apabila anda bermain dengan api: anda akan terbakar. Siti Hasmah sepatutnya memeriksa suaminya pada peringkat awal dan sebelum Mahathir melintasi sempadan. Sebaik sahaja melepasi sempadan anda sama ada menang atau mati. Hanya ada dua pilihan sahaja untuk anda.




Mokhzani bercakap kepada salah seorang pemasihat Najib untuk bertanya sama ada mereka akan menghantar Mahathir ke penjara dan mendedahkan bahawa keluarga beliau sangat runsing




Itulah sebabnya mengapa Mahathir keluar artikel dalam blognya semalam menyatakan bahawa Najib akan menangkap pemimpin pembangkang sebelum pilihan raya umum akan datang. Mahathir menjangkakan pilihan raya umum pada suku pertama tahun depan, selepas RCI menyiapkan siasatan dan laporan mengenai kerugian forex AS $ 10 bilion Bank Negara.




Mahathir sudah tahu apa yang dikatakan dalam laporan itu. Jadi dia tahu “habislah” dia. Oleh itu, beliau mahu bertindak sebelum penangkapan beliau yang hampir pasti dengan mengatakan bahawa Najib akan menangkap pemimpin pembangkang sebelum pilihan raya umum akan datang. Kemudian, apabila mereka menangkapnya, dia boleh mengatakan bahawa dia telah memberi amaran bahawa ini akan berlaku beberapa bulan lalu dan penangkapannya adalah bermotifkan politik.




Mahathir akan melakukan apa yang dilakukan oleh Anwar Ibrahim dan masih melakukannya. Anwar mendakwa dia adalah mangsa penganiayaan politik dan telah diisytiharkan sebagai “Prisoner of Conscience” oleh barat. Mahathir juga akan mengatakan bahawa dia adalah mangsa penganiayaan politik dan dia berharap barat juga akan mengisytiharkan dia sebagai “Prisoner of Conscience”




Dan itulah sebabnya dia menghabiskan Hari Raya di London. Dia mahu berbincang dengan Clare bagaimana Sarawak Report boleh membantu memainkan isu ini. Sekiranya ia datang dari barat maka ia akan membawa lebih banyak pengaruh kerana orang kulit putih adalah orang yang mulia, ikhlas, jujur, tidak berminat, tidak berbuat apa-apa untuk wang, dll.




Tambahan pula, Laporan Sarawak amat berjaya dalam meyakinkan rakyat Malaysia bahawa Najib mencuri wang RM42 bilion daripada wang 1MDB. Jadi, jika Sarawak Report boleh melakukannya, maka ia boleh berbuat apa sahaja: seperti meyakinkan rakyat Malaysia bahawa Mahathir tidak mencuri RM30 bilion wang Bank Negara dan tuduhan itu adalah dusta dan dia adalah mangsa penganiayaan politik.




Inilah yang akan dipanggil ‘misi mustahil’ dan Mahathir mahu Clare mengambil tugas ini. Dan untuk ‘membersihkan namanya’, Mahathir bersedia membelanjakan RM50 juta, murah untuk tidak penjarakan.




Kebimbangan utama Siti Hasmah adalah apa yang akan berlaku kepada anak-anak mereka apabila Mahathir dipenjarakan?




Artikel dalam blog Mahathir semalam sebenarnya adalah idea Clare. Beliau memberitahu Mahathir yang dia mesti mula bercakap mengenai penangkapan pemimpin-pemimpin pembangkang sebelum pilihan raya umum akan datang – dan dia mesti mengatakan ini tidak hanya sekali tetapi banyak kali – supaya pada tahun depan apabila mereka menangkap beliau maka orang ramai akan mengatakan yang ianya dijangka dan ia bermotifkan politik, malah Mahathir telah memberi amaran kepada mereka sebelum ia akan berlaku.




Perkara seterusnya adalah, sekiranya Mahathir didakwa, dan didapati bersalah, dia perlu memastikan dia tidak dipenjarakan dan paling tidak menjadi tahanan rumah. Oleh itu, Mahathir perlu mula memainkan isu kesihatannya. Apabila mereka mendapati dia bersalah, dia akan dilihat sebagai terlalu sakit untuk dimasukkan ke dalam penjara dan jika mereka menghantarnya ke penjara, dia akan mati. Jadi, atas alasan yang penuh ehsan, dia hanya perlu ditahan di rumah.




Ironinya mengenai perkara ini adalah ketika Mahathir mula-mula bertemu dengan Clare pada tahun 2015, beliau merancang untuk meletakkan Najib dalam penjara. Kali ini pula adalah untuk membincangkan bagaimana untuk mengelakan Mahathir dari dipenjara. Bagaimana ia telah berubah dimana pemburu telah menjadi diburu. Dan Mahathir tahu bahawa tidak disabitkan bersalah bukan pilihan. Satu-satunya pilihan adalah bagaimana untuk memastikan bahawa hukuman penjara dijalani sebagai tahanan rumah.




Clare memberitahu Mahathir bahawa mereka mempunyai pilihan terakhir. Memandangkan beratus-ratus juta yang dimiliki oleh Mahathir di UK, dia boleh memohon untuk kekal di UK sebagai ‘pelabur’. Malaysia dan UK tidak mempunyai perjanjian ekstradisi. Oleh itu, Malaysia tidak boleh menyentuh Mahathir dan dia boleh menghabiskan sepanjang hayatnya di UK dan menikmati wang dan masa dengan keluarganya.




– Malaysia Today




PENAFIAN : Artikel pendedahan ini adalah diambil sepenuhnya dari laman blog Malaysia Today dengan tajuk asal SHAKEN MAHATHIR CONFESSES GUILT TO CLARE BROWN. Segala isi kandungan ini adalah dari penulis blog berkenaan dan pihak pru14.tv mungkin tidak bermaksud sedemikian. Pihak pru14.tv berharap pihak yang dituduh/diceritakan dalam artikel ini tampil membuat penafian jika ini merupakan fitnah dari pihak tak bertanggungjawab keatas dirinya, atau sebaliknya. Terima kasih.

          Robots Podcast #211: ICRA 2016 Exhibition (Part 2 of 2), with Greg Burman, Dave Rollinson, Tony Prescott and Xavier Carpentier    
This is the second of two episodes where Audrow Nash interviews several companies at the International Conference for Robotics and Automation (ICRA). Interviews include iniLabs on a high frequency camera, HEBI robotics on a modular system for constructing robots, Consequential Robotics on a companion robot, and Phoenix Technologies on the motion capture system used on the International Space Station.
          `On the Verge' comically tracks intrepid travelers    

On the Verge Comedy by Eric Overmyer. Directed by Garland Wright. ``On the Verge'' heralds itself pictorially on the cover of the Playbill for the John Houseman Theatre. An intrepid, Victorian-looking woman is zooming into the foreground on a skateboard. Playwright Eric Overmyer subtitles his comedy ``The Geography of Yearning,'' set in Terra Incognita beginning in 1888. But its natural habitat is the terra cognita of verbal extravagance.

``On the Verge'' concerns a female expedition from back then (1888) and out there to the approximately here and now of USA 1955. The expeditionists are Mary, Fanny, and Alexandra (Lisa Banes, Patricia Hodges, and Laura Hicks). Determined to survive only on what they can carry, the women climb mountains, hack their way through jungles, wade along swollen streams, meanwhile conversing spiritedly.

En route, they encounter assorted natives, denizens, and even an apparition, all amusingly sketched by Tom Robbins. Approaching mid-century America in their time-space sojourn, they are intrigued by artifacts like Burma Shave, Cool Whip, and a button announcing ``I Like Ike.'' About the deterioration of language, they are less sanguine. As one of them says, ``I have met the future and it is slang.'' ``On the Verge'' is the kind of tongue-in-cheek social satire that could inspire a treatise on detritus.

Mr. Overmyer's version of life `a la National Geographic could benefit from abbreviation. But why quibble? Under Garland Wright's direction, the three women and Mr. Robbins skateboard skimmingly over the wordplay. The Acting Company production is helped greatly by John Arnone's abstract d'ecor and James F. Ingalls's lighting. Besides providing sensible Victorian traveling costumes and trendy '50s couture for the adventurers, Ann Hould-Ward has created suitable garb for such characters as a Gorge Troll, a Yeti, a Dragon Lady fortune teller, and a lounge pianist named Nicky Paradise. John McKinney composed the incidental music.

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          Khiri Travel and Asia Film Fixers Make Top Gear Myanmar a Reality   

Clarkson, Hammond and May choose Asia Film Fixers and Khiri Travel to get job done The BBC’s most popular show, Top Gear , is wowing millions of viewers this week with its two-part special on Burma (Myanmar). In the programs, Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond and James May buy three decrepit Burmese trucks. They are tasked with driving [...]

The post Khiri Travel and Asia Film Fixers Make Top Gear Myanmar a Reality appeared first on Khiri Travel.


          Burma, My Father, and the Forgotten Army   

Modern Television with the support of BBC Commissioned brought award winning comedian and actor Griff Rhys-Jones to Myanmar in January 2013. His father served as a British Officer with the West African troops based in Burma during the Second World War and he went on a personal journey to learn about the past. With professional [...]

The post Burma, My Father, and the Forgotten Army appeared first on Khiri Travel.


          Asia's power women offer false hope   
Asia's high profile powerful women have often been considered by their country's poor as their saviour, as the ones who will tear down corrupt institutions and modernize the country, bringing economic prosperity for all and allowing the poor to break the cycle of poverty which often entraps families for generations in destitute circumstances.

Benazir Bhutto in Pakistan, Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar, Yinluck Shinawtra in Thailand, Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia and Corazon Aquino and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in the Philippines. All had an aura of fairness, honesty, held the promise of change for the good and a clean government when they assumed power for the first time. With the exception of Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar who has not held official power, all the female leaders of their countries failed to live up to promise and hope instilled on them by their constituents also falling into the trap of corrupt government politics themselves, achieving nothing for their people and country.

But these women were portrayed as something they were/are not: fighters for the common people. The Asian Power Women all belong(ed) to their country's power pinnacle class.

Benazir Bhutto was the daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a former prime minister and president of Pakistan and founder of the Pakistan People's Party that Benazir Bhutto led from the age of 29. Benazir Bhutto was Pakistan's prime minister from 1988 to 1990 and 1993 to 1996. Benazir Bhutto's paternal grandfather was Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto. Originally of Sindh, Shah Nawaz Bhutto became the prime minister of the princely state of Junagadh in what is now Gujarat State in India. During his services Shah Nawaz Bhutto had been given large tracts of land in Sindh Province and after the partition of British India into India and Pakistan, he moved his family there, being one of the wealthiest and therefore most influential, land owners.

Aung San Suu Kyi is the daughter of Aung San (real name: Htein Lin, born on February 13, 1915), founder of the modern Burmese army, of Burma's Communist Party and one of the negotiators of Burma's independence in 1947. Aung San was the son of a lawyer and born into a family active in the anti-British resistance movement, dating back to the attachment of Burma to the British Empire in 1886. Aung San Suu Kyi comes therefore from a very well established political family.

As a small group of tourists found out in December 2011, when stepping on a boat to float down the Irrawaddy River surrounded by the UNESCO-classified temples of Pagan. The boat guide pointed out two huge buildings arising along the river shore, in the middle of nowhere. According to the guide, the pompuous villa belonged to a family member of Aung San Suu Kyi and the other high-rise building was being constructed by an army general. When the tourists asked the guide what he thought of all this, he shrugged his shoulders, acknowledging the fact that only the rich and connected can engage in projects like this.

Yingluck Shinawatra who became Thailand's (first female) prime minister in 2011 is the youngest sister of Thaksin Shinawatra, one of Thailand's wealthiest people and a former prime minister himself. His third time in office ended on 19 September 2006 when a military coup d'état ended civilian rule. The Shinawatra family appears not to belong to the traditional power classes of Thailand. Thaksin has always promoted an image of himself as an outsider, a self-made man with no ties to the old upper classes. He became prime minister on a platform of some populist policies e.g. subsidies for rice farmers in the northeast of the country. His enormous popularity among Thailand's common people, based on creating awareness that they have a voice and rights too, allowed him to create a formidable personal power base, totally separate from the traditional power classes: the nobility, the armed forces and the Teochiu business elite.

But Thaksin's image is a PR exercise, aimed at attracting the vote of Thailand's increasingly vocal working class. The Shinawatra family is Hakka and not Teochiu as the majority of Thailand's ethnic Chinese population. The Teochiu run Thailand's economy and the Hakka Shinawatra family are not part of this inner circle. But this does not mean that they are outsiders. As detailed in article Thaksin: from Rich to Richer, the Shinawatra family has very well established ties with Thailand's aristocracy, dating back to the reign of Rama IV in middle of the 19th century and has been part of Thailand's power elite for many generations.

Thaksin Shinawatra's political agenda was and still is aimed at gaining power at the expense of the Thailand's traditional ruling classes. This will also support their commercial interests. Yingluck Shinawatra is Thaksin's replacement but she has her family's and brother's interests at heart. Her government's policies of supporting Thailand's poor and working class are means to an end (i.e. creating and cementing a political power base) and not based on a heartfelt desire to create a more just society.

Corazon Aquino was the Philippines's first democratically elected president after the removal of dictator Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Corazon Aquino was the widow of senator Benigno Aquino Jr., Marcos' political opponent who was murdered on Marcos' instructions upon his return to the Philippines from exile in the USA in 1983. Corazon Aquino became the leader and the public face of the people's revolution against Marcos that drove him from office. With her friendly and motherly appearance she became to many Filipino's the mother of the nation who only had the best interests of poor and common Filipino's at heart. And as a mother she would protect her children from poverty and abuse and create a country in which all people could have a decent living and the rich would not treat the poor as their servants without any rights.

But Corazon Aquino's maiden name is Cojuangco which is one of the Philippine's richest families, with enormous commercial interests and political cloud dating back to colonial times. The family is one of the largest land owners of the country and as such any land reform transferring land ownership to poor farmers is directly opposed to the Cojuangco's family interests. In all fairness Corazon Aquino did implement a radical land reform programme which affected also the Hacienda Luisita, a 6,435 hectare sugar cane plantation and one of the largest estates in the country and owned by the Cojuangco family. In the end Corazon Aquino was not able to beat her own family and establish land reform on their own plantation. Since 2004 the Cojuangco/Aquino family is even engaged in a direct battle with its plantation workers which has involved strikes, blockades and even lethal confrontation.

One of Corazon Aquino's successors, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, was also swept to power on the wings of popular. Originally a Vice President of the Philippines under then President Joseph Estrada (1998 - 2001) she turned against him when he came under investigation and eventually impeachment for massive corruption. During the so-called EDSA II revolution of January 17-20, the popular revolt against Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was sworn in as president. She promised a continuation of the investigations against Joseph Estrada, clean government and a fight against corruption.

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo is the daughter of Diosdado Macapagal, president of the Philippines in the years 1961-1965. The Macapagal family belong to the Philippine's traditional political power structure together with the Magsaysay and Aquino families. Maintaining traditional power structures is in their interest, not political reform and clean government. Gloria Macapagal was eventually also confronted with corruption charges against herself focussing on election fraud in 2004, as well as her husband, Jose Miguel Arroyo, who supposedly abbused his position of "First Gentleman" for his own financial gain.

This article appeared earlier in e-magazine Business Trends Asia
          Day the U-boat Killer was lost   
LOUIS MOUNTBATTEN, Earl Mountbatten of Burma, rarely spoke about May 23, 1941, when the destroyer he captained was sunk by German aircraft during the Battle of Crete.
          From D-Day to Burma – ‘without a scratch’   
A D-DAY veteran who was on the beaches at Normandy has spoken about his wartime experiences in the Royal Navy.
          Spiritual Moments at the Shinbinthalyaung reclining Buddha (Bagan, Myanmar 2013) by Alex Stoen   


Spiritual Moments at the Shinbinthalyaung reclining Buddha (Bagan, Myanmar 2013) by Alex Stoen


Burma is a land full of mystical places, legends and myths that have been shaping the culture for hundreds of years. In the dusty plain of Bagan, home to thousands of pagodas built over the last thousand years, I came across this scene of two novice monks meditating at reclining Buddha of Shinbinthalyaung. It was a truly captivating moment, full of peace and tranquillity, free of worries or burden. I was really amazed how long that feeling stuck with me, even after I returned to my daily office routine. I can hardly wait to return to the enchanted land of Myanmar, hopefully in the next few years. Have you had a similar experience somewhere special?


Alex Stoen: Photos


          CIRELLI Joseph 1916-2010 Youngstown, Ohio   
YOUNGSTOWN – Joseph Cirelli, 94, of the city’s north side, passed away early Sunday morning, Oct. 10, 2010, at his daughter’s home in Liberty Township, Ohio surrounded by his loving family.

Joseph was born Jan. 5, 1916, in Youngstown, Ohio (Mahoning County) a son of the late Frank and Angeline Jeswald Cirelli, and was a lifelong area resident.

He attended The Rayen School, Youngstown, Ohio and served in the U.S. Army during World War II, where he was stationed in China and in Burma.
Joe worked for Youngstown Foundry/Wean United for 45 years, retiring in 1980.

Mr. Cirelli was a member of St. Casimir Church in Youngstown. He was also a member of the St. Casimir St. Casey Senior Citizens and Men’s Club, and was a member of the Moulder’s Union Local No. 196, where he was financial secretary for 20 years.

Joe was an avid bowler and golfer, and most importantly, cherished the time he spent with his family.
He leaves his beloved wife, Ann Kerchak Cirelli, whom he married Feb. 23, 1946; his son, Frank (Roberta) Cirelli of Crofton, Md.; his daughter, Karen (Richard) Kolenich of Liberty Township. Ohio; four grandchildren, Lori and Jason Kolenich, Cynthia Natoli, and Vicki Cirelli; five great-grandchildren, Brooklyn Ciminero, Alexis and Aidan Kolenich, Nicholas and Anthony Natoli; a brother, Albert (Dorothy) Cirelli of Columbus, Ohio; and three sisters, Catherine Nastasi of Niles, Constance Franks of Austintown, and Martha (Alfred) Lethoa of Youngstown.

Mr. Cirelli was preceded in death by two brothers, Patsy and John Cirelli, and two sisters, Mary Cozadd and Philomena Cirelli.

Family and friends may call from 4 to 7 p.m. on Wednesday, Oct., 13, 2010 at Kinnick Funeral Home, 477 N. Meridian Road, Youngstown.

Funeral services will begin on Thursday at 10:30 a.m. at the funeral home, and continue at 11 a.m. at St. Casimir Church.

Interment with military honors will follow at Belmont Park Cemetery.

Mr. Cirelli’s family would like to thank Celtic Hospice for the care given and kindness shown to Joe during the latter stages of his illness.

Please visit kinnickfuneralhome.com to view this obituary and to send condolences online to Joe’s family.

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YOUNGSTOWN, Ohio - Ann Cirelli, 95, formerly of the city’s north side, passed away early Thursday morning, July 24, 2014, at her daughter’s home in Liberty Township, surrounded by her loving family.
Ann was born Jan. 5, 1919, in Musselshell, Montana, a daughter of the late Frank and Anna Malenich Kerchak, and came to the Mahoning Valley, this area in 1929 with her family as a child.

Ann was a homemaker who dedicated her adult life to raising and caring for her family.
Mrs. Cirelli was a member of the former St. Casimir Church in Youngstown, and was a member of St. Columba Cathedral. At St. Casimir, the choir, the St. Casey Senior Citizens, and was a current member of the St. Casimir Society.
She was also a member of the Polish Legion of American Veterans, Ladies’ Auxiliary Post No. 87, and of the organization’s ladies bowling league, which bowled at Kay Lanes on Friday nights. Her beloved husband, Joseph Cirelli, whom she married Feb. 23, 1946, passed away Oct. 10, 2010.

Ann leaves her son, Frank (Roberta) Cirelli of Odenton, Md.; her daughter, Karen (Richard) Kolenich of Liberty Township; four grandchildren, Lori and Jason Kolenich, Cynthia Natoli, and Vicki Cirelli; and six great-grandchildren, Brooklyn Ciminero, Alexis and Aidan Kolenich, Peighton Wittway, and Nicholas and Anthony Natoli.
Ann will be truly missed by all who knew and loved her.
Besides her husband, Mrs. Cirelli was preceded in death by three brothers, George, John, and Michael Kerchak; two sisters, Mary Poljak and Ann Kerchak; and a great-granddaughter, Lea Bella Wittway.

Family and friends may call from 4 to 7 p.m. on Sunday, July, 27, at Kinnick Funeral Home, 477 N. Meridian Road, Youngstown, OH.

Funeral services will begin on Monday at 9:15 a.m. at the funeral home, and continue at 10 a.m. at St. Columba Cathedral in downtown Youngstown. Interment will follow at Belmont Park Cemetery, where Ann will be laid to rest next to her husband.
Mrs. Cirelli’s family thanks the staff of Senior Independence Hospice for the care given and kindness shown to Ann during her illness.
Visit kinnickfuneralhome.com to view this obituary and to send condolences online to Ann’s family. -

See more at: http://www.vindy.com/news/tributes/#sthash.x2v7LXKM.dpuf


          (22) Burma Jade Glücksbringer   

(22) Burma Jade Glücksbringer Glücksbringer aus Burma Jade, ordentlicher Zustand, siehe Scans.
CHF 59.90


          The Future of English in the World of Communication   
English – History

Britain’s colonial expansion established the pre-conditions for the global use of English, taking the language from its island birthplace to settlements around the world. The English language has grown up in contact with many others, making it a hybrid language which can rapidly evolve to meet new cultural and communicative needs.

English in the 20th century

The story of English has been closely linked to the rise of the US as a superpower that has spread the English language alongside its economic, technological and cultural influence. In the same period, the international importance of other European languages, especially French, has declined.

Who speaks English?

There are three kinds of English speaker:

- Those who speak it as a first language

- Those for whom it is a second or additional language

- Those who learn it as a foreign language.


English is remarkable for its diversity, its propensity to change and be changed. This has resulted in both a variety of forms of English, but also a diversity of cultural contexts within which English is used in daily life.

The main areas of development in the use and form of English will undoubtedly come from non-native speakers.

Major International domains of English

  1. Working language of international organizations and conferences
  2. Scientific publications
  3. International banking, economic affairs and trade
  4. Advertising for global brands
  5. Audio-visual cultural products (e.g. film, TV, popular music)
  6. International tourism
  7. Tertiary education
  8. International safety (e.g. ‘airspeak’, ‘seaspeak’)
  9. International law
  10. As a ‘ready language’ in interpretation and translation
  11. Technology transfer
  12. International communication.

English is the most widespread language on the earth, and it is second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has five official languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian, and Chinese.

In the era of communication, English is gaining a strong position.

English -The most widespread language on the earth - How?


- When an Indonesian businessman meets a customer from Finland, they converse in English.

- Airline pilots flying international routes communicate with their controllers in English.

- 76% of the content of the Internet is in English. (The runners-up are, in order: Japanese, French, German, and Chinese.)

- Out of 193 countries of the world, 43 are English speaking [http://www.aneki.com/english.html]

- English is the second most spoken language in the world

- There are 57 million blogs on the Internet. English and Japanese remain the two most popular languages in the blogosphere. [http://technorati.com/weblog/2006/11/161.html]

- Most people use English language to communicate using SMS.

ENGLISH – COMPUTER LANGUAGES

English and computers have seemed, for decades to go together. Computers and the programs which make them useful were largely the invention of English speaking countries. The hardware and software reflect the needs of English language.

English will continue to be spread via software products and digitized intellectual property.

ENGLISH – THE WORLD

  • English and the International Economy


The shifting patterns of trade and new working practices are affecting the use of English language in complex ways. At present there is a considerable increase in the numbers of people learning and using English.

  • English and global culture

As the number of people using English grows, so second-language speakers are drawn towards the ‘inner circle’ of first-language speakers to the ‘outer circle’ of second-language speakers.

  • English as a leading-edge phenomenon

English is closely associated with the leading edge of global scientific, technological, economic and cultural developments, where it has been unrivalled in its influence in the late 20th century.

In four key sectors, the present dominance of English can be expected to give way to a wider mix of languages:

- The global audio-visual market, especially satellite TV

- The Internet and computer-based communication including language-related and document handling software

- Technology transfer and associated processes in economic globalization

- Foreign-language learning, especially in developing countries where growing regional trade may make other languages of increasing economic importance.

  • A bilingual future

There is a growing belief among language professionals that the further will be a bilingual one, in which an increasing proportion of the world’s population will be fluent speakers of more than one language.

  • Social value shifts

The spread of English has been made more rapid in recent years as a consequence of decisions and actions taken by governments, institutions and individuals.

The economic argument for English also may be challenged as developing countries make more careful evaluations of the costs and benefits of mass educational programmes in the English language.

Language shift

In many parts of the world there are ongoing shifts in the status of English.

In the countries listed below, the use of English for International communication is largely increasing:

- Argentina

- Belgium

- Costa Rica

- Denmark

- Ethiopia

- Honduras

- Lebanon

- Burma

- Nepal

- The Netherlands

- Nicaragua

- Norway

- Panama

- Somalia

- Sudan

- Surinam

- Sweden

- Switzerland

- United Arab Emirates.


DISCLAIMER: I have taken some information and print screens from an eBook at http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-elt-future.pdf.

          Comment on How To Build An Online Store With Shopify In 2017 by newportucc.org   
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I am very excited to take this new form of AI technology to China," mentioned Tuomas Sandholm, professor at the Computer Science Department at CMU who created Libratus and Lengpudashi with Ph.D. scholar Noam Brown in a statement I need to explore varied business alternatives for this in poker and a host of other application areas, ranging from leisure games to enterprise technique to strategic pricing to cybersecurity and medicine". Still, once Libratus cashes in its chips, it might open up a new world of artificial intelligence. Go to Thrill Poker on-line internet portal, play the sport, win 2 occasions the invested quantity and also further 200% locking bonus totally free. The second day of the India Poker Championship dawned shiny and sunny… we expect. Besides live tournaments, he additionally plays online under the alias title barryg1″at PokerStars. 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I will now study a problem which has been of appreciable debate throughout the globe, i.e. what's the degree of talent concerned within the sport of poker and also the potential for the judiciary/legislature recognising poker as a ability-based mostly sport; separate from gambling. According to current analysis, there are greater than 100 million poker players worldwide. The truth is, for individuals who would fairly feast on fish than change into a meal for backside feeders, it's best to avoid locations that attract numerous Las Vegas residents. On line casino homeowners know the historical past of poker chips and all the forgery that goes along with that historical past. Rockets Poker Room, 159, 1st Main, Sheshadripuram, Above State Financial institution of India, Bangalore - 560020. The result of the online Pai Gow Poker recreation is set by comparing your Excessive Hand to the seller's Excessive Hand, and your Low Hand to the supplier's Low Hand. A force to be reckoned with Erik has been enjoying in a number of Triton Super High Roller Series occasions in the Philippines and he'll positively be in Las Vegas this summer season, trying so as to add to his bracelet collection at this yr's World Collection of Poker. In 2010 the India Poker Sequence (IPS) hosted three main poker occasions at Indian casinos. Before we start our overview of the authorized background to specific cash poker inside India, I will just make a degree out of some useful poker pages correct here on winmoney101. On-line Video poker is a straightforward sport to play however gets you on the heart of the motion instantly; it is enjoyable, dynamic, and provides plenty of rewards. However, if 'informal' strikes you as a grimy phrase, you may as well take this recreation tremendous-critically with Sage Solitaire's True Grit Mode. Mr. Inexperienced is a singular mobile casino, it's because the gaming content material that's provided isn't powered by one single gaming developer like most on-line and cellular casinos but as an alternative, it is powered by among the greatest names within the trade. Online poker rooms similar to and provide a variety of banking choices similar to Visa, MasterCard, Maestro, Visa Electron, Moneybookers, Neteller, Click2Pay, PayPal, pay as you go playing cards, Ukash, paysafecard, Entropay, Giropay, POLi, and others, however Indian poker players may really feel frustrated after they realize that they can't use a lot of the banking strategies offered. In essentially the most fundamental, and presumably the unique version of this recreation, the gamers ante and are dealt only one card every, face down. If the seller doesn't qualify, all gamers remaining in the hand win even cash on their play wager, whereas all ante bets push.
          Pihak-Pihak Yang Terlibat Perang Dunia II   
Blok Poros (AXIS)

  1. Nazi Jerman : Adolf Hitler
  2. Italia : Benito Mussolini
  3. Jepang : Hideki Tojo


Militer tewas: 8.000.000
Sipil tewas: 4.000.000
Total tewas: 12.000.000

Negara-negara Poros (AXIS) adalah negara-negara yang menentang pihak Sekutu selama Perang Dunia II.
Ada 3 negara utama dalam kekuatan poros yaitu; Nazi Jerman, Italia dan Kekaisaran Jepang. Pada puncak kejayaan mereka, Kekuatan Poros menguasai dominasi daerah yang sangat luas di Eropa, Asia, Afrika dan Oseania/Pasifik. Tetapi Perang Dunia II berakhir dengan kekalahan mereka. Seperti pihak Sekutu, keanggotaan Negara-negara Poros tidak tetap, dan beberapa negara bergabung dan kemudian meninggalkan Negara-negara Poros selama perang berlangsung.

Anggota Negara-negara Poros minoritas:

  1. Bulgaria, Hongaria, Yugoslavia, Finlandia, Thailand, Rumania
  2. Negara Boneka Jepang:
    Manchukuo, Mengjiang (bagian wilayah di Mongolia], Nanking (bagian wilayah di Tiongkok), Burma, Filipina, dan India
  3. Negara boneka Italia:
    Albania dan Ethiopia
  4. Negara boneka Jerman
    Serbia
  5. Negara lainnya yang berkoalisi
    Spanyol dan Denmark
  6. Bekas anggota
    Uni Soviet, Berdiri sendiri/memihak Sekutu pada 1941.


Negara Sekutu:

  1. Britania Raya : Winston Churchill
  2. Uni Soviet : Joseph Stalin
  3. Amerika Serikat : Franklin Roosevelt
  4. Republik China : Chiang Kai-Shek

Militer tewas: 17.000.000
Sipil tewas: 33.000.000
Total tewas: 50.000.000

Blok Sekutu pada Perang Dunia II adalah negara-negara yang berperang bersama melawan Blok Poros (Jerman, Italia, dan Jepang) dari 1939 sampai 1945.

Anggota Sekutu

  1. Setelah penyerangan Jerman ke Polandia (1939)
    Polandia, Britania Raya (termasuk Kerajaan India & Negara Koloni), Perancis, Australia, Selandia Baru, Nepal, Afrika Selatan, Kanada
  2. Setelah berakhirnya perang Poni (1940)
    Norwegia, Belgia, Luksemburg, Belanda, Yunani, Kerajaan Yugoslavia, Uni Soviet, Tannu Tuva
  3. Setelah pengeboman Pearl Harbor (1941)
    Panama, Kosta Rika, Republik Dominika, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras,
    Nikaragua, Amerika Serikat, China, Guatemala, Kuba, Cekoslowakia
  4. Setelah pembentukan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (1942)
    Meksiko, Brasil, Ethiopia, Irak, Bolivia, Iran, Italia, Kolombia, Liberia
  5. Setelah D-Day (1944)
    Romania, Bulgaria, San Marino, Albania, Hungaria, Bahawalpur, Ekuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Turki, Arab Saudi, Argentina, Chile
  6. Setelah pengeboman Hiroshima (1945)
    Mongolia

          Historian and public intellectual Tony Judt, 1948 - 2010   
Considered by many to be a giant in the intellectual world, Tony Judt died last month following a two-year fight with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Judt was in "the great tradition of the spectateur engagé, the politically engaged but independent and critical intellectual" (Timothy Garton Ash - ) "A historian of the very first order,a public intellectual of an old-fashioned kind and — in more ways than one — a very brave man" (Michael Elliott - TIME Magazine). We quote Tony Judt from two recent interviews:

Tony Judt on courage among today’s politicians:

Courage is always missing in politicians. It is like saying basketball players aren’t normally short. It isn’t a useful attribute. To be morally courageous is to say something different, which reduces your chances of winning an election. Courage is in a funny way more common in an old-fashioned sort of enlightened dictatorship than it is in a democracy. However, there is another factor. My generation has been catastrophic. I was born in 1948 so I am more or less the same age as George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Gerhard Schröder, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown – a pretty crappy generation, when you come to think of it, and many names could be added. It is a generation that grew up in the 1960s in Western Europe or in America, in a world of no hard choices, neither economic nor political. There were no wars they had to fight. They did not have to fight in the Vietnam War. They grew up believing that no matter what choice they made, there would be no disastrous consequences. The result is that whatever the differences of appearance, style and personality, these are people for whom making an unpopular choice is very hard.

Someone once said: ‘But Blair’s choice to go to war in Iraq was unpopular with the majority of the population.’ I agree. But what Blair was doing was going for a different kind of popularity – he wanted to show his strength. To do this he had to do something unpopular, yet something that cost him nothing. Doing something unpopular that may cost you your job is much harder. The last generation in America with such courage was probably the generation of Lyndon Johnson. In a funny kind of way Thatcher, whom I certainly do not like, had courage. However, she fits the description of naive and idealistic; I don’t like her ideals, her naivety was a disaster, but it’s still a fair description. Today it is a criticism to describe a politician as idealistic. This is in a way a new phenomenon and it too is born from the fact that Europe has not been involved in wars that would demand the mobilisation of the whole population for over 60 years now. The last time there was such a sustained period of peace was probably the early Middle Ages. Traditionally leaders rose to power through wars or conquest. We have had six, seven generations of leaders who came to power exclusively by political manoeuvring, which is historically very unusual. It’s like inbreeding: there are no external inputs, no new kinds of people, only the political class breeding itself. This isn’t an argument in favour of war, just a historical fact.

Tony Judt on what Europe can do to exert pressure on Israel:

Israel wants two things more than anything else in the world. The first is American aid. This it has. As long as it continues to get American aid without conditions it can do stupid things for a very long time, damaging Palestinians and damaging Israel without running any risk. However, the second thing Israel wants is an economic relationship with Europe as a way to escape from the Middle East. The joke is that Jews spent a hundred years desperately trying to have a state in the Middle East. Now they spend all their time trying to get out of the Middle East. They don’t want to be there economically, culturally or politically – they don’t feel part of it and don’t want to be part of it. They want to be part of Europe and therefore it is here that the EU has enormous leverage. If the EU said: ‘So long as you break international laws, you can’t have the privileges of partial economic membership, you can’t have internal trading rights, you can’t be part of the EU market,’ this would be a huge issue in Israel, second only to losing American military aid. We don’t even have to talk about Gaza, just the Occupied Territories. Why do Europeans not do it? Here, the problem of blackmail is significant. And it is not even active blackmail but self-blackmail. When I talk about these things in Holland or in Germany, people say to me: ‘We couldn’t do that. Don’t forget, we are in Europe. Think of what we did to the Jews. We can’t use economic leverage against Israel. We can’t be a critic of Israel, we can’t use our strength as a huge economic actor to pressure the Jewish state. Why? Because of Auschwitz.’ I understand this argument very well. Many of my family were killed in Auschwitz. However, this is ridiculous. Europe can’t live indefinitely on the credit of someone else’s crimes to justify a state that creates and commits its own crimes. If Zionism is to succeed as a representation of the original ideas of the Zionist founders, Israel has to become a normal state. That was the idea. Israel should not be special because it is Jewish. Jews are to have a state just like everyone else has a state. It should have no more rights than Slovenia and no fewer. Therefore, it also has to behave like a state. It has to declare its frontiers, recognise international law, sign international treaties and agreements. Furthermore, other countries have to behave towards it the way they would towards any other state that broke those laws. Otherwise it is treated as special and Zionism as a project has failed. People will say: ‘Why are we picking on Israel? What about Libya? Yemen? Burma? China? All of which are much worse.’ Fine. But we are missing two things: first, Israel describes itself as a democracy and so it should be compared with democracies not with dictatorships; second, if Burma came to the EU and said, ‘It would be a huge advantage for us if we could have privileged trading rights with you,’ Europe would say: ‘First you have to release political prisoners, hold elections, open up your borders.’ We have to say the same things to Israel. Otherwise we are acknowledging that a Jewish state is an unusual thing – a weird, different thing that is not to be treated like every other state. It is the European bad conscience that is part of the problem. - two excerpts from The Way Things Are and How They Might Be, an interview with Kristina Božic from March 2010 published in the London Review of Books.

Tony Judt on Democracy Democracy has always been a problem. The truly attractive features of the Western tradition that we accidentally—and it really is accidentally—get the benefit of are the rule of law, liberalism and tolerance, all of which are virtues inherited from predemocratic societies, whether they were based in eighteenth-century Anglo-American aristocratic individualism or nineteenth-century European forms of a type of developed postfeudal legal state. Democracy comes last. Democracy is simply a system of selection of people to rule over you. And it's not accidental that everyone is now a democrat. The Chinese are for democracy. George Bush was for democracy. The Burmese believe in it; they just call it something slightly different. South African whites believed in democracy; they just thought it should be arranged differently for blacks. Democracy is a dangerously empty term, and to the extent that it has substance, and the substance consists of allowing people to select freely how they live, the chance that they will choose to live badly is very high. The question is, What do we do now, in a world where, in the absence of liberal aristocracies, in the absence of social democratic elites whose authority people accept, you have people who genuinely believe, in the majority, that their interest consists of maximizing self-interest at someone else's expense? The answer is, Either you re-educate them in some form of public conversation or we will move toward what the ancient Greeks understood very well, which is that the closest system to democracy is popular authoritarianism. And that's the risk we run. Not a risk of a sort of ultra-individualism in a disaggregated society but of a kind of de facto authoritarianism. - from Talking With Tony Judt, an interview with Christine Smallwood from May 2010 published in The Nation.
          The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0   
The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0
The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0
Download Game

DESCRIPTION

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ is an card Games for Android. Download latest version of The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0 Apk + Mod Full for android from APKEra.com

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ is a new strategy card game based on the world and lore of the award-winning Elder Scrolls series. Play for hours or minutes across many game modes that are easy to learn but challenging to master.

PLAY ON YOUR OWN
Story mode provides hours of solo gameplay in which you’ll earn new Legends cards, decks, and packs. Or draft a deck from scratch and battle a series of computer opponents.

PLAY AGAINST OTHERS
Test your decks against friends, challenge online opponents in ranked play, or draft a deck from scratch and battle other players who have done the same.

PICK YOUR BATTLES
Legends gameplay features a divided battlefield with “lanes” that deepen your strategy options.

LEVEL UP!
You can upgrade certain cards in Legends by winning games with decks that contain them. Level up your cards to improve your decks, give you more flexibility, and tailor them to your play style.

Pre-Registration Reward
Valid for 1 copy of 1 Pre-Registration Reward from eligible titles on Google Play. Open to participants who Pre-Register for Elder Scrolls: Legends from Bethesda on the Google Play store. Offer ends when the Pre-Registration campaign period ends. Redeem by launch. Limit 1 reward per user. Valid in participating countries only. Offer not available in Italy, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Age restrictions apply. See Content Promotion Terms, and Google Play Terms for more information. Promoter: Bethesda, 1370 Piccard Drive, Suite 120, Rockville, MD 20850

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0


-: Game Info :-
Name : The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™
Category : card
Size : 1 GB
Version : 1.65.0
File Format : Apk+Obb
On/Off : Online/Offline
Requires Android : 4.0 & Up

How to Install?
- Download Apk and Data.
- Install Apk Dont Run.
- Extract Data to /Android/obb/here.
- Now open Apk and Enjoy the Game.

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          RUBE GAFFE OBUNGLER!   


On his trip to Cambodia, a country he claimed didn't deserve a visit due to its strongman government, first lady Bun Rany greeted Obama with a traditional "sampeah" pressed-hands greeting reserved for servants, a little dig that was probably lost on him but not to Asians.


In his tour of Burma, billed as an historic first visit since Burma's 2007 move to democracy, it was clear he was in way over his head, even on small things. Obama repeatedly referred to the country's Nobel Peace Prize-winning leader Aung San Suu Kyi as Aung Yan Suu Kyi, an astonishing error given her global fame.

Read More At IBD: http://news.investors.com/ibd-editorials/112012-634213-obama-southeast-asian-trip-more-style-than-substance.htm#ixzz2DBP03RQt
          JAVID JABS   

=======================================




The sophisticated underground rocket launcher system in Gaza has been exposed by the terrorist organization in a video it released Saturday.






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In Burma, he called the country by what the generals used to call it, he badly mauled and miss-pronounced the name of leader of their democracy movement. Add to that, he kissed this single woman, which in their culture is an insult.....He gave credit to himself for the democracy movement there (the credit should go to the Bush administration and Laura Bush in particular ) and some are praising him, and fawning over this trip ! Oh , please...






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See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.
Like a Diamond in the Sky
Image Credit & Copyright: Alex Cherney (Terrastro, TWAN)
Explanation: A dark Sun hung over Queensland, Australia on Wednesday morning during a much anticipated total solar eclipse. Storm clouds threatened to spoil the view along the northern coast, but minutes before totality the clouds parted. Streaming past the Moon's edge, the last direct rays of sunlight produced a gorgeous diamond ring effect in this scene from Ellis Beach between Cairns and Port Douglas. Winking out in a moment, the diamond didn't last forever though. The area was plunged into darkness for nearly 2 minutes as the Moon's shadow swept off shore toward Australia's Great Barrier Reef and out into the southern Pacific. Ranging from 1/4000 to 1/15 seconds long, five separate exposures were blended in the image to create a presentation similar to the breathtaking visual experience of the eclipse.
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How dumb do they think you are?

=======================================


A picture you will never see…


Found on the IDF Twitter feed, the video below depicts life in southern Israel under fire of the rockets that have rained down from Gaza: “Over the past 12 years, the residents of southern Israel have suffered over 12,000 rockets fired at them from the Gaza Strip. This is what their life has looked like over the years.” I think it’s safe to say you won’t be seeing this brief video compilation on the BCC or CNN either.
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Iran must be President Obama’s immediate priority

By Henry A. Kissinger, Published: November 16

Henry A. Kissinger was secretary of state from 1973 to 1977.
In the aftermath of an exhausting reelection campaign, the most urgent decision facing the president is how to stop Iran from pursuing a military nuclear program. Presidents of both parties have long declared that “no option is off the table” in securing this goal. In the third presidential debate, the candidates agreed that this was a matter of the American national interest, even as they described the objective alternately as preventing an Iranian “nuclear weapon” or “breakout capacity” (President Obama), or a “nuclear-capable Iran” (Mitt Romney). As Iran continues to elaborate its enrichment capacity and move it underground, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has announced a spring deadline for counteraction. In this fraught environment, what operational meaning should be given to America’s declared objectives?

The United States and Iran are apparently conducting bilateral negotiations through official or semiofficial emissaries — a departure from the previous procedure of multilateral talks. Negotiations over Iran’s nuclear program do not have an encouraging record. For more than a decade, Iran has stalled, first with the “EU-3” (France, Germany and Britain) and then with the “P5+1” (the members of the U.N. Security Council plus Germany). It has alternated hints of flexibility with periods of intransigence, all while expanding, concealing and dispersing its nuclear facilities. If no limit is placed on this process, Iran’s tech­no­logical progress will dominate events. But at what stage, and in what manner, should Iran be deprived of a military nuclear capability? This has been the essence of the argument over “red lines.”

Three stages are involved in the evolution of a military nuclear capability: a delivery system, a capacity to enrich uranium and the production of nuclear warheads. Iran has been augmenting the range and number of its missile systems since at least 2006. Its enrichment capacity — long underreported to the International Atomic Energy Agency — has been expanded to thousands of centrifuges (the instruments that enrich uranium to bomb-grade material). The level exceeds any reasonable definition of peaceful uses authorized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The inevitable culmination is a nuclear weapon.

To draw the line at proscribing an Iranian nuclear weapon — as some argue — would prove unmanageable. Once the requisite amount of fissile material has been produced, constructing and equipping a warhead is a relatively short and technologically straightforward process, almost certainly impossible to detect in a timely fashion.

If so ineffectual a red line were to emerge from a decade of diplomacy by the permanent members of the Security Council, the result would be an essentially uncontrollable military nuclear proliferation throughout a region roiled by revolution and sectarian blood-feuds. Iran would thereby achieve the status of North Korea, with a military nuclear program at the very edge of going operational. Each nation that has a nuclear option would compete to minimize the time to its own full military nuclear capability. 

Meanwhile, countries within the reach of Iran’s military but lacking a nuclear option would be driven to reorient their political alignment toward Tehran. The reformist tendencies in the Arab Spring — already under severe pressure — would be submerged by this process. The president’s vision of progress toward a global reduction of nuclear weapons would suffer a blow, perhaps a fatal one.
Some have argued that even in the worst-case scenario, a nuclear Iran could be deterred. Yet this ignores the immensely costly, complex and tension-ridden realities of Cold War-era deterrence, the apocalyptic strain in the Iranian theocracy and the near-certainty that several regional powers will go nuclear if Iran does. Once nuclear balances are forged in conditions where tensions are no longer purely bilateral, as in the Cold War, and in still-developing countries whose technology to prevent accidents is rudimentary, the likelihood of some nuclear exchange will mount dramatically.

This is why the United States has insisted on limits on Iranian enrichment — that is, curtailing access to a weapon’s precursor elements. Abandoning the original demand to ban all enrichment, the P5+1 has explored what levels of production of fissile material are compatible with the peaceful uses authorized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The higher the level of enrichment, the shorter the time needed to bring about militarily applicable results. Conventional wisdom holds that the highest practically enforceable limit is 5 percent enrichment, and then only if all fissile material beyond an agreed amount is safeguarded outside Iran.

The time available for a diplomatic outcome shrinks in direct proportion as the Iranian enrichment capacity grows and a military nuclear capacity approaches. The diplomatic process must therefore be brought to a point of decision. The P5+1 or the United States unilaterally must put forward a precise program to curtail Iranian enrichment with specific time limits.

This does not imply a red line authorizing any country to go to war. However respectfully the views of friends are considered, the ultimate decision over peace or war must remain in the hands of the president. Why negotiate with a country of such demonstrated hostility and evasiveness? Precisely because the situation is so fraught. Diplomacy may reach an acceptable agreed outcome. Or its failure will mobilize the American people and the world. It will clarify either the causes of an escalating crisis, up to the level of military pressure, or ultimate acquiescence in an Iranian nuclear program. Either outcome will require a willingness to see it through to its ultimate implications. We cannot afford another strategic disaster.

To the extent that Iran shows willingness to conduct itself as a nation-state, rather than a revolutionary religious cause, and accepts enforceable verification, elements of Iranian security concerns should be taken seriously, including gradual easing of sanctions as strict limits on enrichment are implemented and enforced. But time will be urgent. Tehran must be made to understand that the alternative to an agreement is not simply a further period of negotiation and that using negotiations to gain time will have grave consequences. A creative diplomacy, allied to a determined strategy, may still be able to prevent a crisis provided the United States plays a decisive role in defining permissible outcomes.

2012 Tribune Media Services

More on this topic: A video interview with Henry Kissinger Henry A. Kissinger: Meshing realism and idealism in the Middle East David Ignatius: An interview with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Charles Krauthammer: Collapse of the Cairo Doctrine




American media yawns, and some of our own friends fawn over him about his insulting kiss.....







Insult: A photograph in June 2011 shows Broadwell watching as Petraeus and his wife Holly arrive for a Senate Select Intelligence Committee hearing on Petraeus' nomination to be director of the CIA




=======================================

60 Second Refutation of Socialism, While Sitting at the Beach

Last week, there were several comments in Carnival of the Capitalists that people would like to see more articles highlighting the benefits of capitalism. This got me thinking about a conversation I had years ago at the beach:
Hanging out at the beach one day with a distant family member, we got into a discussion about capitalism and socialism. In particular, we were arguing about whether brute labor, as socialism teaches, is the source of all wealth (which, socialism further argues, is in turn stolen by the capitalist masters). The young woman, as were most people her age, was taught mainly by the socialists who dominate college academia nowadays. I was trying to find a way to connect with her, to get her to question her assumptions, but was struggling because she really had not been taught many of the fundamental building blocks of either philosophy or economics, but rather a mish-mash of politically correct points of view that seem to substitute nowadays for both.
One of the reasons I took up writing a blog is that I have never been as snappy or witty in real-time discussions as I would like to be, and I generally think of the perfect comeback or argument minutes or hours too late. I have always done better with writing, where I have time to think. However, on this day, I had inspiration from a half-remembered story I had heard before. I am sure I stole the following argument from someone, but to this day I still can't remember from whom.
I picked up a handful of sand, and said "this is almost pure silicon, virtually identical to what powers a computer. Take as much labor as you want, and build me a computer with it -- the only limitation is you can only have true manual laborers - no engineers or managers or other capitalist lackeys".
Yeah, I know what you're thinking - beach sand is not pure silicon - it is actually silicon dioxide, SiO2, but if she didn't take any economics she certainly didn't take any chemistry or geology.
She replied that my request was BS, that it took a lot of money to build an electronics plant, and her group of laborers didn't have any and bankers would never lend them any.
All too many defenders of capitalism would have stopped here, and said aha! So you admit you need more than labor - you need capital too. But Marx would not have disagreed - he would have said it was the separation of labor and capital that was bad - only when laborers owned the capital, rather than being slaves to the ruling class that now controls the capital, would the world reach nirvana. So I offered her just that:
I told her - assume for our discussion that I have tons of money, and I will give you and your laborers as much as you need. The only restriction I put on it is that you may only buy raw materials - steel, land, silicon - in their crudest forms. It is up to you to assemble these raw materials, with your laborers, to build the factory and make me my computer.
She thought for a few seconds, and responded "but I can't - I don't know how. I need someone to tell me how to do it"
And that is the heart of socialism's failure. For the true source of wealth is not brute labor, or even what you might call brute capital, but the mind. The mind creates new technologies, new products, new business models, new productivity enhancements, in short, everything that creates wealth. Labor or capital without a mind behind it is useless.


Since 1700, the GDP per capita in places like the US has risen, in real terms, over 40 fold. This is a real increase in total wealth - it is not money stolen or looted or exploited. Wealthy nations like the US didn't "take" the wealth from somewhere else - it never even existed before. It was created by the minds of human beings.
How? What changed? Historians who really study this stuff would probably point to a jillion things, but in my mind two are important:
  1. There was a philosophical and intellectual change where questioning established beliefs and social patterns went from being heresy and unthinkable to being acceptable, and even in vogue. In other words, men, at first just the elite but soon everyone, were urged to use their mind rather than just relying on established beliefs
  2. There were social and political changes that greatly increased the number of people capable of entrepreneurship. Before this time, the vast vast majority of people were locked into social positions that allowed them no flexibility to act on a good idea, even if they had one. By starting to create a large and free middle class, first in the Netherlands and England and then in the US, more people had the ability to use their mind to create new wealth. Whereas before, perhaps 1% or less of any population really had the freedom to truly act on their ideas, after 1700 many more people began to have this freedom.
So today's wealth, and everything that goes with it (from shorter work hours to longer life spans) is the result of more people using their minds more freely.
Look around the world - for any country, ask yourself if the average person in that country has the open intellectual climate that encourages people to think for themselves, and the open political and economic climate that allows people to act on the insights their minds provide and to keep the fruits of their effort. Where you can answer yes to both, you will find wealth and growth. Where you answer no to both, you will find poverty and misery.
==============================================================

It says it in the Bible:
It all makes sense now. Gay marriage and marijuana being legalized on the same day!

Leviticus 20:13 - "if a man lays with another man, he should be stoned."

We've just been interpreting it wrong all these years!!!

======================================


Ugly uniform of the Steelers ! WASPS?
=======================================


Ross Mirkarimi Dresses Like General Eisenhower



rsz_sheriffs_in_uniform_by_luke_thomas.jpg
Luke Thomas
A sharp-dressed man...
Sheriff Ross Mirkarimi and District Attorney George Gascón aren't exactly seeing eye to eye these days. But if a common bond could be forged, perhaps the first step to take would be uniting the warring city officials over their shared sartorial senses.

As police chief, Gascón was far more likely than not to wander into police headquarters dressed like a lawyer. Gascón is a lawyer, and Mirkarimi is not -- but, in the limited amount of time the sheriff has been permitted to do the job he was elected to do, he's often outfitted like one.

So, it was a bit jarring to see Mirkarimi clothed in full sheriff's dress regalia during the weekend's Veteran's Day March. Decked out in a forest green uniform complete with gold-starred epaulets and gold bands on an Eisenhower jacket, the progressive sheriff looks like he ought to be leaping off a Jeep and warning us about the perils of the Military-Industrial Complex.

Yet while this uniform might be a head-turner, it's actually something of a California template.

Sheriff's department spokeswoman Susan Fahey said the "Class A uniform" -- worn to inaugurations, funerals, and other high-level events -- is essentially "standardized" throughout the state.

Even the longest-serving sheriffs couldn't remember wearing anything much different, other than a sea change in 1999 or 2000 when the department pulled the trigger and made the shift from British green to forest green. Those were heady times.

Calls to the California State Sheriffs' Association querying why sheriffs' duds look like a cross between military officers and park rangers have not yet been answered.

A quick glance at the association's board of directors, however, reveals that Fahey is right -- there is a fairly standard template of sheriff's dress uniforms.

More when we know more about this most pressing situation.
=======================================

Puke !!!

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Another Puke ! ! !
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          Bears of Denmark and Dachshunds of Siam   


A good picture postcard is multidimensional.
Its image gives shape to a faraway place,
 drawing lines of light and shade,
height and distance.
Colors convey warmth,
gray tones cool.
 

The strange activities of lively native folk
add sensations of smell, touch, even sound.
It's a window looking onto a foreign scene,
inviting us to share a moment with a traveler. 

This postcard has those qualities.
A military band stands in a circle
playing their instruments.
 

We marvel at their impressive bearskin hats.
We admire the impressive stately buildings in the background.
We feel the contrast of sun and shade on the cobblestone plaza.
 
We can almost hear them.



The postcard caption reads:

København
Gardens Musikkorps
(paa Amalienborgplads)





But to be a really good postcard,
worthy of preservation
in a shoe box of memories,
there must be
a clear postmark date
and
a personal message on the back.


This postcard was sent
from Copenhagen to the United States
on 3 July 1907 to E. Kaiteryn Fell(?)
care of Richard Willits(?) – Esq.
of Westbury Station, New York.
The author leaves no name.






July 3rd
This is a beautiful
city, with its fine
buildings and harbor.
The picture repre-
sents the present
homes of the King and
S
ons
. He is in his
country home now
entertaining the King
of Siam.  Reg(?) has been tra-
velling with us for some
time. It is so cold and
rainy here, one can not
realize you will be cele-
brating the 4th to-morrow.



And to be a great postcard,
there has to be an element of curiosity.
In this writer's cursive style
it's hidden in the letter S.





The Guardian
7 January 1907

The capital S posed a challenge to decipher two words. The first was King and Sons.  What did that mean? After checking the history of the plaza where the band performs it made sense. The bearskin bandsmen are on the octagonal courtyard of  Amalienborg, the residences of the Danish Royal Family, which consists of 4 palaces facing the plaza center where stands an equestrian statue of Amalienborg's founder, King Frederick V (1723-1766). In 1907 the Danish King was Frederick VIII (1843-1912) who had taken the Danish throne only the year before in 1906. At various times he lived in one palace, his father in another, and his sons in another.

The second S word was more confusing. Entertaining the King of Siam? In Denmark? Was that right?  In fact during the summer of 1907, the King of Siam embarked on an informal tour of Europe. Reportedly His Majesty King Chulalongkorn of Siam was traveling in strict incognito. He would begin his holiday in Sam Remo, Italy, progressing then to Paris, then London, Berlin, Copenhagen, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. His entourage was considered a small group, with just the King, three Royal Princes, and nine state officials. It was said that King Chulalongkorn was an enthusiastic motorist. Perhaps they would use a bus.



* * *


Ruling Monarchs of the World
circa 1908
Source: Wikipedia

In 1907 most nations of the world were monarchies. Looking a bit like a royal athletic team, this postcard shows the portraits of 19 monarchs from 1908 with emperors, kings, and one queen. The King of Siam is at top left and the King of Denmark, is second row from the bottom, second from right. King Edward VII of Great Britain occupies the prime center position, with his nephews Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany on either side. 


King Chulalongkorn (1853 – 1910),  or more properly Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) was the monarch of Siam, now known as Thailand. Also called King Rama V, he became King of Siam in 1868 under a regency at the young age of 15. He  assumed full powers in 1873. During his long reign of 42 years, King Chulalongkorn produced many great reforms in Siamese society. He reorganized his country's internal boundaries and local governments, established land surveys, modernized the army, and abolished slavery and forced labor. 

In 1907 he decided leave Bangkok to make a lengthy but ostensibly social tour of Europe. It was his second visit to Europe after an earlier one taken in 1897. Newspapers in America caught some of the excitement and thought they might lure him to visit the United States if they published his picture with a story of the trip.


Pittsburgh Press
7 April 1907

The King's tour had a not-so-subtle political purpose as he wanted improve his country's relations with Britain and France, and also gain support from other European leaders. Bordered by French Indochina, British Burma and Malaysia, and the Dutch East Indies, Siam had lost much of its original land to these powers and yet still remained an independent nation under King Chulalongkorn. The illustration comes from a large article on the King and his tour that was published in 1907 by the Pittsburgh Press. The king is described as both progressive and liberal, attributes that were likely to gain favor with American interests.

At the time the US had just stepped onto the global stage a few years before, when in 1898 it acquired Spain's possessions after the Spanish American War. American imperialism began with the ready-made Spanish colonies in the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico with Cuba, which became a U.S. protectorate. In 1904 the US began construction of the Panama Canal which would not be finished until 1914. King Chulalongkorn made his way to Europe via the Suez Canal.


Pittsburgh Press
7 April 1907

After he arrived in Britain in June 1907
the Manchester Guardian newspaper
published a more regal photograph
of King Chulalongkorn of Siam .
The Guardian
21 June 1907

Again the very best  postcards
have good dates
that add a special context
to the message.

On July 3rd, 1907, the Kingdom of Denmark
took the measure of the King of Siam.

The Most Astounding Discovery
that the king of Siam
is exactly the same height
as the emperor of Russia

was considered newsworthy
in Little Rock, Arkansas.



Little Rock, AK Democrat
3 July 1907

The Roskilde Domkirke is on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. It is a Lutheran church and since the 15th century it has been the traditional burial site of Danish monarchs.   


Roskilde Domkirke, Denmark
Source: Wikipedia

One section of the Roskilde Catherdral is named the Chapel of the Magi. It has two floors and the upper floor is supported by a granite column called the Kings Pillar, where for centuries the height of Danish and visiting foreign monarchs has been recorded. The tallest sovereign was supposedly King Christian I of Denmark (1426-1481), but it seems likely he was wearing lifts in his slippers then. Russia's Peter the Great stood against the pillar and measured a lofty 207cm or 81½ inches (6'_7½").  Nearly the shortest in stature, King Chulalongkorn stood 164cm or 64½ inches (5'_4"), only a centimeter taller than Denmark's Christian VII.


King's Pillar, Chapel of the Magi
Roskilde Domkirke, Denmark
Source: The Internets

Despite the Pittsburgh Press's enthusiasm for King Chulalongkorn's liberal views, he and Tsar Nicholas II shared more than just meeting eye to eye. They were both absolute monarchs with nearly unlimited power over both their subjects and their nation's government. Both men were also noted for an extravagant lifestyle where cost was never an issue.



King Chulalongkorn of Siam
and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
in 1897
Source: Wikipedia




Rochester NY Democrat and Chronicle
9 August 1907










By August King Chulalongkorn's grand tour was coming to an end. Even in an era used to displays of royal opulence his spending on diamond, gold, and silverware was thought excessive. It was claimed he purchased $650,000 worth of jewelry in London, $500,000 in Frankfurt, $400,000 in Baden Baden where he took a cure at the spa. The reported value of his expenditure on luxury items was $3,000,000. So much for traveling incognito.  

* * *


Warren MN Sheaf
12 September 1907






 


Before he left Denmark, the King of Siam was presented with a huge wheel of local cheese made near Frijsenborg, a grand estate in Jutland. He took it on board the ship on his trip to Norway, and he became so fond of it he ordered a quantity of the same brand to be sent to his court in Bangkok.



* * *






Newspapers reported on King Chulalongkorn's exotic retinue, which did include a Queen, his  principal one, as well as some brothers, sons, and other officials. Despite his westernized tastes it was recognized that he was sovereign to a Buddhist nation. In American reports the descriptions of  his home country added titillating accounts of his 150 queens and immense harem that supposedly numbered in the thousands.

However the reports did not elaborate on the biggest difference between this royal family of Southeast Asia and the noble families of Europe. King Frederick VIII was surely proud of his eight children. But the diminutive King Chulalongkorn was father to 77 children — 33 sons and 44 daughters distributed among 4 Queens and 32 other consorts and concubines (116 in total).

As the King of Siam took leave of Germany, he expressed an interest in acquiring two dogs just like Kaiser Wilhelm's pet Dachshunds. Upon learning of this and also that the King would soon celebrate a birthday, the German Kaiser arranged to have seven pairs of dachshunds sent to the King so he could choose two favorites. Somehow that intention was lost in translation, as King Chulalongkorn accepted all 14 Dachshunds and took them back to Siam. The Kaiser took the extra expense of his gift in good humor.



Akron OH Beacon Journal
14 September 1907

We are left to imagine
how 14 Dachhunds traveled to Siam,
along with diamonds and Danish cheese,
where presumably it was all somehow divided
among the the King's numerous progeny.   

But  I can show you
how Kaiser Wihelm II
looked after his Weiner dogs,
three in number,
on board his Imperial yacht.



Der Kaiser mit seinen Hunden.
Kaiser Wilhelm II,  circa 1908
Source: The Internets



Let us return once more to the plaza of Amalienborg,
where the band of the Danish Royal Life Guards
continue to delight tourists of all kinds
from around the world.

In this more recent postcard
the bandsmen wear the dress uniform
of the Royal Life Guard
with red tunics, sky-blue trousers
and tall bearskin hats.






This card has no postmark, no message,
and no hidden connection to kings or dachshunds.
Just Danish bears,
so it only merits 4 points

And as a bonus for readers
who have stayed with my story to the end,
here is a YouTube postcard,
taken within the past year,
of the Changing of the Guard
at the Amalienborg place plaza
in Copenhagen.



* * *


* * *

If the music seems familiar but out of place
that is because it is not a Danish melody
but the march of the United States Navy,
Anchors Aweigh.





This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday
where Danish pigeons always get the best treats.

http://sepiasaturday.blogspot.com/2017/02/sepia-saturday-355-18th-february-2017.html






          Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings - The Star Online   

THE BUSINESS TIMES

Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings
The Star Online
Yangon: A local employee with an international aid group in Myanmar's conflict-torn Rakhine State was stabbed to death by “terrorists”, the government said, the latest in a spate of grisly killings blamed on Rohingya militants. Northern Rakhine has ...
Myanmar aid worker murdered in latest Rakhine killingThe Sun Daily
Myanmar to refuse entry to UN investigators probing Rohingya abusesMalay Mail Online
Myanmar needs to get serious about peaceAljazeera.com
Washington Post -Paste Magazine -Radio Free Asia -Ahlul Bayt News Agency: Providing Shia News (press release)
all 50 news articles »

          Designer Solid Sterling Silver Peridot Eye's Eagle Ring, Unique Viking Eagle Head Bird Men's Ring, August Birthstone Designer Ring, by silverstudio2014   

80.96 USD

Designer Solid Sterling Silver Peridot Eye's Eagle Ring, Unique Viking Eagle Head Bird Men's Ring, August Birthstone Designer Ring,

Item Code : AGR-31663-04-3

Weight (Approx) : 19.18 Grams

Size/Dimension (Approx) : USA 7

Gemstone : Peridot

Stone Shape : Marq.

Stone Color : Green

********************************************************************************************************
Peridot is a magnesium iron silicate mineral with a hardness of 7. Its crystal system is orthorhombic and it generally forms in short, compact prisms which are vertically striated.
Color: Its olive to lime green color is caused by iron.
Meaning: The name Peridot is of Greek origin and the meaning is not known.
Source: Important sources of Peridot are in Pakistan, Burma, Australia, Brazil, South Africa and the United States.
Myth: Peridot was viewed as a symbol of the Sun and royalty and is still believed to be a stone of prosperity and abundance.


********************************************************************************************************

I strive to create the most innovative and striking jewelry for my customers, with an original and fabulous fit that will make you feel beautiful and unique!

Shipping Policy

Our USA Parcel Sent Through USPS Its Take Time 7-10 Days and Our International parcel sent Through Register Mail Indiapost and Its Take Time 10-15 days.
Please write us if you have any other query.

We Appreciated Your Positive Response.

Thanks for looking Our Store!


          Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, AAA moonstone, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant by silverstudio2014   

29.51 USD

Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, Amethyst Pandant, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant

Item Code : AGPA-31368-02

Weight (Approx) : 5.51 Grams

Metal : Solid 925 Sterling Silver

Gemstone : Blue Rainbow Moonstone

Stone Shape : Mix

Stone Size (Approx) : Free

Stone Color : Blue

Pandant Size: 50 x 17
******************************************************************************************************
Rainbow Moonstone Gemstone :-

Moonstone is a very personal stone. It is a reflection of the person who owns it. It does not add or detract, only shows how it is. This is why the moonstone is said to perceive that which "is". Moonstone is an excellent stone to use in meditation to understand oneself. Placing it in the moonlight of a moon reaching its fullness, not a full or waning moon, can revitalize it. This is a particularly good gemstone for women. It is a good stone for young women or teenagers.

Healing properties of Moonstone
Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature's rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman's stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

Sources of moonstone
There are two moonstones. Adularia moonstone is an almost transparent pale gray or silvery white or blue shimmer. It is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Burma, India and Madagascar. Albie moonstone is in the feldspar group. It is semitransparent with a pale, shimmering reflection. It may be a little dull. It comes mainly from Canada.
************************************************************************************

I strive to create the most innovative and striking jewelry for my customers, with an original and fabulous fit that will make you feel beautiful and unique!

Shipping Policy

Our USA Parcel Sent Through USPS Its Take Time 7-10 Days and Our International parcel sent Through Register Mail Indiapost and Its Take Time 10-15 days.
Please write us if you have any other query.


We Appreciated Your Positive Response.

Thanks for looking Our Store!


          Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, AAA moonstone, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant by silverstudio2014   

27.51 USD

Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, Amethyst Pandant, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant

Item Code : AGPA-30991-03

Weight (Approx) : 5.80 Grams

Metal : Solid 925 Sterling Silver

Gemstone : Blue Rainbow Moonstone

Stone Shape : Round

Stone Size (Approx) : 15 x 15mm

Stone Color : Blue

******************************************************************************************************
Rainbow Moonstone Gemstone :-

Moonstone is a very personal stone. It is a reflection of the person who owns it. It does not add or detract, only shows how it is. This is why the moonstone is said to perceive that which "is". Moonstone is an excellent stone to use in meditation to understand oneself. Placing it in the moonlight of a moon reaching its fullness, not a full or waning moon, can revitalize it. This is a particularly good gemstone for women. It is a good stone for young women or teenagers.

Healing properties of Moonstone
Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature's rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman's stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

Sources of moonstone
There are two moonstones. Adularia moonstone is an almost transparent pale gray or silvery white or blue shimmer. It is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Burma, India and Madagascar. Albie moonstone is in the feldspar group. It is semitransparent with a pale, shimmering reflection. It may be a little dull. It comes mainly from Canada.
************************************************************************************

I strive to create the most innovative and striking jewelry for my customers, with an original and fabulous fit that will make you feel beautiful and unique!

Shipping Policy

Our USA Parcel Sent Through USPS Its Take Time 7-10 Days and Our International parcel sent Through Register Mail Indiapost and Its Take Time 10-15 days.
Please write us if you have any other query.


We Appreciated Your Positive Response.

Thanks for looking Our Store!


          Phoebe Smith   
UK-based Wanderlust Magazine editor Phoebe Smith knows exactly how to mix business and pleasure. She explores various corners of the globe in search of the perfect story, immersing herself in cultures and experiences with an insatiable appetite for adventure. Her walking, wandering and writing have led her to author several books, including Extreme Sleeps: Adventures of a Wild Camper, and end up on this year’s shortlist for the Visit England Award for Excellence in Travel Writing. Just back from her most recent excursion to Canada, Phoebe talked to us about her travel essentials, the hottest new destinations and how to make the most of your vacation snapshots.

How did you get your start in travel?


I had specialized in journalism in university, so I naturally wanted to work in magazines. While I was backpacking my way around the world after finishing school, a staff writer job came up at a backpacker magazine in Sydney, Australia, and I went for it and got it. I haven’t looked back since.

What do you love most about your work?


The variety. My first passion is writing, and I get to do a fair bit of that on my favorite subject: travel. Aside from actually exploring new places, I do genuinely love the art of magazine craft, too. I can’t tell you how satisfying it is to organize and put a magazine together; and then to see people respond to it, it’s very rewarding.

Do you recommend doing a lot of planning before embarking on a trip?


I think by far the most important thing you can take with you when you travel is an open mind. Planning beforehand is great—and, in my job, rather important—but then you always have to be prepared to deal with last-minute problems or changes and learn to enjoy it anyway. Remember that the best travel stories are when things didn’t go as planned; those are the tales people want to hear about.

What are the hot new travel destinations for this fall?


Burma has to be one of the hottest destinations right now (the best time to go is November to February). In the last few years, the country has opened its doors to tourism, and people are eager to check it out for themselves—even more since Barack Obama visited in 2012. It won Top Country in our Wanderlust Reader Travel Awards and is constantly one of the most searched for destinations on our website. People go there for cultural tours, to learn about the people and to see the landscapes that they’ve read about but never visited before. Aside from Burma, I’d say there’s a lot of interest in Vietnam and Sri Lanka, also for cultural experiences, and a lot of people are looking to book trips to Iceland, Norway and Sweden for the Northern Lights, which are supposed to be spectacular this year.

What tips would you give to someone trying to plan a last-minute summer vacation?


Don't delay any longer! Book as soon as possible; otherwise, the time will slip away and the prices will get higher. Check out our Trip Finder, which can can search for trips by activity, destination, dates and region.

What are your travel essentials?


I never go anywhere without my notebook and pen. It might be old school, but unlike electronic devices, you don’t need to worry about charging it, getting a signal or having it stolen. Also, my pashmina that I picked up in Nepal—it’s great to use as a blanket if it gets cold on the plane, perfect to keep you cool from the sun when waiting for buses/trains, can double as an emergency towel and is ideal for covering up if visiting mosques…and it looks good, too!

Where’s your favorite place to travel?


It’s really hard to pick just one place! I travel all over the world for work but when I get a chance I love being a tourist in my own backyard and discovering the wilder corners of the UK…I even wrote a book about it (Extreme Sleeps: Adventures of a Wild Camper). My particular favorites are Snowdonia, the Lake District and the far north of Scotland. Go in the fall when the crowds and midges have gone but the colors of the landscape are changing. I’d suggest walking and camping/glamping for something different.

Is there anywhere you’re dying to go/stay/eat/play?


South America. I haven’t had time to do much there at all. I’d love to gaze up at the mountains, watch the stars from the Atacama Desert and maybe hop on a boat at Ushuaia, Antarctica-bound.

As summer and early fall weddings hit their peak, what are some of the best/most popular honeymoon destinations?


I think these days less and less people are looking to just fly and flop on a beach; they want an experience that they can remember. This time of year, people tend to look to New England, where they can enjoy the scenery and famous fall colors by day and cozy up in a romantic inn at night; South Africa for wildlife—game-viewing is at its best in September and October; and, for the more energetic, Nepal in October, when the Himalayas are in their prime for walking. You can check out our Unique Honeymoons website for inspiration.

People tend to get a little camera-crazy on vacations. What tips could you give for taking better travel photos?


Digital cameras and smart phones have made it far too easy for us to fire off loads of snaps without thinking about it. My advice: Be selective. Think about the photo you’re taking. Ask yourself what elements you want to include in it and take a minute to think about the composition. But, above all, remember that perfect shots are available on the postcards; make sure you put the camera down every now and again to actually experience where you are and what you’re seeing. You don’t want all your memories to be through a lens! For more tips, click here.
          Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings - The Star Online   

THE BUSINESS TIMES

Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings
The Star Online
Yangon: A local employee with an international aid group in Myanmar's conflict-torn Rakhine State was stabbed to death by “terrorists”, the government said, the latest in a spate of grisly killings blamed on Rohingya militants. Northern Rakhine has ...
Myanmar aid worker murdered in latest Rakhine killingThe Sun Daily
Myanmar to refuse entry to UN investigators probing Rohingya abusesMalay Mail Online
Burma says it will not let outside world investigate Rohingya 'genocide' claimsThe Independent
Aljazeera.com -Washington Post -Paste Magazine -Ahlul Bayt News Agency: Providing Shia News (press release)
all 50 news articles »

          Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings - The Star Online   

THE BUSINESS TIMES

Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings
The Star Online
Yangon: A local employee with an international aid group in Myanmar's conflict-torn Rakhine State was stabbed to death by “terrorists”, the government said, the latest in a spate of grisly killings blamed on Rohingya militants. Northern Rakhine has ...
Myanmar aid worker murdered in latest Rakhine killingMalay Mail Online
Burma says it will not let outside world investigate Rohingya 'genocide' claimsThe Independent
Myanmar Says It Will Refuse Entry to UN Investigators Probing Rohingya AbusesU.S. News & World Report
Washington Post -Paste Magazine -Ahlul Bayt News Agency: Providing Shia News (press release)
all 50 news articles »

          We Don’t Want Political Soldiers; Nana Declares At Burma Camp   
President Akufo-Addo has raised serious concerns about a issue that most Ghanaians, especially politicians, seem to be shying away from the politicization of the various security agencies. This time round his focus was on the officers and men of the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF). It has often been said that most officers and men of the various s ...
          07.11.2015 Om: Juksebiler, Burma, omsorg og flukt   
HVORDAN GÅR DET MED JUKSEMAKERNE I VOLKSWAGEN? Slutter folk å kjøpe bilene deres? STERKE BUDDHISTISKE KREFTER STØTTER GENERALENES PARTI I MYANMAR. Det kan hindre reell demokratisering. OMSORGSORGANISASJONER VEDLIKEHOLDER LIDELSE MENER FORFATTER, som ønsker større innsats for å bringe folk tilbake til samfunnet. «VELKOMMEN TIL NORGE, ALLE 10 000» Har vi opplevd en stemningsbølge som er til hinder for en «klok flyktningepolitikk»?
          Sylvester Stallone (RAMBO) - CGBCOMS   
Interview de Sylvester Stallone pour le film RAMBO, dont l'action se passe à Burma (Myanmar) (par Claude Budin-Juteau a Los Angeles)

Voir les derniers fichiers de CGBCOMS

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          Lockheed Martin ကနေ ရောင်းချနေတဲ့ F-35 တိုက်လေယာဉ်သစ်တွေ အကြောင်း   

အဆိုပါ F-35 ဝယ်ယူတဲ့ နိုင်ငံတွေထဲမှာ အမေရိကန်အပြင် သြစတြေးလျ၊ ဒိန်းမတ်၊ အစ္စရေး၊ အီတလီ၊ ဂျပန်၊ နယ်သာလန်၊ နော်ဝေ၊ တူရကီ၊ တောင်ကိုရီးယားနဲ့ အင်္ဂလန်တွေ ပါဝင်တယ်လို့ သိရပါတယ်။

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          ကမ္ဘာလှည့်ဖျော်ဖြေတာတွေ ရပ်နားတော့မယ်လို့ အဒဲလ် ကြေညာ   

ကမ္ဘာလှည့်ဖျော်ဖြေပွဲတွေနဲ့ပတ်သက်ပြီး ကျမနဲ့သဟဇာတမဖြစ်ဘဲ တမျိုးကြီးဖြစ်နေလို့ပါ။ နောက်ပြီး ကျမ အိမ်မှာနေပြီး အိမ်မှုကိစ္စတွေ လုပ်ရတာကို ပိုကြိုက်လို့ပါ။

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          ရှော့တိုက်ငါးဖမ်းခြင်းနှင့် ဧရာဝတီလင်းပိုင်တို့အနာဂတ် (၁)   

ကမ္ဘာပေါ်တွင် ဧရာဝတီ ရေချိုလင်းပိုင်များနေထိုင်ရာ မြစ် ၃ ခုသာရှိပြီး ၎င်းတို့ထဲမှ တခုမှာ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံမှ ဧရာ ဝတီမြစ် ဖြစ်သည်။

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          အုန်းဆီဟာ ကျန်းမာရေးအတွက် မသင့်တော် ဟုဆို   

အမေရိကန် နှလုံးဆိုင်ရာ အဖွဲ့အစည်းကနေ လေ့လာချက်တွေအရ အုန်းဆီဟာ ကိုလက်စထရောဓာတ် မြင့် မားစေပြီး ကျန်းမာရေးအတွက် မသင့်လျော်ဘူးလို့သိလာရတာပါ။

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          BEDC နဲ့ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်အောင်ကြီး အကြောင်း   

ဗမာ့စီးပွားရေးတိုးတက်ရေး ကော်ပိုရေးရှင်း (BEDC)ဟာ ၁၉၅၀ နှောင်းပိုင်းမှာ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ၏အကြီးဆုံး စီးပွား ရေးလုပ်ငန်း ဖြစ်ခဲ့ပါတယ်။

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          ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် လွှတ်တော် ရခိုင်ပြည်သူတွေ အပေါ် တာဝန်ကျေဖို့ လိုပြီ   

ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် လွှတ်တော်ဟာ ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် အစိုးရအဖွဲ့ကို အပြန်အလှန် ထိန်းကျောင်းနိုင်ဖို့ ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် လွှတ်တော်က အပြည့်အ၀ တာဝန်ရှိ သလို၊ အဲဒီတာဝန်တွေကို ကျေပွန်စွာ ဆောင်ရွက်ဖို့ လိုအပ်ကြောင်း

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          Business and Private Diplomacy: A Potential Catalyst for Sustainable Peace   

30 Jun 2017

By Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov for Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP)

The UN has frequently acknowledged that the private sector can function as a powerful agent of change. However, the world body’s preferred partners to resolve conflicts and build peace remain civil society and armed actors. Additionally, the leaders of UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business communities or use their influence to build peace. Well, these practices have to change, argues Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov, both at the multinational and micro-national levels.

This article was originally published by the Geneva Centre for Security Policy in June 2017.

Introduction

A general overview of what the term “private sector” entails will help define the scope of this paper. The private sector can be defined as the part of the economy that is not run by a state, but by individuals and companies for profit. It comprises a large diversity of organisations such as publicly or privately owned companies, including multinational companies (MNCs); organisations owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit such as cooperatives; or organisations that raise funds to operate and are financed by government or intergovernmental organisations or through hybrid business models, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), but excluding non-profit organisations (NPOs).1 When referring to the private sector, this paper will include publicly or privately owned companies, including MNCs, but exclude private military companies. All private sector organisations’ main driving forces can be summed up as a quest for profits, security and reputation.

Because it is multidimensional, the private sector can be classified in many ways. In addition to a classification by sector, businesses can be ranked by size, number of employees, geographical presence, if they are a local business or the subsidiary of an MNC, or are tailored to serve domestic needs or export markets (or both). In a violence-or conflict-affected context each category of business will evolve differently, reinvent itself or disappear.

Key Points

Small businesses/micro-companies serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process because they often constitute the only form of economic activity in a conflict zone.MNCs have a range of options to respond to conflict, but cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding initiatives, and rarely become involved officially. Track Two diplomacy is their more likely area of involvement.The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, the UN still engages only two players in conflict resolution and peacebuilding: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or use its influence to build peace.Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would produce a more formidable force for peace. World affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into a new UN system of governance; new routes are possible for a truly inclusive approach, recognising the business sector’s positive contribution to sustainable peace through informal mediation and collaborative engagement.

A converging definition and shared approach

Size is the most convenient and easily available criterion of classification for private sector companies. In emerging market economies affected by violence or conflict there would be five main categories of private businesses: formal businesses (big companies that are registered with local authorities and pay taxes); semi-formal medium-sized companies (which pay taxes, but are not systematically registered with authorities); small companies (which represent the vast majority of businesses, operate in a dedicated area or office, and are registered with local authorities); micro-companies (which operate from a variety of places such as markets or in the street and pay some form of tax on the temporary location from which they conduct business, such as a market place or handcart); and home workshops (which are mainly to be found in larger cities). Small companies operating from a dedicated or informal area provide more than half of the world’s formal jobs. They are key drivers of economic growth and development, as well as the backbone of a local economy. Among the medium-sized or small private companies mentioned above, government employees might run such small businesses in some countries in order to diversify sources of income or risk, and allow close or even remote family members to make a living.

As violence increases or conflict breaks out, micro-companies and MNCs will be impacted, but never in the same ways or at the same pace. Generally, the private sector will shift from traded to non-traded goods (i.e. goods provided by donors), cut investment, and shift its capital to foreign currency assets and away from its production tools. Commerce and tourism will be the first sectors to contract, followed by manufacturing and construction. This shift will create conditions for an informal economy (which employs 80% of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo/DRC2) as households’ incomes deteriorate and inflation affects official and parallel markets alike. Falls in employment will create falls in domestic savings and greater reliance on external aid. In such environments, agriculture and public administration will often remain the only source of official employment and income. Violence and conflict also change the prosperity equilibrium as individual roles evolve. When men die in conflict, women become responsible for ensuring the community’s survival by starting informal businesses or taking up farming.3

Small players, such as micro-companies, become important: in chaotic times grassroots, local entrepreneurs provide the only goods, services and jobs available in a given conflict zone. They can also make an important contribution to conflict transformation because they maintain their economic influence and local political contacts during the conflict, and thus serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process. So do business associations, because they often also have close links to governments and represent all sides of the conflict.

The Guatemalan experience illustrates the role of business associations. The 36-year civil war in that country was caused by interlinked social, economic and political factors, “specifically ideological differences embedded in the global political struggle of the Cold War”.Initially, the Guatemalan private sector was not a fervent supporter of the peace negotiations. The overall intensity of the war was low and geographically contained in mountainous areas, and the sectors that were most affected by the conflict were limited to tourism and the coffee industry. Negotiations with all stakeholders, including business, started on a very positive note. However, because of tensions between factions within the association representing the private sector, Comité Coordinador de Asociaciones Agricolas, Comerciales, Industriales y Financieras (CACIF), it refused to meet rebel groups, demanding instead an immediate ceasefire. Interestingly, the coffee industry did not embrace peace talks, because the peace process was associated with economic reform, while the tourism sector, too weak to lobby, was absent from the process. This tends to support the idea that different groups within the business sector are more or less willing or able to support mediation or a peace process.

At the other end of the size spectrum lie MNCs. They account for two-thirds of world trade and can be defined as large corporations incorporated in one country, implementing a consistent multinational response among their various subsidiaries. Their global number is estimated at 80,000, with 840,000 subsidiaries across the world, representing 75,000,000 employees. During the 1950s and 1960s host governments rarely intervened in the affairs of MNCs. Nowadays, these large companies are more flexible and more responsive to their host governments’ demands. But not all MNCs follow the same strategy, and some will sacrifice market participation to preserve strategic autonomy. “There can be no growth in an environment where there is no peace”, says Unilever boss Paul Polman, insisting that business “can and must be a force for good5”. The “corporate coalition” backing Peace One Day – including Skype, McKinsey, Ocado, Innocent, Coca-Cola and Burger King – is a start, but certainly not what corporations do best.6 Instead, they could engage in discussions on good governance and obstacles to peace.

An MNC subsidiary faces complex governance challenges in the wake of violence or conflict. It is controlled by its parent company, which is often based outside the region or country; this company bears the ultimate responsibility for the group’s worldwide strategic direction. The affiliate or subsidiary is expected to support the overall objectives of its group, contributing to its brand and matters of corporate priority such as Western-led concepts like corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is a first possible gap between the subsidiary of a MNC and its host country. Understanding often diminishes and misunderstandings widen as violence increases in the country hosting the subsidiary, due to the distance between the centre of power (company headquarters) and the local affiliate.

Going Beyond CSR; or, the limitations of policies

Recent literature7 has explored how MNCs are expected to contribute to peace and security in the absence of public or government capacity to fulfil this role. Most of those who participated in this research (through individual phone interviews or plenary sessions) were communications directors, CSR managers, and line and business managers from MNCs’ subsidiaries. Many respondents seemed to ignore the role their employer could or did play in peace and security. This might be because CSR involves voluntary self-commitments focusing mainly on the environment, health care, education or security. The role of business in conflict is rarely addressed in this context, either because the CSR agenda needs to be broadened or because businesses are indeed active in issues related to the conflict, but it is not considered part of CSR. This constitutes a second gap in the corporate governance of MNCs: local CSR is part of a more global CSR strategy and is often managed as an extension of local public affairs, public relations or marketing efforts. In order to offer any sense of how MNCs’ subsidiaries can have an impact on peace and security, further research is needed from the business point of view involving risk managers, chief financial officers, and members of the executive board in charge of audit and control committees.

Research by swisspeace focused on Swiss MNCs and how they engage in peace efforts.8 The paper in question is based on interviews with CSR managers from the MNCs’ head offices and focuses on their knowledge of their companies’ contribution to peacebuilding. The data covers eight to ten Swiss companies from various sectors. Most CSR managers appear to be unaware of the ways in which they could engage in peace processes or what role they could play. As the authors suggest, this might be because peacemaking or conflict transformation “is not linked to the business case”.9 Other explanations also come to mind. Firstly, involvement in a political process can only result from an informal individual initiative, not as part of a formal representation of the company, and strictly on a confidential basis, which means no public relations communications – in fact, no communication whatsoever. Secondly, the lack of institutional trust between civil society or advocacy NGOs and the private sector is so heightened that such high-level strategic information will be considered only on a need-to-know basis. The CSR manager will deal with philanthropic initiatives to improve the environment or help local communities, as well as manage advocacy NGOs or research foundations. CSR or security managers might not be involved in all formal or informal contacts between a local business manager and strategic stakeholders.

The review of existing grey research covering CSR managers in MNC subsidiaries and MNC headquarters demonstrates that there is an obvious need for more research in the area of violence and conflict resolution in terms of risk management. As a result, the issue of the relationship between business and peace might be more one of board policy or operational strategy, and therefore falls beyond CSR.

Take a positive peace perspective

When an MNC considers suspending its activities due to violence or conflict, the result is an important depletion of local knowledge – and an increase in risk for the local population and local business alike, because of outsourced goods and services. The immediate consequence of an MNC’s withdrawal or shutdown is undesirable from a local employment perspective: selling a subsidiary to a competitor might appear more desirable, but not if the new owner recognises fewer rights for employees and local communities (human rights, labour rights, development rights, social and economic rights).

Acting truly locally is a strategic challenge for global MNCs. Some are able to act like local businesses.10They employ local people, thus contributing to social mixing, and support those who wish to start their own businesses. This strategy maintains a certain level of economic normality in times of violence or conflict – and prepares for future peace. This can also be achieved by an MNC subsidiary maintaining local infrastructure such as transport, or temporarily covering basic health and social services. In all these examples the private sector can compensate for temporary state shortcomings or the total collapse of state-supplied services.

But in the absence of a mandate to participate in peace settlements, the private sector might resolve to consider its bottom line rather than its humanitarian impact, and shut down or sell its operations, despite adverse local consequences. In Nepal, for instance, the economic stagnation that marked the period following the end of civil war in 2006 was caused by the withdrawal of Indian MNCs that supported the Nepalese economy, and clearly hindered political and social stability.

It might be of interest to consider what strategies the private sector – MNCs and local businesses alike – can chose in a context of violence or conflict. Firstly, it can decide to take advantage of the economics of war and grow its business. Secondly, it can conduct business as usual, under local regulation or the absence of it, either because it cannot withdraw (e.g. a local business), or because violence is not affecting its operations. Thirdly, it can withdraw from the conflict zone and disengage. Fourthly, it can decide to engage proactively and contribute to public security.

From a positive peace perspective, business can foster economic development, support an emerging or existing legal system, and nourish a sense of community. It does not, however, consider the provision of assistance to local communities as a political act, but as tangible ways of reducing its operational costs. In matters of general strategy or corporate policy, CSR is considered as part of operations, while supporting peace or conflict resolution is the exclusive prerogative of the local or international political domain. In practice, the difference between CSR and working for peace and stability follows a very fine line, and is more of a corporate philosophy than an entrenched position. Businesses are committed to avoiding conflict as best they can. But as outsiders in a host country they must remain neutral: actively negotiating between warring parties cannot be part of their licence to operate. Business therefore cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding activities.

Because of the reputational and security risks involved in participating in peace mediation processes, companies rarely become involved officially, and if they do, it is with the utmost confidentiality and discretion. If the private sector contributes to conflict transformation efforts – for instance, through good offices or by supporting higher national interests – it is often on condition that its non-core contribution remains secret. If its contribution is publicised, its licence to operate and the safety of its staff, operations or infrastructure on the ground might be at risk. This need for discretion – for security or competitive advantage – is certainly one of the reasons why business’s engagement in peacebuilding or conflict mediation as a facilitator or information intermediary is rarely properly investigated or publicised. Short-term political ambitions only contribute to business’s caution when publicising any involvement in conflict prevention or resolution.

In terms of ‘economic’ peacebuilding, the private sector is encouraged to use its direct economic influence to promote peace. In terms of so-called ‘political’ peacebuilding, the private sector participates in initiatives such as ‘policy dialogues’ with local stakeholders. According to International Alert,11 this more political form of engagement includes participating in truth and reconciliation commissions; supporting weapons hand-ins; providing capacity-building support for local government, including judicial and police forces; supporting initiatives to attract foreign investment; and helping the local private sector build capacity and governance systems.

In a number of cases the private sector has decided to act as an agent of prevention in order to mitigate violence. One example is the campaign led by the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and its 100,000 members following the 2008 electoral violence in that country. This violence caused major disruptions to the Kenyan tourism, tea and flower industries: exports fell by up to 40% in some areas of the country, while tourist inflows decreased by more than a third and job losses increased dramatically. The private sector decided to embark on a five-year corporate campaign to prevent possible violence ahead of the 2013 elections. Many initiatives were conducted, including a communication and training campaign in cooperation with civil society organisations, interfaith groups, developmental partners and the media. KEPSA is also reported to have supported legislative advocacy to tackle the causes of poverty in Kenyan society, lobbied key politicians to commit to peaceful elections, and pressured members of the media to avoid inflammatory content in their publications. Mobile operators also took steps to prevent their networks from being used to disseminate political hate speech. This local perspective on conflict transformation remains an important avenue for further research.

Business’s motivations to remain in violence- or conflict-affected zones

Assuming it has the possibility to leave a violent or conflict area, a company might still decide to remain in an unstable environment for four main reasons. Firstly, it might still be able to make a profit: costs related to the conflict do not outweigh the income the business can generate. While ensuring income for both the company and its local staff, the company thus contributes to preserving some kind of economic normality for local communities. Heineken, the Dutch brewer founded in 1864, imported its first beer into Africa in 1900. It is now present in 23 African countries. The current CEO, Jean-François van Boxmeer, worked in Rwanda in the early 1990s. He then moved to the DRC, where he helped to deal with the refugee crisis that followed the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

Among the refugees were many of Heineken’s Rwandan employees and their families. As general manager of Bralima, Heineken’s DRC subsidiary, Van Boxmeer decided the company would help his former Rwandan employees, offering shelter and basic income. This meant that the company’s resources would go to humanitarian aid rather than running the company. But it was the only possible decision, Van Boxmeer says: “The larger the company, the larger the stakes. But you have a social contract. It’s one of the crucial elements for a leader to remember and live by.”12

Secondly, if the company represents the interests of a foreign state, it might need to balance the evolution of the relationship between its home country and its host government with regard to the conflict; this relationship will have an impact on its dealings with local authorities and its host government. It might not be in a position to balance the risk/opportunity equation, but the company will remain in the country for the purposes of its home government’s national interest. Total is one of the major world oil companies, and the French government has a 15% stake in it (down from 34% in 1992). Active in Burma/Myanmar since 1992, the company’s investments in the country are guaranteed by the French government through Coface (Compagnie française d’assurance pour le commerce extérieur). Over time, Total expanded its direct investments to become the largest foreign investor in Burma after all the major MNCs left the country following boycotts. In 2002 a case was filed against Total in Brussels by four Myanmar refugees for alleged complicity in violations of human rights in the course of the construction and operation of the Yadana Gas Pipeline. Belgian authorities dropped the case in 2008.13

Thirdly, the business might simply ‘hold the market’ and secure future resources or interests, as part of a long-term business strategy in the sector or region, and as mandated by its shareholders. And, finally, the company might decide to keep its operation active in a conflict zone to gain critical learning experience and ultimately improve the way in which it operates. When he sent the French army into Mali in 2013 to deal with an insurrection in the north of the country, President Hollande recommended that French citizens should leave the country, but hardly any left. In 2010, 60 French-owned subsidiaries and companies were in Mali, mainly in Bamako. These companies were active in mining (Vinci and Bouygues via subsidiaries), banks (BNP Paribas), telecoms (Alcatel-Lucent), transport (Air France), etc. Most of them considered that if security measures were put in place early, it was possible to continue working in near-normality; for instance, to limit travel and risk, employees could move into and live in the work site. Security procedures were submitted to the local French embassy for its future evacuation plans.

Some businesses are considered better peacebuilders than others, partly because of their exit options or the amount of capital invested. Extractive industries have few options in conflict-affected areas and require high investments over decades, but they also have powerful incentives to contribute to peace. Despite this economic stimulus, the extractive industry is often criticised for continuing to work in conflict-affected areas, while industries like tourism or telecoms are regarded as better suited to peacebuilding activities.

Engaging Business in Private Diplomacy

Would world affairs benefit from integrating the private sector into a clear UN mandate or as part of a new system of governance engaging traditional and new parties to multilateral diplomacy? First and foremost, business needs to recognise that conflicts provoke many emotions, “which in turn play a crucial role in the evolution of conflict”.14 If greed and grievance are the main sources of conflict, then government and business might very well share responsibility for a conflict. Poverty, social inequality, unemployment or divided identity politics fuel conflict, particularly when accompanied by illegal behaviour on the part of governments – through corruption or illegitimate private wealth accumulation, or when divisive political leaders plant the seeds of ethnic conflict. But this can also be the case when companies indulge in illegal or irresponsible behaviour.

Governments’ interests have always gone beyond their national borders, leading to foreign conquests and in many cases causing massacres and atrocities. These conquests were mostly conducted through either direct or indirect engagement. The private sector also contributed to these conquests, with the blessing of states, for better or worse, working with governments to export alleged liberalisation and democratisation. An example of direct military engagement is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A more recent example of indirect engagement is when Nasdaq-listed companies were sent as emissaries to Iran in 201315.

Because of the perceived shortcomings of governments and their political agendas, as well as business’s considered failure to act responsibly, new actors have entered conflict-resolution or mediation efforts: the Crisis Management Initiative, the Carter Center’s Conflict Resolution Programme, the United States Institute of Peace and the Geneva-based Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. These private organisations actively participate on behalf of governments in Track Two diplomacy (as part of unofficial government diplomacy), but also increasingly in Track One (official government) diplomacy initiatives, exploring new channels or contacts when the official lines of communication and negotiation have broken down. Their lack of a political mandate is recognised by all parties to mediation processes and is a welcome development in a peace market that has suffered from the presence of actors who promote peace, democracy and human rights, but do not strictly abide by the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence. Mediators themselves mention the relevance of business actors in the two diplomacy tracks and the increasing importance of business actors as economic actors and facilitators in fragile states: “local business actors may have more leverage within track 2 processes than as part of a large internationally peace mediation process.”16 From the mediator’s point of view, “it is of little relevance whether (the business) becomes engaged in a peace process for personal business interests or for more altruistic interests in peace”.17

The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, in real life the UN still considers two actors to be relevant in conflict resolution and peacebuilding processes: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. Peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or to help regulate their impact on peace, including in countries where the UN Security Council (UNSC) has imposed trade sanctions. This (voluntary?) decision by the UN and UNSC not to work with pro-peace businesses indicates a wider institutional pattern: “It is irresponsible of UN practice to ... overlook the way in which these actors might help – or hinder – near and long-term conflict transformation.”18 Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would probably produce a more formidable force for peace.

The only reference to business being consulted can be found in the December 2005 founding mandate of the UN Peace Building Commission (PBC); since then, neither the PBC annual session reports nor working papers for 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 mention encouraging the possibility of engaging with business in any peace process – with the exception of local business, which is merely reminded of its duty to pay taxes ...! One might consider that this is because business is publicity shy on topics it considers to be of political relevance. Or it might be because business has simply not wished to be actively involved in any PBC activities. The truth lies certainly somewhere between the PBC not knowing how to engage business and business not wishing to be seen as active in what it perceives to be part of the political arena. However, since perceptions effectively constitute reality, the PBC seems to be missing out on the engagement of an important stakeholder, while business is guilty of not supporting the peace efforts of intergovernmental organisations.

The feeling is that economic transformation might exclusively be the responsibility of policymakers. The absence of the private sector in the so-called inclusive approach to peacebuilding and the absence of engagement with businesses to generate improvements represent at best an omission and at worse ignorance on what important stakeholders can potentially contribute to building peace. As things stand today, except in communication and fund-raising events, the private sector is not considered as a sound partner in peace processes. There is hardly any formal record either in UNSC mandates or UN peace operations (MONUSCO, UNOCI, UNMISS, etc.) of consulting with commercial entities such as trade professionals, purchasers, suppliers or commercial agents. UN entities only address regulatory issues through civil society monitoring. The UNSC engages states to take the necessary measures to deal with natural resources-related conflicts and invites international financial institutions to contribute to establishing regulatory governance: it does not consult on, engage with or regulate this process, and does not deal with the issue directly.

Should the UNSC adopt a wider mandate, no doubt responsible companies active in natural resources would support conflict transformation efforts in post-conflict areas, but without an “exceptional transitional business regulatory role”.19 Business could also proactively initiate networks and engage actors or trade associations in the post-conflict business sector to adopt responsible peace-related business self-regulation.

Responsible leadership

A case can be made for a new kind of responsible leadership to support integrated and comprehensive peace processes through mediation. Through a collective, cooperative approach, the underlying causes of conflict could be addressed; such an approach would include companies, NGOs, labour organisations, and local and national governments. This approach might take time to set up and implement, but it would bring hope to and positive developments for all parties involved:

It will be argued that the factors affecting the issue are not within the control of companies – it is a matter for government. Or it will be claimed that the issue is not as widespread as suggested and that things are not really so bad. Or that it would require industry-wide effort to have an impact. Companies, like NGOs, are human organisations and they suffer from the natural conservatism of all human organisations – they like to carry on doing what they have been doing successfully for years and tend to resist any change to a smoothly running system.20

Understanding possible informal engagements among political actors, mediators and business, as well as the role of each industry within the economy, must be explored in order to influence the overall process. One of the most successful ways in which business can support peace has been through trade associations, including businesspeople from both sides of the conflict. Mediators praise their direct or indirect, pragmatic, economics-focused, bridge-builder approach21 and consider that it is relevant to include business actors, depending on the context or the stage of the mediation process: early in the process as part of formal Track One initiatives or on their own initiative in a Track Two or Track Three process; during the negotiation phase, using their knowledge of economic development, trade or employment; and/or during the implementation phase, for instance by providing suitable jobs to former combatants, thus providing them with gainful options other than armed violence, or hiring people from all sides of the conflict, thus contributing to breaking down stereotypes and biases.22

Facilitating informal, off-the-record talks between mediators and businesses is also a route that needs to be systematically explored. The inspiration for these informal/briefing talks between business and mediators is as much about rebuilding trust as building knowledge and understanding on both sides. For instance, the private sector was successfully involved at the Track One level in the recent successful negotiation process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), playing an important informal role throughout these negotiations. Some businesspeople were even members of the negotiation team. The government, the FARC and the business sector themselves welcomed the private sector’s engagement: “Business leaders held off-the-record meetings of multi-sectorial groups in order to generate space for developing personal relationships.”23 Members of the business sector sponsored and were involved in public demonstrations and activities to protest against the conflict and lobbied on numerous public occasions for a peaceful settlement. Business representatives also established contact with an imprisoned leader of the other main Colombian armed opposition group, the National Liberation Army, “leading to the signing of a goodwill accord pledging the parties to seek a solution to the Colombian crisis”.24

The first major work on business-based conflict transformation is less than 20 years old.25 The World Bank has found that the first thing that must be dealt with after the restoration of peace and the examination of various fundamental social issues is the question of establishing a framework for restoring business.26 The past decade has seen an increase in initiatives to address a possible multi-stakeholder approach to conflict transformation, including MNCs and local businesses.27 On the basis of these principles, further initiatives have been launched such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles on MNCs and the International Bill of Human Rights of the International Finance Corporation, which is the World Bank’s lending arm.

But the debate is still largely dominated by policy built on examples of businesses sustaining and fuelling violent conflict – largely reported by civil society and raised as banners to condemn all businesses indiscriminately. Corporate-bashing (or brand-bashing) - as NGO-bashing - are probably not the most promising strategies to achieve inclusive dialogue. A new type of engagement is needed to avoid the institutionalisation of business models such as Greenpeace’s28, which replicate bipolar models of good versus evil. The misinterpretation of how companies perceive a peace process has, for instance, led to the publication of some negatively oriented guidance for corporate engagement in conflict transformation, i.e. “good corporate practice is about negative peace and what companies should not do”.29 There is nevertheless a growing interest in constructive ways of including companies in conflict management and peace support, recognising what business has achieved as well as understanding business’s perspectives on the potential and limits of corporate engagement.

In “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Process”,30 swisspeace identifies 14 case studies where private sector efforts complemented those of the public and civil society sectors. These were in Colombia, Cyprus, the DRC, El Salvador, Guatemala, Aceh/Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, Northern Ireland, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Sudan. There is an obvious need for more research from the business perspective, and particularly on the governance of MNCs and the role that MNCs’ local subsidiaries can play in violence prevention and conflict resolution.

Conclusion

This paper has focused on cases where the private sector supported private and/or multilateral diplomacy. Such cases indicate that building trust and engaging both traditional and new parties to peace talks might allow a better understanding of a conflict resolution and peacebuilding process and improve cooperation. The paper also explored ways in which world affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into peacebuilding and suggested routes for a truly inclusive approach to advance peace processes.

A successful peace agreement often brings peace dividends. Liberia’s economy grew at an annual rate of 11% after peace was achieved, South Africa is still one of Africa’s most advanced economies, Aceh has become a source of economic and political innovation for its region, Mozambique has experienced an average growth of 7% (except for 2013 and 2014), and Northern Ireland experienced economic growth of 3.2% in 2005, almost twice as much as the United Kingdom as a whole. But the international community has also engaged in a number of unsuccessful attempts to build sustainable peace in war-stricken areas/ countries such as Bougainville (2001), Liberia (2003), and Sudan and South Sudan (2005). Despite comprehensive peace agreements and going through the same path of security building, governance building and transitional justice as successful peacemaking efforts, all these areas/ countries experienced outbreaks of instability and violence, in particular during elections.

Less than half of the peace agreements referred to above included an economic dimension in their settlement:31 there was no mention of reinvigorating post-war economies, no ways of supporting the reconstruction of a local private sector, no plans to revive a war-torn society, and no reference to economic reforms. If state‐building must rightly remain an internally driven process, economic recovery remains a turning point between success and failure in peacebuilding, because failure retards development and holds back foreign investment. Surely it is time for comprehensive peace agreements to become truly comprehensive and include the private sector as one of the most important sources of the widespread economic empowerment that is needed to mitigate the effects of conflict and violence?

Notes

1 An NGO, also known as a civil society organisation, is a non-governmental organisation even though its funding might be provided by a government. An NPO uses its extra funds for the purposes of the organisation, rather than dividing it among the shareholders and owners of the organisation. Examples of NPOs are universities, trade unions or charitable organisations. However, an NPO might operate in conjunction with a government.  

2 TDRP (Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program), “5 Democratic Republic of Congo”, in Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal Economies, December 2011, p.31, http://www.tdrp.net/ PDFs/Informal_Economies_Dec2011-5.pdf

3 C. Samba-Panza, interim president of the Central African Republic, “The Central African Republic: ‘Land of Wealth and Opportunity’”, transcript of her speech during the handover ceremony to President-elect Faustin-Archange Touadéra, 30 March 2016, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/ speech/2016/03/30/the-central-african-republic-is-a-land-of-wealth-and-opportunity

4 E. Jonas, “The Role of the Private Business Sector in Peace Negotiations: Lessons from Guatemala”, Sicherheit und Frieden/ Security and Peace, Vol.4, 2007.  

5 O. Balch, “Businesses have a role promoting peace in conflict zones”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www. theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/sep/22/businesses-role-promoting-peace-conflict-zones-drc-palestine  

6 J. Hatcher, “Goma Peace Concert Criticised for Overshadowing DR Congo’s Grim Reality”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/sep/23/goma-peace-concert-dr-congo-jude-law  

7 See D. Jamali, R, Mirshak, “Business-Conflict Linkages: Revisiting MNCs, CSR, and Conflict”, Journal of Business Ethics (2010) 93:443–464; A. Graf & A. Iff, “Conflict-Sensitive Business; Review of Instruments and Guidelines”, swisspeace, January 2013  

8 A. Iff, R. Alluri and S. Hellmüller, “The Positive Contributions of Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace”, swisspeace Working Paper 2/2012, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/ user_upload/Media/Publications/WP2_2012.pdf

9 Ibid., p.15, quoting L. Zandvliet, “Conflict Transformation and the Corporate Agenda – Opportunities for Synergy”, in B. Austin, M. Fischer and H.J. Giessmann (eds), Advancing Conflict Transformation. The Berghof Handbook II, Opladen/Framington Hills, Barbara Budrich, p.360.  

10 What managers can do strategically depends on where they are located. National influences limit corporate behaviour in important ways.  

11 J. Banfield, C. Gündüz and N. Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace: The Peacebuilding Potential of the Domestic Private Sector, London, International Alert, 2006.

12 P. Vanham, “How Heineken’s CEO Went from Congo to the Company’s Top Spot”, LinkedIn, 22 July 2015, https://www. linkedin.com/pulse/how-did-heinekens-ceo-go-from-congo-global-peter-vanham

13 Business and Human Rights Resource Center, “Total Lawsuit in Belgium (re Myanmar)”, 2014, https://business-humanrights. org/en/total-lawsuit-in-belgium-re-myanmar  

14 G. Carbonnier, Humanitarian Economics: War, Disaster and the Global Aid Market, London, Hirst, pp.30-32.

15 General Motors traveled to Iran on this occasion, drafting contracts for the resumption of GM’s activities In Iran. To ensure US success, President Obama signed the Executive Order Act 13645 on 3 June. This presidential decree sanctioned any foreign entity that sold or supplied parts or services to the Iranian automobile sector but did not prohibit the supply of vehicles. Renault being the main foreign operator with 90,000 cars produced in 2012, the US decree clearly targeted France. Furthermore, United Against Nuclear Iran summoned Carlos Ghosn, the boss of Renault, to withdraw from Iran under penalty of American sanctions (G. Malbrunot, “En Iran, l’offensive discrète des entreprises américaines”, Le Figaro, 4 October 2013)  

16 A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.24, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/ Media/Publications/WP2_2010.pdf

17 swisspeace/CS ETH Zurich, “Peace Mediation Essentials: Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, December 2010, p. 2, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Topics/ Mediation/Resources/Peace_Mediation_Essentials_Business_ Actors.pdf  

18 J. Ford, Regulating Business for Peace: The United Nations, the Private Sector, and Post-conflict Recovery, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015.  

20 M. Moody-Stuart, Responsible Leadership: Lessons from the Front Line of Sustainability and Ethics, Oxford, Greenleaf, 2014, p.36.

21 swisspeace/CS ETH, Peace Mediation Essentials, p.8.

22 Ibid., p.12.  

23 A. Rettberg, “Local Business’ Role in Formal Peace Negotiations”, in Banfield, Gündüz and Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace, p.51.

24 A. Rettberg, 2007, p. 486 in A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.16, http://www. swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Publications/ WP2_2010.pdf

25 J. Nelson, The Business of Peace: The Private Sector as a Partner in Conflict Prevention and Resolution, London, Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, International Alert and Council on Economic Priorities, 2000.

26 J.-D. Wolfensohn, Statement during a special session on the role of business in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, UN Security Council, 15 April 2004, http://siteresources.worldbank. org/INTCPR/214578-1112884026494/20482671/Role+of+WB+in+Conflict+and+Development.pdf

27 J. Ruggie and T. Nelson, Human Rights and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: Normative Innovations and Implementation Challenges, Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, Working Paper No. 66, May 2015, p.5. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/ index.php/content/download/76202/1711396/version/1/file/ workingpaper66.pdf

28 See the Greenpeace campaign against Timberland in J. Swartz, “Standing up to 65,000 Angry Activists”, Harvard Business Review, September 2010; and W.M. Hoffman, R.E. Frederick and M. Schwartz (eds), Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in Corporate Morality, Chichester, John Wiley, 2014).

29 A. Iff, “What Guides Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace?” in A. Pigrau and M. Prandi (eds), Companies in Conflict Situations, Barcelona, International Catalan Institute for Peace, pp.153-78.

30 Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers?”, pp.16-19.  

31 UN Development Programme and Crisis Management Initiative, “Peace Processes and Statebuilding”, in J.-K. Westendorf (ed.), Why Peace Processes Fail: Negotiating Insecurity after Civil War, Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 2015, p.17.  

About the Author

Misha Nagelmackers-Voïnov is a member of Woodz Public Affairs and an Executive-Fellow-in-Residence with Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP


          သတင္းသမားေတြကို ဓာတ္ပုံရိုက္လို႔ အမွုဖြင့္    


အမွု႐ုံးခ်ိန္းမွာ သတင္းသြားယူတဲ့ သတင္းသမားေတြ ကို ဓာတ္ပုံမွတ္တမ္း ယူ
The Voice အယ္ဒီတာခ်ဳပ္ အမွု႐ုံးခ်ိန္းမွာ သတင္းသြား ယူခဲ့တဲ့ သတင္းသမားေတြ ကို ဓာတ္ပုံမွတ္တမ္း ယူခဲ့တဲ့ ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းစစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္က ဆိုသူ တဦးကို ျမန္မာသတင္းသမား မ်ား ကာကြယ္ေရး ေကာ္မတီ က ေသာၾကာေန႔က ဗဟန္းရဲစခန္းမွာ အမွုဖြင့္လိုက္ပါတယ္။

တပ္မေတာ္ကို ေျပာင္ေလွာင္တဲ့ သေရာ္စာ ေဖာ္ျပမွုအတြက္ ပုဒ္မ ၆၆(ဃ)နဲ႔ အဖမ္းခံထားရတဲ့ ဦးေက်ာ္မင္းေဆြရဲ့ အမွု႐ုံးခ်ိန္းကို သတင္း မီဒီယာေတြက သြားသတင္း ယူခဲ့ၾကတာပါ။

ဒီလိုသတင္းယူ ေနတုန္း ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းစစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္က တပ္ၾကပ္ စိုးျမင့္ေအာင္က တဦးခ်င္း လိုက္လံ ဓာတ္ပုံရိုက္တာေၾကာင့္ သတင္းသမားကာကြယ္ေကာ္မတီ (PCMJ) က အမွုဖြင့္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။

တရား႐ုံးေရွ႕မွာ ဦးေက်ာ္မင္းေဆြရဲ့ ေရွ႕ေန ဦးခင္ေမာင္ျမင့္ကို အင္တာဗ်ဴးေနတုန္း သတင္းသမား တဦးခ်င္းစီကို ရွုေထာင့္ေပါင္းစုံ ကေန ဓာတ္ပုံေတြ ရိုက္ပါတယ္။

ဒီလို ေဆာင္ရြက္တာဟာ အထက္ကခိုင္းတာေၾကာင့္လို႔ ဆိုပါတယ္။

ဒီလိုလုပ္တာဟာ သတင္းသမားေတြရဲ့လုံျခဳံမွုနဲ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ကို ထိခိုက္တယ္ ဆိုၿပီး ျမန္မာ သတင္းသမားမ်ား ကာကြယ္ေရး ေကာ္မတီ ကိုယ္စား ကိုရဲလင္းထြန္းက တရားလို လုပ္ၿပီး အမွုဖြင့္ လိုက္တာပါ။

တပ္မေတာ္ဘက္က တရားစြဲဆို ထားတဲ့ အေပၚ အမွုရင္ဆိုင္ေနရတဲ့ The Voice အယ္ဒီတာခ်ဳပ္ ရဲ့႐ုံးခ်ိန္းမွာ ရန္ကုန္တိုင္း စစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္က အခုလိုလုပ္တာဟာ သတင္းသမားေတြ အေပၚ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေနတယ္ ဆိုတာ သိသာထင္ရွားေစတယ္ လို႔လည္း သတင္းေထာက္ တဦးျဖစ္သူ ကိုမိုးျမင့္က ေျပာပါတယ္။

PCMJ အေနနဲ႔ ၂ဝ၁၇ ခုႏွစ္ နိုင္ငံသားမ်ား၏ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ဆိုင္ရာ လြတ္လပ္မွုႏွင့္ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ဆိုင္ရာ လုံျခဳံမွုကို ကာကြယ္ေပးေရး ဥပေဒအရ အမွုဖြင့္လိုက္တာျဖစ္ၿပီး ဗဟန္းရဲစခန္းက ဒါကို ကနဦးတိုင္ခ်က္ အေန နဲ႔လက္ခံထားၿပီး တရားစြဲဆိုနိုင္ျခင္းရွိမရွိ ကိုေတာ့ ရက္ ၃၀ အတြင္း အေၾကာင္းျပန္သြားမယ္လို႔သိရ ပါတယ္။

BBC Burmese
http://www.bbc.com/burmese
          Stay on message! Trade imbalance with South Korea, missionaries in Uganda, Syria, Iraq, and Burma   
Laura admits that media like MSNBC and CNN have been obsessed with ridiculing Trump since the day after he was elected, but she begs Trump not to give them oxygen. Joe and Mika are desperately trying to get attention. They lied to their viewers about their relationship, all the while having an affair cheating on their spouses.

Anyway, the media branding machine has been seeking to Get Trump since the day after he was elected. Trump's team should thwart their efforts by staying on message. Focus on what you are doing for the American people.

Laura notes that words matter, actions don't. By that she is referring to the behavior of the impeached Bill Clinton, who took action against many women. Trump uses words to tear down Mika, and the press goes berserk! What did the press and Democrats do with Bill Clinton's sexual escapades?

Trump has the South Korean president in DC today, and he is telling him that the trade imbalance has got to end.

Laura ends the program with interviews with a former special ops guy who is now a missionary to the people of Burma, Iraq, and Syria.

Her final guests are Christians working in Uganda, which has taken in hundreds of thousands of refugees. Uganda is 86% Christian.


              
Burma 2002 #fabriziojelminiphotography #fabriziojelmini #burma #people #travel #travelphotography #portrait #analogic #analogico#reportage #bn #bnw #bnw_life #streetphotography #kodak #kodaktmy #kodakfilm #35mm #contactsheet #35mmstreetphotography #leica #leicam #leicacamera #leicacraft #leicaworld #leicalens #leica🔴 #leicam4p #leica35mm #leicafilm
          In Brief: ROAD TO MANDALAY (2017) New York Asian FIlm Festival 2017   

Midi Z's gorgeous to look at downbeat drama, is like his other films a punch in the face and the heart.

The film follows two people who escape from Burma into Thailand hoping for a better life. However their in ability to get the necessary permits to work cause all sorts of tension and it ultimately fractures the relationship.

A solid art film it is deliberately paced and it sucks you in and drags you along. It also gives you much to think about concerning people trying to move to a better place for a better life.

Recommended.

JB's review can be found here
          05/26/15 Alan Bishop   

Guests Alan Bishop  (Koes Barat, Sublime Frequencies, Sun City Girls) with Don Irwin from Punk Life Zine

Playlist:

JFA - Preppy (AZ, USA)
Dara Puspita - Pesta Pak Lurah (Indo)
Koes Bersaudara - Hari Ini (Indo)
Koes Plus - Djangan Selalu Marah (Indo)
Philosophy Gang (Harry Roesli) - Peacock Dog (Indo)
Titim Fatimah - Cikapundung (Indo)
Samsimar - Indang Pariaman (Indo)
Syamsudin - Bunga Rampai (Indo)
Yi Yi Thant & Aung Heina - Good Time (Burma)
Saing Saing Maw    - Lah Ley Cham (Burma)
Rhoma Irama - Sama Saja (Indo)
Group Doueh - Eid For Dakhla (Western Sahara)
Omar Khorshid - Guitar El Chark (Egypt)
Bellemou & Benfissa - Li Maandouche L'Auto (Algeria)
Sea-Ders (Cedars-Lebanon) - Thanks A Lot
4 M (Egypt) - Ya Sarya
Koes Barat - Pent Juri Hati (WA, USA


          4-10-12 Geoff Turner / Gray Matter   

Guest DJ: Geoff Turner (Gray Matter, 3, Senator Flux, Outsiders, Common Cause, Fungus of Terror, New Wet Kojak) |

Playlist:
...
The Cramps - Human Fly |
Siouxsie and the Banshees - Love in a Void |
Buzzcocks - Harmony in My Head |
999 - No Pity |
UK Subs - Party in Paris |
Outsiders - Teenage Burnout |
Black Market Baby - Youth Crimes |
Minor Threat - Screaming at a Wall |
Bad Brains - Don't Bother Me |
Untouchables - Nic Fit |
Government Issue - Rock 'n Roll Bullshit |
Black Flag - Nervous Breakdown |
The Damned - Fan Club |
Gang of Four - (Love Like) Anthrax |
Gray Matter - Walk the Line |
Gray Matter - 4 A.M. |
3 - Swann Street |
Senator Flux - Grey Eyed Athena |
Mission of Burma - That's How I Escaped My Certain Fate |
Lida Husik - Fly Stereophonic |
Hoover - Pretender |
Helium - Superball |


          4-7-09 Birds and Wires   
Guest DJ: Brian Lombardozzi (1905, Birds and Wires, Amor y Lucha Records)  |

Playlist:
...
1905 - Lingua Franca |
Birds and Wires - Construct / The Sun Also Rises |
Universal Order of Armageddon - Switch Is Down |
Born Against - Half Mast |
Amebix - Chain Reaction |
Crass - White Punks on Hope |
Poison Girls - Price of Grain |
Au Pairs - Armagh |
Omega Tribe - Profiteer |
The Mob - Our Lives, Our World |
Firing Squad - Firing Squad |
The Wipers - Pushing the Extreme |
Fugazi - Merchandise |
Q and not U - Then Thousand Animal Calls |
Black Eyes - Some Boys |
Illuminati - Los Ultimos Dias de la Dulzura |
Big Boys - We're Not in It to Lose |
Mission of Burma - That's How I Escaped My Certain Fate |

          10-9-07 Problems   
Guest DJs: Katy Otto (Problems, Del Cielo, Bald Rapunzel, Exotic Fever Records) and Todd McDonald (Problems, Routineers, Jury Rig, Say No More) |

Playlist:
...

Mission of Burma - Peking Spring |
Big Business - Just as the Day Was Dawning |
The Drags - No Matter What Shape Your Head Is In |
Pete the Pirate Squid - Drinking Song |
The Saints - Know Your Product |
Avec - Deceptive Cadence |
The Wipers - Telepathic Love |
Meneguar - Hands Off |
Hot Snakes - Automatic Midnight |
Your Majesty - The Swinger |
Scream - Came Without Warning |
Akarso - Leave Quietly |
Come - William |
Pash - The Best Gun |
Meters - Punjee |
Discount - Broken to Blue |
Pixies - Gouge Away |
Forget Cassettes - Like Tiny Swords |
Lost Sounds - I Get Nervous |
Free Verse - No Crime No Gain |
Monorchid - Southern Fried Wonton |
Brakes - Hi, How Are You? |
Big Boys - No Love |

          6-12-07 Mark Andersen   
Guest DJ: Mark Andersen (Positive Force, We Are Family; author, Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital and All the Power: Revolution without Illusion) |

Playlist:
...
Vic Godard & the Subway Sect - Nobody's Scared |
Red Noise - Revolt into Style |
Penetration - Silent Community / Don't Dictate |
Madhouse - Respect |
Wayne County & the Electric Chairs - Are You Man Enough to Be a Woman |
Woody Guthrie - Jesus Christ |
Robert Johnson - Hellhound on My Trail |
Beefeater - Live the Life |
The Clash - Sex Mad Roar |
Patty Griffin - Top of the World |
Robin Lane & the Chartbusters - Imitation Life |
Redskins - Lean on Me |
Gil Scott-Heron - Washington D.C. |
Burma Jam - Still Standing |
Scream - Walkin' by Myself |
Urban Verbs - The Angry Young Men |
Women of Destruction - P.V.I. Is a Lie |
The Avengers - I Believe in Me |
Johnny Cash - These Hands |
New Model Army - Fireworks Night |
          PENGERTIAN DASAR BUDHA DHARMA DAN KEYAKINANNYA   

Bab 1
PENDAHULUAN
Secara historis agama buddha mempunyai kaitan erat dengan agama yang mendahuluinya, tapi walaupun demikian agama buddha mempunyai perbedaan dengan agama yang mendahuluinya dan yang datang sesudahnya,  Salah satunya agama hindu. Sebagai agama, ajaran buddha tidak bertitik tolak dari tuhan dan hubungannya dengan alam semesta dan seluruh isinya, termasuk manusia. Tetapi dari keadaan yang dihadapi manusia dalam kehidupannya sehari-hari, khususnya tentang tata susila yang dihadapi dan dijalani manusia agar terbebas dari lingkaran dukka yang selalu mengiringi hidupnya. Dan dalam jangka waktu yang lama ini, masalah ketuhanan itupun belum mendapatkan perhatian yang semestinya.
Dalam alur sejarah agama di india, zaman agama buddha dimulai semenjak tahun 500 SM hingga tahun 300 M.[1] Berangkat dari titik tolak ajaran yang dikembangkan tersebut, banyak para peminat ilmu agama mempertanyakan apakah agama buddha dipandang sebagai agama, atau hanya salah satu aliran filsafat saja. Sejalan dengan itu edwarad conze menyatakan bahwa buddhisme dapat dianggap sebagai agama dan suatu aliran filsafat. Sebagai agama, buddhisme merupakan suatu bentuk organisasi dari cita-cita yang bersifat spiritual yang menolak adanya unsur kekuasaan duniawi, yang ajarannya mampu memberikan sukses dalam mengatasi dunia dan dalam mencapai keabadian ataupun kehidupan setelah mati. Sebagai suaatu aliran filsafat, kata conze, buddhisme bersifat dialektis pragmatis yang bercorak kejiwaan.

LATAR BELAKANG
Dalam bab agama Hindu kita mencoba menggambarkan dua gerakan yang patut dicatat – para rishi Upanishad dan Sri Krishna – yang bangkit di India melawan politeisme Brahmana dan ritualisme. Betapa pun mereka akhirnya terserap dalam agama Hindu dan ciri mereka yang khas lenyap karena kompromi dengan sistem yang ditentang oleh mereka. Agama Buddha adalah revolusi yang lain lagi terhadap agama Brahmana, dan gerakan besar ini tidak dapat bercampur lagi dengan agama Hindu. Buddha bukanlah suatu agama yang berbeda, melainkan suatu sistem yang positif. Namun demikian, setelah suatu masa sukses dan popularitas yang luas, agama ini terasing dari tanah kelahirannya oleh agama Hindu yang dibangkitkan lagi. Tetapi sebelum hal itu terjadi, agama Buddha telah tersebar ke berbagai negeri di luar India dan menjadi satu dari agama dunia yang besar.
India dalam abad ke enam sebelum masehi bukanlah suatu kerajaan yang luar biasa atau kekaisaran. Negeri itu mempunyai sejumlah raja dari suku-suku serta marga tertentu yang memerintah daerah-daerah kecil. Beberapa logat dipergunakan meskipun Sansekerta adalah bahasa yang suci. Kitab Weda telah mendapat gelar yang misterius sebagai kitab wahyu. Pengorbanan dan upacara menurut faham Brahmana telah dijalankan secara luas dengan penuh keyakinan, bahwa melalui upacara itu maka manusia yang melakukannya akan memperoleh apa yang diinginkannya di dunia ini maupun di akhirat. Para pendeta Brahmana dihormati dan ditakuti sebagai setengah dewa. Masyarakat dibagi dalam empat kasta secara ketat dengan kaum Brahmana yang memperoleh kedudukan penuh fasilitas, di pihak lain kaum Sudra dan Paria menjalani hidup dalam keadaan yang lebih buruk dari binatang piaraan. Kitab hukum agama Hindu menyatakan : ‘Telinga seorang Sudra yang mendengarkan penuh perhatian ketika Kitab Weda dibacakan harus disumpal dengan logam cair, lidahnya harus dipotong bila membacanya, badannya harus dibelah bila hafal dalam ingatannya”.[2] Bila seorang Sudra berbuat demikian besar, misalnya memberikan sekelumit nasehat kepada seorang Brahmana, minyak panas harus dituangkan ke telinganya.
Orang Hindu telah mengembangkan kegemaran untuk berfilsafat secara hitam putih, yang tiada lain kecuali mencari kebenaran atau menyalib orang. Ini adalah abad kekacauan yang penuh untung-untungan dengan ilmu agama yang tidak tentu dan pertengkaran yang membingungkan. Kehidupan akhlak sangat menderita karena banyak permasalahan metafisik, dan perselisihan keagamaan yang menyerang habis daya serta tenaga rakyat. Dalam hutan dan gua-gua hiduplah banyak resi dan pertapa yang menjalankan penyiksaan diri dan menolak kesenangan bagi diri mereka untuk masa yang panjang dan percaya bahwa ini adalah jalan untuk mencapai ketinggian rohani.
Rakyat menyembah segala macam, mulai dari matahari hingga batu biasa, dewa yang tinggi hingga setan, dedemit yang menakutkan. “Di benua yang luas India”, tulis Dr. Radhakrishnan, “kapasitas yang luar biasa untuk menciptakan dewa-dewa, maka dengan kejahilan bertuhan memberi ruang lingkup yang luar biasa. Tuhan dan hantu dengan daya melukai atau mengganggunya, sebagaimana halnya perlu dipuji dan dipuja karena menguasai
kehidupan rakyat. Di sisi lain secara kontras, Weda penuh aturanaturan dan upacara-upacara ritual dan seremonialnya saja”.[3]
Di dunia inilah, Siddharta yang mempunyai nama keluarga Gautama dan dibelakang hari menjadi Buddha dilahirkan.


RIWAYAT KEHIDUPAN BUDDHA
Fakta sejarah mengenai kehidupan pendiri agama Buddha telah tenggelam dalam banjir dongeng yang muncul sejak awal sejarah agama tersebut. Dari seluruh catatan yang telah ditulis tentang beliau, hanya ada sebagian kecil yang dapat dianggap sebagai kebenaran sejarah, sampai-sampai seorang yang ulama pun seperti Ananda Coomaraswamy percaya bahwa Buddha bukanlah seorang manusia melainkan suatu mitos Dewa Matahari.
“Pertimbangan-pertimbangan ini”, tulisnya, “membangkitkan pertanyaan apakah ‘kehidupan’ dan ‘penakluk kematian’ dan ‘Guru dari dewa dan manusia’ yang menyatakan bahwa ia dilahirkan dan diturunkan di dunia-Brahma, dan yang turun dari langit serta masuk dalam rahim dan lahir dari Maha Maya dapat dianggap sebagai fakta sejarah ataukah sekedar suatu mitologi di mana sifat dan tindakan dewa Weda yakni Dewa Agni serta Dewa Indra yang kurang lebihnya telah bercampur dengan jelas di dalamnya”.[4]
Keraguan yang sama diungkapkan dalam sejarah Yesus Kristus dan Lao Tzu. Jika mereka menggarisbawahi kesulitan tugas cendekiawan yang ingin mengungkapkan fakta sejarah tentang Buddha, Lao Tzu, dan Yesus karena kumpulan cerita dongeng yang ada di sekelilingnya, namun untuk menganggap hal itu sepenuhnya sebagai dongeng adalah sikap yang berlebihan diambil oleh cendikiawan.
Siddharta Gautama yang kelak menjadi Buddha dilahirkan pada tahun 563 sM di tanah Lumbini dekat Kapilavastu. Ayahnya Suddhodana adalah seorang raja dari marga Sakya yang negerinya terletak di sudut Selatan Nepal dengan Kapilavastu sebagai ibu kotanya.[5]
Ibunya Maya meninggal dunia ketika dia berumur tujuh hari dan anak itu dibesarkan oleh saudara perempuan ibunya, yakni Pajapati. Dalam Sutta Nipata, kita temukan juru ramal Asista yang datang ke istana Suddhodana yang haus akan Dharma yang sejati. Kita membaca tentang betapa dia mengenal tanda-tanda pribadi pada dirinya sebagai Buddha dan meramalkan kebesaran anak itu di masa datang. Dia menangis karena berfikir bahwa dia sendiri sudah tidak ada lagi sampai saat yang akan tiba itu dan mendengarkan Kitab ajaran yang baru.
Ayahnya cemas, sehingga dia harus tidak tahu tentang gejolak dunia. Dia dikelilingi dengan segala macam kecantikan dan kemewahan. Namun Siddharta tidaklah seperti anak-anak muda yang lain. Dia tidak ingin bebas riang gembira atau menyukai olah raga berkelahi dan wanita. Ayahnya telah mengawani dengan sepupunya yang cantik, yakni Yasodhara , Siddharta mencintai istrinya tetapi dia pun tak sanggup mengobati kegelisahan hatinya.[6]
Dia merasa sebagai seorang tawanan dalam istana serta tamantaman kemewahan yang didirikan ayahnya. Dia meneguhkan niatnya untuk mengadakan perjalanan guna melihat dunia nyata. Kita baca dalam kitab-kitab suci bahwa bagaimana dia pergi dengan Channa, sais keretanya, dan melihat berturut-turut seorang tua renta seorang yang sakit dan meninggal dunia. Ia merasa sangat tergoncang melihat penderitaan dan kematian manusia. Kemudian dia melihat seorang pertapa berkepala gundul dengan jubah kuning sudah tua dan pemandangan atas orang itu mengilhami keinginan untuk mencari kedamaian hidup keagamaan, dan ketentraman serta penyembuhan atas penderitaan kemanusian. Di malam yang larut dia mengucapkan selamat tinggal kepada isterinya yang sedang tidur dengan bayinya dan meninggalkan istananya. Di tepi hutan dia mengenakan jubah pendeta dan memulai karirnya sebagai seorang pencari kebenaran. Ini adalah penolakkan keduniawan yang besar.
Dia mengembara di hutan dari satu guru ke lain guru, mempelajari segala hal yang diajarkan kepadanya, tetapi tidak menemukan kepuasan. Berikutnya dia mulai berpuasa berturut-turut, dengan keras menjalankan latihan meditasi dan membebani dirinya dengan cobaan-cobaan yang dahsyat, dengan harapan bahwa dengan cara ini dia akan menemukan kebenaran. Ini usaha yang besar, meskipun seringkali dia di ambang maut, tetapi tidak menemukan sekalipun dari gelombang kehidupan ini. Karena itu, dia berkesimpulan bahwa hidup bertapa bukanlah jalan ke arah penerangan. Dia memutuskan untuk makan minum lagi, sehingga lima pertapa yang mengikuti dirinya, akhirnya pun meninggalkannya. Akhirnya dia duduk bersila dengan gaya yang disebut bunga teratai di bawah pohon yang yang suci dengan penuh harapan memperoleh penerangan. Cerita mengisahkan kepada kita bahwa pada saat krisis Siddharta diganggu oleh Mara, penggoda yang mencoba dengan sia-sia dengan segala bentuk tema dan godaan yang menggoncangkan. Dia teguh dalam meditasi dan akhirnya pintu hijab pun terangkat di mata beliau, dan cahaya yang membahagiakan meliputi beliau. Ini adalah penerangan yang besar, dan Siddharta Gautama telah mencapai bodhi atau pemancar cahaya dan menjadi Buddha atau seorang yang diterangi.[7]
Selama tujuh hari atau lebih beliau tinggal di sana, Mara si setan mencobanya lagi. Cobaan ini agar dia menerima sekaligus menggenapkan atas pembebasan dirinya sendiri ketika itu juga dengan kematiannya untuk langsung ke Nirwana. Ini cobaan yang paling rumit. Fikiran bahwa dia mengumumkan ajarannya, maka manusia tidak akan menerimanya, dan dia hanya akan kehilangan ketentraman dirinya ini juga menakutkannya dan agar berbalik lagi. Tetapi kasih sayang dalam kalbu Buddha membangunkannya demi kebutuhan manusia yang abadi, dia merasa bahwa perasaaan pribadinya yang mendalam untuk mengasihi dan menyayangi serta menyuruh dia untuk mengabdi kepada sesama umatNya. Karena itu, Sang Buddha memutuskan untuk terjun ke masyarakat dan mengumumkan kepada dunia jalan ke arah kedamaian dan hidup abadi.
Orang-orang pertama yang kepada siapa dia memutuskan untuk menyam-paikan risalahnya, adalah lima pertapa yang dulu telah meninggalkannya saat dia menghentikan hidup bertapa. Beliau menemukan mereka di Varanasi (Banares), dan di sana di Taman Menjangan, beliau mengajarkan khotbah pertama mengenai ‘Meletak-kan Diri dalam Gerak Roda Kebenaran’. Beliau mengajarkan mereka Jalan Tengah, Empat Kebenaran Mulia, dan Delapan Segi Jalan ke Arah Keselamatan. Mereka menjadi murid-muridnya yang pertama dan Arahant (Wali yang sempurna).[8]
 Jumlah pengikutnya bertambah dengan cepat, dan beliau mengutus mereka ke dunia dengan penuh kasih sayang kepada sesama manusia untuk mengumum-kan Dharma (atau Dhamma bahasa Pali), yakni Keimanan Sejati atau Hukum demi keselamatan banyak orang. Buddha sendiri pergi Uruvella. Di perjalanan beliau menemukan sekelompok orang-orang muda yang sedang berdarmawisata dengan isteri mereka . Salah seorang dari mereka membawa selirnya dan ternyata wanita simpanannya minggat bersama harta miliknya. Si orang muda itu bertanya kepada Sang Buddha kalau-kalau beliau melihat wanita itu. “Coba kau fikirkan wahai anak muda” tanya Sang Buddha, “manakah yang lebih baik bagi dirimu, mengejar seorang wanita atau mencintai Dirimu sendiri?”. Dalam perjalanan ini, beliau dapat merebut hati orangorang muda tersebut dari nafsu rendah ke jalan keagamaan dan kemuliaan. Di Uruvela, Sang Buddha bertemu dengan sekolom-pok penyembah api, dan beliau mengajarkan kepada mereka khotbah apinya yang termasyur. Mereka juga bertobat dan menjadi murid-muridnya.
Di Rajagraha, Sang Buddha menyadarkan Raja Humsara dan menerima dari raja itu taman yang dikenal sebagai Celah Bambu untuk digunakan jemaahnya sebagai tempat semedhi yang tetap. Kemudian, beliau pergi ke Kapilavastu dan menjumpai ayah, isteri, dan anaknya. Puteranya, Rahula, dan Ibunya, Prajapati, bergabung dalam jemaah . Sang Buddha kurang senang menerima wanita dalam jamaahnya, namun dibujuk untuk berbuat demikian oleh saudara sepupu yang juga muridnya, Ananda Buddhacarita. Riwayat hidup awal dari Buddha ditulis oleh Asvaghosa, berisi banyak peristiwa mujizat yang dilakukan Buddha dan juga perjalanan ke langit untuk mengajarkan Dharma kepada roh-roh dari mereka yang sudah tiada.
Demikianlah Sang Buddha selama empat puluh tahun melanjutkan kelana-nya dari satu tempat ke tempat lain untuk mengajarkan Dharma dan Jalan kedamaian abadi dan hidup kekal. Akhirnya, datanglah saat bagi beliau untuk meninggalkan badan jasmaninya. Salah satu cerita tentang hari-hari terakhir Sang Buddha diriwayatkan dalam Mahaparinibhana Sutta dari Digha Nikaya. Beliau mengatakan kepada para pengikutnya untuk membuat “Diri sendiri sebagai tempat mengungsi, dan pengungsian Hukum Abadi mereka”. Kata-kata terakhir-nya, “Dapat rusaklah segala perkara yang berpasangan; bekerjalah dalam kesung-guhan demi tujuan Anda”. Gambaran yang utuh dari Buddha telah menyinarkan cahayanya ke jutaan ummat manusia selama duapuluhenam abad dan telah memenangkan penghormatan dan kekaguman tidak hanya bagi para penganut agama Buddha, melainkan juga manusia yang tidak melihat bagaimana caranya untuk bergabung dalam kepercayaan itu.


AJARAN SANG BUDDHA
Sang Buddha sendirι tidak menulis apa-apa. Tak sedikit pun dari ajarannya yang tertulis setidaknya selama empat ratus tahun sesudah wafatnya. Yang lebih buruk lagi, praktik-praktik para pengikutnya dalam menerangkan agama Buddha telah menyisipkan kata-kata dan komentar sendiri dari ucapan Guru Besar itu. Karena itu mustahil memisahkan kata-kata asli dari Buddha dengan segolongan besar kata-kata dan ceramah-ceramah yang tersiar yang telah dinisbahkan kepadanya dalam kitab-kitab suci agama Buddha. Cendikiawan Buddha terkenal, Chirstmas Humpreys menulis:
“Karena itu tidaklah kita mengetahui apa yang diajarkan Buddha lebih dari apa yang diajarkan Yesus, dan saat ini sedikitnya ada empat aliran dan masing-masing ada pembagian lagi yang menyatakan bahwa pandangan mereka sendiri-lah yang mencerminkan apakah agama Buddha”.[9]
Nyonya Rhys Davids mengakui bahwa kitab suci agama Buddha yang pertama adalah sesuatu seperti “kritisisme lebih tinggi” dan berdasarkan penemuannya, suatu usaha akan kita paparkan di sini untuk menyajikan risalah asli dari Sang Buddha.
 Sang Buddha adalah Buddha, sebab dia Buddha Yang Sadar, Yang Diterangi, Yang Waspada” Kebenaran yang tertinggi telah diwahyukan kepadanya. Siddharta Gautama bukanlah Buddha yang pertama. Beliau sendiri berkata telah banyak Buddha atau Guru Kebenaran yang mendapat penerangan penuh sebelum beliau, dan banyak sekali yang akan datang sesudah beliau.
Intisari ajaran Buddha adalah cinta kasih yang terdapat dalam khotbahnya “Meletakkan diri dalam Gerak Roda Kebenaran”. Beliau mengajarkan bahwa mereka yang ingin memasuki hidup keagaman harus mencegah dua ekstrimitas yang mengumbar nafsu pribadi, hidup menyiksa diri, dan mengikuti jalan tengah. Beliau mengungkapkan Empat Kebenaran Mulia: (1) kebenaran pertama, yakni tentang adanya penderitaan dan kesusahan di dunia ini, (2) kebenaran kedua menyatakan bahwa sebab dari penderitaan dan kesusahan itu adalah nafsu pribadi, (3) kebenaran ketiga menjamin bahwa nafsu pribadi dan kesusahan dapat dibinasakan, (4) kebenaran keempat menunjukkan jalan yang menuntut ke arah menghilangkan kesusahan dan ketidakbahagian. Sang Buddha memberikan gambaran yang mengagumkan dari Jalan Bersegi Delapan yang mendorong ke arah akan diakhirnya penderitaaan, dan ketidakbahagian. Yaitu pandangan yang benar, gagasan yang yang benar, bicara yang benar, tindakan yang benar, hidup yang benar, usaha yang benar, dan renungan yang benar. Pandangan yang benar berarti pengetahuan atau empat kebenaran mulia. Tetapi sepanjang kebenaran itu hanya dikenal oleh akal fikiran saja, maka kebenaran itu tidak punya daya kehidupan. Karena itu harus diketemukan dan dibuktikan oleh setiap orang dikedalaman hati nuraninya sendiri. Karena itu, langkah pertama adalah menimbulkan kesadaran suatu panggilan untuk meninggalkan cara di mana kita telah kehilangan kebenaran dan nasib kita. Aspirasi yang benar adalah menolak hawa nafsu rendah, tidak boleh membenci atau menyakiti sesama makhluk. Bicara yang benar, menyuruh kita agar menghentikan dusta, fitnah, caci maki, katakata kasar, dan omong kosong. Tindakan yang benar, berarti menghindari pencabutan jiwa atau mengambil apa yang tidak diberikan atau dari akibat-akibat nafsu sex. Hidup yang benar, berarti menghentikan setiap cara hidup yang terlarang, misalnya menjadi pedagang senjata, penjual budak, mencari nama atau penjual racun. Usaha yang benar, terdiri dari menahan timbulnya nafsu jahat ,membinasakan nafsu rendah yang timbul dalam mendorong nafsu baik dan menyempurnakannya bagi mereka yang telah bisa mewujudkannya. Fikiran yang benar, adalah mencapai penguasaan diri dengan sarana-sarana ilmu pengetahuan, pribadi. Renungan yang benar mengambil bentuk dalam empat macam semedi atau meditasi. Ini adalah akhir dan mahkota dari jalan bersegi delapan. Ini adalah bagian penting dari kehidupan tertinggi disaat nafsu kejahilan dan egoisme menghilang, dan pencerahan serta kesucian menggantikannya. Ini adalah renu-ngan penuh kedamaian dan kebahagian yang mendalam, menyertai bersatunya pribadi sendiri dengan Pribadi Universal.[10]
Metode pengajaran agama Buddha dengan baik sekali dilukiskan oleh ‘Perumpamaan Biji Mustard’. Kisah Gotami, seorang wanita tua miskin, telah kehilangan putra tunggalnya. Penuh kedukaan yang tak terhingga dia datang kepada Sang Buddha dan memohon kepadanya agar menghidupkan puteranya kembali. Buddha setuju untuk berbuat demikian, asal wanita itu mau mengambil beberapa biji mustard dari satu rumah yang belum mengalami kematian. Wanita itu pergi dari rumah ke rumah, tetapi kemana pun dia pergi selalu diberitahukan bahwa tak ada sebuah rumah pun yang tidak pernah mengalami kematian. Dengan cara ini, dia memperoleh pengertian secara simpatik. Wanita itu kembali kepada Sang Buddha, dan tidak lagi meminta agar puteranya dihidupkan kembali, melainkan agar dia diberikan kedamaian dan ketentraman.
Kisah yang mengharukan ini mengajarkan dua hal dari ajaran Buddha yang paling penting. Pertama, segala sesuatu yang ada dalam fenomena dunia selama-nya akan berubah dan sementara. Apa pun yang ada akan berlalu, siapa pun yang dilahirkan akan mati. Setiap makhluk hidup adalah suatu gabungan elemen-elemen, cepat atau lambat akan bercerai berai. Karena itu, suatu penerimaan yang wajar atas kematian adalah bagian yang penting dalam penyesuaian yang sejati kepada kenyataan. Kedua dari ajaran ini adalah menerima secara realistik terhadap kematian, dan pelaksanaan kasih sayang yang tercurah kepada sesama makhluk yang seperti kita sendiri yang akan menjadi sasaran dan kesakitan, serta penderitaan semacam itu.[11]
 Sang Buddha mengajarkan kasih sayang dan simpati yang universal:
“Tidak pernah di dunia ini kebencian dapat diluluhkan dengan kebencian, hal itu hanya dapat diluluhkan dengan kasih sayang – inilah hukum yang abadi” (Dharmmapala 1:5).
“Hendaklah manusia menundukkan kemarahannyα dengan kasih-sayang, hendaklah dia tundukkan kejahatan dengan kebaikan, hendaklah keserakahan dengan kedermawanan, kebohongan dengan kebenaran.”[12]
Hanya sedikit tentang apa yang kita sebut dogmα dalam ajaran agama Buddha. Dengan keluasan pandangan yang jarang pada masa itu, dan tidak jamak pula di zaman kita, dia menolak kritik yang ngotot. Sifat tidak toleran dianggap sebagai musuh agama. Suatu peristiwa beliau masuk dalam balai pertemuan di Ambalatthika dan mendapatkan beberapa muridnya sedang marahmarah kepada seorang Brahman yang telah menuduh Buddha sebagai seorang yang tidak jujur dan menemukan cacat dalam jemaat yang didirikannya. “Saudara-saudara”, kata Buddha, “bila orang lain berbicara menentang saya atau ajaran agama saya, atau melawan jemaat saya, tidak ada alasan kalian untuk marah atau tidak senang kepada mereka. Jika Anda berbuat demikian, tidak saja Anda tidak akan mampu menimbang lagi apakah yang dikatakannya itu benar ataukah tidak tepat”. Beliau melarang kritik yang tidak jujur terhadap kepercayaan lain. Tidak ada satu peristiwa pun di mana Buddha itu terbit amarahnya, tidak ada satu peristiwa pun di mana kata yang tidak lemah lembut meluncur dari lisannya. Beliau memiliki toleransi yang sangat luas terhadap sesama manusia.
Sang Buddha tidak diragukan lagi adalah pembaharu masyarakat yang terbesar di India. Hasil yang paling dapat dicatat adalah penghapusan sistem kasta. Dia mengatakan bahwa seseorang Brahmana tidak karena dilahirkan oleh orang tua Brahmana sebagaimana diajarkan oleh agama Hindu, tidak pula karena dia menjalankan upacara-upacara dan melakukan bentuk-bentuk luar dari kasta Brahmana, tetapi dia adalah seorang Brahmana karena akhlak dan pengabdiannya kepada kebenaran serta kehidupan.
“Seorang bukanlah Brahmana karena rambutnya yang dicukur ataupun keturunan atau kastanya, dalam pribadi yang terdapat Kebenaran dan Hukum dia adalah suci, dia adalah seorang Brahmana”. (Dharmmapada 29:33).
 Buddha tidak percaya kepada apa yang disebut juru selamat dan penebusan dosa. Beliau mengajarkan bahwa manusia itu secara pribadi harus bertanggung jawab atas tindak tanduknya sendiri. Kebahagiaan atau kesusahannya, dosa atau kesuciannya adalah sebagai akibat tingkah lakunya sendiri. Tak seorang pun dapat menyelamatkan diri dari dosanya.
“Kejahatan itu hanya dilakukan oleh dirinya sendiri, dengan dirinya sendiri seorang itu ternoda, karena dirinya sendiri sajalah kejahatan itu diperbuat manusia, dengan diri sendiri sajalah seseorang itu disucikan. Kesucian atau pun kekotoran tergantung kepada pribadinya sendiri. Tak seorang pun dapat mensucikan orang lain’. (Dharmmapada 12:165).
 Pendeknya kita menuai apa yang kita tanam, baik di dunia ini maupun di alam nanti. Orang baik akan ke sorga dan si jahat ke neraka: “Para pahlawan yang tidak mengenal kekerasan dan selalu mengendalikan dirinya untuk menuju Kediaman Abadi, di mana di tempat itu seseorang bebas dari kedukaan.” (Dharmmapada 17:225).
 ‘‘Bagaikan satu kota berbenteng yang terletak di tanah perbatasan dan terjaga baik di dalam mau pun di luarnya, hendaklah seseorang itu mengendalikan dirinya sungguh-sungguh dan jangan dia lewatkan sedikit pun tak terjaga, karena bagi mereka yang terlewat sedetik saja akan jatuh ke dalam kesusahan, seolah-olah mereka ditetapkan ke neraka.” (Dharmmapada 22:313).
 Buddha menolak terlibat dalam pertentangan metafisik yang meresahkan dan tidak terarah. Banyak ajaran yang sekarang dianggap bagian penting agama Buddha, tidaklah merupakan bagian ajaran yang asli dari Buddha. Nyonya Rhys Dacids, H.J. Jennings dan Ananda Coosmaraswamy sepakat bahwa ajaran reinkarnasi dari agama Hindu,
“penolakkan diri” (Anatta) dan kependetaan itu bukanlah termasuk asli agama Buddha. Tidak diragukan lagi tentang kepercayaan Buddha terhadap keabdian jiwa. Waktu beliau berbicara tentang penghancuran “diri sendiri”, itu berarti penghancuran nafsu rendah. Nafsu rendah inilah yang dinyatakan oleh Buddha sebagai tidak permanen dan tidak nyata. Beliau yakin atas kenyataan dan keabadian dari nafsu yang lebih tinggi.
“Jika seseorang mengetahui bahwa pribadinya itu berharga, dia harus selalu menjaga dan mengawasinya dengan baik-baik.” (Dharmmapada 12:157).
“Melalui diri sendiri seseorang harus mengajar Pribadi, seseorang harus mengendalikan diri dengan Pribadi; jadi menjadi Bhikku itu dijaga oleh Pribadi dan bukan fikiran, inilah yang akan berjalan ke arah kebahagian.” (Dharmmapada 25:379)
Tidak satu pun yang lebih disalahfahami selain sikap Buddha kepada Tuhan. Seringkali dikatakan bahwa Buddha itu tinggal diam bilamana dia ditanya tentang Tuhan, diamnya itu ditafsirkan sebagai penolakkan atas adanya Tuhan. Namun Ny. Rhys Davids dan Sir Francis Younghusband, kedua-duanya menunjukkan bahwa Buddha itu membawakan ajaran Upanishad. Dia tidak asing lagi dengan fikiran-fikiran dan istilah-istilah keagamaan. Ketika Upanishad menggunakan kata-kata “Pribadi” seringkali digunakan dalam pengertian Pribadi Semesta atau Tuhan, prinsip metafisik dari kehadiran – inilah Brahman, Pribadi yang tersembunyi dalam-dalam di segala makhluk.” Sang Buddha jelas-jelas menggunakan kata Pribadi dengan pengertian yang sama ketika beliau berkata: “Aku berlindung kepada Sang Pribadi” (Digya Nikaya 2:120), dan dalam kata-kata berikut:
“Pribadi adalah Tuhan itu sendiri, apakah ada Tuhan yang lebih tinggi dari itu? Bila seseorang menguasai baik-baik diri pribadinya, maka dia akan menemukan Satu Tuhan yang sukar didapat.” (Dharmmapada, 12: 159)
“Pribadi adalah Tuhan diri pribadi, Pribadi adalah tujuan diri pribadi; karena itu kendalikan dirimu bagaikan seorang pedagang yang mengendalikan seekor keturunan yang baik”. (ibid, 25:380)
Buddha seringkali menunjukkan Dharma (Dhamma dalam bahasa Pali), keimanan yang sejati sebagai Brahmacariyam atau jalan menuju Brahman, kehendak Tuhan yang kekal. Dalam suatu peristiwa, beliau menunjukkan bahwa bila seseorang itu mengikuti hidup yang mulia dan suci, “dengan kalbu penuh kasih sayang, luas pandangan, bertumbuh menjadi besar dan selalu terukur”, orang semacam itu mendekati persatuan dengan Brahman dan bahwa “dia sesudah kematiannya dan ketika tubuh jasmaninya bercerai berai akan menjadi satu dengan Brahman yang senantiasa sama” (Tevijja Sutta). Brahman tentulah nama yang diberikan dalam Upanishad untuk Satu Tuhan yang Sejati. Ananda Coomaraswamy menulis:
“Hukum atau Dhamma selalu menjadi suatu nomen Dei, dan dalam agama Buddha itu sinonim dengan Brahman.”[13]
Dan ini pula yang ditulis Sir Francis Younghusband tentang masalah tersebut: “Walaupun demikian, sikapnya tentang menuju ke idea Tuhan seringkali disalahtafsirkan. Karena itu ia berusaha memperhalus dan mempertajam pengertian Tuhan … ia meletakkan seorang ateis dan Buddhis sebagai dentingan halus suatu renungan yang tidak penting. Tetapi hal ini mungkin disebabkan Buddha terlalu besar, tidak terlalu kecil, idea tentang Tuhan diperhalus untuk menekankan pada diri sendiri agar memperoleh ketajaman pengertian tentang kedewataan. Adalah sesuatu yang terlalu besar untuk dinyatakan dalam kata-kata. Siapa, misalnya, yang dapat mendefinisikan cinta? Buddha tidak memperkirakan untuk mendefinisikan Tuhan, tetapi baik beliau dan muridnya telah jenuh dengan konsep Kekuatan dibalik mata yang melihat, dan telingga yang mendengar, dan semua kejadian di alam.”[14]
Jadi tujuan agama Buddha itu seperti semua agama lainnya adalah Nirwana (bahasa Pali, Nibbhana), yang dalam risalah asli dari Sang Buddha berarti kembalinya roh ke haribaan Tuhan.


SEJARAH AGAMΑ BUDDHA
Sungguh disayangkan bahwa kepemimpinan dan tafsir popular agama Buddha itu jatuh ke tangan seorang yang bernama Sariputra. Dia sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh Edward Conze cenderung sebagai seorang yang skeptis. Dia sungguh-sungguh boleh disebut Santo Paulusnya agama Buddha. Dia mencap risalah-risalah Sang Buddha sebagai bikinannya sendiri dan menafsirkannya sekehendak hatinya. Dia mengabaikan banyak perkara dan melebih-lebihi perkara lain dalam ajaran Buddha. Dengan mengutip kata-kata Edward Conze:
“Tarikan Sariputra ke dalam ajaran agama Buddha tidak saja dalam melatih kependetaan untuk jangka waktu yang panjang, melainkan juga menentukan aspek-aspek mana dari ajaran Buddha yang harus ditekankan dan mana yang harus disingkirkan ke bawah tanah.”[15]
Hikmah lama atau aliran Hinayana dalam agama Buddha memakai penafsiran Sariputra dan juga skeptisismenya. Sudah umum dipercaya bahwa segera setelah wafatnya Buddha, suatu konsili Buddha telah diadakan di Rajagaha untuk menetapkan isi dari isi Tripitaka atau Tiga Keranjang Hukum. Konsili kedua, dikatakan telah dilangsungkan di Vasali sekitar seratus tahun kemudian untuk membereskan perbedaan-perbedaan tertentu yang telah timbul dalam jemaat tersebut. Namun kebanyakan cendekiawan meragukan riwayat dari konsili ini.
Sekitar dua ratus tahun setelah wafatnya Sang Buddha, timbullah perpecahan yang pertama di antara ummat Buddha. Para pengikut apa yang disebut aliran Hikmah Lama pecah dalam dua sekte, Theravadi dan Sarvastivadin. Kaum Theravadi mendapat dukungan di wilayah Timur India dan sekarang mereka menguasai Ceylon, Burma, dan Thailand. Kitab suci mereka Tripitaka adalah dalam bahasa Pali.[16] Sarvastivadin berkembang di Barat dengan Mathura, Gandhara (Lembah Peshawar) sebagai pusatnya. Sekte ini menjadi padam sekitar 1100, namun kitab sucinya tetap dapat diperoleh dalam bahasa Sanskrit.[17]
Sekitar tahun 240 SM, kita saksikan bangkitnya Mahayana Buddha, sebagai reaksi terhadap Theravada yang direndahkan oleh kaum Mahayana dengan nama Hinayana.
Konsili ketiga dari agama Buddha diadakan di Pataliputra dalam abad ketiga sebelum masehi. Ini adalah konferensi sefihak dari golongan Hinayana dan tujuannya adalah mengutuk gejalagejala ‘murtad’ sekte Mahayana. Dinyatakan bahwa konsili ini diadakan oleh Asoka, salah satu raja mulia yang banyak jasanya kepada agama Buddha.
Peristiwa penting selanjutnya dalam sejarah kaum Buddha adalah masuknya Menander (Milinda), seorang raja keturunan dinasti Bactria asal Yunani. Suatu buku kanonik yang penting dari Buddha Hinayana berjudul Milinda Panha (Pertanyaan–pertanyaan Raja Milinda) ditulis oleh filsuf Buddha terkemuka Nagasena sebagai tanggapan atas pertanyaan-pertanyaan tertentu yang diajukan oleh Raja Menander. Kitab ini merupakan pembelaan aliran Hinayana yang disusun untuk menenangkan fikiran yang bergejolak saat itu dari elemen-elemen baru yang merusak serta menyusup ke dalam agama Buddha.
Dengan bangkitnya Saka dalam tampuk kekuasaan di India, maka timbul kesenjangan dalam pengetahuan kita tentang sejarah Buddha. Namun dalam abad pertama, Saka ditaklukkan oleh suku bangsa lain yang berasal dari Asia Tengah, Yueh-Chi atau Kushans. Raja terbesar dari dinasti ini, Kaniksha (memerintah 120-162 ) menjadi Buddha, dan sebagaimana halnya dengan Asoka serta Menander, dia memberi dukungan yang kuat kepada agamanya yang baru. Di sekitar waktu inilah agama Buddha mengalami suatu rangkaian perubahan yang membuatnya sangat berbeda dengan ajaran asli Sang Buddha. Agama ini jatuh di bawah bermacammacam pengaruh, seperti Hellenisme, Paganisme dari Asia Tengah dan agama Brahma. Sang Buddha dipertuhankan dan patungnya menjadi obyek sembahyang keagamaan. Beberapa waktu sebelum ini, patung Buddha yang pertama telah dibuat orang sebagai dukungan raja Kaniksha, seorang seniman besar dari aliran Gandhara. Di antara para penulis besar periode ini, dapat disebutkan Asvaghosa pengarang Buddacarita dan Mayayana Sradhopada (Kebangkitan Iman). Masa ini juga memperlihatkan bangkitnya dua Universitas Buddha yang terkenal, yakni Universitas Taxila dan Universitas Nalanda di Magadha (Bihar).
Seorang filsuf besar, Nagarjuna, pendiri aliran Madhyamika dalam agama Buddha dan pengarang Mahaprajna Paramita Shastra tergolong dari Universitas Nalanda. Tamu-tamu terkemuka dari Tiongkok, Hiuen-Tsian dan I-Tsing belajar bertahun-tahun di univeristas ini dan menyatakan kekagumannya melalui tulisan mereka.
Kanishka meniru cara Ashoka dengan memanggil Konsili Buddha berikutnya, yakni keempat. Konsili ini tidak hanya memunculkan Sarvastivadin, tetapi dimaksudkan pula untuk menempatkan keharmonisan dengan tumbuhnya pengajaran dari dua pendidikan utama tersebut.
Agama Buddha selanjutnya tumbuh dan mempunyai peran besar dalam perkembangan intelektual dan moral pada masa kejayaan Gupta. Pahatan dan lukisan terkenal di gua Ajanta dan Ellora terdapat pada abad ini. Dengan kedatangan Huns dan Gujars di India pada abad keenam, biara dan tempat belajar mengalami kerusakan yang menyedihkan. Tetapi agama Buddha tumbuh kembali dan berjaya pada kekuasaan raja Harsha dan abad Palas. Namun setelah itu, agama Buddha mulai menunjukkan kemunduran. Kemunduran agama Buddha berkaitan dengan bangkitnya militan Hindu, suatu awal kejadian dimulai dengan menebang pohon suci di Gaya dan membakar habis biara Buddha oleh gerombolan dari Bengal dan Bihar. Pengajaran agama Hindu oleh filsuf besar Shankara dari Vedanta dan juga pemikiran besar lainnya telah menjatuhkan agama Buddha. Sekitar abad ketujuh, seluruh agama Buddha telah tiada di tanah kelahirannya.
            Jauh sebelum kejatuhannya di India, agama Buddha telah berkembang dan mengakar di banyak negara di luar India. Ia telah tersebar di Ceylon pada masa Ashoka. Pada masa itu Ceylon (Sri Lanka), menjadi pusat agama Buddha Theravada. Agama Buddha mencapai Burma pada abad kelima dan Thailand abad kedelapan, dan di kedua negeri ini sampai sekarang tetap setia pada keimanannya. Agama Buddha mencapai China melalui Asia Tengah (sekitar 50 ) dan dari China kemudian tersebar ke Korea (372 ) dan Jepang (552 ). Agama Buddha yang masuk ke Chi
          ကျေးဇူးပြုပြီး သူ့ကိုလွှတ်ပေးပါ   

ကျမကတော့ သူ လွတ်မြောက်လာတာကို စောင့်နေမယ်။ ကျမ ဘဝမှာ အဖေပြီးရင် အလေးစားရဆုံးက သူပါ၊ အချစ်ရဆုံးနဲ့ ယုံကြည်ရဆုံးလည်း ဖြစ်ပါတယ်

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          Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, AAA moonstone, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant by silverstudio2014   

31.51 USD

Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, Amethyst Pandant, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant

Item Code : AGPA-31744-02

Weight (Approx) : 4.87 Grams

Metal : Solid 925 Sterling Silver

Gemstone : Blue Rainbow Moonstone

Stone Shape : Mix

Stone Size (Approx) : Free

Stone Color : Blue

Pandant Size: 50 x 16
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Rainbow Moonstone Gemstone :-

Moonstone is a very personal stone. It is a reflection of the person who owns it. It does not add or detract, only shows how it is. This is why the moonstone is said to perceive that which "is". Moonstone is an excellent stone to use in meditation to understand oneself. Placing it in the moonlight of a moon reaching its fullness, not a full or waning moon, can revitalize it. This is a particularly good gemstone for women. It is a good stone for young women or teenagers.

Healing properties of Moonstone
Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature's rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman's stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

Sources of moonstone
There are two moonstones. Adularia moonstone is an almost transparent pale gray or silvery white or blue shimmer. It is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Burma, India and Madagascar. Albie moonstone is in the feldspar group. It is semitransparent with a pale, shimmering reflection. It may be a little dull. It comes mainly from Canada.
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