Kinross launches $500m unsecured debt offering to repay 2020 term loan   
Major Canadian miner Kinross Gold has launched a $500-million unsecured ten-year debt offering which it will use, in combination with cash on hand, to repay its $500-million term loan due in 2020. Toronto-based Kinross, which has mines and projects in the US, Brazil, Russia, Mauritania, Chile and Ghana, on Wednesday said the debt offering comprises 4.5% senior notes due in 2027.
          Marruecos destruye la cultura y la memoria saharaui. Ponencia de Bahia Awah sobre “culturicidio” de la ocupación marroquí en el Sahara Occidental   
Fuente: Contramutis / 29 de junio de 2017
AL.- Marruecos lleva a cabo en el Sáhara Occidental desde 1976, cuando invadió el territorio, un proceso de destrucción de la cultura y la memoria saharaui,  según denunció el antropólogo y escritor  Bahia MH Awah en el curso de verano “Miradas saharauis”, de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos.
El escritor saharaui dijo que nos encontramos ante un “culturicidio”,  un genocidio cultural con el que se pretende eliminar el patrimonio material e inmaterial saharaui: “Desde que Marruecos ocupó la excolonia española se han cometido barbaridades contra la cultura saharaui”, para que desaparezca la identidad de un pueblo, sus valores y rasgos históricos, transmitidos por generaciones de saharauis.
Explicó que la cultura saharaui no es marroquí, es afro árabe influida por un siglo de convivencia con la española. Así, la vestimenta, salvo el turbante, es africana: “La darrá de los hombres  y la melfa de las mujeres no son árabes, son africanas; igual que nuestra música, la danza, el tambor, los cuentos, la narrativa; estos ingrediente culturales antropológicos definen nuestra cultura, son la identidad de una sociedad hasaní”.
En este ataque a la cultura saharaui se encuentra la lengua de los saharauis, el hasanía -un híbrido de las africanas zenaga o senhaya, wólof y el árabe- “diferente totalmente de la marroquí, que se impone a los niños en los colegios, donde se obliga a cantar el himno nacional marroquí y decir palabras o giros que en hasanía tienen otro significado, hasta el punto de que no pueden pronunciarse delante de los padres o personas mayores”. El hasanía  se habla en el Sáhara Occidental y en Mauritania.
Las autoridades marroquíes en su lucha contra el hasania, en opinión de Bahia Awah,  no construyeron universidades en el Sáhara Occidental y de esta forma los jóvenes saharauis tienen que ir al norte de Marruecos, donde están “en una jungla” en la que domina la legua marroquí y hay drogas, para que se desvinculen y deshacer su  cultura.
Otros aspectos sometidos a esta “violación cultural” son las  tradiciones y costumbres de la sociedad saharaui, entre las que el profesor Awah citó el bautizo, con sus protocolos particulares, o la forma de construir los nombres y apellidos: “No se pueden utilizar determinados nombres,  como Lala, que para los marroquíes es una princesa o una mujer, Mulay, el príncipe, o Sidi, mi amo, mientras que en el Sáhara Occidental este nombre es tan corriente como Antonio en España”.
Marruecos, afirmó,  ha destruido “la nomenclatura de construcción de los apellidos saharauis”: “Nosotros decimos Mohamed Uld Brahim y ellos el nexo Uld lo eliminan e imponen un apellido que puede ser el nombre de un barril, de una roca, de una región…”. Citó el caso de  Sukeina Mint Yedehlu Uld Esid, una presa desaparecida durante 13 años  que ahora se llama Sukeina El Idrisi, con un apellido desvinculado de  la familia.
Un ejemplo significativo de ataque a los símbolos de la identidad nacional saharaui fue la prohibición, en marzo de 2013,  de instalar jaimas en las ciudades, suburbios o  playas, o la campaña de eliminación de los santuarios o puntos de culto saharauis conocidos como “lemsid”, una pequeña extensión de arena rodeada de piedras donde acuden los saharauis a orar y debatir, que también se utiliza como un espacio donde los niños y niñas aprenden a leer, escribir y recitar versículos del Corán,  “una humilde mezquita al aire libre, abierta a todos”.
Bahia MH Awah dijo que la persecución cultural alcanzó también al español, pero que después de 42 años Marruecos ha empezado a cambiar de estrategia para apoderase de la segunda lengua de los saharauis. Para ello han abierto una biblioteca en El Aaiún y como dijo en la televisión local Sidi Mohamed Falah, un saharaui “traidor” que trabaja para Marruecos, firmar con el Instituto Cervantes es conseguir un reconocimiento de la marroquinidad del Sáhara Occidental.
En esta misma línea de cambio de estrategia se incluye la reciente traducción al hasanía de “El principito”, de Antoine de Saint-Exupery, edición considerada por los saharauis como una labor de sabotaje cultural que intenta presentar el hasanía como un idioma marroquí, igual que están haciendo con los cuentos saharauis, su narrativa oral, diciendo que forma parte “del gran mosaico cultural de Marruecos”.
Como casos relevantes de destrucción del Patrimonio material histórico saharaui, Bahia Awah citó los restos de la mezquita de Smara, en la que no se invierte y que se cae piedra a piedra, o los edificios de la época colonial española: el fuerte de Dajla, un símbolo histórico colonial, que fue derruido en 2009 pese a una campaña internacional para impedirlo.
Pretendieron hacer lo mismo con la iglesia Nuestra Señora del Carmen, también en Dajla (antigua Villa Cisneros), de la que llegaron a derruir una pequeña parte, pero Mohamed Fadel Semlali entró con su silla de ruedas y lo frenó: “Ahora este activista protege el patrimonio, pero no a través del Gobierno español ni de organizaciones españolas, lo hace con la intervención del Vaticano”. También reseñó la destrucción y el expolio de rocas con grabados rupestres del paleolítico y neolítico, y la eliminación de la acacia saharaui.

          World: Global Weather Hazards Summary, June 30 - July 6, 2017   
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda, World

Heavy rainfall continues over Central America

Africa Weather Hazards

  1. Below-average rainfall since mid-May has led to abnormal dryness across eastern Uganda and southwestern Kenya. Moisture deficits are likely to negatively impact cropping and Pastoral activities.

           Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: Variability on seasonal to decadal timescales    
Article Fischer, G. , Romero, E. , Merkel, U. , Donner, B. , Iversen, M. H. , Nowald, N. , Ratmeyer, V. , Ruhland, G. , Klann, M. and Wefer, G. (2016) Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: Variability on seasonal to decadal timescales , Biogeosciences, 13 , pp. 3071-3090 . doi:10.5194/bg-13-3071-2016 , hdl:10013/epic.49790
          France's Macron due in Mali to back Sahel anti-jihad force   
Bamako (AFP) June 30, 2017
French President Emmanuel Macron is due in Mali on Sunday to consolidate Western backing for a regional anti-jihadist force, as France beefs up its counter-terror operations in the area. The so-called "G5 Sahel" countries just south of the Sahara - Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger - have pledged to fight jihadists on their own soil with instability and Islamist attacks on the
          Países que já foram governados por ditadores   

® Alemanha (1933-1945)

® Argélia (1965-1994)

® Argentina (1976-1983)

® Áustria (1933-1938), (1938-1945)

® Bangladesh (1975-1979) , (1982-1990) e (1997)

® Bolívia (1971-1985)

® Brasil (1937-1945) e (1964-1985)

® Burkina Faso (1966-1991)

® Burundi (1966-1993)

® República Centro-Africana (1966-1993) e (2003-2005)

® Chile (1973-1989)

® China (1916-1927 ou 1920-1922)

® Colômbia (1953-1957)

® Cuba (1933-1959) e (1959-presente)

® República do Congo (1968-1992)

® República Democrática do Congo (1965-1997)

® República Dominicana (1889-1899) e (1930-1961)

® El Salvador (1931-1979)

® Equador (1972-1979)

® Espanha (1923-1930) e (1939-1975)

® Etiópia (1974-1991)

® Filipinas (1972-1981)

® França (1799-1814) e (1814-1815)

® Guatemala (1970-1985)

® Guiné (1984-1991)

® Guiné Equatorial (1968-1982)

® Haiti (1957-1990)

® Honduras (1963-1974)

® Indonésia (1967-1998)

® Iraque (1958-1968)

® Itália (1922-1943)

® Japão (1932-1945)

® Libéria (1980-1990)

® Madagáscar (1972-1975)

® Mauritânia (1978-1992) e (2005-2007)

® México (1853-1855) e (1876-1910)

® Nicarágua (1967-1979)

®

          Re: gambia   
Agree with you regarding Gambia,you should also include other Islamic countries in Africa such as Senegal,Mali,Mauritania,Sudan. These are places to be avoided at all costs,they are extremely intolerant of gays,and risk your life,just for a few minutes of fun. No amount of money or any other incentive would ever lure me to visit such barbaric countries.
          Electrical Draughtsman - Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants - Johannesburg, Gauteng   
Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants is seeking an Electrical Draughtsman for a contract based position in *Mauritania, West Africa*....
From Indeed - Tue, 04 Apr 2017 07:16:15 GMT - View all Johannesburg, Gauteng jobs
          Save the Children y la UE ponen en marcha un programa para paliar la crisis alimentaria en Mauritania   

En Mauritania, la sequía que afecta al Sahel desde hace cinco años está causando una crisis alimentarIa que afecta a casi medio millon de personas. La ONG Save the Children junto a la agencia de Ayuda Humanitaria de la Comisión Europea han puesto en marcha un programa para reducir la mortalidad infantil en una región con desnutrición aguda.


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          Comment on Longmire – Robert Taylor and Katee Sackhoff on the modern western by surrlmstr   
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          Henry Raines Show 03/21/10 Hour 2   
Story links: The Petraeus briefing: Biden's embarrassment is not the whole ... Mar 14, 2010 www.mideast.foreignpolicy.com/.../the_petraeus_briefing_biden_s_embarrassment _is_not_the_whole_story - , Final destination Iran?, http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/world-news/final-destination-iran-1.1013151 Guest: Ambassador Edward Peck served as the U.S. Chief of Mission to Iraq in the 1980s and has also served diplomatic functions in Morocco , Algeria , Tunisia , Egypt and Mauritania . In Washington , DC he was the Deputy Director of the Cabinet Task Force on Terrorism at the White House under President Reagan. Since retiring, Ambassador Peck has served as Executive Secretary of the American Academy of Diplomacy, Chairman of Political Tradecraft Programs at the National Foreign Affairs Training Center , and as a lecturer and consultant to businesses, governments and the media in the U.S. and overseas. He is a Woodrow Wilson Visiting Fellow and a Distinguished Visitor at the National War College . Known for his clear delivery and touch of humor, Ambassador Peck brings an insiders view and a critical eye to tensions in the Middle East , steeped in decades of governmental experience. A former paratrooper, he holds a B.S. from UCLA and an MBA from George Washington University . In November 2008, with Eugene Bird, he led a delegation of former US diplomats and American citizens on a 16-day tour of the Middle East to meet with Arab political and religious leaders to discuss the future of American-Arab relations in light of Obama’s upcoming presidency. They traveled to Lebanon , Syria , Jordan , Israel , The West Bank, and Egypt , but were denied entrance to Gaza . This tour was part of an ongoing Council for the National Interest Foundation program to increase Public Diplomacy to the region Http://www.cnifoundation.org/. He discusses U.S. policy and Arab politics in the Middle East; covert intelligence; understanding terrorism; how to use diplomacy even in the conflict between Palestine and Israel; significance of Iraq election and whether or not Democracy can thrive in the region, how and when we can bring our troops home; consequences for Israel's announcement to build new settlements in East Jerusalem.
          Electrical Draughtsman - Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants - Johannesburg, Gauteng   
Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants is seeking an Electrical Draughtsman for a contract based position in *Mauritania, West Africa*....
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          New Approaches to Ethno-Linguistic Maps   

humanswhoreadgrammars:

This post originates from the HWRG-blog. Please note that there are multiple authors of HWRG and that the most updated version of this blogpost can be found here: http://ift.tt/2ubG9BB.
___________________________________________
New Approaches to Ethno-Linguistic Maps

I’m excited to give a guest blog post here at humans who read grammars on new methods in language geography.  I’m a geographer by trade, and I am currently a PhD student at the University of Maryland.  I also work for an environmental nonprofit - Conservation International - doing data science on agriculture and environmental change in East Africa.  Before ending up where I am now, I lived for some time in West Africa and the Philippines.  During my time in both of those linguistically-rich areas, I became quite interested in language geographies and linguistics more generally.  Spurned on by curiosity and my disappointment in available resources, I’ve done some side projects mapping languages and language groups, which I’ll talk about here.

Problems with Current Language Maps

Screen Shot 2017-06-26 at 11.23.48 PM.png
A map of tonal languages from WALS.  Fascinating at a global scale, but unsatisfying if you zoom in to smaller regions.
One major issue with most modern maps of languages is that they often consist of just a single point for each language - this is the approach that WALS and glottolog take.  This works pretty well for global-scale analyses, but simple points are quite uninformative for region scale studies of languages.  Points also have a hard time spatially describing languages that have disjoint distributions, like English, or languages that overlap spatially. See here for a more in-depth discussion of these issues from Humans Who Read Grammars

One reason that most language geographers go for the one-point-per-language approach is that using a simple point is simple, while mapping languages across regions and areas is very difficult.  An expert must decide where exactly one language ends and another begins.  The problem with relying on experts, however, is that no expert has uniform experience across an entire region, and thus will have to rely on other accounts of which language is prevalent where.  This is how, for example, the Murdock Map of African ethno-linguistic groups was created.  As a continental scale map, it is rich and fascinating.  However, looking for closely at specific region, and the map seems to have problems - how did Murdock know exactly the shape of each little wiggle identifying the boundary between two groups?  What about areas where two different groups overlap?  Other issues can arise when trying to distinguish distinct groups when often the on-the-ground reality is that a language may exist as a dialect continuum, something that subjectively drawing polygons does not readily account for.

These maps can have real import when they form the foundation of other analyses. Researchers have examined whether ethnic diversity in developing countries, and in Africa in particular, can hamper economic development and lead to conflict. Scientists disagree, although many analyses use the Murdock map. See some of this research here, here and here. Another study, recently published in Science, looked at Internet penetration in areas where politically excluded ethnic groups live. They found that groups without political power were often marginalized in terms of internet service provision. However, their data for West Africa, which came from the Ethnic Power Relations database, was quite rough: all of southern Mali was one ethnic group labeled “blacks” while the north was labeled as “Tuaregs” or “Arabs”, while there was no data at all for Burkina Faso.  While their findings were important and they did the best that they could with available datasets, a less informed analysis from the same data could end up looking like linguistics done horribly wrong.  We need better ethno-linguistic maps simply to do good social science and address these critical questions.

New Methods and Datasets

I believe that, thanks to greater computational efficiency offered by modern computers and new datasets available from social media, it is increasingly possible to develop better maps of language distributions using geotagged text data rather than an expert’s opinion.  In this blog, I’ll cover two projects I’ve done to map languages - one using data from Twitter in the Philippines, and another using computationally-intensive algorithms to classify toponyms in West Africa.

I should note that for all its hype, big data can be pretty useless without real-world experience.  The Philippines and West Africa are two parts of the world where I have spent a good amount of time and have some on-the-ground familiarity with the languages.  Thus, I was able to use my local knowledge to inform how I conducted the analyses, as well as to evaluate their issues and shortcomings.

Case Study 1: Social Media From The Philippines

Many fascinating language maps from twitter have been created at global scales - see here, and here.  However, to explore the distribution of understudied languages that don’t show up in maps of global languages, one must use more bespoke methods.  This is especially true of austronesian languages like those found in the Philippines, which don’t have a lot of phonemic variability, and therefore aren’t easily classified using the methods that google translate uses.  These methods, which rely on slices of the sample text, often confuse austronesian languages like Tagolog and Bahasa - just look at the maps I mentioned above. Thus, I had to use a word-list method, and created word lists from corpora offered by SEAlang, and by scraping from local-language wikipedia articles.  The resulting maps show exactly where minority languages are used in comparison with English and Tagalog in the philippines, and likely underestimate the prevalence of minority languages because the corpora used (wikipedia and the bible) are quite different from the twitter data that was classified.

Languages of Tweets in the Philippines.
The resulting map shows about 125,000 tweets in English, Tagalog, Taglish (using Tagalog and English in the same tweet), and the local languages Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, Bikol, and Waray.  This map offers more nuance than traditional language maps of the Philippines.  For example, most maps would show Ilocano over the entire northern part of Luzon, but this map shows that the use of Ilocano is much more robust on the northwest coast than in the rest of the north.  This analysis also allowed me to test a hypothesis that I frequently heard locals assert when in the Philippines - that English is more common in the south, because southerners would rather use English than Tagalog, which is seen as a northern language.  I found that this was to be the case, and I was only able to confirm this because I had such a large sample size.  Without newer datasets like those offered by social media, this hypothesis would be untestable.

To see a more in-depth description of this analysis, you can see my original blog post here.

Case Study 2: West African Toponyms

Another project I did used toponyms, or place names, from West Africa.  Toponyms databases like geonames.org have relatively high spatial resolution - with a name for every populated place in an area.  And while a place name is not as long as a tweet or other linguistic dataset, toponyms do encode ethno-linguistic information.  It would be easy for someone familiar with Europe to distinguish whether a toponym is associated with the French or German linguistic group - a French name would likely begin with “Les” and end with “-elle”, while a German name could begin with “Der” and end with “-berg”.  Similar differences exist between toponyms from different ethnic groups all over the world, and are quite evident to locals.  What if you could train an algorithm to detect these differences, and then had it classify every single toponym throughout a region?  That is what I tried to do in this analysis.

I used toponyms for six countries in French West Africa. I decided to focus on French West Africa for several reasons. For one, I have worked there, and have some familiarity with the ethnic groups of the region and their distributions, and it is an area I am very curious about. For another thing, this is a relatively poorly documented part of the world as far as ethno-linguistic groups go, and it is an area with significant region-scale ethnic diversity. Finally, the countries I selected were colonized by one group, meaning that all of the toponyms were transliterated the same way and could be compared even across national borders. In all, I used 35,785 toponyms.

First, I got a list of every possible set of three letters (called a 3-gram) from the toponyms.   Then, I tested for spatial autocorrelation in the locations that contained each 3-gram using a Moran’s I test, and selected only those 3-grams that had significant clustering.

To give an illustration of why this was necessary, here are two examples of the spatial distribution 3-grams. One 3-gram - “ama” - occurs roughly evenly throughout the regions in this study. The other 3-gram - “kro” - is very common in toponyms in south-east Côte d'Ivoire, and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Thus, “kro” has significant spatial autocorrelation whereas “ama” does not.

Here are all of the toponyms that contain the 3-gram “kro" 


And here are all of the toponyms that contain the 3-gram “ama" 

Thus, the the 3-gram "ama” doesn’t tell us much about which ethnic group a toponym belongs to, because that 3-gram is found evenly distributed throughout West Africa - it is just noise. The 3-gram “kro”, on the other hand, carries information about which ethnic group a toponym belongs to, because it is clearly clustered in a group in Southeast Côte d'Ivoire.

I then calculated the lexical distance between all of the toponyms based on the number shared 3-grams that had significant spatial autocorrelation.  To add a spatial component, I also linked any two toponyms that were less than 25 kilometers apart. Thus, I had a graph where every toponym was a vertex, and undirected edges connected toponyms that had spatial or lexical affinity.  Finally, I used a fast greedy modularity-optimizing algorithm to detect communities, or clusters, in this graph.

Results
The algorithm found seven distinct communities, which definitely correspond to ethnic groups and ethnic macro-groups in West Africa.


The red cluster includes Wolof, Serer, and Fulfulde place names, which makes sense, as all of these groups are Senegambian languages. This group of languages is the primary group in Senegal and Mauritania, which my classification picked up on. It also caught the large Fulfulde presence in central Guinea, throughout an area known as the Fouta-Djallon. This cluster also has a significant presence throughout the Sahel, stretching into Burkina Faso and dotted throughout the rest of West Africa, much like the migrant Fulfulde people.

The green cluster captures most of the area where Mandé languages are spoken, including most of Mali, where the Bambara are found, as well as Eastern Guinea and Northern Côte d'Ivoire, where Malinké is found. Interestingly, most of the toponyms in Western Mali fell into the Senegambian/Fulfulde cluster, and were not in the Mandé cluster, even though there are Mandé groups like the Soninké and Khassonké in Western Mali. Southern Guinea is densely green, representing the presence of Mandé groups there, like the Kuranko. Surprisingly, much of central and southern Côte d'Ivoire also fell into the green cluster, even through there are a couple of different groups there which are not in any way related to the Mandé groups that were most represented in the green cluster. This is also true of areas in Western Burkina Faso and Eastern Mali, where there are many languages unrelated to the broader Mandé group, such as Dogon, Bobo, Minianka, and Senufo/Syempire. However, I know that Dyula, a Mandé language closely related to Bambara, is spoken as a trade language in both of these areas (Côte d'Ivoire and Western Burkina Faso). It could be that Dyula has had a long enough presence in these areas to leave an imprint on the toponyms there.

The purple group pretty clearly captured two different disjoint groups that are both in the broader Mandé group - the Susu, in far Western Guinea, and the Dan, in Western Côte d'Ivoire. These groups are normally classified as being on quite separate branches of the Mandé language family, with the Susu being Northern Mandé and Dan being Eastern Mandé. However, the fact that the algorithm put them in the same group, even though they were too far apart to have edges/connections based on spatial affinity, shows that Dan and Susu toponyms have several three-grams common.

The yellow cluster seems to have caught two sub-groups within the broader green/Mandé cluster. Many of the yellow toponyms in central Mali are in what you could call the Bambara homeland, between Bamako and Segou. However, a second cluster stands out quite distinctly in southern Guinea. It’s unclear to me what group this could represent and why it would have toponymic features distinct enough from its neighbors that the algorithm put it in a different cluster. Some maps say that a group called the Konyanka lives here and speaks a language closely related to Malinké.

The turquoise cluster quite clearly captures the Mossi people and their toponyms, as well as the Gurunsi, a related group (both Mossi and Gurunsi are classified as Gur languages).

The black cluster in southern Burkina Faso captured a group that most national ethno-linguistic maps call the Lobi, although this part of West Africa is known for its significant entho-linguistic heterogeneity. Another group of villages in Eastern Burkina Faso also fell into the black cluster, although I could not find any significant ethnic group found there.

Finally, the blue cluster captured both the Baoulé/Akan languages as well as the Senufo. It captured the Senufo especially in Côte d'Ivoire and somewhat in Burkina Faso, but not much in Mali, where I know the Senufo have a significant presence. This could represent a Bambarization of previously Senufo toponyms due to the fact that the government of Mali is predominantly Bambara, or it could pre-date the Malian state, as this area was part of Samori Toure’s Wassoulou Empire, in which the Malinké language was strongly enforced. The classification of the Senufo languages has always been controversial, but this toponymic analysis suggests that they are more related to Kwa toponyms to the south rather than to Gur toponyms to the northeast.

Caveats

Some caveats with this work and its interpretation. For one, this only shows toponymic affinities. Those affinities usually correspond to ethnic distributions, but not always. There is a lot of migration in West Africa today, and place names don’t usually change as quickly as the distributions of people. Thus, toponyms can sometimes encode historic ethnic distributions, for example many toponyms in the United States come from Native American languages, and there are many toponym suffixes in England that reflect a historic Nordic presence. Thus, this and similar maps are most informative when interpreted in combination with on-the-ground information and knowledge.

Another issue with classifying toponyms in West Africa in particular is that West African toponyms are transcribed using the Latin alphabet, which definitely does not capture all of the sounds that exist in West African languages. Different extensions of the Latin alphabet, as well as an indigenous alphabet, are often used to transcribe these languages, however these idiosyncratic methods of writing languages are not used in the geonames dataset. Thus, the Fulfulde bilabial implosive (/ɓ/ in IPA) is written the same way as a pulmonic bilabial plosive - as a “b”, so this distinction is lost in our dataset, even though it adds a lot of information about what ethnic group a given toponym belongs to. However, some other sounds and sound combinations, which are very indicative of specific languages are captured using a Latin alphabet- for example prenasalized consonants (/mb/) common in Senegambian languages, labial velars (/gb/ and /kp/) common in coastal languages, or the lack of a ‘v’ in Mandé languages. Issues also arise with how different colonizers transcribe sounds differently, for example ‘ny’ and 'kwa’ in English would be 'gn’ and 'coua’ in French. However, this didn’t apply in this analysis, which only used Francophone countries, and I believe it could be dealt with if I tried to do a larger analysis.

Conclusion


This is an exciting time to be at the intersection of geography and linguistics!  New datasets and computational methods are giving researchers the ability to ask newer and better questions about who belongs to what group, and where.  I hope new developments in this research can yields new linguistic results about phylogeny, migration, and the spread of linguistic phenomena.  Outside of the field of linguistics, better language maps could have broad applications, from improving disaster response planning to helping to answer critical questions about the origins of ethnic conflict.


          Se vende - Cables De Chasis Para Computadora para Juegos... - Subasta   
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          EUROPA/ITALIA - Suore Bianche in capitolo: portatrici di speranza, ascoltando lo Spirito, verso le periferie   
Roma - Le Suore Missionarie di Nostra Signora d'Africa conosciute come “Suore Bianche” aprono il loro 25° Capitolo generale a Roma, sabato 1 luglio.
Per tre settimane le capitolari rifletteranno sulle sfide poste oggi dalla missione alla Congregazione sotto il tema "Portatrici di speranza, ascoltando la voce dello Spirito, avanzando insieme verso le periferie". Nel corso del Capitolo verrà eletto il nuovo Consiglio generale.
Secondo la nota inviata all’Agenzia Fides, la Congregazione è stata fondata nel 1869 dal Card. Charles Lavigerie, un anno dopo la Società Missionaria dei Missionari d'Africa . Le religiose sono attualmente 633, originarie di 32 nazioni, impegnate in 26 paesi, di cui 14 in Africa: Mauritania, Tunisia, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Ciad, Congo, Ruanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda e Malawi.
Il carisma della Congregazione è l'evangelizzazione dei popoli dell'Africa, espressa in vari settori: educazione, pastorale, salute, giustizia e pace, integrità del creato, dialogo interreligioso, specialmente con i credenti dell'Islam.

          Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Rhizophora mucronata Lamk.   
Distribution "Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. has been added by Farid Dahdouh-Guebas via the MS Access interface on 2014-02-20T16:02:59+00:00
          Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Avicennia germinans (L.) L.   
Distribution "Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Avicennia germinans (L.) L. has been added by Farid Dahdouh-Guebas via the MS Access interface on 2014-02-20T16:02:59+00:00
          Twintig parels per maand: juni 2017   

Nu juni voorbij is, kunnen we genieten van de zomermaanden, waarin veel mensen vakantie nemen. Dat betekent ook meer tijd om muziek te luisteren. Om de vakantie alvast goed in te zetten, zijn hier de twintig parels voor juni:
  1. Mountain Jan (live) - The Nits: we beginnen met een prachtig nummer van The Nits, die zeker op hun live-plaat Urk nummers bijeenbrengen die ik graag met de naam "artpop" benoem. Het zijn kleine popsongs, dat zeker, maar met een zekere artistieke toets
  2. In tranen - Tröckener Kecks: de tristesse druipt van deze song. Zanger Rick De Leeuw heeft altijd al dat melancholische gehad in zijn stem en in dit nummer komt dit heel goed tot uiting
  3. Pyramid song - Radiohead: op Amnesiac werkte Radiohead de sound van Kid A nog verder uit en dat leidde onder meer tot deze prachtsingle
  4. Ono soul - Thurston Moore: met Psychic hearts bewees Thurston Moore dat hij ook zonder de andere leden van Sonic Youth mooie platen kan maken
  5. Prayer to God - Shellac: Steve Albini werd bekend als producer, onder meer bij Nirvana, maar heeft ook zijn eigen band. Hun album 1000 hurts is niet alleen mooi vormgegeven maar is ook een muzikaal interessante plaat
  6. Nervous energy - Unwound: Unwound is nooit verder geraakt dan cultstatus maar het verdient zeker de moeite om hun (vele) platen eens te beluisteren en pareltjes te ontdekken waarvan u het bestaan niet eens vermoedde
  7. To think that I once loved you - The Drones: ik kende deze song zelf niet maar Spotify raadde me dit aan op basis van waar ik zoal naar luisterde, in hun "Discovery of the week"-lijst. Dit bleek alvast een voltreffer
  8. Montana - Pierce Edens: van Pierce Edens besprak ik eerder deze maand zijn nieuwste plaat. Dit nummer is terug te vinden op zijn titelloos debuut uit 2012
  9. Nothing on my radio - The Scabs: met Jumping the tracks bereikten The Scabs een ruimer publiek. De liedjes waren dan ook radiovriendelijker en popgevoeliger dan hun eerder werk. Toch kan ik er mijn gading op vinden, onder meer met deze song
  10. Ever so lonely - Monsoon featuring Sheila Chandra: de Indische toets in dit nummer geeft het een lichtvoetigheid waar ik altijd vrolijk van word
  11. Butterfly - Talvin Singh: Talvin Singh is een Londenaar met Indische roots die dat ook muzikaal laat doorklinken in zijn werk. Dit staat op zijn debuutalbum OK, een mooie introductie tot dance die teruggrijpt naar oosterse roots
  12. Mouth wedding - Transglobal Underground: Tranglobal Underground is nog zo'n band die dance maken met invloeden uit de wereldmuziek
  13. Alec Eiffel - Pixies: uit Trompe le monde, het album waarmee ik pas echt Pixies leerde kennen
  14. The perfect me - Deerhoof: ooit werd ik door de hoes van Friend opportunity  zodanig geïntrigeerd dat ik de muziek van Deerhoof ging beluisteren
  15. They are losing the war - Ikonika: deze band heeft net een nieuwe plaat uit maar het loont zeker de moeite hun ouder werk ook nog eens op de draaitafel te zwieren
  16. Thorns - (Sandy) Alex G: uit de prachtplaat Beach music
  17. Iris - Daby Touré: deze zanger uit Mauritanië maakt gewoon heel mooie popliedjes waaruit weliswaar zijn Afrikaanse roots doorklinken maar die, in het Engels gezongen, zo de hitparade in zouden kunnen duikelen
  18. No dog jazz - Adrian Sherwood: Adrian Sherwood is een bekende producer en muzikant die zich vooral bezighoudt met dub en dat genre ook injecteert in andere muziek waarmee hij in aanraking komt
  19. Skapate - Los De Abajo: deze Mexicaanse ska-band zag ik ooit eens op de Gentse Feesten
  20. La sombra negra - Totó La Momposina: we eindigen met weemoedige Colombiaanse muziek
Beluister hieronder de volledige afspeellijst:


          Re: gambia   
Agree with you regarding Gambia,you should also include other Islamic countries in Africa such as Senegal,Mali,Mauritania,Sudan. These are places to be avoided at all costs,they are extremely intolerant of gays,and risk your life,just for a few minutes of fun. No amount of money or any other incentive would ever lure me to visit such barbaric countries.
          Re: gambia   
Agree with you regarding Gambia,you should also include other Islamic countries in Africa such as Senegal,Mali,Mauritania,Sudan. These are places to be avoided at all costs,they are extremely intolerant of gays,and risk your life,just for a few minutes of fun. No amount of money or any other incentive would ever lure me to visit such barbaric countries.
           SUBHANALLAH... Sholat Jama'ah Anak-anak Sekolah di Mali Afrika   



 
 Yes  Muslim  - Foto anak-anak sekolah di Mali Afrika ini sangat menakjubkan. Subhanallah... sungguh tidak ada pemandangan yang lebih indah dari sujud di hadapan Allah Sang Pemilik Alam Semesta.

Mali, salah satu negara di dunia yang kaya warisan budaya ini memiliki sejarah Islam yang cukup panjang.

Berlokasi di Afrika Barat, Mali menjadi negara yang diapit daratan dan sahara. Negara beribu kota Bamako tersebut dikelilingi negara Pantai Gading, Aljazair, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Senegal, dan Mauritania.

Muslim di negara seluas 1,24 juta kilometer tersebut mencapai 12 juta jiwa atau sekitar 92,5 persen dari total penduduk 14,5 juta jiwa.


Sebagai umat mayoritas, Muslim Mali hidup dengan damai. Mereka pun sangat toleran pada penganut agama lain. Hubungan stabil tanpa ketegangan pun ditemukan antarpenganut agama.

Mereka saling berkunjung menghadiri perayaan pernikahan ataupun kematian. Kepercayaan tradisional pun telah berakulturasi dengan baik sehingga budaya Islam dan budaya asli setempat tak mengalami bentrok atau perselisihan. Tecermin dalam sebuah manuskrip kuno di Universitas Tombuktu, yakni pendekatan tradisional ke Islam relatif moderat.

Mali terkenal memiliki peradaban Islam yang tinggi. Banyak situs peninggalan peradaban masa lalu yang kini dijadikan situs warisan dunia oleh UNESCO. Peradaban tersebut dibawa oleh Islam sejak abad kesembilan.

Saat itu, Islam masuk ke Afrika Barat oleh pedagang Muslim Berber dan Tuareg. Tak hanya sebatas kepercayaan, Islam membentuk sistem politik, sosial, hingga seni budaya.

Kerajaan Mali telah berdiri kokoh di sana jauh sebelum negara tersebut kemudian dijajah oleh Prancis.

Pada masa keemasan dinasti Islam Mali, ilmu matematika, astronomi, sastra, dan seni berkembang pesat di Mali.

Bahkan dalam catatan sejarah, orang terkaya di dunia sepanjang sejarah berasal dari Mali.

Majalah TIME pada edisi 30 Juli 2015 menyusun 10 orang paling kaya di dunia sepanjang sejarah "The 10 Richest People of All Time".

TIME menyusun Daftar 10 Orang Terkaya di dunia sepanjang sejarah ini setelah melakukan wawancara panjang dengan para pakar ekonomi dan sejarawan.

Dan hasilnya, ternyata orang nomor 1 paling kaya di dunia sepanjang sejarah adalah seorang muslim, Mansa Musa atau Raja Musa yang memerintah Kekaisaran Mali selama 30 tahun pada periode 1280-1337.


Peradaban Islam terus berkembang hingga di abad ke-19 saat Mali akhirnya dijajah Prancis. Mali baru merdeka di tahun 1960 sebagai negara Republik.


Terima Kasih sudah membaca, Jika artikel ini bermanfaat, Yuk bagikan ke orang terdekatmu. Sekaligus LIKE fanspage kami juga untuk mengetahui informasi menarik lainnya  @Tahukah.Anda.News

republished by Yes Muslim - Portal Muslim Terupdate !




          Electrical Draughtsman - Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants - Johannesburg, Gauteng   
Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants is seeking an Electrical Draughtsman for a contract based position in *Mauritania, West Africa*....
From Indeed - Tue, 04 Apr 2017 07:16:15 GMT - View all Johannesburg, Gauteng jobs
          Mauritanians Fear Fish Farms Will Cause Their Island to Be Surrounded by Sharks   
But is it already too late?
          Botswana vs Zambia Preview   
Results of each team’s last 5 matches across all leagues and competitions Botswana LAST FIVE GAMES DATE COMPETITION L Botswana 0-1 Mauritania Jun 10, 2017 African Nations Cup Qualifying L Congo DR 2-0 Botswana Jun 5, 2017 International Friendly L Tanzania 2-0 Botswana Mar 25, 2017 International Friendly W Botswana 1-1 Angola Sep 30, 2016 ...
          Re: gambia   
Agree with you regarding Gambia,you should also include other Islamic countries in Africa such as Senegal,Mali,Mauritania,Sudan. These are places to be avoided at all costs,they are extremely intolerant of gays,and risk your life,just for a few minutes of fun. No amount of money or any other incentive would ever lure me to visit such barbaric countries.
          Aleluya...La Gloria sea para Dios...Cristo te ama...   

AVIVAMIENTO CRISTIANO INUNDA EL NORTE DE ÁFRICA

"Lo que Dios está haciendo desde Mauritania hasta Libia no tiene precedente en la historia de las misiones", dice el cienasta Tino Qahoush tras un reportaje en la región.
    • Avivamiento cristiano inunda el Norte de África
    Un avivamiento cristiano se esta produciendo en el norte de África, Una vez hostil al evangelio, donde ahora decenas de miles de musulmanes están siguiendo a Jesús.
    Desde las costas de Casablanca en Marruecos a Trípoli en Libia, los expertos dicen que el crecimiento del cristianismo, especialmente en los últimos 20 años, no tiene precedentes.
    Tino Qahoush, graduado de la Universidad Regent, ha pasado años viajando a la región para documentar la realidad de esta transformación.
    "Tengo el privilegio de grabar testimonios y escuchar historias de hombres y mujeres, de todas las edades, que sentados en una sala, ven la presencia de Dios ante sus ojos de forma real, como una visión. Algunos cuentan historias de cómo sostienen una conversación, no se trata sólo una luz que se les aparece", explicó Qahoush.
    Sus entrevistas confirman lo que los expertos dicen que es un profundo mover del Espíritu de Dios en las naciones de mayoría musulmana de Mauritania, Sahara Occidental, Marruecos, Argelia, Libia y Túnez.
    "A veces siento celos de cómo Jesús visita al mundo musulmán en este tiempo y no escuchamos que ocurra en la comunidad tradicionalmente cristiana", aseveró Qahoush.  

    EL CASO DE ARGELIA
    Uno de los lugares donde ese crecimiento es más evidente es en Argelia. . "Nunca pensamos que la iglesia argelina crecería tanto", indicó el pastor Salah que lidera una de las iglesias más grandes en Argelia, con unos 1.200 creyentes que asisten asus cultos.
    El 99 por ciento de los que asisten pertenece a la población musulmana, y -refiere Salah- todos los nuevos cristianos de su iglesia tienen trasfondo musulmán. "Desde nuestro inicio como iglesia hasta hoy, hemos bautizado alrededor de 150 a 160 creyentes al año", relató Salah.
    Un caso típico es el de un hombre llamado Zino, un ex-musulmán, que fue invitado a asistir a la iglesia por un amigo. "Yo vi a argelinos adorando a Dios con todo su corazón y eso me tocó", dice conmovido.
    Otros como Farhat hablan de hechos milagrosos. Ella era musulmana y analfabeta. No sabía leer cuando aceptó al Señor, pero entonces Dios revolucionó de manera inesperada su vida. "Desde entonces fue capaz de leer la Biblia, y entendía la Palabra de Dios. Esto es sólo un ejemplo de lo que Dios hizo en mi vida y es el caso de muchos aquí en Argelia", relata Farhat, un ex-musulmán.

     DE TERRENO PEDREGOSO A TIERRA FÉRTIL
    Aunque Argelia es mayoritariamente musulmana, el Gobierno da a las iglesias protestantes la libertad de registrar sus congregaciones. "Es el primer gobierno árabe que reconoce oficialmente a las iglesias", dice Youssef Ourahmane, argelino y pastor de la iglesia Casa de Esperanza.
    Youssef dice que no obstante el gobierno hostiga e intimida a los cristianos de vez en cuando, pero el nivel de persecución no es como hace 20 años.
    "Dios nos ha dado muchas oportunidades de testificar en las estaciones de policía, en las cortes. Una vez fui a la estación de policía y me dieron 45 minutos para hablar sobre Jesús. Imagina, todos ellos musulmanes sentados y diciéndome: 'háblanos de Jesús'", aseveró Ourahmane.
    Pero Argelia y los países del norte de África no han estado siempre abiertos al evangelio. "Peter" es un veterano misionero aquí. "Usted sabe la parábola, el sembrador salió a sembrar y la semilla cayó en pedregales, éste es el norte de África, en esos días estaba resistente y pedregoso", expresó "Peter".
    "La religión y la cultura eran hostiles a cualquier cosa extranjera y el cristianismo era considerado como la religión de los europeos", explicó "Peter". "Peter" cree que la llegada de la televisión y el internet han cambiado la percepción de la gente sobre el cristianismo. "Hoy, en el norte de África en la televisión se puede escuchar a árabes cristianos hablando de su fe, cristianos maduros, respondiendo preguntas, participando en debates", indicó "Peter".
    Animados por el poder de Dios, los cristianos argelinos están ahora en una misión para llevar el evangelio a todos los rincones del globo.
    "Dios ha puesto en nuestro corazón que podamos enviar 1.000 misioneros para el año 2025. Creo que tal vez un día América terminará con algunos misioneros convertidos del Islam alcanzando a los musulmanes ahí y en otras partes", concluyó Ourahmane.

              Electrical Draughtsman - Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants - Johannesburg, Gauteng   
    Glenn Stratford Mining Consultants is seeking an Electrical Draughtsman for a contract based position in *Mauritania, West Africa*....
    From Indeed - Tue, 04 Apr 2017 07:16:15 GMT - View all Johannesburg, Gauteng jobs
              Re: gambia   
    Agree with you regarding Gambia,you should also include other Islamic countries in Africa such as Senegal,Mali,Mauritania,Sudan. These are places to be avoided at all costs,they are extremely intolerant of gays,and risk your life,just for a few minutes of fun. No amount of money or any other incentive would ever lure me to visit such barbaric countries.
              Intervention in Mali-Another free ride for China?   

    Very reluctantly, we are told, President Francois Holland was forced to order French troops to intervene in Mali, a former West African colony. There was no other way to ward off disaster, to prevent yet another failed African state from becoming a haven for terrorists linked to Al Qaeda. France had strong cultural, economic and military links to the region that couldn’t be ignored.
    The risks of France’s vague, open-ended venture—which the U.S. has already indicated it will support--are already being debated. But what I find particularly ironic is that the country that has probably most to gain from the intervention--is China. 
    Why?
    Because, by thwarting the rebels’ drive, France and its partners-to-be will be preserving the security not only of Mali’s rickety regime, but of Mali’s neighbors as well, also former French colonies, none of which can make a serious claim to stability.
    But in every one of those countries, China does big business—in several of them, very big business.
     --In Niger,for instance, where France has a program of military cooperation, a Chinese company operates what is China’s largest uranium mine, at Azelik—breaking what was a defacto monopoly on Niger’s reserves once enjoyed by France.
    China also runs a major oilfield and has signed a deal to upgrade the country’s power supplies.
    --In Chad,where per capital income is about $900 per year, the French have a large  airforce base that is being used for their offensive in Mali. The Chinese have a different kind of operation: their national petroleum corporation is backing a $1 billion dollar project, to lay 300 kilometers of pipelines from oilfields in Southern Chad to a Chinese-built refinery near the capital, Ndjamena. The refinery is jointly owned by China and Chad. China is also building a new international airport nearby.
    - The Ivory Coast, once a jewel of the French colonial crown, also has a French military base, and lots of French business interests. But just two days before President Holland intervened in Mali, it was announced in Abidjan, that China and the Ivory Coast had agreed on a massive $500 million low-interest loan from China’s Export Import bank—to finance the construction of a hydropower station-- by a Chinese engineering firm--that will be the largest in the country and will export power to neighboring countries.  
    China is also drilling for oil in the Cameroon, building an airport and port in Mauritania, importing cotton from Burkina Faso, making huge deals for iron ore in Guinea and Sierra Leone, while building schools, hospitals, stadiums, not to mention railway lines all over the continent.
    So why is China willing to make such massive gambles in a part of the world where governments seem to change from week to week, and huge countries like Mali, which used to be considered one of West Africa’s most stable regimes, can disintegrate into chaos almost overnight?
    Part of it is that China, to fuel its soaring economy, is willing to get along with just about anyone in power. They’re not out to organize coups, overthrow regimes or impose their views. 
    And in much of West Africa, at least, they’ve probably been bolstered by the thought that, when the chips were down, highly trained and equipped French and American troops would help keep chaos at bay. Indeed, the Pentagon is building small, discrete bases—known as lily-pads--across the continent, and has also assigned more than three American thousand troops to work with and train African solders to deal with “terrorist” threats, like the one that’s just exploded in Mali.  
    If the presence of those foreign troops ultimately rubs the native population the wrong way, due to anything from cultural differences to civilian deaths in collateral damage, it’s the French and/or Americans and their African military allies who will have to take the heat.
    Without any of their own boots on the ground, without helicopter gun ships or drones in the air, and not a single base outside of China, it won’t be the Chinese.
    That’s how it’s been in many other parts of the world, particularly the Middle East: the Chinese have had a free ride, with the U.S. and its allies patrolling key trade routes, intervening in the name of political stability.
    At least, that’s the way it was. But with the French and other NATO countries more reluctant to intervene than ever, and with the U.S. military facing major budget cuts, the day will soon come when China will have to pick to pick up its own security tab, protect its own trade routes, become at least one of the cops on the global beat.
    China’s leaders may know that. Which is part of the reason for their on-going military build up, particularly the navy. They’ve already made a deal to train Afghan soldiers, for instance, now that the U.S. is pulling out.
    That may all make a lot of sense—from China’s view.
    But how on earth will the U.S. adapt?


              World: Price Watch: May 2017 Prices (June 30, 2017)   
    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Chad, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Key Messages

    In West Africa, regional staple food production during the 2016/17 marketing year was well above average. International rice and wheat imports continue to support regional market supplies. Prices continued to increase seasonally in many areas in May with the onset of the lean season. Current market anomalies remain largely concentrated in the eastern marketing basin, including but not limited to: conflict-related market disruptions in the Lake Chad basin, localized above-average grain deficits in Niger, and the impacts of the continued depreciation of the Naira. In East Africa, staple food supplies remain tight and prices well above-average in South Sudan, Somalia, and Yemen. Markets remain severely disrupted by insecurity in Yemen and South Sudan. Import capacity in Yemen is uncertain, and food availability will likely remain constrained in the coming months. Uganda and Kenya are also facing below-average staple food supply and above-average and increasing prices following poor harvests. In Southern Africa, regional maize availability continued to improve in May with the progression of harvests from the 2016/17 production season. Regional maize production prospects for the current season are good with record-high harvests anticipated in South Africa. Maize prices declined sharply in most areas in May, and were below their respective 2016 levels in many areas. The exceptions to these trends are in Zambia, where prices remain above average. Low regional maize prices encouraged exports to East Africa and beyond. In Central America, staple food availability continued to decline following the end of the recent Postrera harvest and Apante harvest. Maize and bean prices were seasonally stable or decreasing across the region, with varied trends compared to average levels. In Haiti, local maize prices were firm while local black beans prices saw a modest increase from their April levels. Imported rice prices were stable as the Haitian gourde appreciated marginally against the U.S. dollar. Higher transportation costs will continue to place upward pressures on staple food prices in the coming months. Central Asia sustained adequate supplies. Wheat prices remained stable in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan, but started to decline in Pakistan with the arrival of the new harvest. Rice prices in Pakistan increased following larger export demand, affecting also rice prices in Afghanistan. Intraregional trade is expected to fill staples’ deficits on importing countries. International staple food markets remain well supplied. Maize prices fell, soybean prices rose while rice and wheat prices were mixed. Crude oil prices fell and remain well below average.


              ISIS, Boko Haram and al-Qaeda training together in Mauritania, analysts say   
    The three largest terrorist networks in the world are training together in the deserts of Mauritania, claims a group that tracks international terrorism worldwide.
               UAE severs diplomatic ties with Qatar   
    Current PositionThe governments of the UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Libya, Yemen, Jordan, Mauritius, Mauritania and the Maldives are all reported to have severed diplomatic ties with Qatar last week (week commencing 4 June 2017). In a press re...
              CAN 2012 : a pesar del pitido final, aún queda por ganar el partido contra el hambre en el Sahel   

    Se estima que el número de personas que necesita asistencia en la región del Sahel aumenta hasta los 11 millones, por lo que Oxfam advierte de que debe reforzarse la labor humanitaria en las próximas semanas.   

    La agencia humanitaria internacional ha elogiado a los futbolistas africanos por unirse al llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que actúe rápidamente, con el fin de prevenir un empeoramiento de la crisis alimentaria que se avecina la zona.

    Con motivo de la Copa Africana de Naciones, estrellas del fútbol de la talla de Moumouni Dagano de Burkina Faso, Demba Ba de Senegal, Seydou Keïta de Malí y Lawali Idrissa de Níger, entre otros,  se han unido a Oxfam para dar más visibilidad a la crisis alimentaria que amenaza la región de África del Oeste, conocida como el Sahel, y, con ello, apoyar la lucha contra el hambre en sus propios países y lograr  salvar vidas y los medios de subsistencia de millones de africanos.   

    En un contexto en el que, según  las estimaciones oficiales, el número de personas que necesitará asistencia en los próximos seis meses se acerca a los 11 millones y los recursos necesarios con los que poder dar una respuesta ascienden a 700 millones de euros, Oxfam advierte de que la acción de la comunidad internacional en la región deberá incrementarse.  

    Al Hassan Cissé, asesor de Políticas de Seguridad Alimentaria de Oxfam en África del Oeste, ha afirmado: “La potencial dimensión de la crisis que se avecina en el Sahel ya la conocemos, por lo que es ahora el momento de movilizar los recursos para proteger la vida y el sustento de millones de personas y proteger a los niños de la desnutrición. Cada mes de retraso se traducirá en un empeoramiento de la situación para las comunidades más vulnerables y conllevará el aumento del coste de la respuesta. Aunque apreciamos señales alentadoras de algunos donantes aportando ya fondos, se necesita mucha más ayuda si actuamos acorde con la dimensión y la velocidad requeridas  para evitar lo peor”.

    La semana pasada la Comisión Europea aumentó su aportación para ayuda humanitaria en la región a 123,5 millones de euros y Alemania anunció un nuevo apoyo de 12 millones de euros, así como  Australia, con  8 millones de euros. Otras promesas de ayuda, también aplaudidas por Oxfam, han sido anunciadas por países como Francia y Reino Unido, con 17 y 8 millones de euros, respectivamente.

    Oxfam está proporcionando agua y saneamiento, así como un apoyo esencial para proteger los medios de vida de las comunidades afectadas por la situación en todo el Sahel, incluyendo a los refugiados de Malí en Níger que han huido del conflicto en su país durante la semana pasada.

    Cuando la Copa Africana de Naciones ha llegado a su final y la situación en la región amenaza con empeorar, los futbolistas siguen manifestando su apoyo para ganar el partido  contra la hambre. Demba Ba jugador del equipo senegalés, y del equipo de Newcastle United, ha señalado: "Es nuestro deber  comprometernos para garantizar que el hambre no sea una opción en el siglo XXI. Todos nosotros tenemos que actuar con determinación y coraje para defender a nuestros hermanos y hermanas a lo largo y ancho del Sahel”.

    La crisis que se avecina en esta zona africana se debe principalmente a las bajas precipitaciones, que provocaron una caída del 25% en la producción de cereales en la última cosecha, así como a la subida del precio de los alimentos, que ha sido de hasta un 90 por ciento si se compara con el promedio de los últimos cinco años.

    El Sahel es una región crónicamente vulnerable a las amenazas externas, como la sequía. Ante este contexto, Oxfam demanda inversiones a largo plazo para incrementar la resiliencia de las comunidades para que puedan hacer frente a las malas temporadas, con el fin de prevenir futuras crisis.

    Más información

    La respuesta de Oxfam ante la crisis alimentaria en el Sahel

    Spanish
    Pull quotes: 
    Cada mes de retraso se traducirá en un empeoramiento de la situación para las comunidades más vulnerables y conllevará el aumento del coste de la respuesta
    Quotee's organisation: 
    Asesor de Políticas de Seguridad Alimentaria de Oxfam en África del Oeste
    Notas a los editores: 

    Imágenes : http://www.flickr.com/photos/letstacklehunger/
    En caso de utilizar las imágenes, por favor mencionar Oxfam en los créditos.

    Web de la campaña de la región del Sahel. 
    http://www.letstacklehunger.org 
    http://www.taclonslafaim.org

    Videos disponibles en inglés:

    • Video Sahel (4 teams): http://bit.ly/zn5vhU
    • Video Etalons Burkina Faso: http://youtu.be/ofnsnjosDEw
    • Video Aigles du Mali: http://bit.ly/zLxkxq
    • Video MENA Niger: http://bit.ly/w2GMnK
    • Video Lions Senegal: http://bit.ly/zEMrhM
    • Video Demba Ba et Armand Traoré http://bit.ly/zBwDnl
    Contacto para medios: 

    Charles Bambara - Sénégal (Dakar): cbambara@oxfam.org.uk - +221 77 639 4178

    Irina Fuhrman - Mauritanie ifuhrmann@intermonoxfam.org - +222 48021965

    Ian Bray - Oxford - ibray@oxfam.org.uk +44 (0)7721 461339

    Magali Rubino - Paris - mrubino@oxfamfrance.org +33 630466604

    Space only: 
    Quotee: 
    Al Hassan Cissé

              Copa Africana de Naciones: 25 futbolistas se unen a Oxfam para ganar el partido al hambre   

    A pocas horas del inicio de la CAN, Copa Africana de Naciones 2012, los futbolistas Seydou Keita de Mali, Charles Kaboré de Burkina Faso, Demba Bâ de Senegal y Lawali Idrissa de Níger y sus compañeros de equipo se solidarizan con los millones de personas que se enfrentan al hambre en la región del Sahel. Los futbolistas hacen un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional, convencidos de que “Juntos podemos ganar el partido al hambre”.

    Los equipos de Burkina Faso, Mali, Níger y Senegal, determinados a hacerse con la victoria y compartirla con sus seguidores y sus naciones, piden a los gobiernos y a la comunidad internacional que muestren igual determinación para proteger a esta misma población de la crisis alimentaria que amenaza la región. En el Sahel, millones de personas, entre ellos un millón de niños y niñas, tendrán que hacer frente a una grave crisis si no se reacciona rápidamente.

    Los futbolistas de los cuatro equipos de los países sahelianos que participan en la CAN han realizado un video y una serie de fotografías con la ONG internacional Oxfam y sus socios locales, en las que solicitan que se actúe de forma inmediata para poder salvar miles de vidas. Las imágenes serán difundidas por distintos medios de comunicación durante la competición.

    La crisis se puede explicar por el descenso en la pluviometría en 2011 que ha provocado la caída en un 25% de la cantidad cosechada -comparado con el año anterior-  y por el contexto global de alza de precios de los alimentos, que en algunas regiones han llegado a duplicarse. En Mauritania, Chad o Níger, se empiezan a observar desplazamientos de la población y de los pastores en búsqueda de pasto para el ganado.

    La estrella del futbol maliense, el jugador del FC Barcelona Seydou Keita ha dicho:  “Reaccionando a tiempo, podremos impedir que la crisis afecte a muchas personas, entre ellas numerosas mujeres, quiénes normalmente son las primeras víctimas de las crisis alimentarias. También podremos ayudar a millones de niños y niñas evitando que caigan en la malnutrición y dándoles la oportunidad de crecer con buena salud y una educación sólida”.

    La última crisis en la región que data de 2010 afectó a 10 millones de personas. La petición que hacen los jugadores de futbol llega tras las declaraciones de los responsables políticos y gubernamentales, que en Chad, Níger, Burkina Faso, Mauritania y Mali se han comprometido a desarrollar y aplicar planes nacionales de urgencia en colaboración con la ayuda internacional.

    Todavía se puede salvar a la población, según el portavoz de Oxfam Eric Hazard “A pesar de que la situación en el Sahel es grave, aún estamos a tiempo de evitar lo peor. Si comparamos con años anteriores, esta vez las informaciones han llegado meses antes de que la crisis se establezca, lo que significa que podemos actuar ahora mismo para salvar vidas y proteger los recursos de la población. En este sentido, aplaudimos el compromiso de los futbolistas en África, quienes apelando a una acción urgente para “Ganar el combate contra el hambre”, reafirman su solidaridad con sus naciones.

    Más información

    Informe (en inglés): Escaping the Hunger Cycle: Pathways to resilience in the Sahel

    La respuesta de Oxfam ante la crisis alimentaria en el Sahel

    Spanish
    Main picture: 
    Moussa Sow y Armand Traoré, de Senegal. Foto: Oxfam
    Pull quotes: 
    Reaccionando a tiempo, podremos impedir que la crisis afecte a muchas personas, entre ellas numerosas mujeres, quiénes normalmente son las primeras víctimas de las crisis alimentarias.
    Quotee's organisation: 
    Futbolista, FC Barcelona
    Notas a los editores: 
    • Link a las fotos: http://www.flickr.com/photos/letstacklehunger/ - Mención de crédito © Fotos Oxfam al publicarlas
    • Web sobre la campaña en la región del Sahelhttp://www.letstacklehunger.org / http://www.taclonslafaim.org
    • Equipos y futbolistas participantes en la campaña: LES AIGLES DU MALI : Seydou Keita (Barcelona, España), Mahamane Traore (Metz), Cédric Kanté (Panathinakos, Grèce), Drissa Diakite (Nice), Modibo Maiga (Sochaux), LES ETALONS du BURKINA FASO : Charles Kaboré (OM)- Alain Traoré (AJ Auxerre)- Moumouni Dagano , Capitaine (Al-Khor Sports Club)- Jonathan Pitroipa (Stade rennais FC)- Bertrand Traoré (Chelsea) Les MENA du NIGER: Lawali Idrissa, capitaine (AS FAN)- Kamilou Daouda (Sfax)- Boubacar Talatou (Orlando Pirates) LES LIONS DE LA TERANGA, SENEGAL : Mamadou Niang (capitaine)  Turquie , Fenerbahçe - Demba Bâ (Grande Bretagne , New Castle)- Moussa Sow (France, Lille)  - Amara Traoré (coach), Ablaye Sarr (coach adjoint)- Jacques Faty  (Turquie, club Sivasspor )- Omar Daff (France, Stade Brestois)  -  Souleymane Diawara (France, OM)  - Armand Traoré  (Grande Bretagne, Queens Park Rangers Football Club )- Lamine Sané (France, Bordeaux)- Rémi Gomis (France, FC Valenciennes)  - Souleymane Camara (France, Montpellier HSC)
    Contacto para medios: 

    Contactos para medios:

    • Charles Bambara (Dakar): cbambara@oxfam.org.uk / +221 77 639 4178
    • Irina Fuhrman (Ouagadougou): ifuhrmann@intermonoxfam.org / +226 75420508
    • Anna Ridout (Oxford): aridout@oxfam.org.uk / +44 (0)7766 443506
    • Magali Rubino (Paris): mrubino@oxfamfrance.org / +33 630466604
    • Mahmat Ibrahim Saleh (N’Djamena): medmgrtd@intermonoxfam.org / + 235 6620 2845
    • Patrick Ezeala (Dakar): PEzeala@OxfamAmerica.org / + 221 33 869 0290
    Space only: 
    Regions and Countries: 
    Summary picture: 
    Armand Traore se une al partido contra el hambre. Foto: Oxfam
    Quotee: 
    Seydou Keita

              Nasce Air Senegal. Da dicembre il paese africano riprende a volare   

    Nasce Air Senegal. Da dicembre il paese africano riprende a volare

    Nasce Air Senegal SA, e da dicembre 2017 il Paese africano riprenderà a volare. La nuova compagnia aerea nazionale senegalese ha firmato un contratto per un ordine fermo di due velivoli a turboelica ATR 72-600, i primi della sua flotta, per un investimento di circa 50 milioni di euro. La consegna dei due aerei, capaci di ospitare a bordo da 68 a 78 passeggeri, sarà effettuata nel novembre 2017, e il primo volo della neo-compagnia si terrà il 7 dicembre 2017, in concomitanza con l’inaugurazione del nuovo Blaise Diagne International Airport di Diass, situato a circa 50 chilometri da Dakar. Il ripristino della compagnia aerea nazionale fa parte di un piano governativo, il Piano per un Emergente Senegal (PSE), finalizzato a stabilire nuove politiche economiche e sociali nel medio-lungo termine, a rivitalizzare la crescita economica del paese, e migliorare la qualità della vita dei suoi abitanti. Come parte del suo sviluppo, prossimamente Air Senegal SA prevede l’acquisizione di aeromobili a corridoio singolo seguita da aerei ad alta capacità, che dovrebbero poi consentire di operare la rotta Parigi-Dakar. In attesa che Dakar diventi un vero e proprio hub regionale, il network di Air Senegal inizialmente verrà sviluppato su base domestica e locale. In particolare, verso Paesi vicini, come la Mauritania e la Guinea.

    Webitmag - Web in Travel Magazine


              Re: gambia   
    Agree with you regarding Gambia,you should also include other Islamic countries in Africa such as Senegal,Mali,Mauritania,Sudan. These are places to be avoided at all costs,they are extremely intolerant of gays,and risk your life,just for a few minutes of fun. No amount of money or any other incentive would ever lure me to visit such barbaric countries.
              Security Council Welcomes Deployment of Sahel Joint Force   
    The Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2359 (2017), welcoming the deployment of the the Group of Five Sahel joint force (Force conjointe du G5 Sahel - FC-G5S) that would address the threat of terrorism, as well as the serious challenges posed by transnational organized crime in the region. The Group of Five for the Sahel (G5 Sahel) comprises Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.

    Sacha Sergio Llorentty Solíz (front left), Permanent Representative of the Plurinational State of Bolivia to the UN and President of the Security Council for June, chairs the meeting.
              Security Council Welcomes Deployment of Sahel Joint Force   
    The Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2359 (2017), welcoming the deployment of the the Group of Five Sahel joint force (Force conjointe du G5 Sahel - FC-G5S) that would address the threat of terrorism, as well as the serious challenges posed by transnational organized crime in the region. The Group of Five for the Sahel (G5 Sahel) comprises Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.

    Issa Konfourou, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Mali to the UN, and President of the G5 Sahel in New York, addresses the Council.
              Business Game Changers Radio with Sarah Westall: On the Brink of WWIII - Why the U.S. is in Syria and How it Dominates Militarily with Space Technology   
    EpisodeWorld War III is building up in the Middle East as 20 countries participate in a military “exercise” dubbed “Northern Thunder”. The exercise includes 350,000 soldiers, 20 thousand tanks, 2450 warplanes, and 460 military helicopters supplied by Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Senegal, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Kuwait, the Maldives, Morocco, Pakistan, Chad, Tunisia, Comoro Islands, Djibouti, Malaysia, Egypt, Mauritania, and Mauritius. While this is occurring, Turkey has been bom ...
              Security Officer , Mauritania   
    Employer: World Vision Location Africa - Mauritania Deadline Date: 05-Jul-17 Recrute un...

    This is content summary, for full job details visit : http://internationalsecurityjobs.blogspot.com .

              Macron in Mali for diplomatic push on Sahel anti-militant force   
    BAMAKO: French President Emmanuel Macron arrived in Mali on Sunday to consolidate Western backing for a regional anti-militant force, with France urging greater support for the Sahel region amid mounting insecurity. The so-called "G5 Sahel" countries just south of the Sahara -- Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger -- have pledged to fight jihadists on their own soil with instability and militant attacks on the rise.
              Macron in Mali for diplomatic push on Sahel anti-jihad force   

    BAMAKO (AFP) –  French President Emmanuel Macron arrived in Mali on Sunday to consolidate Western backing for a regional anti-jihadist force, with France urging greater support for the Sahel region amid mounting insecurity. The so-called “G5 Sahel” countries just south of the Sahara — Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger — have pledged to fight […]

    The post Macron in Mali for diplomatic push on Sahel anti-jihad force appeared first on Times of News.


              Macron: France, Africans Must Eradicate 'Terrorists, Thugs, Murderers'    
    France and its African partners must work together to wipe out Islamist militants in the volatile Sahel region, President Emmanuel Macron said at the opening of a summit in Mali's capital Bamako on Sunday. Leaders of the G-5 Sahel bloc — Mali, Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Niger and Chad — were expected to launch a new multi-national force at the meeting aimed at combating Islamist militants and illegal activity in the vast arid zone. "Every day we must combat terrorists, thugs, murderers ... who we must steadfastly and with determination eradicate together," said Macron, who was making his second visit to Mali since taking office in May. Islamist militant groups, some with links to al Qaeda, seized control of Mali's desert north in 2012. While they were driven out of major cities and towns a year later by a French-led military intervention, they continue to carry out attacks against on U.N. peacekeepers, Malian soldiers and civilian targets. The violence has spilled over into neighboring countries in West Africa’s Sahel region and Paris has deployed thousands of French troops to combat Islamists under a cross-border operation known as Barkhane.
              Tổng thống Pháp đến Mali thúc đẩy nỗ lực chống thánh chiến   

    Theo AFP, Tổng thống Pháp Emmanuel Macron ngày 2/7 đã đến Mali nhằm tăng cường sự ủng hộ của Phương Tây cho lực lượng chống thánh chiến ở khu vực Sahel trong bối cảnh bất ổn gia tăng ở khu vực này.

    Các nước thuộc nhóm gọi là "G5 Sahel" ở phía Nam Sahara gồm Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania và Niger, đã cam kết chống lại các phần tử thánh chiến trên lãnh thổ của họ khi tình trạng bất ổn và các cuộc tấn công Hồi giáo gia tăng.



    Tổng thống Macron sẽ cùng các nguyên thủ quốc gia các nước trên tham dự một cuộc họp đặc biệt tại thủ đô Bamako của Mali. Dự kiến, Pháp sẽ tuyên bố sự ủng hộ của mình đối với lực lượng chống thánh chiến với trọng tâm là việc cung cấp trang thiết bị (cho lực lượng này). Ông Macron cũng sẽ tìm kiếm các khoản hỗ trợ bổ sung của các nước Đức, Hà Lan, Bỉ và Mỹ, cho hoạt động của lực lượng chống thánh chiến trong khu vực.

    Miền Bắc Mali đã đặt dưới sự kiểm soát của một nhánh hồi giáo thánh chiến thuộc tổ chức khủng bố Al-Qaeda từ năm 2012. Cho tới nay, Liên hợp quốc đã triển khai 12.000 binh sỹ trong Phái bộ gìn giữ hòa bình và Pháp đang duy trì hơn 4,000 quân nhân để thực hiện chiến dịch chống khủng bố, với tên gọi “Barkhane” tại khu vực. Pháp đã phát động chiến dịch quân sự Barkhane vào năm 2014 với quy mô lớn nhằm tiêu diệt những nhóm khủng bố ở khu vực Sahel có liên quan đến tổ chức khủng bố quốc tế Al-Qaeda.

    Hiện quân đội Pháp tiếp tục mở rộng nhiệm vụ chống khủng bố trên khắp khu vực Sahel nhạy cảm này./.

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