12 Mildly Interesting Things That Are Actually Pretty Cool   

Some of these are actually more than mildly interesting. Dare I say, normal level interesting?

1. These streetlights in Rwanda that have countdowns.

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2. This pet store's incorporated camera dome in their mural.

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3. This dripping paint coffee table.

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4. This reflection that makes it look like some dude is selling baked goods out of his vehicle.

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5. This ceiling fan that differentiates the ceiling and light chains with a mini light and fan.

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6. This building in Chicago.

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7. This "melty mouth" design concept for the Ghostbuster's Stay Puft Marshmallow Man.

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8. This supermarket that security tags SNICKERS BARS.

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9. This hands-free sunscreen spraying machine.

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10. This hardware stores hammer handle.

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11. This giant strawberry.

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12. This motion picture money.

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          Hội nghị thượng đỉnh AU chú trọng vấn đề thanh niên, hòa bình   

Hội nghị thượng đỉnh Liên minh châu Phi (AU) lần thứ 29 sẽ diễn ra trong hai ngày 3-4/7 ở thủ đô Addis-Ababa của Ethiopia, với chủ đề chính là “Vai trò của thanh niên trong tăng trưởng toàn diện và bền vững của châu lục."

Tại hội nghị lần này, ngoài chủ đề trọng tâm trên, các nguyên thủ và người đứng đầu chính phủ các nước thành viên AU cũng sẽ thảo luận về vấn đề “tự chủ tài chính”của AU trong thời gian tới.

Trước đó, các cuộc họp lần thứ 34 của Ủy ban đại diện thường trực AU (COREP) đã được tổ chức vào ngày 27-28/6 và cuộc họp Hội đồng chấp hành cấp Bộ trưởng Ngoại giao lần thứ 31 của AU cũng đã khai mạc ngày 30/6.

Ngoài mục đích phát huy những lợi thế to lớn trong việc đầu tư vào giới trẻ, Hội nghị thượng đỉnh AU lần thứ 29 cũng sẽ tập trung thảo luận và giải quyết những vấn đề liên quan hòa bình và an ninh ở châu lục. Đặc biệt là giải quyết khủng hoảng ở 2 quốc gia thành viên là Somalia và Libya, cũng như xem xét việc cải cách tổ chức lớn nhất châu lục này để phát huy hiệu quả hơn trong tương lai.


Hiện Tổng thống Rwanda Paul Kagame là Chủ tịch đương nhiệm của AU. Hội nghị thượng đỉnh AU lần thứ 29 diễn ra trong bối cảnh tỷ lệ thất nghiệp trong đội ngũ lao động trẻ ở châu Phi hiện rất cao, chiếm khoảng 30% tổng lực lượng lao động tại đây.

Đặc biệt, tình hình an ninh, trật tự tại châu lục này đang có chiều hướng phức tạp khi các tổ chức Hồi giáo cực đoan đang gia tăng các hoạt động khủng bố, nhất là Somalia, Niger, Mali, Nigeria …và nền hòa bình mong manh tại Libya, Nam Sudan.

Đặc biệt là cuộc khủng hoảng nhân đạo ở Nam Sudan được coi là tồi tệ nhất châu Phi và thế giới hiện nay với hàng trăm nghìn người có nguy cơ bị chết đói, trong đó có nhiều phụ nữ và trẻ em./.


          VIDEO: Design Challenges at the Rwandan Genocide Memorial   
How do we design transformative museum experiences that bridge the gap between empathy and action? I explore this question in my Rising Minds talk at Soho House NY and share about Foossa’s design collaboration with UX for Good and the Kigali Genocide Memorial. Rising Minds presents Lee-Sean Huang, Co-founder and Creative Director of Foossa from risingminds on … Continue reading VIDEO: Design Challenges at the Rwandan Genocide Memorial
          Rwanda Ministry of Health Selects One Network’s Market-Leading Real Time Value Network™   

Real Time Value Network to improve patient service levels via supply chain and logistics management of HIV/AIDS medicines

(PRWeb July 10, 2012)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/7/prweb9675744.htm


          Recommended Reading   
I compiled a list of books I've recently read and feel would appeal to middle and high school students. Each of the books includes themes conducive to classroom discussions.

Except when marked with an asterisk, all titles are available in audio format from the Las Vegas Clark County Public Library District (see LVCCLD link when applicable). To access these materials, you must have a current public library card and know your PIN. For more information about procuring a library card, click here. To use eAudio books from the public library, you will need to download OverDrive Media Console (a free software package) to your computer. Instructions and more information about accessing eMedia are available here.

Except for Candy Shop War and Leepike Ridge, all remaining books with asterisks are available at Audible. Note that there is a charge to purchase audiobooks from Audible. Different from the public library, however, the purchaser becomes the book's owner.


Recommended Book Options


Young Adult Science Fiction
  • Adoration of Jenna Fox (Pearson, Mary E.): Jenna Fox awakens after a coma having forgotten her life before her accident. She explores her past life through video, but is often met with reluctance to talk about her operation with others. This science fiction mystery explores issues related to bioethics. [LVCCLD CD]
  • Elsewhere (Zevin, Gabrielle): Elsewhere is the story of a girl who died. Upon doing so, she arrived at a place called “Elsewhere” where all the people had lived lives on Earth and were now dead. Most of the people were a lot older than her (she died in her teens). A unique feature of Elsewhere is that you grow older instead of younger while there. [LVCCLD CD]
  • Hunger Games (Collins, Suzanne): The Hunger Games is the first of a trilogy by Suzanne Collins. The premise underlying the plot is that a corrupt “Capitol” controls 12 districts. To keep the districts under control, the Capitol sponsors The Hunger Games each year. Two children from each district are selected to participate, and only one participant from the 24 survives the Games. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • Little Brother (Doctorow, Cory): Cory Doctorow truly practices what he preaches! In a book about high-tech, high-action stunts in the midst of terrorist activity in the U.S., Doctorow discusses the importance of freedom of information. Likewise, he made his book available for free online using a Creative Commons license. [Warning: This book includes mature themes likely to be inappropriate for use in school environments.] [LVCCLD eAudio]
  • Maximum Ride: The Angel Experiment (Patterson, James): This is the first book of a series by the acclaimed James Patterson. The main character is Maximum Ride, a headstrong teenage girl who grew up in a science lab. She and her “flock of bird kids” were all genetically manipulated pre-birth, resulting in the presence of wings. As such, all the children are able to fly. The book follows Maximum Ride and her flock as they escape from the lab and learn to live on their own. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • Maze Runner (Dashner, James): This is an action-packed thriller! Every month for several years, one boy has been delivered into the “Glade.” All the boys remember their names, but none remember anything else about their past. In a strange turn of events, the day after Thomas (the main character) arrives, a girl arrives. Thomas tries to learn about the society the boys created before his arrival and learns of the maze, their possible escape route, that encompasses their community. [LVCCLD CD]
  • Neptune's Children (Dobkin, Bonnie): Dobkin’s book, Neptune’s Children, begins with a bioterrorist attack on all adults around the world. All individuals over age 13 die instantly, leaving all children behind to fend for themselves. Those children left behind in a theme park (similar to Disneyland), create a working society while facing potential and real threats. [LVCCLD CD]
  • Twilight (Meyer, Stephenie): This epic series takes place in Washington state. The main character, Bella, meets a young man, Edward, who intrigues her and ultimately becomes the object of her affection. Bella learns that Edward is a vampire and struggles with love and longevity. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • *Uglies (Westerfield, Scott): This series (including Pretties, Specials, and Extras) by Scott Westerfield begins with Uglies, a book about a utopian society that spawned from modern America. All children are called “uglies” until their 16th birthdays on which they receive an operation that makes them pretty. Once pretty, they move to a location where they can play and party all the time. Some uglies, though, question if being pretty is all there is to life. [Audible]
  • *Unwind (Shusterman, Neal): Imagine if parents could choose to have their teenagers “unwound,” have their body parts separated and given to save the lives of others. It’s the perfect solution for harvesting human organs… isn’t it? [Audible]
Young Adult Fantasy
  • *The Candy Shop War (Mull, Brandon):Imagine a world where eating candy could give you special powers. Mull masterfully juxtaposes good and evil amidst a fantasy of vivid characters. The book may sound like Charlie and the Chocolate Factory or Harry Potter, but it truly is a story of its own.
  • Eragon (Paolini, Christopher):16-year-old Christopher Paolini wrote this epic tale (Eragon is the first book in a series) just after graduating from high school. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • Fablehaven (Mull, Brandon): When a boy and girl go to spend time with their grandfather, they learn there is more to his mysterious life than originally imagined. The area surrounding his home is a haven for fabulous creatures of all kinds—some good, and some bad. [LVCCLD CD]
  • Inkheart (Funke, Cornelia): In this three-book tale, Funke creates a world where books are reality become intertwined. Some of her characters have the unique ability to “read” characters and items “out” of books. In one unfortunate time, the father in the story accidentally read his wife into a book; he’s also read some antagonistic characters out of the book. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
Young Adult Non-Fiction
  • Fallen Angels (Meyers, Walter Dean): Fallen Angels is realistic historical fiction about serving in the Vietnam War. The main character is African-American, adding to the issues of race conflict occurring during the war. [Warning: Telling the story of men and women serving on the front lines, the book does not “candy-coat” the violence, language, and other everyday happenings of the U.S. soldiers.] [LVCCLD CD]
  • A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier (Beah, Ishmael): A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier is the true autobiographical of Ishmael Beah, a boy who served as a soldier in Sierra Leone. After his hometown was attacked by rebels, he spent months searching for his family before being recruited into guerrilla warfare. He is later reformed when living in a UNICEF refugee camp. [Warning: This book contains graphic violence.] [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • *Three Cups of Tea: Young Reader’s Edition (Mortensen, Greg): Mortensen is described as a man who is single-handedly creating peaceful relationships between those in the Middle East and in the United States. This book tells his story—from mountain climbing failure to sacrificial living. After returning from a failed attempt to ascend K2, he commits to build a school for the girls in one of Pakistan’s outermost regions. He kept his promise, and continues to change the world with his relentless efforts. [Audible]
Young Adult Historical Fiction
  • Elijah of Buxton (Curtis, Christopher Paul): This book tells the story of a small town in Canada. Buxton is where escaped slaves from the United States find refuge. They welcome those former slaves who have made the long, painful journey from the South. The story takes a turn when Elijah, just a boy, heads back to the United States to complete a chore. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
Young Adult Realistic Fiction
  • Hatchet (Paulsen, Gary): This Newberry-award winner tells of a boy who becomes an inhabitant of the wilderness when the plane in which he is flying goes down and the pilot dies in the crash. The main character must learn to survive in the Canadian wild. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • *Leepike Ridge (Wilson, N.D.): This action-filled story of realistic fiction is a fun read. When the main character finds himself in a hidden cave under Leepike Ridge, he learns about life outside the mainstream.
  • Smiles to Go (Spinelli, Jerry): This is a coming-of-age story for boys who question who they are, where they fit in the universe, and their relationships with girls. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • Theodore Boone: Kid Lawyer (Grisham, John): This is John Grisham’s first children’s book. Theodore Boone lives with his parents, both of whom are lawyers. He loves the law and spends all his free time in the courthouse. As such, he is the resident expert on the law at his school, and he regularly advises his classmates on legal matters. He eve becomes entwined in a case of his own! This is a great book to learn about the U.S. legal system. [LVCCLD CD]
Adult Historical Fiction
  • Sarah's Key (de Rosnay, Tatiana): de Rosnay juxtaposes the past and present when her protagonist, a journalist, accepts the opportunity to write a story about French involvement in the Nazi round-up of Jewish families in Paris in 1942. While the journalist’s story unfolds, Sarah’s story unfolds. Sarah’s story is about cruelty and loss at the hand of the French police as they did the bidding of the Nazi’s. It is also about human compassion and remembrance. [LVCCLD eAudio]
Adult Realistic Fiction
  • The Life of Pi (Martel, Yann): Martel tells the tale of a boy from India. His family owns a zoo, but is selling their animals to a U.S. zoo due to financial hardships. During their sea voyage, there is an accident and the boy, Pi, ends up aboard a small rescue boat along with a tiger and several other animals. He tells of their mutual survival tactics and leaves the reader questioning reality. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
Adult Non-Fiction
  • *The Horse Boy (Isaacson, Rupert): Isaacson wrote this biography about his son, a boy afflicted with autism. In an attempt to help their son, Isaacson and his wife trekked through Mongolia with the intent to meet shamans who could assist their child. Their journey took them to the outer-most parts of Mongolia, even to the “Reindeer People.” This is a heartwarming tale the of the efforts parents will make to assist their children and ways that seeing the world differently can help us all see better. [Audible]
  • Strength in What Remains (Kidder, Tracy): A medical student in Africa finds himself constantly trying to escape war and war-torn environments as he traverses through his home country of Burundi and into and out of Rwanda. He eventually makes his way to the United States where he faces trials of a homeless immigrant in a foreign land. [LVCCLD eAudio]
  • Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman (Krakauer, Jon): Pat Tillman, former NFL player, lost his life during the U.S. Gulf War. Krakauer describes the events leading to his NFL and military careers and the circumstances surrounding his death in combat. [LVCCLD eAudio/CD]
  • *The Last American Man (Gilbert, Elizabeth): Gilbert, author of Eat, Pray, Love, writes the biography of Eustice Conway, a true man of the American Wilderness. Born in the 1960s, Eustice took his homemade teepee and left home as a teenager to live off the land. Gilbert tells of his trek along the Appalachian Trail, his record-setting horse-journey across America, and his lifelong passion to bring Americans to a greater appreciation and respect of nature. [Audible]

          AIMS Rwanda Graduation 2017   
The African institute for mathematical Sciences Rwanda Centre graduated its first ever cohort of students at a graduation ceremony held at the AIMS center in Kigali, Rwanda on 22nd June  2017 Forty-four students from 10 African countries, namely; Cameroon, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Sudan, Burundi, Nigeria, Zambia, Kenya and Tanzania received their Master’s of Science in Mathematical Sciences ...
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          Bishop Elysée : Moise Katumbi n ' a jamais dénoncé l ' occupation Rwandaise et Congolais moko te ako Nzima to zala na première dame Rwandaise . Katumbi aza mutu ya PPRD , Congo elingi régime ekende ! (vidéo)   
Bishop Elysée  : Moise Katumbi n ' a jamais dénoncé l ' occupation Rwandaise et Congolais moko te ako Nzima to zala na première dame Rwandaise (vidéo)

          Rights groups accuse French bank of role in Rwanda genocide   
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          France : BNP Paribas accusée de « complicité de génocide » au Rwanda   
Deux plaintes viennent d'être déposées devant la justice française avec un objectif commun : faire la
lumière sur le rôle de la France dans le génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda. L'une, déposée par trois associations, vise la BNP Paribas ; l'autre, portée par l'association Survie, cible des responsables politiques français en poste à l'époque.
Deux nouveaux fronts judiciaires viennent de s’ouvrir en France dans la bataille mémorielle sur les responsabilités de Paris dans le génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda en 1994. Une première plainte contre X avec constitution de partie civile a été déposée par l’association Survie, ce mercredi 28 juin. Elle vise « les responsables politiques et militaires français » de l’époque soupçonnés d’avoir fourni des armes au régime rwandais, avant et pendant le génocide de 1994.
« Nous avions déjà porté plainte en 2015, mais cette plainte avait été rejetée, au motif, notamment, que des ministres ne peuvent être jugés que par la Cour de Justice de la République. Le Parquet avait alors considéré que la plainte ne visait que les ministres et le président de la République d’alors, mais il y a en fait énormément d’autres responsabilités qui sont à rechercher dans les cabinets ministériels ou chez les responsables militaires », explique Thomas Borrel, porte-parole de Survie. « Cette fois, en nous constituant partie civile, nous espérons bien pousser le Parquet à ouvrir une instruction », pointe-t-il.

Des armes livrées malgré l’embargo

La seconde plainte a été déposée le même jour par Sherpa, le Collectif des parties civiles pour le Rwanda et Ibuka France. Selon ces associations, BNP Paribas se serait rendu coupable de « complicité de génocide, complicités de crimes de guerre et de complicité de crimes contre l’Humanité » en permettant, en plein génocide, le financement de l’achat d’un important stock d’armes par le gouvernement rwandais, alors qu’un embargo avait été décrété par les Nations unies le 17 mai 1994.
Les ONG pointent du doigt la Banque nationale de Paris − devenue depuis la BNP Paribas −, qui selon elles auraient autorisé deux transferts depuis le compte détenu chez elle par la Banque nationale du Rwanda vers un compte au nom de Petrus Willem Ehlers dans la banque suisse UBP. Des fonds qui, selon Sherpa, auraient permis à Théoneste Bagosora – surnommé le « cerveau du génocide » et condamné à 35 ans de prison en appel en 2011 – d’acheter 80 tonnes d’armes, kalachnikovs et munitions, livrées les 16 et 20 juin 1994 à Goma, au Zaïre (actuelle RDC), avant d’être transportées vers le Rwanda voisin. Une livraison confirmée par le colonel Bagosora lors de son procès devant le tribunal international pour le Rwanda, qui a précisé que ces armes avaient servi à « aller donner un coup de main à Kigali ».

Une vente d’arme scellée aux Seychelles

Les transferts visés par la plainte contre BNP Paribas portent sur un montant global de 1,3 millions de dollars (soit l’équivalent de 1,1 millions d’euros). Le bénéficiaire, le Sud-Africain Petrus Willem Ehlers, dirige alors la société Delta Aero qui sert d’intermédiaire dans des ventes d’armes.
La vente d’arme a été finalisée aux Seychelles le 17 juin 1994, entre le vendeur d’armes sud-africain et le colonel rwandais Théoneste Bagosora. Celui-ci, bénéficiant de complicités, fournit un faux certificat de destination finale, afin de contourner l’embargo pesant sur le Rwanda en faisant croire que le contrat a été passé par le Zaïre.
Le simple fait que le montant soit si élevé, en provenance de la Banque nationale du Rwanda, aurait dû, à l’époque, alerter la BNP
« À l’époque, nous étions en plein embargo de l’ONU. Les ordres de virements de la Banque nationale du Rwanda auraient dû être particulièrement surveillés. D’autres banques ont d’ailleurs gelé les fonds de la BNR, notamment la banque Bruxelles Lambert. Le simple fait que le montant soit si élevé, en provenance de la Banque nationale du Rwanda, aurait dû, à l’époque, alerter la BNP », estime Marie-Laure Guislain, directrice du contentieux au sein de Sherpa. Sur la dimension pénale de la plainte, elle précise que la complicité de génocide ne suppose pas « d’intention génocidaire », mais « d’avoir su que l’acte allait servir à la commission d’un génocide ».

Une affaire connue depuis 1995

Pour l’instant, la BNP Paribas ne fait aucun commentaire. « Nous avons appris le dépôt de cette plainte par voie médiatique, nous ne disposons pas des éléments suffisants pour la commenter », se contente de répondre à Jeune Afrique Olivier Durbize, responsable de la communication du géant bancaire français.
L’affaire est pourtant ancienne. « Les questions de trafic d’armes malgré l’embargo ont été levées dès 1995 par Human Rights Watch, ce qui avait débouché sur la mise en place d’une commission d’enquête de l’ONU », souligne Jacques Morel, auteur de La France au cœur du génocide des Tutsi (éd. L’Esprit frappeur). Les deux versements visés par la plainte contre BNP Paribas, tout comme le nom de l’intermédiaire sud-africain, figurent d’ailleurs en toutes lettres dans le rapport de la Commission internationale d’enquête des Nations unies sur les livraisons d’armes illicites dans la région des Grands Lacs, remis en 1998 à Kofi Annan. À l’époque, la commission avait noté que le ministère français des Affaires étrangères, sollicité sur ce dossier, n’avait pas donné suite.

Une offensive pas concertée

Ces deux plaintes déposées à Paris interviennent alors que la revue XXI vient tout juste de publier un témoignage inédit sur la livraison d’armes au régime génocidaire rwandais par la France. « Au cours de l’opération Turquoise, ordre avait été donné de réarmer les Hutus qui franchissaient la frontière », y affirme notamment un haut fonctionnaire français qui a eu accès aux archives classées secret défense. « J’ai reçu l’instruction de charger les conteneurs d’armes sur ces camions, qui les ont emmenés ensuite au Zaïre pour les remettre aux forces gouvernementales rwandaises», déclarait déjà à Jeune Afrique, en avril 2014, un officier français, Guillaume Ancel, qui était capitaine au sein de l’opération Turquoise.
Les différents protagonistes assurent que l’initiative n’a pas été coordonnée. « Nous n’avons appris la volonté de Sherpa de déposer plainte contre BNP Paribas qu’en début de semaine », explique ainsi Thomas Borrel. Du côté de Sherpa, on assure également que la coïncidence n’est pas calculée. « Ce que cette plainte veut aussi montrer aux nouveaux élus, c’est l’importance de la loi sur le devoir de vigilance », insiste Marie-Laure Guislain, de Sherpa. Quelques semaines seulement après son arrivée à l’Élysée, Emmanuel Macron est désormais prévenu : les plaies laissées béantes en France par le génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda ne sont pas encore refermées.
Source: Jeune Afrique



          ENQUÊTE: PROCÈS SUR BIEN MAL ACQUIS: L'ONG SHERPA, N'EST PAS CE QUE LES "PANAFRICANISTES" NOUS FONT CROIRE. vient de traduire en justice, une des grandes Banques françaises. Voici pourquoi?   
https://www.espacemanager.com/sites/default/files/field/image/bien-mal-acquis.jpg 
SHERPA, N'EST PAS CE QUE LES "PANAFRICANISTES" NOUS FONT CROIRE.
SHERPA, association luttant contre les crimes économiques, vient de traduire en justice, une des grandes banques françaises, pour complicité de génocide au Rwanda. Cette banque aurait, pendant le génocide contre les tutsi, financé les achats d'armes qui ont permis de massacrer les Tutsi et les Hutu modérés, alors que le Rwanda fût en ce temps là sous embargo
C'est le lieu d'envoyer un camouflet à ceux qui intoxiquent les africains, que cette ONG, qui fait saisir les Biens de certains dirigeants africains seraient le bras armé de l'Etat français. Ces manipulateurs des consciences, oublient de dire, que SHERPA a plus de dossiers contre la France que ceux des africains. Quelques exemples :
SHERPA poursuit Sarkozy pour financement illicite venant de Lybie .
SHERPA poursuit TOTAL, pour des malversations financières en Birmanie.
SHERPA poursuit Bollore pour exploitation des ouvriers au Cameroun.
SHERPA poursuit le cimentier LAFARGE, pour financement de terrorisme en Syrie. ....etc.
Organiser les tables rondes rien que pour faire croire que C est l'Etat Français qui veut nuire à Obiang, Bongo, et Sassou, relève d'une malhonnête intellectuelle.
Par  Jules Marie Kemajou



          French Bank BNP Paribas Accused Of Complicity In Rwandan Genocide   
Three civil society organizations in France have filed a lawsuit against French banking giant BNP Paribas, accusing it of complicity in the 1994 genocide that killed more than 800,000 people.
          Rwanda First Lady Unveils Modern Hostel for Elderly Genocide survivors   
  About 94 elderly survivors of the 1994 genocide against Tutsi begun living a very dignified life at a modern hostel unveiled to them by the First Lady on Thursday, Writes KTPress. The new hostel named ‘Impinganzima’ in Huye district was unveiled on Thursday afternoon and will be a home to elderly needy genocide widows […]
          Rwanda : « On nous a demandé de livrer des armes aux génocidaires… « , un ancien officier de l’armée française   
Rwanda : « On nous a demandé de livrer des armes aux génocidaires… « , un ancien officier de l’armée française Alors que l’association Survie a déposé, récemment, à Paris, une plainte contre des responsables politiques et militaires français pour « complicité de génocide et complicité de crimes contre l’humanité », lors du génocide au Rwanda, en 1994 , Guillaume […]
          Rwanda: France - BNP-Paribas, banque armée des génocidaires   
[L'Observateur Paalga] C'est une plainte qui va faire date, pour la simple et bonne raison que c'est la première du genre en France. BNP-Paribas est ni plus ni moins accusée par l'association anticorruption Sherpa, le collectif des parties civiles pour le Rwanda et Ibuka de « complicité de génocide, de crimes de guerre et de crimes contre l'humanité ». De quoi mériter de comparaître devant la Cour pénale internationale.
          Rwanda: Génocide rwandais - BNP Paribas sur la sellette   
[Deutsche Welle] La banque BNP Paribas est accusée de n'avoir pas respecté l'embargo sur les armes pendant le génocide de1994 au Rwanda. Si les faits sont avérés, la mesure aura de lourdes conséquences.
          Rwanda: Le rôle des banques dans le génocide rwandais   
[RFI] C'est une première en France : la banque BNP Paribas est visée par une plainte pour complicité de crime contre l'humanité au Rwanda. L'association Sherpa, le Collectif des parties civiles pour le Rwanda et l'ONG Ibuka accusent la banque d'avoir permis l'achat d'armes utilisées ensuite par les génocidaires.
          2017 Arkansas Times Academic All-Star Team   
Meet the best and brightest high school students in the state.

The class of 2017, our 23rd, is made up of athletes, coders, budding politicians and brain experts. There's rarely a B on the transcripts of these students — in not just this, their senior year, but in any year of their high school careers.

Back in 1995, we created the Academic All-Star Team to honor what we then called "the silent majority — the kids who go to school, do their homework (most of it, anyway), graduate and go on to be contributing members of society." Too often, we argued then, all Arkansans heard about young people was how poorly they were faring. Or, when students did get positive attention, it came for athletic achievement.

As you read profiles of this year's All-Stars, it should be abundantly clear that good things are happening in Arkansas schools and there are many academic achievers who deserve to be celebrated. You should get a good idea, as well, of how these stellar students are busy outside school, with extracurricular activities, volunteer work, mission activities and more.

They'll be honored this week at a ceremony at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock with plaques and $250 cash awards.

Many college plans listed here are not set in stone, as students await information on scholarships and acceptances.

CAROLINE COPLIN-CHUDY
Age: 17
Hometown: North Little Rock
High School: Mount St. Mary Academy
Parents: (guardian) Dennis Chudy
College plans: Duke University

Caroline Coplin-Chudy has a 4.4 grade point average — high enough to rank second in her class at Mount St. Mary Academy — and lost her mother to leukemia during her sophomore year, something she told us came to be a source of inspiration and drive during her academic development. "It was a big adjustment. After my mom passed away, it was just my stepdad. It's a weird realization coming to the idea that both of your parents are gone, and it's just you. ... I still think of her every single day. She motivates me to do well in everything, because my whole life I wanted to make her proud." Caroline is president of Mount St. Mary's Investment Club and of SADD (Students Against Destructive Decisions). She's also been a regular volunteer for several years at the Little Rock Compassion Center, whose recovery branch provides meals and health resources to people suffering from addiction. Caroline said she found healing from her own grief in the friendships she forged there. As the recipient of a Questbridge scholarship, described by Caroline's guidance counselor and nominator Amy Perkins as a program where lower-income students qualify for tuition to schools with which they "match" via an early decision process, Caroline will attend Duke University on a full scholarship. "I'm going to study biology and psych, with a minor in Spanish. My plan is to work at the Duke Center for Addiction [Science and Technology] helping people with drug addictions overcome that sort of thing. It's something that I've had experience with, watching my family go through things like that."

AXEL NTAMATUNGIRO
Age: 17
Hometown: Pine Bluff
High School: Subiaco Academy
Parents: Sixte Ntamatungiro and Sylvana Niciteretse
College plans: Rice University, neuroscience

Axel Ntamatungiro grew up among books and maps dispersed throughout his home that "paint[ed] the walls with nuanced shades of knowledge." It shows. Not often can a high school senior explain, as Axel does, his love for studying the brain so easily. "Neuroscience is basically a neuron turning on and off," he said. "The fact that you have billions of these combinations that lead to consciousness, that's unbelievable." To continue learning about the mind, Axel is headed to Rice University on a full ride as a QuestBridge scholar. Maybe medical school or graduate school after that. Axel said his parents taught him a "humble intellectualism" that helped him understand "the irrationality of life." They always told him: "Work hard, but you need to realize you don't always get what you deserve." And life has been, at times, irrational and difficult for his family. Axel was the only member of his family born in the United States — in Little Rock in 1999. The rest migrated from Burundi in the early 1990s. They stayed here as the Rwandan genocide inflicted incredible damage in the area. That past was never hidden from Axel. "Instead of avoiding my questions, my parents level-headedly answered [them], telling me about Belgian colonialism, Hutu-Tutsi tension and the systematic poverty afflicting Burundi," he said. Maybe that is why Axel has never been afraid to ask big questions. He said it also helped to have a diverse group of friends who taught him new things. At his cafeteria table for lunch are kids from all over: Nigeria, Fort Smith, Japan, Bentonville and Russia. Everyone's small stories add to a global perspective, something bigger from something small, kind of like those neurons.

JADE DESPAIN
Age: 18
Hometown: Springdale
High School: Haas Hall Academy (Fayetteville)
Parents: Brenan and Tiffany DeSpain
College plans: U.S. Naval Academy, nuclear engineering

For Jade DeSpain, the question, "Where's your hometown?" isn't necessarily as straightforward as it seems. The National Merit semifinalist, swimming star and Quiz Bowler spent much of her childhood in Beijing, where her parents — both fluent in Mandarin — taught her Chinese concurrently with English (and where, she notes, she acquired an "incredible prowess with chopsticks.") "We've moved around so much that I don't really have a 'hometown,' but Springdale is the closest I've ever gotten," she said. She's made her impact there, too, tutoring students free of charge through her volunteer work with the M&N Augustine Foundation and putting in time at the Arkansas Council for the Blind and the Springdale Animal Shelter. Jade is ranked second in her class, and her high school transcript is full of aced courses in trigonometry, physics and calculus. She's also the co-founder of Haas Hall Academy's coding club, so a career in nuclear energy development — Jade's field of choice — isn't just an aspiration; it's the plan. "I have a deep appreciation for nature," she told us, citing Devil's Den State Park as a spot to which she feels closely connected, and stressing the importance of preserving natural spaces and developing more long-term options for sustainable energy. On Christmas Day 2016, Jade checked her email to find that she'd attained something she'd wanted as early as age 12: acceptance to the U.S. Naval Academy. There, she'll major in nuclear engineering and complete her five mandatory post-Academy years in the Navy, after which she hopes to acquire a Ph.D. in the field.

AVERY ELLIOTT
Age: 18
Hometown: Cabot
High school: Cabot High School
Parents: Dan and Melissa Elliott
College plans: University of Arkansas, medicine

Though many of our All-Stars seem destined from birth for academic greatness, there is the occasional inspiring All-Star who has had to overcome seemingly insurmountable odds. One of those is Cabot High School's Avery Elliott, who was born with nystagmus, a condition that causes involuntary eye movements that can make it hard for sufferers to concentrate and learn. Though it's hard to imagine it now, when she was in elementary school Avery found herself falling further and further behind her classmates in reading because of her condition. "That was difficult," she said. "I was behind schedule until about third or fourth grade. I would have to go home and really work with my parents to keep up with the rest of the class." Even though she struggled early on, Avery said that, in a way, the nystagmus contributed to her success and gave her a direction to follow. "I had to learn to really study even outside of school," she said. "I learned some very good study habits. But I think it also really affected where I wanted to go as far as my career. ... I really learned that a medical team can not only dispense medicine, but can really affect someone's life." A National Merit finalist who has volunteered extensively with Special Olympics and already completed 43 hours of college-level coursework, Avery has been awarded the University of Arkansas Fellowship. She plans to study medicine at UAMS after completing her undergrad degree, then practice in Arkansas. That goal has always pushed her to succeed academically. "I wanted to go into the medical field from an early age," she said, "so I knew starting out in high school that I needed to make very good grades in order to get where I needed to. I had to really learn the material, rather than just trying to ace a test."

JARED GILLIAM
Age: 17
Hometown: Cabot
High school: Cabot High School
Parents: Dan and LeAnne Gilliam
College plans: University of Arkansas, engineering

When most young people say they want to change the world, it's easy to believe that's just pie-in-the-sky thinking by someone who hasn't yet been through the Academy of Hard Knocks. When Jared Gilliam says he wants to change the world, however, there's a good chance he might actually pull it off. Jared even has a plan: He'll change the world through engineering. A National Merit finalist and AP scholar with a GPA of 4.18 and a perfect score of 36 on the ACT, Jared is well placed to do just that. A musician who plays percussion with the Cabot High Marching Band, Jared said his favorite subject in school is math. "I think I'm mostly interested in engineering because I've always been sort of a problem-solver," he said. "I've enjoyed math and science, working through things and finding solutions to everyday problems. This year, I've been in robotics, so we've spent time working on a robot to perform various tasks. I've enjoyed that a lot. I think engineering is where my ability would best be used." He'll attend the University of Arkansas, which has offered him the Honors College Fellowship. He said the drive to excel academically has always been a part of his life. "I've grown up being encouraged to do well, and I guess I have my parents to thank for that and all my teachers," he said. "I think knowing that I have the ability to do all of this, I feel compelled to do what I can to make a difference. I think life would be pretty boring if I didn't go out there and do all the things I do. I don't think I could settle for not being successful."

BENJAMIN KEATING
Age: 18
Hometown: Fort Smith
High School: Southside High School
Parents: Drs. Bill and Janice Keating
College plans: Undecided

If you were looking for a ringing endorsement of Ben Keating's character, you'd need to look no further than Amy Slater, the guidance counselor who nominated him for our Academic All-Stars roster and who said of Ben, "He is all the things I hope my son turns out to be. ... He really thinks about things, and he practices the trumpet and piano for hours a day. It's crazy, his dedication." Ben probably had something to prove here; he admits to some skepticism on the part of his mother when he announced he'd be pursuing a career in music. He's certainly proved his mettle; Ben is band president at Southside, was a principal trumpet for the 2017 National Youth Honor Orchestra, first chair for Southside's Wind Symphony and for the All-State Jazz Band and was ranked in the top-tier bands for All-State Band and All-State Orchestra each year from 2014-16. The accolades go on and on: Ben has received a Young Artist Award from the International Trumpet Guild, a Gold Medal from the National Piano Guild and superior ratings from the National Federation of Music Clubs competitions for over a decade. He plays for the Arkansas Symphony Youth Orchestra and as a volunteer musician for the Fort Smith Community Band. Ben is still deciding where to attend college, but wherever he goes, he hopes to continue playing with an orchestra. Eventually, he wants to teach at the university level. "Ultimately," he wrote, "I want to use my passion to unite people of all different races, backgrounds and cultures. In today's society that is politically and culturally divided, it is more important than ever to share the universal language of music."

KATHERINE HAHN
Age: 17
Hometown: Hindsville
High School: Huntsville High School
Parents: Shannon Hahn
College plans: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, biochemical engineering

Katherine Hahn is ranked first in her class at Huntsville High School, which she attends because her hometown of Hindsville is too small to support its own school system. The population of Hindsville is "about 75 people," she told us. At Huntsville High, Katherine plays bass drum in the marching band and marimba/xylophone in the concert band and runs with the Huntsville cross-country team. Her real passion, though, is science. "I think I've always wanted to go to a college that was science-based and research-based," she told us. Her high school principal, Roxanne Enix, noted her own surprise when Katherine announced that she'd take 10 credits her senior year, instead of the recommended eight. "I thought she had lost her mind," Enix stated. Those credits, over half of which are in AP classes, are what Katherine hopes have prepared her for the rigorous workload at MIT. Aiming for a career in pharmaceutical development, Katherine plans to study biochemical engineering, something she said resonated personally with her as a result of her mother's struggle with skin cancer. "Biology helps me understand why medicine does the things it does," Katherine told us. "Whenever I first started out, I wanted to do environmental stuff," she said, but turned her attention to drug delivery systems after observing so many friends and loved ones battling cancer. "I want to help stop people from being scared of losing people," she explained. Katherine, a native of Tahlequah, Okla., who moved to Arkansas around fifth grade, has served on the Madison County Health Coalition as Youth Leader and was named Student of the Year in 2017 by the Huntsville Chamber of Commerce and Huntsville High School.

GEORGIANA BURNSIDE
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High school: Little Rock Christian Academy
Parents: Bob and Ann Burnside
College plans: Stanford University, biology and public policy

When this reporter mentioned to friends at UAMS that she'd just spoken to an amazingly poised, optimistic and intelligent young woman with a spinal cord injury, they said in unison, "You mean Georgiana Burnside." Her reputation as a teenager who at 16 was paralyzed from the waist down in a snow skiing accident but who considers the event a "blessing" no doubt goes further than UAMS, all the way to Denver's Craig Hospital, where she spent "the most memorable two months in my life," she said, and where she returns to continue her rehabilitation. What is a spinal cord injury? She answers that it is a) a life changed in a split second, b) finding out that a bad attitude is the true disability, c) a time to show off wheelchair tricks, and d) spontaneous moments of unfortunate incontinence. In her essay for the Arkansas Times, Georgiana writes, "my physical brokenness has developed wholeness in my heart about the capacity life holds for individuals regardless of their disabilities." In a phone interview, Georgiana, once a figure skater, talked about her work with Easter Seals, fundraisers for Craig Hospital, and giving talks and testimony about her faith. Georgiana has regained the ability to walk with hiking sticks and leg braces, thanks to the strength in her quads. And, thanks to support from the High Fives Foundation in Truckee, Calif., which sponsors athletes with injuries and which has paid for some of her rehabilitation, Georgiana returned to the slopes over spring break, skiing upright with the aid of long forearm equipment. At Stanford, she'll study to be a doctor, with a goal to return to Craig Hospital as a physician who'll treat other injured youths who, though they may have, like Georgiana, at first believed their life was over, will learn they have "a unique role ... enabling the advancement of society."

MITCHELL HARVEY
Age: 17
Hometown: North Little Rock
High School: North Little Rock High School
Parents: David and Susan Harvey
College plans: Likely Mississippi State University, chemical engineering

Mitchell Harvey is a big fan of the periodic table. "The elements are amazing little things," he wrote in his Academic All-Star essay. "They make up everything, yet we hardly see them in their pure form in everyday life." Mitchell decided they needed more exposure, so he started collecting examples of the elements and taking them to school for his peers and teachers to see. He extracted helium from an abandoned tank on the side of the road. He found zinc in wheel weights, grew crystals of copper with electrolysis and made bromine, which he describes as "a blood-red liquid that fumes profusely," from a "crude" homemade distillation setup and pool chemicals. Though you can buy sodium readily, Mitchell made his by melting drain cleaner (sodium hydroxide) with a blowtorch and then passing a current through it, separating the mixture into sodium metal, oxygen and water. His parents were OK with the procedure, he says, because he wore a Tyvek suit, three pairs of gloves, safety goggles and a face shield. While on a college visit in California last summer, Mitchell toured Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles and was impressed by the large periodic table display exhibit there. So he decided to build one for North Little Rock High. He got money from the school's alumni group, the Wildcat Foundation, to pay for the supplies necessary to construct the 9-foot-by-6-foot display. He hopes to have it completed in the next two weeks and fill it with examples of elements he has collected, though he may need additional funding to pay for other elements. No. 1 in a class of 687, Mitchell scored a perfect 36 on the ACT. He's also an Eagle Scout, and led a project to plant 800 native hardwood seedlings at Toltec Mounds Archeological State Park. After college, Mitchell said, he might start his own waste remediation business. "The business model I would be going for would be taking some byproduct that's hazardous and turning it into something useful."

CARSON MOLDER
Age: 18
Hometown: Mabelvale
High school: Bryant High SCHOOL
Parents: Kevin and Ruby Molder
College plans: University of Arkansas

Not everybody plays the mellophone and likes to draw up better interstate exchanges, but Carson Molder does both. The University of Arkansas Honors College-bound student, No. 1 in his class, likes to create three-dimensional schemes in his head, and has been creating road designs since he was young. But as a musician who plays the French horn in his school's orchestra and the mellophone in the Legacy of Bryant marching band, and who has won a band scholarship in addition to his Honors College reward to the UA, he said that one day he may be an audio engineer. "I'm going to put things together and see what sticks," he said of his future. Meanwhile, Carson said the internet has been his Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria, taking him to new places that he otherwise could not get to. "I can count on my hands the number of times I have set foot outside Arkansas," Carson wrote in an essay for the Arkansas Times. But with the internet, "I can gaze into the redwood forests of California and the skyscrapers of New York City without leaving my desk." Without the internet, he said in a phone interview, "I would not be at the top of my class." Carson added, "It's not going to replace going out and visiting these things, but if you're a kid and don't have the money to go out, you can visit Yellowstone." Carson, who describes himself as "really ambitious," is looking forward to studying with Dr. Alan Mantooth, the director of the UA National Center for Reliable Electric Power Transmission. The UA, he said, "will provide me the tools" he'll need to succeed in graduate school, which he hopes will be Stanford University.

OLIVIA LANGER
Age: 18
Hometown: Jonesboro
High school: Brookland High School
Parents: Kelly Webb and Jonathan Langer
College plans: University of California, Santa Barbara, chemistry

You might think that a student who is No. 1 in her class and a National Merit finalist with nary a B on her high school transcript might not consider one of her greatest achievements her selection as her high school's drum major three years in a row. But here's the thing: Schoolwork comes easy to Olivia Langer. "I never had to work hard," she told us. In fact, her style of learning is "conversation-based," she said; she enjoys "debate without argument." But music was different: "I struggled at points, and had to put in extra work to be good." Her selection as drum major was "something I know I've worked for," she said, and she has enjoyed the responsibilities that come with it. "I like to take care of people. The band calls me band mom," she added. Beside numerous academic awards, Olivia also earned a 2017 state Horatio Alger scholarship for students who have overcome great obstacles. Hers, Olivia said, was financial: She's always had a place to stay and food to eat, but she hasn't been able to afford academic programs. "Honestly, I wasn't able to visit any of the colleges I applied to," she said. So she will see the UC Santa Barbara campus for the first time when she arrives this fall. She's considering a double major in chemistry and anthropology; she's interested in the evolutionary side of anthropology, and plans to seek graduate and post-graduate degrees.

REBECCA PARHAM
Age: 18
Hometown: Alma
High School: Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences and the Arts
Parents: Eileen and Rick Parham
College plans: University of Arkansas or Hendrix College

On a visit to Hanamaki, Japan, with her school, Rebecca Parham noticed that once a month all the citizens would clean the front of their homes and shops. Folks would give each other gifts, too. "It was clear people tended to think for the whole," she said. "I thought that was really nice." An avid chemist, Rebecca did not just improve her Japanese on the trip, she brought those lessons of helping the community back to Arkansas. Her work has been at the intersection of heady science and community impact. In her robotics club, she noticed that girls were less likely to participate. "I decided that was not OK," she said. So, she designed a day with LEGO kits to encourage women to pursue STEM education. That desire to make an impact goes beyond school, too. For her senior project, Rebecca designed a test for homebuyers to see if meth had been cooked on their property (yes, meth). Her parents, on hearing of this project choice, asked her to "please explain a little bit further ... ." Here's the gist: The method of meth production in rural areas has shifted to something called the Birch reduction; older testing kits would no longer work. But Rebecca thought she could produce one that could. She designed a flame test. It finds lithium compounds left behind. The process of invention was "definitely frustrating," Rebecca said, but you "learn things you never thought of before." Rebecca did not plan to spend senior year in her dorm late at night "searching online" how to identify meth production, but she has a driving curiosity toward science and how it "connects to the world." She hopes to work in renewable energy — to be part of the global community, from Japan to Arkansas — making the world a nice place in which to live.

GRANT ROBINSON
Age: 18
Hometown: Searcy
High school: Searcy High School
Parents: Eric and Lisa Robinson College plans: University of Arkansas

Grant Robinson's father is a cardiologist, and Grant long figured he would follow in his dad's footsteps. But now he's not so sure. Last summer, he was selected, among thousands of applicants from around the world, to participate in a Stanford University summer engineering program. He got to experience a taste of college life, to take advantage of Stanford's decked-out labs and to tour the area to see results of civil engineering. The most memorable part of the program? Grant's small group built a Rube Goldberg machine — a complicated gadget that performs a simple task in a convoluted way — that, by Grant's estimation, was "the most complex and aesthetically pleasing" in the program. It included an electromagnet the group handmade and chemical reactions triggered by the machine. Grant's academic achievements are the byproduct of a natural curiosity. He said he spends what little free time he has exploring YouTube, trying to figure out the way the world works. Another influence: His father, who pulled himself out of poverty to become a doctor, has always instilled in him the importance of hard work. The message clearly stuck. Grant is second in his class of 263, with a 4.27 GPA. He scored a 35 on the ACT. He's a Presidential Scholar. His classmates voted him most likely to receive the Nobel Prize. He also participated in Project Unify (now known as Unified Champion Schools), an effort by the Special Olympics to get young people with and without special needs to come together for activities. Grant helped plan a basketball tournament as part of the project. In the fall, he'll be rooting on the Razorbacks at the University of Arkansas.  

JOHN SNYDER
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High school: Little Rock Christian Academy
Parents: Jill and Steve Snyder
College plans: Cornell University, industrial and labor relations

Whatever you were doing by your senior year in high school, chances are you probably hadn't already authored a book, much less a book on the complicated intersection of taxation and politics. John Snyder has, though. His book, "The Politics of Fiscal Policy," explores the political aspects of economics, including the pros and cons of various governmental tax schemes and their effect on government spending. It's for sale on Amazon right now. "It's pretty concise," John said, "but I wanted a way to express all my ideas in economic terms. That was a great way to do that." A history buff who serves as vice president of his class, John has a stunning 4.49 GPA and is ranked first in his class of 129. Though he wanted to be a lawyer when he was younger, his plan now is to go into investment banking. "Ultimately I want to have my own hedge fund — this thing called an activist hedge fund — and eventually I want to be actively involved in politics, whether that's in the midst of my business career or after ... . I'd love to run for public office one day." At Cornell University, John will be studying industrial and labor relations, a field that marries his love of multiple subjects. "Basically it ties in business, law, economics and history all into sort of one degree," he said. "You can do limitless things [with the degree]. Some people go into law school, some go into banking, some go to politics. That's why I chose that degree." John said his philosophy is that we have only a limited amount of time on earth, and so we should try to make the most of our lives. "I think there are a lot of things I can do to change the way things currently are in society, whether it's related to business or in academia or public policy," he said. "If I don't play a role in that and I'm not striving to do my best, I would feel like I'm wasting my potential."

PRESTON STONE
Age: 18
Hometown: Benton
High school: Benton High School
Parents: Haley Hicks and Brec Stone
College plans: University of Arkansas, pre-med

Benton High School's Big Man on Campus — No. 1 in his class, captain of the football team, an AP Scholar, straight As — can add to his resume the fact that he helped build his home. Preston, his two brothers and his mother bounced around a bit after her divorce, from Texas to Arkansas, living with grandparents and friends, Preston said. Then the family was selected by Habitat for Humanity, and he and his brothers pitched in to build their house. "It was the first place I could truly call home and it allowed me the stability I needed to grow into the kind of student I am today," he wrote in his essay for the Arkansas Times. Preston, who also helped build a school outreach group called SERVE to help new or struggling students, also credits sports for giving him purpose. He recently volunteered to trade in the pigskin for a basketball, joining a team that played boys at the Alexander Juvenile Detention Center. "It was an awesome experience," Preston said in a phone interview. "We were a little bit nervous at first" at the detention center, he said, but the team enjoyed the game — even though they lost to the Alexander team, formed to reward inmates with good behavior. "They practice every day," Preston said. Preston has received a $70,000 Honors College scholarship at Fayetteville. He won't be playing football with the Razorbacks. Instead he is thinking of following a pre-med track that will lead him to sports medicine. He plans to go Greek, as well.

KARINA BAO
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High school: Central High School
Parents: Amy Yu and Shawn Bao
College plans: undecided

Karina Bao embraces complexity. The Central High School valedictorian (in a class of 636) is a member of the school's back-to-back state champion Ethics Bowl Team, for which she said she spent hours "researching, discussing and sometimes even arguing" case studies. Unlike debate, she said Ethics Bowl is "really about the back-and-forth and considering different caveats and nuances and considerations" in issues ranging from local food to gender identity. As president of the school's Brain Club, she leads discussions on brain diseases, disorders and anatomy. It's a role for which she's more than qualified: She placed first in the U.S. Brain Bee, a youth neuroscience competition in which contestants answer questions about anatomy and make diagnoses based on patient actors. Placing No. 1 in the U.S. competition landed Karina a trip to Copenhagen, Denmark, to the International Brain Bee, which happened to coincide with a Federation of International Neuroscientists conference, where Karina got to talk to scientists from all over the world about their groundbreaking research. She placed fifth in the international competition. A perennial outstanding delegate winner at Model United Nations competitions, Karina said Model U.N. has helped her to "not be scared of the complexity and interconnectedness of pressing issues we face today." In her spare time, Karina volunteers on the oncology wing of Baptist Hospital. "You don't get to do much," she said. "But at least we get to talk to people and help them with whatever they need and be there to listen." In her Academic All-Stars essay, Karina echoed the same drive for understanding: "The stories other people share with me become not my own when I retell them, but a part of humanity's collective spirit to understand each other. We grow from hours of listening and crying, to empathize, to have the strength and openness to pop each successive layer of the protective bubble that keeps us from seeing the very world in which we reside."

BRYCE COHEA
Age: 19
Hometown: Greenwood
High school: Greenwood High School
Parents: Mike and Robin Cohea
College plans: University of Tulsa or Vanderbilt university, biology

Though he grew up landlocked, far from the deep blue sea, Greenwood High School standout Bryce Cohea knew from an early age that he wanted to be a marine biologist. To reach that goal, Bryce had to start early. "In the ninth grade," he wrote in his Academic All-Stars essay, "I began planning out all my classes for the next four years. I wanted to graduate top of my class, and in order to do that I would need to take every advanced placement class and get an A in every class." That's exactly what he did, too, making nothing less than a perfect grade in every class for his entire high school career. With a 4.25 GPA and a rank of No. 1 in his class of 275, Bryce has volunteered extensively with the Salvation Army and collected shoes for the homeless; he helps unload trucks and stock shelves at the food bank at his church. A National Merit semifinalist, he also has the distinction of having scored the first perfect ACT score of 36 in Greenwood High School history. "I've honestly been a good test-taker," he said. "The first time I took it, I got a 34. After that, I got the test back and I worked on whatever I missed. After a few more tries, I got a 36." Bryce was still deciding on which university to attend when we spoke to him, but he definitely plans to study science. The subject has always interested him, he said. "I'm planning on majoring in biology and then specializing after that," he said.

IMANI GOSSERAND
Age: 16
Hometown: Rogers
HIGH SCHOOL: ROGERS HIGH SCHOOL
Parents: James and Hyesun Gosserand

College plans: University of Southern California, Harvey Mudd College or Columbia University, computer science or environmental science

Imani Gosserand has a journal in which she organizes the many moving parts of her life — competitive gymnastics, AP classes, computer science, Young Democrats, volunteering — into lists. Personal stuff is in there, too: bucket lists, remembrances. The journal combines the creative and the organized; it is problem-solving with an artful flare, which is how Imani operates. "I really like being able to create something of my own," she said of computer science. At a camp at Stanford University, in California, her team won the competition to program a car. Imani, not surprisingly, is good at math: She learned multiplication at age 4 and went on to skip two grades. Imani thinks schoolwork is fun. "We had a huge packet of homework problems we had to do over one of our breaks," she said. "And no one else was excited about it except for me. I was like 'Oh, I'm so excited to do all these problems!' " She brings that enthusiasm for problem-solving to bigger issues, as well. "I feel like there are so many opportunities for me because our world relies on technology, so I think I could go into any field," she said. She's excited to explore and see where she can help. "I want to meet people from around the world and hear different perspectives."

C.J. FOWLER
Age: 18
Hometown: Little Rock
High School: Central High School
Parents: Bobbi and Dustin McDaniel and Chris and Kim Fowler
College plans: Yale University

C.J. Fowler has long been around Democratic politics. His stepfather is former Arkansas Attorney General Dustin McDaniel. But C.J. said he decided to become more politically involved himself after he came out as gay. "The situation that I'm in is not great," he said. "People are not always accepting. But it's on me if I want to try to change that and make it better for the people who come after me. I have to make sure that my community and all marginalized communities have a seat at the table, because far too often a bunch of old gray white guys are making policies that hurt everyone else." The student body president of Central High, C.J. said he's tried to move the student council, a glorified dance committee, toward advocacy and activism for students throughout the district, whose future is being decided by those "people sitting in dark rooms." He said students too often get left out of the conversation about the district "because we're too young to have opinions. But we're not; we're living it every day." C.J. has been a fixture at Little Rock School District public comment periods. Though he can't point to any policy victories, he said at least LRSD Superintendent Mike Poore knows who he is and that he disagrees with him. C.J., who is also the executive director of Young Democrats of Arkansas, sees the backlash against President Trump as encouraging. "We're realizing that, if we're going to go all in for progressive values, we need to go all in." Rather than join the chorus of progressives in the Northeast after he finishes at Yale, C.J. says he wants to come back to Arkansas and possibly continue in politics. He admires state Sen. Joyce Elliott (D-Little Rock) and says he hopes if he ever holds office that he can follow her example.

SOPHIE PRICE
Age: 18
Hometown: Fort Smith
High School: Southside High
Parents: Claire Price and Scott Price
College plans: Vanderbilt University, political science

"Growing up, I would always argue with everybody," Sophie Price said. Sometimes it was just to play devil's advocate, but mostly, it was because Sophie wants to find the capital-t Truth. Some of this digging for truth is class: seven AP course just this year and 12 during her time in high school. But, some of it is also talking with people, discussing issues. "The best way to improve your argument is to hear the counters, to hear the other side," Sophie said, and often she is willing to be convinced. She wants to do the right thing; she believes in justice. Which is why after college at Vanderbilt on a full scholarship, she wants to field arguments as a judge. "My whole life I've followed this ideal that you have to do what's right," Sophie said. "I want to be a judge so I can kind of decide that." Vanderbilt was the only school to which Sophie applied. She knew it was the right one for her. She arrived in Nashville on a rainy day in January, but through the gloom, she knew. "Something about the beautiful campus and the intelligent people and these varying perspectives just sold me immediately," she said. In a few months she was back at Vanderbilt for a camp where she studied law, and it cemented the deal. "There was something so exhilarating about being able to have this case and have the facts and kind of create your own narrative and really advocate for someone that drew me in," she said. Watch out, because "everything I do, I want to give it a 120 percent," Sophie said.

MEAGAN OLSEN
Age: 17
Hometown: Fayetteville
High School: Fayetteville High School
Parents: Anjanette Olsen
College plans: University of Arkansas Honors College, chemical engineering

Fayetteville High School’s top student, with a perfect ACT score of 36, a 4.2 gradepoint average and the co-author of a paper on fractal self-assembly, is not just a bookworm. She’s a leader, her counselor Cindy Alley says, who shows “grit, motivation to succeed and a desire to help others.” She is also, Alley says, “a pure joy to be around.” In her essay for the Arkansas Times, Meagan talked about how she came to understand “ternary counters,” a base-3 method of counting in which only the digits 0, 1 and 2 are used. (Binary counters of 0 and 1 make up our computer’s “thinking,” as people with 10 fingers, we use base 10 to count.) Meagan, trying to make a “self-assembling ternary counter,” said she banged her head against “endless walls” for weeks. Then just after 1 a.m., she woke up with the answer. It’s a wise child who gives credit where credit is due: “I understood,” she wrote, “my mother’s advice about taking a break whenever I was upset.” Meagan’s paper on fractal self-assembly was published in the 22nd International Conference on DNBA Computing and Molecular Programing. She no longer lets frustration prevent her from solving a problem; sometimes, she’ll just sleep on it. Meagan told the Times she plans to attend a small conference this summer and then take some needed down time. She plans to use her degree from Fayetteville to pursue biomedical research.
          Le poids du passé? Une relecture du Rwanda pré-génocidaire (1960-1990) - Conférence du CIRAM   
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          FEED 100 & Paradoxes   
1. The newest FEED bag, the FEED 100 bag is available now exclusively at Whole Foods Market nation-wide! Each FEED 100 bag will provide 100 school meals to hungry children in Rwanda through the UN World Food Program (www.wfp.org). Help them reach their goal of provide all the WFP school meals in Rwanda for 2008 […]
          Intervention et non-intervention au Rwanda, 20 ans après, quelles conséquences? Table ronde du CIRAM   
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          News Coverage   

The EU -Africa Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development took place last week, November 22-23. I check Google News headlines daily because, for whatever reason, I think (or rather used to think) that it was relatively un-biased and represented the "most important," "need to know" stories, but over the past week I noticed nothing on this conference, which seems like a pretty big deal. Rather, I learned of the conference by way of allAfrica, where it made the front page on November 24th, right under the stories about Rwanda's decision to cut ties with France (more recent story). I wondered, what's up with Google? Have they become just like every other cotton candy news source? So, I Googled "Google News biased" (ironic? maybe), and found this from the USC (that's the University of Southern California, not South Carolina; it has been argued that the University of South Carolina is the original USC because it was established 75 years earlier than the University of Southern California, however I argue that the University of Southern California is the real USC because it aquired the web domain before South Carolina) Annenberg Center for Communication Online Journalism Review. Turns out that Google's algorithms are causing the bias. In trying to be un-biased by using algorithms, Google News is actually perpetuating a bias in news. Hmmm... I guess I'll have to look somewhere else for my news, maybe allAfrica. But wait, what's this? allAfrica is biased? Yup, from my Google search of "Google News biased," I found this, "It's not all Africa @ allAfrica.com." Can good news be found anywhere?


Last night I happened across a television channel, LinkTV, while scanning the tube for something to dull my mind for a bit, to take a break from staring at my computer screen and writing. Scrolling through the channels, I stopped at what looked like a music video, a group of black men singing into the camera. I stopped because rather than being set in the streets of New York, LA, St. Louis, Atlanta, etc, the setting looked like a West African village. I was confused. My first thought was that this was some sort of statement being made by a US hip hop/rap group, deliberately choosing, or creating, an "African" setting, but then I realized the men were not singing in English, I couldn't even recognize the language in which they were singing. By now I had figured out that this was a music video coming out of, that is produced in, Africa, but I was still confused because I couldn't figure out what place it had on the television set in my boyfriend's apartment in Irvine (Orange County), California; he doesn't subscribe to any special networks or packages, just the basic cable that all graduate student residents get with their rent. By this point my boyfriend was also glued to the tv, we kept asking each other, "What is this?" not because we didn't know what it was, but because we didn't know what it was doing in our living room without our solicitation of it. It turned out to be a video from Senegal. We watched a few others, another from Senegal, and one (or two?) from Mali, before a bumper popped up declaring the channel we were watching as, "LinkTV: Television Without Borders." We both expected a commercial and got up to leave the room, but no commercial came, instead an announcement, next up was a program that profiled Chinese restaurants across the world, this installment would be on Turkey
(the country), we sat back down and watched the whole thing all the way through, uninterupted, it was wonderful.


The bumper popped up again, we opened our laptops and googled "LinkTV." There we found out that LinkTV is a channel available via satellite (Wikipedia claims that it reaches 1 in 4 homes in the US), never runs commercials, and is funded by individual and organizational donations. We also found and watched, MOSAIC:World news from the Middle East. The first segment was on the recent increase of violence in Iraq. The tone was similar to that of BBC or CNN, and the segments began as would any FOX or CBS local or national news program, reporting the statistics, how many dead, where, who, by whom, but the video clips were much more extended, and showed more violence, more suffering, more women and children, less men with guns, and something I have never seen on the major network or cable news shows, refugees.


Back to the EU-Africa Conference and allAfrica . . . after reading the articles listed under the Conference headline on allAfrica, the only one I found to be intriguing was this one, "Senegal: 'Mankind is Like This - One Wants to Get Ahead'", which wasn't even directly related to the conference. I liked this article because it addressed migration on a personal level, telling the story of a man trying to migrate from Senegal to the Canary Islands. The story and the man addressed migration as a cultural practice, the other articles took the same, tired stance on Africa, migration, aid and development, even the conference notes did not mention the cultural significance of migration, rather contextualizing it in terms of aid and development from Europe and the US.


Like this blog post, African migration is a process, an activity (as you can probably tell, I really like this concept of activity), that should be analyzed by standing back and looking at the whole picture, while taking the time to zoom into particular practices. This approach produces the potential to recognize grand patterns and contextualize them appropriately, and conversely to recognize specific cases and pattern and contextualize them appropriately. Until then, such conferences and programs on migration, development, aid, etc will continue to target the symptoms, and then only to eradicate or alleviate, rather than accommodate them, not the causes of such "problems."


          Conférenciers de prestige au colloque sur le capitalisme d'État   
Jeffry Frieden (Harvard University), Aldo Musacchio (Harvard Business School), Clare Akamanzi (Rwanda Development Board) et Pierre S. Pettigrew (Deloitte) ont confirmé leur présence au colloque des HEI qui se tiendra du 21 au 24 novembre.
          Trois membres des HEI en vedette dans les médias   
Fannie Lafontaine, François Gélineau et Yan Cimon figurent dans le Palmarès 2012 des commentateurs des médias élaboré par la Direction des communications de l'Université Laval. Félicitations à nos collègues, mais aussi à tous les autres qui contribuent à la diffusion des connaissances par le biais des médias, mais qui ne sont pas toujours cités par les journalistes. Fannie Lafontaine, ci-dessus (plus de 100 mentions), professeure à la Faculté de droit et experte en droit international pénal et humanitaireSujet principal en 2012: les procédures d’expulsion de l’ex-politicien rwandais Léon Mugesera vers son pays d’origine. François Gélineau (plus de 60 mentions), professeur au Département de science politiqueSujet principal en 2012: comme titulaire de la Chaire de recherche sur la démocratie et les institutions parlementaires, il a supervisé une étude sur la participation électorale au Québec qui a fait beaucoup de bruit. La boussole électorale fait aussi partie des «vedettes» de 2012. Yan Cimon (près de 60 mentions), professeur au Département de managementSes interventions en 2012:  les stratégies de gestion et de croissance des grandes entreprises, les défis et enjeux liés à l’industrie automobile en Amérique du Nord, l'expansion de Couche-Tard en Europe du Nord et la faillite de Kodak.  
          Un ouvrage sur les enjeux journalistiques au Rwanda, signé Annie Laliberté   
« La condamnation pour incitation au génocide d’éditeurs et d’animateurs qui s’affichaient comme journalistes par le Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda, une première dans l’histoire des médias, a été le catalyseur d’un vaste mouvement international de rehaussement des compétences des journalistes en zone de conflit. »On assiste depuis 15 ans à des tentatives visant à mettre en place des médias de qualité au Rwanda. Mais paradoxalement, ce mouvement de construction de paix par le journalisme coïncide avec  une répression politique grandissante envers les journalistes locaux.À travers cet ouvrage d’anthropologie, Annie Laliberté entend apporter sa contribution à l’étude des formes contemporaines de la violence et des conflits.Après avoir a obtenu sa maîtrise aux HEI en 2000, Annie a poursuivi son parcours avec un doctorat en anthropologie. Elle est désormais directrice générale du Centre étape, organisation communautaire vouée à la réinsertion professionnelle des femmes de la Capitale nationale. Commandez l'ouvrage Le journalisme entre guerre et paix au Rwanda. En savoir plus sur nos diplômés
          Promotion de notre diplômée Annie Laliberté : un tournant social   
La voici directrice générale du Centre étape, organisation communautaire vouée à la réinsertion professionnelle des femmes de la Capitale nationale. C'est tout un défi qu'Annie relève, «puisque le milieu communautaire est nouveau pour [elle]; j'éprouvais le besoin de sortir de ma zone de confort, voire de me mettre en danger». En changeant radicalement de milieu et de fonctions, la voici au pied du mur et elle aime ça! Annie renoue ainsi avec le terrain des difficultés humaines, terrain qu'elle a arpenté à une autre échelle lorsqu'elle effectuait ses recherches de doctorat en anthropologie. À l'époque, elle était allée en Bosnie-Herzégovine et au Rwanda pour étudier la situation des médias après les conflits. Ces dernières années, Annie a travaillé comme professionnelle au Bureau international de l'Université Laval et aux HEI. Félicitations Annie! En savoir plus sur nos diplômés
          Expulsion de Léon Mugesera : les enjeux présentés par Fannie Lafontaine   
Notre collègue de la Faculté de droit, spécialiste de droit international humanitaire, est très présente dans les médias pour expliquer le contexte dans lequel la Cour fédérale du Canada ordonne l'expulsion de Léon Mugesera vers le Rwanda. Fannie Lafontaine a accordé plusieurs entrevues dans les médias, mais pour avoir un exposé complet, lire son texte publié sur le blogue de International & Transnational Criminal Law. En savoir plus sur l'homme rwandais accusé d'incitation au génocide. 
          2017 Spring Matsuris: Details & Tips for Japan Festival Boston & Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival   


Update 5/11/17: Due to the weather forecast for Saturday, the Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival organizers decided to move the matsuri indoors to the rain location at the Schluntz Gym.

Boston's two largest Japanese festivals are coming up! In the past five years attendance at both festivals has grown around six-fold. The Japan Festival Boston started off in Copley Square with 10,000 festivalgoers in 2012. Last year 60,000 people attended the festival on the Boston Common. Attendance at the Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival has grown from around 250 people in 2012 to over 1,500 last year.


Japan Festival Boston




Japan Festival Boston is New England's largest matsuri. This year there will be 76 regular booths, 37 food booths, 50 performances on 2 stages, 50 workshops, and a Cosplay Deathmatch. Check their Facebook page for updates.

As usual there will be lots of arts organizations and businesses, many of whom have participated in past years including Tewassa, GrayMist Studio & Shop, SAORI Worcester, Kaji Aso Studio, Chikako Mukai of Chikako Designs, Julie Kohaya of Heavenly Cranes Jewelry, and amezaiku artist Candy Miyuki (listed as Candy5). There will be at least a couple of businesses selling kimono and yukata – Nomura Kimono Shop from Japan and Ohio Kimono will both be back for their second year at the festival. An interesting new vendor is NPO Reborn Kyoto which "works to nurture the independence of the women and young in developing countries through instruction of cloth fabrication and textile technology using donated Kimono from all over the Japan." See video from Kigali Today, although most of it is in Kinyarwanda, the interview with executive officer Yasuko Yamahira is in English. Another interesting new booth is a peace group called PeaceProject869. "We make opportunities to consider “What is Peace for you?” by [f]olding origami cranes for people whom we meet all over the world through our studying abroad."

The food offerings are growing more diverse and branching out from the Japanese community to include poke restaurants, fusion rice burgers, spam musubi, and more chain restaurants. This year's food vendors include a mix of independent local businesses and chains with Boston locations that are based in Japan and other places, as well as a few others.

Independent local: YumeWoKatare with 6 booths that will include dishes not usually served at the restaurant, Snappy Ramen, Oga's (listed as Kushiya), Ganko Ittetsu, Rice Burg, Yoki Express, Hana Japan, Cafe Mami, Ittoku (listed as Izakaya Ittoku), Sakanaya, Itadaki, Neponset Cafe, Big Rock Oyster, and I am guessing that Hiromoto’s Ultra Okonomiyaki & Hiromoto’s ultra candy shop will be run by Kevin Hiromoto, owner of Boston's only Japanese grocery store, Ebisuya

Chains with Boston locations: Santouka, Beard Papa's, Ogawa Coffee, Go Go Curry, Pabu (listed as Pabu Izakaya), Love Art Sushi, and Lady M.

Daiei Trading, one of the largest Japanese food importers in the US, will also have two booths.


Although the organizers have increased the number of food booths – up from 22 last year – I'm not sure that will result in shorter lines since turnout is likely to be much higher than last year. In past years, the lines have been insanely long so you should take snacks, especially if you're going with children or others who can't wait to eat. There are fast food places near the Boston Common but most are on the other side of the Common away from the festival. The festival has reduced the Fast Pass to $30 (it was $50 when they introduced it last year). This allows you to bypass the main line at a booth, although for popular booths there may still be a line for Fast Pass cardholders. It's well worth it if you're going with a family or group, but not very economical for individuals. Make sure to read carefully - there are restrictions.

See photos & video from 2016 Japan Festival Boston.
See photos from 2015 Japan Festival Boston.
See photos from 2014 Japan Festival in Boston. 


Date & Time
Sunday, April 30, 2017
11am - 6pm

Location
Boston Common at the Beacon & Charles Street corner (near Frog Pond).
See festival map.

How you can help
The festival is not cheap to produce and JREX is crowdfunding with Indiegogo (in past years they have used GoFundMe).

There is also a 21+ benefit concert with pop musician Shinji Harada on May 1st. Tickets are $10 for students, $20 for general admission and $60 for VIP. 

Photography Note
I don't remember if this was on their website last year but I noticed this disclaimer at the bottom of the booth list. The festival is highly photographed by media, the festival organizers, and professional and amateur photographers and last year they used a drone to get footage so it's most likely impossible to avoid being photographed.
Disclaimer:
**Visitors, stage performers, and others at this festival will take videos, photos, and other media which may be posted online, in print, and in other mediums. It is possible that exhibitors’ booths may be captured in the aforementioned photos, videos, etc. Please be advised that by agreeing to participate in this festival, you are also consenting to being photographed and/or videotaped.**



Japan Festival Boston Tips

The Japan Festival Boston can be a challenging event for people with disabilities. The crowds are enormous, it's not always easy to move around, and while the booths are all set up along paved walkways, some things (food booths, stages) are set up in grassy areas. Booths are often mobbed which can make shopping difficult. While people with disabilities do attend (the Boston Higashi School always has a booth) it may be difficult for people with mobility issues and those who deal with crowd anxiety/phobia or have difficulty with loud noise. While the Boston Common is the largest location the festival has been held at the crowds are still intense. Advice I would offer to anyone, although especially those with disabilities:

  • Even if you stay for all seven hours of the festival you will not be able to do everything. Pick the things you're most interested in seeing/doing and prioritize getting to those booths/workshops/performances. Expect that everything will take longer than you think it will. It took me several hours to walk around and see all the booths last year and I wasn't stopping at all of them. I would not have been able to get food had a friend not given me her Fast Pass.
  • In past locations it has been possible to hear the performances while walking around the festival but I didn't find that to be the case last year. If you want to see/listen to a performance you will need to plan to be in the immediate vicinity of that stage.
  • If you plan to watch performances but aren't able to sit on the ground or stand for long periods, you will need to bring your own chair, although many people stand so it can be difficult to see.
  • Parking under the Boston Common tends to fill up quickly and is expensive so if you can take the T, it's a much better option. If you have to drive, consider making a reservation via a site like Parkopedia or parking in a garage in Chinatown. There is some on-street metered parking that is free on Sundays but it's very difficult to park in that area.
  • Check the weather and dress appropriately. Dress in layers if you plan to stay there all day. If you have a yukata or kimono feel free to wear it.  
  • Pack sunscreen. You may also want to pack a hat.
  • Everyone in your party should have a fully charged cell phone.
  • Pick a meeting time/location away from the main festival area if you get separated from your party. I would also recommend that if you are planning to go with small children that you consider having them carry some kind of ID with your contact info on it. Last year I saw a small child separated from his adults. It appeared that he was too young to know their phone number and may also not have been an English-speaker.
  • Unless you don't mind standing in line for over an hour, bring your own food or buy a $30 Fast Pass. 
  • Pack as large a bottle of water as you can carry.
  • There are portable toilets along Beacon and Charles Streets but if the crowds are dense it may take a while to walk there.
  • Bring cash and make sure you have a lot of small bills. I believe that all the food vendors are cash only. Some of the commercial vendors take credit cards, but not all. 
  • If you plan to do a lot of shopping, bring a bag to carry your purchases. Some vendors will provide bags, but not all do. 


Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival




The Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival is a very family-friendly community-oriented matsuri with lots of activities for kids that is produced by The Genki Spark and Brookline High School's Japanese Program and sponsored by the Brookline High School PTO and the Japan Society of Boston. Nearly all of the guest artists are returning artists who have performed in past years: Odaiko New England, Mountain River Taiko, Takahashi Minyo Kai, Stuart Paton & Burlington Taiko, and ShinDaiko. There are two new artists this year – sisters Akino Ann & Yoshino Watanabe who play koto. They perform regularly at other music events in the Boston area including the Afternoon Concerts series and the Boston Charity Concert series. They also performed at TEDxBeaconStreet this year and in 2013. See the schedule here.



Ittoku, the popular izakaya in Brighton who was the Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival's first food vendor beginning in 2014, will be back along with Itadaki, Japonaise Bakery, and Hana Japan (who host their own Natsu Matsuri every August). New vendors this year are the Japanese cream puff chain, Beard Papa's, and local fish market, Sakanaya. The food lines aren't as long as the Japan Festival Boston but if you have young children you should plan ahead. 

See photos from 2016 Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival.
See videos from 2015 Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival.
See photos from 2014 Brookline Sakura Matsuri.



Date & Time
Saturday, May 13, 2017
noon - 4pm

Location
Brookline High School Quad (Rain Location: Schluntz Gym)
115 Greenough Street, Brookline, MA, 02445

Admission
Suggested Donation: $5 students, $10-20 families
All proceeds support the BHS Japan Exchange Program ​Scholarship Fund and promotion of the arts



Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival Tips

Brookline High School is fully handicap accessible and the courtyard where the festival is held is a small enough space that you can hear all of the performances regardless of where you are (seeing might be harder if you're on the back end of a line or crowd). The crowd ebbs and flows and most people stay for the full four hours although at peak times it could be challenging for people with crowd anxiety/phobia and definitely for those with issues with noise.
  • Parking is very limited so take the Green Line if you can. The closest stop is Brookline Hills on the D Line. If you have to drive, allow extra time to find parking. There is no parking lot - it's all on street parking (non-metered).
  • If you have sensitive hearing, bring earplugs. Taiko drums are LOUD. Hopefully it won't rain but if it does and the event is held in the gym instead of the courtyard, it will be painful. 
  • Check the weather and dress appropriately. Dress in layers if you plan to stay there all afternoon. If you have a yukata or kimono feel free to wear it. 
  • Pack sunscreen. Many parts of the courtyard are not in shade. You may also want to pack a hat. Sadly, not necessary this year. Forecast calls for rain so the matsuri will be indoors.
  • If you have seasonal allergies, medicate. I volunteered at the Tewassa booth a couple of years ago and even though I was medicated I was covered in pollen and itching when I left. There are a lot of trees and other plant life in the courtyard. 
  • The courtyard is concrete so you may want to bring your own chair or a blanket. 
  • The food lines aren't as bad at the Brookline Cherry Blossom Festival as they are at the Japan Festival Boston but there are fewer options. If you are coming with small children or finicky eaters, you should bring snacks. If you come later, there is a chance that food will be sold out. There are no restaurants within close walking distance of Brookline High School.
  • Pack a bottle of water.
  • There is access to bathrooms and water fountains inside Brookline High School.
  • Bring cash and make sure you have small bills. The food vendors are cash only and I believe the few other booths that sell or accept donations are also cash only. 




Disclosure: I would like to note that I am friends with some of the organizers of both of these festivals, however I publicize them because they are the largest Japanese cultural events in the Boston area, not just because my friends organize them. :)
          Canadian PM Trudeau is not a friend of all God’s children   

Trudeau’s first cabinet was Africanless. Africans in Canada, from the continent and here questioned this move.  Many felt that the younger Trudeau took us for granted because his father Pierre Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000) “opened” the doors for immigrants from the Caribbean and Africa. Eventually he did appoint Somali Toronto MP Ahmed Hussen to the federal cabinet as immigration minister.

Trudeau did appoint Indian-born Sikh Harjit Sajjan, MP for Vancouver South, minister of defence. Sikhs have a significantly different history in Canada than Africans.  The Sikh community is represented in all professional fields: medical, legal, technological, academic. Africans came kicking and screaming to the Western Hemisphere. Recently he has been questioned about “fibbing” about being the leader of a battle in Afghanistan. Sajjan said yearly defence spending will swell by more than 70 per cent, from $18.9 billion in 2016-17 to $32.7 billion in 2026-27. He promised $62.3 billion in new spending over 20 years.

Bardish Chagger is another India- born Canadian politician who is the current Leader of the Government in the House of Commons and Minister of Small Business and Tourism.  Chagger was elected as a Liberal member of the House of Commons of Canada in 2015.  She is the first female Leader of the Government in the House of Commons by Trudeau.

Amarjeet Sohi is an Indian-Canadian politician, currently the Member of Parliament for Edmonton and the Minister of Infrastructure and Communities in the federal cabinet. He narrowly beat out strong community advocate Nigerian-born Chinwe Okelu.

Maryam Monsef is an Afghan Canadian politician, a Liberal member the House of Commons in 2015. She was previously the Minister of Democratic Institutions and president of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada until January 10, 2017.

Monsef has not had an easy ride. According to Wikipedia: “Monsef has been criticized for stating that she was born in Afghanistan, when in fact she was born in Iran. When this was revealed in September 2016, some commentators pointed out that this could lead to revocation of her Canadian citizenship and potential deportation, while others have criticized the absurdity of the present law or decried the importation of birtherism into Canadian politics. In an interview at that time, former MP Dean Del Mastro said that political workers in the 2014 municipal and 2015 federal campaigns knew she was not born in Afghanistan, but chose not to make an issue of it.”

Navdeep Singh Bains, the new minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development is a Canadian born Indian.

Canada’s role in Haiti should never be forgotten. Back in the day I discussed Haiti on the Black Commentator in an article: “Canada's Crimes Against Haiti” in   the October 27, 2005 issue. After reading Yves Engler and Anthony Fenton’s  volumeCanada in Haiti’, I pointed out: “The chapter ‘Responsibility to Protect or A Made in Ottawa Coup?’ points out the coup against Aristide was actually planned on Canadian soil. From January 31-February 1, 2003, Canada’s Secretary of State for Latin America and La Francophonie, Denis Paradis, played host to a high-level roundtable meeting dubbed, The Ottawa Initiative on Haiti. Surprise, surprise, no representative of Haiti’s elected government was invited. However, Otto Reich, then President George W. Bush’s appointee as Assistant Secretary State for the Western Hemisphere, was in attendance. Paradis leaked the fact that this meeting took place to journalist Michael Vastel, who reported the meeting in the March 15, 2003 edition of L’Actualite magazine. Another chapter, ‘Using NGOs to Destroy Democracy and the Canadian Military Connection’ exposes the shameful role played by many Canadian NGOs.”

Trudeau is a self-proclaimed “feminist”. The court is still out on this matter. A recent article in the British based Guardian newspaper questioned the Canadian Prime Minister: “A slight note of exasperation crept into Justin Trudeau’s voice, suggesting that this was a topic he had broached many times before. ‘I’m going to keep saying loud and clearly that I am a feminist until it is met with a shrug,’ he declared to an audience at the United Nations in New York.”

His words sparked delight around the world. But one year on, Trudeau’s heady promises have run into the realities of government, prompting the question: has electing a self-described feminist to helm of the country translated into real change for Canadian women?

Canada’s prime minister is moving the Great White North further to the right on foreign affairs. Trudeau’s father Pierre Elliot Trudeau opened the doors to draft resisters including myself who refused to fight against the Vietnamese people. I saw Africans in America and the Vietnamese as colonial subjects. Africans in the United States were colonized by Uncle Sam and the Vietnamese by the French. Wiki pointed out: “While Canada had previously participated in military action against Iraq  in the Gulf War of 1991, it refused to declare war against Iraq without United Nations approval.

The Iraq War began with the United States-led 2003 invasion. The Government of Canada did not at any time formally declare war against Iraq, and the level and nature of this participation, which changed over time, was controversial.

Prime Minister Jean Chrétien said on 10 October 2002 that Canada would, in fact, be part of a military coalition to invade Iraq if it were sanctioned by the United Nations. However, when the United States and the United Kingdom subsequently withdrew their diplomatic efforts to gain that UN sanction, Jean Chrétien announced in Parliament on 17 March 2003 that Canada would not participate in the pending invasion.”

However, this is not the full story. The “Big White Folks” as Paul Robeson called them speak with forked tongues. “Nevertheless, he offered the US and its soldiers his moral support. However, according to classified U.S. documents released by Wikileaks, a high-ranking Canadian official may have secretly promised to clandestinely support the invasion. Two days earlier, a quarter million people in Montreal had marched against the impending war. Major anti-war demonstrations had taken place in several other Canadian cities.” Chrétien’s moves had more to do with the growing opposition to the invasion than his political morality.  

The not so great white north has a checkered history in the African continent. Canada joined the imperialists and played with the white checkers. They played a significant role in the assassinations of Patrice Lumumba, Maurice Mpolo, and Joseph Okito on January 21, 1961. Ottawa came up on the wrong side of history on the question of the Congo. Yves Engler author of the illuminating volume, Canada in Africa: 300 years of aid and exploitation, pointed out: “Siding with Washington, Ottawa promoted ONUC) and UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold’s controversial anti-Lumumba position. ONUC was established in July 1960 to ensure the withdrawal of Belgian forces. 1,900 Canadian troops participated in the UN mission between 1960 and 1964, making this country’s military one of its more active members. There were almost always more Canadian officers at ONUC headquarters than those of any other nationality and the Canadians were concentrated in militarily important logistical positions including chief operations officer and chief signals officer.”

Canada opposed anticolonial struggles in Africa, supported apartheid South Africa and Idi Amin’s coup against Milton Obote (December 28 1925- October 10, 2005) who had led Uganda to independence in 1962 from British colonialism. He was overthrown by Amin in 1971. Canada played a role in the ousting of Lumumba in the Congo by the CIA, Belgium and Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga aka Joseph Mobutu and Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah.

The Great White North pressed African states to follow neoliberal policies, which have benefitted Canadian corporations. The Canadian International Development Perform points out: “Canada is a global mining giant and a leading player in Africa’s mining sector. 70% of the equity capital raised globally by the mining industry was raised on the Toronto (TSX) and Venture (TSXV) exchanges. Of the $10.3 billion in equity raised for mining on the TSX and TSXV in 2012 $1.9 billion or 18.5% was for projects in Latin America while another $1.7 billion or 16.5% was for projects in Africa.”   Canada played a role in the violence the Congo, Rwanda and Somali.  

Canada does have a Black Radical Tradition. However, we cannot expect Corporate Canada or the Black Misleadership Class to tell the story. That is on us on the Black Left.

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          Rwanda: Agriculture Ministry Tips Farmers on Climate Resilient Farming   
[Rwanda Govt] The Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources has tipped farmers on various technologies meant to help combat the disastrous effect of climate change. This was during this year's National Agriculture Show that run from 22-27 June 2017 at Mulindi Agri-show ground in Gasabo District.
          French bank accused of complicity in Rwanda genocide   
KIGALI/PARIS. – France’s largest bank is facing serious accusations after three NGOs yesterday said they filed legal action against BNP Paribas alleging “complicity in genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity” during Rwanda’s 1994 genocide. The suit alleges Banque Nationale de Paris (BNP), as the bank was known before its merger with Paribas in 2000...
          French Bank BNP Paribas Accused Of Complicity In Rwandan Genocide   
Three civil society organizations in France have filed a lawsuit against French banking giant BNP Paribas, accusing it of complicity in the 1994 genocide that killed more than 800,000 people.
          Drone Deliveries to Hospitals in Rwanda   
Partnering with the Government of Rwanda, Zipline serves 21 hospitals nation-wide. They provide instant deliveries of lifesaving blood products for 8 million Rwandans. Their drones are tiny airplanes (instead of the more common tiny helicopter model). Supplies are delivered using … Continue reading
          AJC Delegation Meets Rwanda President, Foreign Minister in Kigali   

KIGALI, Rwanda, June 30, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- An AJC senior leadership delegation met with Rwanda President Paul Kagame and Foreign Minister Louise Mushikiwabo during a four-day visit to the African country. Dr. Marion Bergman, Chair of AJC's Africa Institute, AJC Honorary...



          Joy and pain in Africa   
Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda and Sudan are among the teams through to the final round of CAF qualifying, but Senegal and Congo DR are out.
          Eto'o scores in Cameroon win   
Cameroon, Namibia, Uganda, Rwanda and Malawi each recorded victories on Saturday in qualifying for South Africa 2008.

          Financial Advisor at Britam   
Britam is a leading diversified financial services group, listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The group has interests across the Eastern and Southern Africa region, with operations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, South Sudan, Mozambique and Malawi. The group offers a wide range of financial products and services in Insurance, Asset management, Banking and Property. Our Mission is to provide outstanding financial services to our customers. Our Vision is to be the most trusted financial service partner. We aim to provide our clients, with an unmatched offering, ensuring first class solutions that help secure the future.
          A Libyan ambush, Central Asia’s security wobbles and Mozambique’s loan scandal: The cheat sheet   

All eyes on Libya

It’s been a rollercoaster few weeks for Libya. A spot of good news first: Libya is pumping oil at its highest rate in four years, an important boon for a country that relies heavily on the petroleum industry. Now for a bunch of bad: This week, a convoy from the UN Support Mission in Libya was ambushed and, according to reports, their staff taken at gunpoint. The UN now says its staff are all safely in Tripoli, but the incident is yet another a sign of the chaos in Libya, where multiple forces claim authority and there is heavy fighting in some parts of the country, including Benghazi. The UN has just appointed a new envoy to the country – a former Lebanese minister of culture – a process that took four months, after the US rejected a Palestinian appointee because of his nationality, followed by retaliatory objections to other candidates from Russia and other countries. UNISMIL and various UN agencies have been gradually increasing their presence on the ground in the dangerous country, but this week’s ambush is likely to be a major setback. And with Italy threatening to deny entry to foreign ships docking on its shores – an effort to force its European partners to do more about the massive influx of migrants, mostly coming from Libya – the internal divisions and external debate over Libya make it one to watch. 

Au revoir UNOCI

While it’s something to celebrate, the closure today of the UN’s peacekeeping mission in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) has also generated some concerns. Although Cote d’Ivoire is one of Africa’s fastest growing economies, two mutinies this year by disgruntled soldiers suggests it has not fully healed from the 2002-2003 civil war and the post-election violence of 2010-2011. Human Rights Watch has called on the Ivorian government to address the rights issues at the root of past political violence, including the problem of impunity and the need to professionalise its security forces. It also pointed to the incomplete national reconciliation process and continued competition over land as potential flashpoints. With the peacekeepers’ withdrawal, a UN Security Council briefing noted the need for the international community to stay engaged. In a statement to the council, Sweden said the closure of UNOCI meant the “UN presence in the country is facing a ‘financial cliff’. This risks undermining the sustainability of the gains achieved.”

Is Afghanistan pulling Central Asia into chaos?

That’s the question at the heart of this new report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies. While Afghanistan’s downward spiral has been plotted meticulously by journalists and analysts, Central Asian states are often overlooked – to our potential peril, according to CSIS. The report notes that security has taken a nosedive throughout in Afghanistan in the past couple years, but asserts: “In the provinces of Afghanistan adjacent to Central Asia, the security situation has deteriorated even further than in Afghanistan as a whole on average.” That situation presents huge challenges to Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, which could become destabilized by smuggling, Taliban attacks and infiltration by extremists, among other threats. The report suggests some measures Afghanistan and its neighbours can take to mitigate those risks – including sealing borders and negotiating with the Taliban – but of none of them would be easy.

Seven more years

Few African leaders divide international public opinion as much as Rwandan President Paul Kagame, who will run for a third term in office in August, having overwhelmingly won a referendum to change the constitution in 2015. Kagame’s champions see him as the architect of stability and growth in a country where some 20 percent of the population was slaughtered in the 1994 genocide. They point to free basic education for all, the halving of infant and maternal mortality, and the emergence of a vibrant economy as achievements which merit his re-election. Detractors say Kagame’s authoritarian style and intolerance of opposition – some of whose leaders have been killed or disappeared, others accused of the cardinal sin of “genocidal ideology” – is a threat to democracy itself. Further evidence of this came in May, when politicians were told that all social media or online campaign content had to vetted by the National Electoral Commission 48 hours before publication. This rule was shelved a month later in the wake of domestic and international pressure, but the attempt to control the messaging will not be forgotten. Still, Kagame’s re-election is pretty much a foregone conclusion: he won with more than 95 percent in 2003 and 93 percent in 2010. Rwanda’s is one of four key African elections being held this year: the people of Kenya and Angola will also go to the polls in August, while Liberians will follow suit in October.

Did you miss it?

Lifting the lid on a Mozambique’s loan scandal

As scandals go, Mozambique’s $2.2 billion secret loan deal that crashed its economy was pretty bad (See IRIN’s report). But now we’re getting a handle on just how corrupt it all was. The recently-released executive summary of the Kroll audit report suggests that the Privinest Group – which was supposed to supply Mozambique with a tuna fishing fleet and maritime security vessels – overcharged by at least $700 million. For example, fishing boats were invoiced at $22 million each, but Kroll estimates the real price should have been just $2 million. And there’s more. Kroll says that $500 million “remains unaudited and unexplained”, on top of the $700 million overcharge. That’s partly because Privinest as well as the state security service, SISE, local banks and the Ministry of Finance all refused to provide the auditors with information requested. For more on the scandal, for which Mozambicans are being forced to pay the price as the economy totters and social services are scaled back, check out Mozambique News reports & clippings.

The unpromised land

Few places these days can be described as hospitable towards asylum seekers, but in recent years Israel has outdone most other states with its policies of deterrence and detention. Not content with keeping asylum seekers confined to so-called “open” detention facilities like Holot, starting in 2014, the authorities began offering one-way tickets to “safe” third countries in Africa. By the time IRIN reported on these “voluntary” deportations in April 2015, it was already clear that those who accepted the offer to go to Uganda or Rwanda, the two countries that had quietly stepped up to receive Israel’s unwanted asylum seekers, did not fare much better than those who opted to remain at Holot. This week, a year-long investigation into Israel’s “relocation process” by Andrew Green for Foreign Policy revealed that the vast majority of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers who are sent to Uganda and Rwanda from Israel are quickly smuggled into neighbouring countries where they have even less protection and live in undocumented limbo. Meanwhile, Ugandan and Rwandan officials continue to deny having made any agreement with Israel to receive asylum seekers.

Watch out for an upcoming IRIN film – Unwelcome Stranger - about the life of a Sudanese asylum seeker in Israel.

(TOP PHOTO: Two soldiers from forces operating under Libya's Tripoli-based government walking through the deserted streets of Bin Jawad. Tim Wescott/IRIN)

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201501270911460310.jpg News Conflict Politics and Economics This week’s humanitarian outlook IRIN GENEVA Global
          Technical Audit Expert (TAE) at IHS Towers   
IHS Towers, is the largest independent mobile telecommunications infrastructure provider in Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Founded in 2001, IHS provides services across the full tower value chain - collocation on owned towers, deployment and managed services.Today IHS Towers has operations in Nigeria, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Zambia and Rwanda. Following the recent acquisitions of MTN and Etisalat's tower portfolios in Nigeria, IHS owns over 23,300 towers in Africa.
          Comment on Reflection: Don’t lose sight of the things that matter most… by Strive Masiyiwa   
Zaheer writes, I have been following Mark Zuckerberg's tour of America..... would you please partake in a similar tour of Africa's different ethnic groups. My reply, As I promised last year, I'm planning to do "Town Hall" type meetings in as many African countries as I can talking to young entrepreneurs (including social entrepreneurs). I did a great meeting in Rwanda a few weeks ago. My next meeting will in Tanzania (mid July). I'm also scheduled to do Ivory Coast, and Togo. I give will more details closer to the time.
          TGGA YATOA SOMO JUKWAA LA UWEZESHAJI WANAWAKE KIUCHUMI KISARAWE   
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia) akipata maelezo kutoka kwa Kamishna wa Chama cha Tanzania Girl Guides (TGGA) Makao Makuu, Rose  Majuva kuhusu kazi zinazofanywa na chama hicho ikiwemo kuwapa uwezo wanawake wa kujitambua na kujiamini alipokwenda kuzindua Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani humo.

Majuva aliwaasa wanawaje kuacha kutumia mikopo ya benki kuchezea ngoma bali waitumie kujiendeleza kibiashara na kuwa na tabia ya kulipa kwa wakati mikopo hiyo. Pia aliwaeleza mbinu mbalimbali za kufanya biashara na miiko yake. (PICHA NA RICHARD MWAIKENDAKAMANDA WA MATUKIO BLOG
 Wananchi wakisikiiza kwa makini maelezo kutoka kwa Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Valentina Gonza jijsi ya kutengeneza jiko la kutumia mwanga wa jua kupikia vyakula mbalimbali kwa gharama nafuu wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe.

 Girl Guides wa TGGA, wakitengeneza Green House ya kupanda matunda na mbogamboga majumbani waliposhiriki uzinduzi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani Kisarawe. Kutoka kushoto ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda, Michelle kutoka Rwanda na Happy Mshana wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Dar es Salaam.
 Kamishna wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Rose Majuva (kulia) akisoma maadili ya kiongozi anavyotakiwa awe wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi Wilaya ya Kisarawe.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam,Rehema Kijazi akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Valentina Gonza akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akikusanya kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Baadhi ya viongozi wa TGGA wakihesabu kura wakati wa uchaguzi huo
 Viongozi wa TGGA wakiwa kwenye banda lao wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa Jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia),  akiangalia kiroba cha mkaa uliotengenezwa kiasili kwa kutumia taka mbalimbali alipokuwa akitembelea  mabanda ya wajasiriamali kabla ya kuzindua Jukwaa hilo. Kushoto ni Gifti Mbaraka wa banda hilo la Vijana Wasiriamali Wakulima Kisarawe. Katikati ni Mkurugenzi wa Halmashauri ya Kisarawe, Mussa Gama.
 Mwampamba akiangalia bidhaa mbalimbali za wajasiriamali
 Girl Guides kutoka Madagascar akijitambulisha wakati wa mkutano wa Jukwaa hilo. Kutoka kulia ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda na Michelle kutoka Rwanda. Vijana hao wapo nchini kwa miezi sita katika programu ya kubadilishana uozefu katika masuala ya utamaduni, uongozi na ujasiriamali
Mkufunzi kutoka Makao Makuu ta TGGA, Happy Mshana akielezea jinsi alivyopata uzoefu alipoiwakilisha TGGA kwenye mafunzo ya kubadilisha uzoefu nchini Madagascar

          Sat Jul 1st Todays News   
Some things should not happen, but they do. 



In 69, Tiberius Julius Alexander ordered his Roman legions in Alexandria to swear allegiance to Vespasian as Emperor. 552, Battle of TaginaeByzantine forces under Narses defeated the Ostrogoths in Italy. During the fightings king Totila was mortally wounded. 1097, Battle of DorylaeumCrusaders led by prince Bohemond of Taranto defeated a Seljuk army led by sultan Kilij Arslan I. 1431, the Battle of La Higueruela took place in Granada, leading to a modest advance of the Kingdom of Castile during the Reconquista.

In 1523, Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes became the first Lutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels. They were Augustinian monks. Others from their monastery had recanted. These refused.  1569, Union of Lublin: The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania confirmed a real union; the united country is called the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth or the Republic of Both Nations. 1643, first meeting of the Westminster Assembly, a council of theologians ("divines") and members of the Parliament of England appointed to restructure the Church of England, at Westminster Abbey in London. 1690, Glorious RevolutionBattle of the Boyne in Ireland (as reckoned under the Julian calendar). 1766, Jean-François de la Barre, a young French nobleman, was tortured and beheaded before his body was burnt on a pyre along with a copy of Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique nailed to his torso for the crime of not saluting a Roman Catholic religious procession in AbbevilleFrance. It sounds excessive, but he was a protestant. 1770, Lexell's Comet passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 a.u. 1782, Raid on Lunenburg: American privateers attacked the British settlement of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.

In 1837, a system of civil registration of births, marriages and deaths was established in England and Wales. 1855, signing of the Quinault Treaty: The Quinault and the Quileute ceded their land to the United States. 1858, joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution to the Linnean Society in London. 1862, The Russian State Library was founded as The Library of the Moscow Public Museum. Also 1862, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second daughter of Queen Victoria, married Prince Louis of Hesse, the future Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse. Also 1862, American Civil War: The Battle of Malvern Hill took place. It is the final battle in the Seven Days Campaign, part of George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign. 1863, Keti Koti (Emancipation Day) in Suriname, marked the abolition of slavery by the Netherlands. Also, American Civil War: The Battle of Gettysburg began. 1867, the British North America Act of 1867 took effect as the Constitution of Canada, creating the Canadian Confederation and the federal dominion of Canada; Sir John A. Macdonald was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Canada. This date was commemorated annually in Canada as Canada Day, a national holiday.

In 1870, the United States Department of Justice formally came into existence. 1873, Prince Edward Island joined the Canadian Confederation. 1874, the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, went on sale. 1878, Canada joined the Universal Postal Union. 1879, Charles Taze Russell published the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower. 1881, the world's first international telephone call was made between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States. Also 1881, General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell and Childers reforms of the British Army, came into effect. 1885, the United States terminated reciprocity and fishery agreement with Canada. 1890, Canada and Bermuda were linked by telegraph cable. 1898, Spanish–American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill was fought in Santiago de Cuba.

In 1903, start of first Tour de France bicycle race. 1908, SOS was adopted as the international distress signal. 1911, Germany despatched the gunship Panther to Morocco, sparking the Agadir Crisis. 1915, Leutnant Kurt Wintgens of the then-named German Fliegertruppe air service achieved the first known aerial victory with a synchronized machine-gun armed fighter plane, the Fokker M.5K/MG Eindecker. 1916, World War IFirst day on the Somme: On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 19,000 soldiers of the British Army were killed and 40,000 wounded. 1921, the Communist Party of China was founded. 1922, the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 began in the United States. 1923, the Canadian Parliament suspended all Chinese immigration. 1931, United Airlines began service (as Boeing Air Transport). 1932, Australia's national broadcaster, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, was formed. 1935, Regina, Saskatchewan police and Royal Canadian Mounted Police ambushed strikers participating in the On-to-Ottawa Trek.

In 1942, World War IIFirst Battle of El Alamein. Also 1942, the Australian Federal Government became the sole collector of income tax in Australia as State Income Tax was abolished. 1943, Tokyo City merged with Tokyo Prefecture and was dissolved. Since this date, no city in Japan has the name "Tokyo" (present-day Tokyo is not officially a city). 1947, the Philippine Air Force was established. 1948, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Quaid-i-Azam) inaugurated Pakistan's central bank, the State Bank of Pakistan. 1949, the merger of two princely states of India, Cochin and Travancore, into the state of Thiru-Kochi (later re-organized as Kerala) in the Indian Union ended more than 1,000 years of princely rule by the Cochin Royal Family. 1957, the International Geophysical Year began. 1958, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation linked television broadcasting across Canada via microwave. Also 1958, flooding of Canada's St. Lawrence Seaway began. 1959, the Party of the African Federation held its constitutive conference. Also 1959, specific values for the international yardavoirdupois pound and derived units (e.g. inch, mile and ounce) were adopted after agreement between the U.S.A., the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries.

In 1960, independence of Somalia. Also 1960, Ghana became a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah became its first President as Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be its Head of state. 1962, independence of Rwanda. Also 1962, independence of Burundi. 1963, ZIP codes were introduced for United States mail. Also 1963, the British Government admitted that former diplomat Kim Philby had worked as a Soviet agent. 1966, the first color television transmission in Canada took place from Toronto. 1967, the European Community was formally created out of a merger with the Common Market, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Commission. Also 1967, Canada celebrated the 100th anniversary of the British North America Act, 1867, which officially made Canada its own federal dominion. 1968, the United States Central Intelligence Agency's Phoenix Program was officially established. Also 1968, the Nuclear non-proliferation treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., London and Moscow by sixty-two countries. Also 1968, formal separation of the United Auto Workers from the AFL–CIO in the United States. 1970, President General Yahya Khan abolished One-Unit of West Pakistan restoring the provinces. 1972, the first Gay Pride march in England took place. 1976, Portugal granted autonomy to Madeira. 1978, the Northern Territory in Australia was granted Self-Government. 1979, Sony introduced the Walkman.

In 1980, "O Canada" officially became the national anthem of Canada. 1981, the Wonderland murders occurred in the early morning hours in Los Angeles, allegedly masterminded by businessman and drug dealer Eddie Nash. 1983, a North Korean Ilyushin Il-62M jet en route to Conakry Airport in Guinea crashed into the Fouta Djallon mountains in Guinea-Bissau, killing all 23 people on board. 1984, the PG-13 rating was introduced by the MPAA. 1987, the American radio station WFAN in New York, New York was launched as the world's first all-sports radio station. 1990, German reunificationEast Germany accepted the Deutsche Mark as its currency, thus uniting the economies of East and West Germany. 1991, the Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague. 1997, China resumed sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule. 1999, the Scottish Parliament was officially opened by Elizabeth II on the day that legislative powers were officially transferred from the old Scottish Office in London to the new devolved Scottish Executive in Edinburgh.

In 2002, the International Criminal Court was established to prosecute individuals for genocidecrimes against humanitywar crimes, and the crime of aggression. Also 2002, Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 and a DHL (German cargo) Boeing 757 collided in mid-air over Überlingen, southern Germany, killing all 71 on board. 2003, over 500,000 people protested against efforts to pass anti-sedition legislation in Hong Kong. 2004, Saturn orbit insertion of Cassini–Huygens began at 01:12 UTC and ends at 02:48 UTC. 2006, the first operation of Qinghai–Tibet Railway in China. 2007, the Concert for Diana was held at the new Wembley Stadium in London and broadcast in 140 countries. Also 2007, smoking in England was banned in all public indoor spaces. 2008, Rioting erupted in Mongolia in response to allegations of fraud surrounding the 2008 legislative elections. 2013, Croatia became the 28th member of the European Union. Also 2013, the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) began its operative peacekeeping mandate in Mali. Also 2013, Neptune's moon S/2004 N 1 was discovered.

I am very good and don't deserve the abuse given me. I created a video raising awareness of anti police feeling among western communities. I chose the senseless killing of Nicola Cotton, a Louisiana policewoman who joined post Katrina, to highlight the issue. I did this in order to get an income after having been illegally blacklisted from work in NSW for being a whistleblower. I have not done anything wrong. Local council appointees refused to endorse my work, so I did it for free. Youtube's Adsence refused to allow me to profit from their marketing it. Meanwhile, I am hostage to abysmal political leadership and hopeless journalists. My shopfront has opened on Facebook.


Here is a video I made Waltzing Matilda

I was asked to do a Banjo Patterson Poem. I thought I had done this, but I hadn't. This was made so as to tell the story, rather than sing the song.
===
"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's most widely known bush ballad. A country folk song, the song has been referred to as "the unofficial national anthem of Australia"
http://conservativeweasel.blogspot.com/2011/12/waltzing-matilda.html

Oh there once was a swagman camped in the billabongs,
Under the shade of a Coolibah tree;
And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling
"Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me."


Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda, my darling.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water-bag.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.


Up came the jumbuck to drink at the waterhole,
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee;
And he sang as he put him away in his tucker-bag,
"Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me."


Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda, my darling.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water-bag.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.


Up came the squatter a-riding his thoroughbred;
Up came the policeman - one, two, and three.
"Whose is the jumbuck you've got in the tucker-bag?
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda with we."


Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda, my darling.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water-bag.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.


Up sprang the swagman and jumped into the waterhole,
Drowning himself by the Coolibah tree;
And his voice can be heard as it sings in the billabongs,
"Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me."


Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda, my darling.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water-bag.
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.
Written 1895, first published as sheet music 1903.



=== from 2016 ===
 The political despatch of Boris Johnson, who had led the successful Brexit campaign, was as surprising as the success of the campaign. The Notting Hill set have eaten their own. David Cameron finally fell, having never managed to appear strongly conservative. But his stable mate of Gove had sided with Johnson as the face of Brexit, and then ripped support away from Johnson and denounced Johnson as being too identifiably the face of Brexit, and unable to unite the conservative party. In fairness, Gove could not unite the party either. Gove has ambition and ability, as does Theresa May. There are echoes of the Metherell affair in NSW when two friends, Terry Metherell and Nick Greiner ran afoul of political perfection and Greiner was subsequently unfairly forced to resign as Premier of NSW. One incompetent independent of the time who unfairly attacked Greiner was Tony Windsor. Windsor is still trying to hurt good conservative candidates. 

For some, at the moment, the Sex Party has more credibility.  
=== from 2015 ===
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation came into being on this day in 1932. It is a bureaucratic mess. But it isn't the worst mess on this day. In 1766, a young French nobleman, Jean-François de la Barre who was tortured and beheaded before his body was burned on a pyre. Also burned, pinned to his body, was a work of Voltaire. The crime the twenty year old man committed was said to be failing to bow to a religious procession, but the unpleasant truth is that he was a protestant in a catholic land. The ABC was created in the hope that the left leaning press in Australia would be balanced by state body which reported facts, not bias. The reality is that the ABC has never been balanced. 

Greece has defaulted on her IMF loan. Soon she will vote to approve or deny the imposition of austerity. But she has already done so, and her government ran on the lie that Greece didn't need austerity. Now the EU has a choice, but it isn't really a choice. Greece needs to be booted from the EU as a lesson in humility. It should never be the case that a nation employs people without paying them. The civilised world abhors slavery. 
From 2014
Today is an extraordinary day. The birthday of Semmelweis (1818) whose work as a physician gave rise to the legal term "Clean Hands". Or Dorothea Mackellar (1885) who beautifully described Australia in poetry. But for all the amazing wonderful things about today that I could point to, my mind is drawn to the infamous act of cowardice and butchery in which the three bodies of children of Israel were unearthed following their abduction. There is a cowardly dismissal of Middle East events involving Israel by those who do not know or care, that there is blood on both sides. But that is not the case. There is no analog for what Israel does that excuses this murder. It is inexcusable, and those who are responsible need to be brought to justice, and those who excuse should be discredited. 

Three boys went to a religious function and were on their way home when they were abducted. They were not warriors. Targeting them was an act of terror. One boy had been able to use his phone to let people know he had been abducted. That call was the last anyone heard him alive. It is not too hard to follow the mindset of the terrorists, but remarkably, one mother of one suspect has claimed she is proud of her son for doing it. I want religious authorities of the perpetrators to denounce the activity. If that mum has excused the activity, I want her discredited. Saddam Hussein had paid money to family of suicide bombers. If her people are serious about wanting peace, perhaps they will meet similar justice as was applied to Saddam. 

One imagines the terrorists alerted to the phone call told the boys that they would have to die and not merely be hostages because of it. They probably did their best to torture the boys, and blame them, before killing them. But the boys had done nothing wrong. Earlier this year, Obama had forced Israel to release terrorists who had killed, from jail for peace. No peace has been forthcoming from those terrorist supporters. One of the boys was a US citizen .. someone Obama has sworn an oath to protect and serve. But instead, the US President has paid US money to support a terrorist administration. Maybe Hamas will deny the activity, they have not yet, instead accusing Israel of overstating the crime. The UN cannot endorse this crime, and if they fail to act on it, they need to be dismantled. 

Three boys kidnapped, tortured and murdered by terrorists. Who dares support that? 

The incident is not isolated in Middle East terrorist history. The second intifada, which began after Bill Clinton embarrassed Arafat over a Monica Special cigar transformed a lynching of two Israeli security detail who had been illegally lured and detained by so called Palestinian authorities. This incident is on a par. A crime against humanity linked by successive Democrat party US Presidents. 
Historical perspective on this day
In 69, Tiberius Julius Alexander ordered his Roman legions in Alexandria to swear allegianceto Vespasian as Emperor. 552, Battle of TaginaeByzantine forces under Narses defeated the Ostrogoths in Italy. During the fightings king Totila was mortally wounded. 1097, Battle of DorylaeumCrusaders led by prince Bohemond of Taranto defeated a Seljuk army led by sultan Kilij Arslan I. 1431, the Battle of La Higueruela took place in Granada, leading to a modest advance of the Kingdom of Castile during the Reconquista.

In 1523, Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes became the first Lutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels. 1569, Union of Lublin: The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania confirmed a real union; the united country is called the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth or the Republic of Both Nations. 1643, first meeting of the Westminster Assembly, a council of theologians ("divines") and members of the Parliament of England appointed to restructure the Church of England, at Westminster Abbeyin London. 1690, Glorious RevolutionBattle of the Boyne in Ireland (as reckoned under the Julian calendar). 1766, Jean-François de la Barre, a young French nobleman, was torturedand beheaded before his body was burnt on a pyre along with a copy of Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique nailed to his torso for the crime of not saluting a Roman Catholic religious procession in AbbevilleFrance. 1770, Lexell's Comet passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 a.u. 1782, Raid on Lunenburg: American privateers attacked the British settlement of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.

In 1837, a system of civil registration of births, marriages and deaths was established in England and Wales. 1855, signing of the Quinault Treaty: The Quinault and the Quileute ceded their land to the United States. 1858, joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution to the Linnean Society in London. 1862, The Russian State Library was founded as The Library of the Moscow Public Museum. Also 1862, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second daughter of Queen Victoria, married Prince Louis of Hesse, the future Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse. Also 1862, American Civil War: The Battle of Malvern Hill took place. It is the final battle in the Seven Days Campaign, part of George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign. 1863, Keti Koti (Emancipation Day) in Suriname, marked the abolition of slavery by the Netherlands. Also, American Civil War: The Battle of Gettysburgbegan. 1867, the British North America Act of 1867 took effect as the Constitution of Canada, creating the Canadian Confederation and the federal dominion of Canada; Sir John A. Macdonald was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Canada. This date was commemorated annually in Canada as Canada Day, a national holiday.

In 1870, the United States Department of Justice formally came into existence. 1873, Prince Edward Island joined the Canadian Confederation. 1874, the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, went on sale. 1878, Canada joined the Universal Postal Union. 1879, Charles Taze Russell published the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower. 1881, the world's first international telephone call was made between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States. Also 1881, General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell and Childers reforms of the British Army, came into effect. 1885, the United States terminated reciprocity and fishery agreement with Canada. 1890, Canada and Bermuda were linked by telegraph cable. 1898, Spanish–American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill was fought in Santiago de Cuba.

In 1903, start of first Tour de France bicycle race. 1908, SOS was adopted as the international distress signal. 1911, Germany despatched the gunship Panther to Morocco, sparking the Agadir Crisis. 1915, Leutnant Kurt Wintgens of the then-named German Fliegertruppe air service achieved the first known aerial victory with a synchronized machine-gun armed fighter plane, the Fokker M.5K/MG Eindecker. 1916, World War IFirst day on the Somme: On the first day of the Ba
          Livraisons d'armes au Rwanda pendant le génocide des Tutsis : Survie porte à nouveau plainte et se constitue partie civile   
L'association Survie a déposé le 28 juin une nouvelle plainte concernant les livraisons d'armes par des responsables politiques et militaires français au gouvernement génocidaire rwandais en 1994. En se constituant partie civile, elle entend parvenir à l'ouverture d'une enquête judiciaire : la première plainte avait été classée sans suite au motif que seule la Cour de Justice de la République pourrait instruire cette affaire. Cette nouvelle étape judiciaire intervient alors qu'une des premières grandes (...) - Implications politiques militaires françaises / , , , , ,
          UNHCR, African host countries agree on final steps to resolve Rwandan refugee situation   
Publisher: UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) - Document type: Country News
          Mobile marketing tool to fill Rwanda’s outdoor gap   
MeMe enables new digital marketing channels on the MTN Rwanda mobile network to offer brands, advertisers and digital agencies the ability to “Reach and Engage” with consumers in Rwanda. MeMe delivers selected brand marketin... [article continues]
          How An Army Officer And Diplomat Wrote His Way Through Trauma   
In five wars over 10 years, Ron Capps shifted back and forth between being a U.S. Army officer and a State Department foreign service officer in some of the world's deadliest places. In Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere, he served as a senior military intelligence officer. In wartime Kosovo, Darfur and Rwanda, he worked as a diplomat out in the field, documenting violence and war. As he writes in his new memoir, all the while he was almost daily "in the midst of murder, rape, the burning of villages, crimes against humanity, war crimes, ethnic cleaning or genocide." Slowly, Capps watched his State Department and Army careers disintegrate along with his 20-year marriage. He was haunted by the dead civilians of Kosovo, Darfur and other conflicts. At one point, in the Darfur region of Sudan, he found himself on the edge of committing suicide — then the phone rang, startling him and bringing him back. Capps has chronicled his struggles with post-traumatic stress disorder in his memoir,
          12 Jobs at The East African Community, Apply Before 21 July 2017   
The East African Community is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising the
Republic of Burundi, the Republic of Kenya, the Republic of Rwanda, , Republic of South Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Republic of Uganda with its Headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania.

The EAC mission is to widen and deepen economic, political, social and cultural integration to improve the quality of life of the people of East Africa through increased competitiveness, value added production, trade and investments.

This is an exciting opportunity for highly motivated and result-driven professionals who are citizens of East African Community Partner States (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda) to apply for the following position tenable at East African Community-Secretariat.

Trade Officer – Internal Trade Information
(EAC/HR/2016-17/20)
Job Purpose:
To compile, analyse and disseminate EAC trade data through preparation of EAC Annual Trade reports plus uploading and managing trade data in the EAC Trade Help Desk.

Human Resources Officer
(EAC/HR/2016-17/19)
Job Purpose:
To implement EAC’s HR policies that select, develop and retain the right staff needed to meet EAC’s Objectives.

EAC Integrated Health Programme – Monitoring and Evaluation Officer
(EAC/HR/2016-17/24)
Job Purpose:
To oversee implementation of monitoring, evaluation and learning activities under the EIHP and build the capacity for health sector monitoring and evaluation at the EAC Secretariat.

EAC Integrated Health Programme – Linkages and Partnerships Officer
(EAC/HR/2016-17/24)
Job Purpose:
The Partnership Officer will help weave collaborative relations that enable EIHP to effectively fulfil its mission and specific objectives. He/she will identify and nurture such relations focusing primarily on funding, program development and communications.

Senior Standards Officer – Metrology
(EAC/HR/2016-17/18)
Job Purpose:
Ensure accuracy of measurements in the region to promote fair trade practices

Senior Customs Officer – Legal and Compliance
(EAC/HR/2016-17/17)
Job Purpose:
To support and assist the development and implementation of EAC Customs compliance programmes and review of customs laws to strengthen enforcement.

Senior Customs Officer – Information Management Officer
(EAC/HR/2016-17/16)
Job Purpose:
To support the development and implementation of customs IT systems and solutions to facilitate the EAC Single Customs Territory.

Principal Human Resource Officer
(EAC/HR/2016-17/15)
Job Purpose:
To initiate, formulate and manage Human Resource Management and Development policies and strategies that will enable the Community to attract, develop and retain high quality human resources.

Deputy Registrar Finance and Administration
(EAC/HR/2016-17/21)
Job Purpose:
To provide strategic leadership in the process of coordinating and facilitating utilization of the Court’s human and financial resources in accordance with the provisions in the Staff Rules and Regulations and the financial rules and regulations and other decisions and directives issued from time to time.

Deputy Clerk Finance and Administration
(EAC/HR/2016-17/22)
Job Purpose:
To be responsible for the coordination and facilitation of the processes that promote better utilization of the Assembly’s human and financial resources in accordance with the provisions of the relevant Staff and Financial Rules and Regulations and other decisions and directives issued from time to time by the Assembly, the EALA Commission, the Council and the Clerk.

Director Customs
(EAC/HR/2016-17/14)
Job Purpose:
To coordinate and manage the development, implementation and monitoring of regional customs programmes and projects in the EAC for the effective realization of a functioning Customs Union

Registrar – EAC Competition Authority
(EAC/HR/2016-17/23)
Job Purpose:
The Registrar, EAC Competition Authority shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the EAC Competition Authority and be responsible for the day to day management of the EAC Competition Authority subject to the directives of the Commissioners.

Eligibility:
EAC Staff Rules and Regulations preclude considerations of applicants above 55 years of age.

Terms and Conditions of Service:
The above position is tenable for a contract of five (5) years renewable once .

Fringe Benefits:
The established posts offer attractive fringe benefits including housing allowance, transport allowance, education allowance, a medical scheme, and insurance cover.
Equal Opportunity:
The EAC is an equal opportunity employer; therefore, female candidates are particularly encouraged to apply. EAC will only respond to those candidates who strictly meet the set requirements.

How to Apply:
Interested candidates who meet the qualification and experience requirements for the above mentioned positions are advised to send their applications, detailed curriculum vitae, photocopies of academic certificates, names and contact details of three referees, and copy of National Identity Card, or Birth Certificate or Passport showing date of birth. Please quote the respective reference number on both the application letter and envelope. For electronic submission, please quote the respective reference number on the subject of the email and send to the address given below.
Applications should be submitted to the address below not later than Friday, 21 July 2017.

Please note:
You may submit your application either electronically or in hard copy but not both.
Applications which do not: indicate nationality and age; the reference number; or have an application letter attached; have certified copies of their academic degrees and other professional Certificates; or fail to provide three referees will be disqualified.
Only qualified candidates will be contacted
EAC Staff Rules and Regulations preclude considerations of applicants above 55 years of age.
Please note that EAC does not require candidates to pay money for the recruitment process. All invitations for interviews will be done in writing

APPLY ONLINE THROUGH
E-mail: vacancies@eachq.org

OR
The Secretary General
East African Community
P. o Box 1096
Arusha – Tanzania.
Tel: +255 27 2162100
Fax: +255 27 2162190
Website : www.eac.int
Application Deadline:
Friday, 21 July 2017 – 5:00pm
          Demokrasia ya Tanzania yapigiwa mfano duniani   
IMEBAINISHWA kuwa demokrasia iliyopo Tanzania ni moja wapo ya chachu inayowafanya watu wengi zikiwemo nchi zilizoendelea duniani kutamani kuwa nayo, lakini inashindikana kutokana na mifumo yao ya kiutawala.

Mbali na hayo Watanzania wamehimizwa kuendelea kuilinda, kuheshimu na kuitumia vyema demokrasia hiyo katika kujadili ikiwemo kuibua mambo ambayo hayana uchochezi ili kuharakisha maendeleo yao.

Changamoto hiyo ilitolewa juzi na Waziri Mkuu mstaafu wa Rwanda Bw. Faustine Twagiramungu ambaye kwa sasa anaishi mjini Brussels nchini Ubeligiji wakati akichangia mada kwenye kipindi cha Straight Talk Afrika ambacho huwa kinarushwa na Sauti ya Amerika (VOA) kutoka mjini Washington DC nchini Marekani.

Hata hivyo sababu kuu iliyomsukuma Waziri huyo mstaafu kutamka hivyo ni kutokana na mada ambayo iliwasilishwa katika kipindi hicho ambayo iliangazia tija ambayo inaweza kupatikana kwa Bara la Afrika baada ya Wafaransa kufanya uamuzi wa kidemokrasia na kumuingiza madarakani Bw. Francois Hollande.

"Huwezi kumpima mtu kwa matendo yake ila uamuzi na siasa safi hususan demokrasia zenye mantiki kwa Afrika ndizo kimbilio na ufunguo wa maendeleo kwa Afrika;

"Nikiwa huku nilipo (Ubeligiji) nchi ambazo ninaweza kujivunia kuwa na demokrasia ya kweli si kwetu Rwanda... ni Tanzania na ninaamini iwapo wataitukuza (Watanzania) demokrasia hiyo ni fundisho pekee na mfano wa kuigwa katika Bara la Afrika na hata nje ya bara letu," alisema Bw. Twagiramungu.

Hata hivyo baadhi ya wachangiaji wa mada hiyo kutoka sehemu mbalimbali duniani walisema kuwa, nchi za Afrika ikiwemo Tanzania haziwezi kutegemea wahisani kuziendesha ila umefika wakati sasa rasilimali zinazowazunguka kutumika vyema kwa manufaa ya Waafrika.

"Kuchaguliwa kwa Rais mpya nchini Ufarasa kwetu (Afrika) si tija, haijalishi sera zake zinajikita katika Ujamaa au la!...tutakachofanya ni kuendelea kudumisha umoja na ushirikiano, lakini masuala ya uwajibikaji kwa manufaa ya nchi zetu yanatuhusu wenyewe," alisema mmoja wa wachangiaji wa mada hiyo kutoka nchini Nigeria.

Hata hivyo tafiti zinaonesha kuwa mbali na changamoto za hapa na pale demokrasia iliyopo Tanzania imekuwa mfano wa kuigwa kutokana na Watanzania wenyewe kuwa na maamuzi yao pekee bila kulazimishwa na watu ya kuwachagua ikiwemo kuwakataa viongozi ambao wanaona hawawajibiki ipasavyo.
          Zionism’s Quest for a Purely Jewish State is why Zionism is Inherently Racist   

According to Netanyahu Non-Jewish Refugees threaten the 'National Identity' of Israel i.e. they aren't Jews


Most Jews are in Britain and the United States today because, from 1882 to the first

world war, Jews fled from the Czarist pogroms and sought refuge from anti-semitism.  Because there were no immigration controls until 1905 and even later in the United States, some 2.5 million Jews emigrated.  Less than 2% went to the alleged historical homeland of Jews, Palestine.

It is one of the quaint aspects of Zionism's achievements that Jews too can now be pogromists.  As David Sheen reported on May 29 2013: 
'Last Thursday, May 23, 2013, marked exactly one year to the day when a thousand Jewish Israelis ran rampant through the streets of Tel Aviv, smashing and looting African-operated businesses and physically assaulting any dark-skinned person they came across. Sadly, the Israeli economic, political and religious establishment – who were in large measure responsible for the pogrom – did not respond by working to quash the racism, but rather ramped up their efforts to expel all non-Jewish African people from the country.' 
Miri Regev, who is now Israel's 'Culture Minister' told the crowd that:  "the Sudanese are a cancer in our body". 
In 1905 the Aliens Act was introduced under Prime Minister Arthur James Balfour.  Balfour was quite explicit.  He didn't much like the East European Jews.  He was however a good Zionist because he believed that they should go to Palestine.  Thus it ever was that anti-Semites and Zionists got on like a house on fire.  As you will no doubt know, in 1917 Balfour, now Foreign Secretary, penned a famous letter to Walter Rothschild promising the land of a 3rd party to the Zionists.

What Netanyahu says aloud, Isaac Herzog of the Israeli Labour Party mutters in coded language.  Netanyahu’s reasons as to why the 60,000 African refugees – from Sudan, Eritrea and other hotspots – had to be deported, demonstrate why Zionism is and always will remain a racist movement.
Netanyahu explainedwhy the refugees had to be deported thus:

"If we don't stop their entry, the problem that currently stands at 60,000 could grow to 600,000, and that threatens our existence as a Jewish and democratic state," Binyamin Netanyahu said at Sunday's cabinet meeting. "This phenomenon is very grave and threatens the social fabric of society, our national security and our national identity."

The reason wasn’t that they weren’t genuine refugees, the problem was that they weren't Jewish. David Sheen has drawn up the top 9 Israeli racist politicians who have demonised asylum seekers.  Herzog is at number 5 on the list.  (see below)

Thus Israel refuses to admit any non-Jewish refugee.  Not because their home country is safe or they are not genuine, the excuses of Western opponents of asylum seekers, but because they ‘threaten our national security and our national identity’.  And what is this national identity?  Why being Jewish of course.  Therefore one cannot accept Arabs or non-Jews within the confines of the holy tent.  Racist?  How could it be otherwise?

Tony Greenstein
Another one of the ways that Israeli society becomes increasingly racist is when centrist parties like Labor adopt right-wing rhetoric in order to chase after right-wing votes.

In recent years, Labor has not played the foil to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, but instead acceded to almost all of his hawkish proposals. Instead of standing firm against Israel’s lurch to the right, Labor has attempted to ply votes away from Likud with right-wing proposals.

That tendency has increased ever since Isaac Herzogwas elected to lead the party in November 2013. It has been especially evident in Herzog’s solid support for Netanyahu’s military campaigns in Gaza and the West Bank, but also in his support for expelling Africans from Israel.

It was not always so. When the Knesset first voted to amend the country’s “anti-infiltration” law in January 2012 to sanction the roundup, detention and expulsion of African refugees, Herzog opposed the measure.

When the Knesset voted to amend the law a second time in December 2013, Herzog didn’t show up for the vote. And by the time the Knesset voted to toughen it a third time in December 2014, he voted in favor of the amendment, along with several other Labor lawmakers.

In May 2012, Herzog wrote an opinion piece, challengingarguments by human rights groups that Eritreans in Israel deserved protection as refugees.

In March 2015, Herzog repeatedthis refrainin an attempt to peel anti-African votes away from Netanyahu on the eve of the Israeli national elections, saying, “We need to negotiate with Eritrea on the return of the Eritreans back to Eritrea.”

This year, Labor led a successful effort to abolish the Knesset’s committee on foreign workers, one of the few forums in which the concerns of refugees could receive a hearing in parliament.
In September 2015, Labor publicly complained that Netanyahu’s government has not done nearly enough to expel Africans from the country. In a public statement, Herzog’s Labor Party wholeheartedly adopted the far-right’s propaganda points, insistingwithout any basis that most refugees in Israel have no valid claim to refugee status.

“The crisis of the refugees from Syria is not similar to the issue of the infiltrators from Africa who are mostly migrant workers,” the statement read. “If only Bibi’s government had created immigration laws, it would be possible to send back to their country those who are in Israel for their welfare and for work. But the Likud government is only good at talking, and it is responsible for the troubles of the residents of south Tel Aviv.”

They were promised asylum somewhere closer to home. Then they were discarded — often in a war zone.
Andrew Green
Foreign Policy
June 27, 2017

KIGALI, Rwanda — The man picked Afie Semene and the 11 other Eritreans on the flight from Tel Aviv out of the stream of disembarking passengers as if he already had their faces memorized. He welcomed them to the Rwandan capital, Kigali, and introduced himself as John. He was a Rwandan immigration officer, he explained, there to help smooth their arrival. He collected the travel documents each of them had been issued in Israel and led them past the immigration counter where the rest of the passengers from their flight queued. Nobody stopped them. Nothing was stamped.
They paused briefly at the luggage carousel to scoop up their bags. In the nearly seven years Semene had lived in Israel, he filled an apartment with furniture and kitchen supplies. But when officials there summoned him to a detention facility for asylum-seekers, he had distributed much of what he owned among his friends, unsure if he would ever return. Now his suitcase contained little besides clothes.
The group exited the airport into the humid Rwandan night and crowded into a waiting pickup. The luggage followed in a second truck. The small convoy wound its way through lush, hilly Kigali, past the fenced campus of the regional polytechnic, and into a quiet neighborhood several miles south of the airport. They came to a stop in front of a house the color of a pistachio nut, its second story ringed with white-trimmed porches. Dawn was already breaking as the new arrivals were shown to bedrooms inside. As he fell asleep, Semene still remembers the feeling of relief wash over him. John would return the next day to help them begin their asylum applications, he thought. Maybe he would arrive with the papers granting them refugee status already in hand.

There would be no visas. No work permits. No asylum. None of the things Israeli authorities had promised the 12 Eritreans when they had agreed to relocate to Rwanda a few weeks prior.

Instead, the next day brought new despair: There would be no visas. No work permits. No asylum. None of the things Israeli authorities had promised the 12 Eritreans when they had agreed to relocate to Rwanda a few weeks prior. Instead, John offered to smuggle them into neighboring Uganda, which he told them was a “free nation.” “If you live here, you can’t leave,” Semene recalled John saying of Rwanda. “It’s a tight country. Let me advise you, as your brother, you need to go to Uganda.”

They would need to sneak across the border, since they had no proof of legal entry into Rwanda. (The Israeli laissez-passers had gone unstamped at the Kigali airport the night before, an oversight that now felt suspicious.) But John told them not to worry; he could easily get them into Uganda for a fee of $250. “I have everything,” he said. “Contacts with the government over there. Contacts with the Israeli government. If something happens, I call the Israeli government and they do something for you.”

The alternative, John said, was to remain in the Kigali house, where they would be under constant surveillance. They would have to pay rent, but without documentation, they would not be allowed to work. Semene and the others understood that John was not really giving them a choice. Everyone agreed to the plan.

A few hours later, a van pulled up outside the house and the Eritreans piled in. Several miles from the border with Uganda, the vehicle came to a stop and John urged them out onto the side of the road. It was the last they would see of him.

Semene had made an even more treacherous crossing once before, paying smugglers to ferry him across the Sinai Desert from Egypt into Israel. Under fire from Egyptian border guards, he sprinted the final yards to safety. He had hoped it would be the last time he would ever have to cross a border illegally. But seven years later, feeling betrayed by an Israeli government he had once turned to for safety, he slipped quietly and unofficially into Uganda.
AdHundreds of African asylum-seekers stage a protest along the sea front in Tel Aviv on Jan. 15, 2014. (Photo credit: JACK GUEZ/AFP/Getty Images)d caption
For decades after its founding in 1948, Israel welcomed refugees from outside the Jewish faith. The country was an early signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention. In his first official act as prime minister in 1977, Menachem Begin granted refuge to 66 Vietnamese who had been rescued at sea by an Israeli ship. During a visit to the United States later that year, he recalled the St. Louis — a ship loaded with more than 900 European Jews who attempted to flee Germany in 1939 — to explain his decision. The St. Louis’s passengers were denied permission to disembark in Cuba, the United States, and Canada and ultimately returned to Europe. A quarter of the passengers are thought to have died in the Holocaust.

“They were nine months at sea, traveling from harbor to harbor, from country to country, crying out for refuge. They were refused,” Begin said. “We have never forgotten the lot of our people … And therefore it was natural that my first act as prime minister was to give those people a haven in the land of Israel.”

In 2007, then-Prime Minister Ehud Olmert echoed Begin’s act when he granted temporary residency permits to nearly 500 Sudanese asylum-seekers. But as the number of African migrants swelled in subsequent years, Israel’s receptiveness began to flag. The vast majority of the new arrivals were fleeing long-standing authoritarian regimes in Eritrea and Sudan. They chose Israel for many reasons: because it was a democracy, because it was easier to reach than Europe or — for many Sudanese — because it was an adversary of their own government. They hoped that the enemy of their enemy would look kindly on them.

But Israeli authorities soon became overwhelmed. According to the Ministry of Interior, nearly 65,000 foreign nationals — the vast majority from Africa — reached Israel between 2006 and 2013. As the government struggled to accommodate the newcomers, many languished in poor and overcrowded neighborhoods in southern Tel Aviv. Dozens squatted in a park across the street from the city’s main bus station for weeks on end. A handful of high-profile incidents — including the alleged rape of an 83-year-old woman by an Eritrean asylum-seeker in 2012 — dominated media coverage and fueled unease among Israelis, many of whom already fretted that refugees were taking their jobs.

African asylum-seekers sleep in Tel Aviv's Levinski Park during a protest against Israel's immigration policies on Feb. 5, 2014. (Photo credit: JACK GUEZ/AFP/Getty Images)
By the time Benjamin Netanyahu secured a third term as prime minister in 2013, the tensions had hardened into outright hostility. That year, Israel sealed off its border with Egypt and implemented a raft of policies aimed at making life more difficult for asylum-seekers already in Israel. Then it began secretly pressuring Eritreans and Sudanese to leave for unnamed third countries, a shadowy relocation effort in which Semene and thousands like him are now ensnared.

Israeli officials have kept nearly everything else about this effort secret, even deflecting requests for more information from UNHCR, the U.N. refugee agency. But a year-long investigation by Foreign Policy that included interviews with multiple Eritrean and Sudanese asylum-seekers as well as people involved at various stages of the relocation process — including one person who admitted to helping coordinate illegal border crossings — reveals an opaque system of shuffling asylum-seekers from Israel, via Rwanda or Uganda, into third countries, where they are no longer anyone’s responsibility.
It begins with furtive promises by Israeli authorities of asylum and work opportunities in Rwanda and Uganda. Once the Sudanese and Eritrean asylum-seekers reach Kigali or Entebbe, where Uganda’s international airport is located, they describe a remarkably similar ordeal: They meet someone who presents himself as a government agent at the airport, bypass immigration, move to a house or hotel that quickly feels like a prison, and are eventually pressured to leave the country. For the Eritreans, it is from Rwanda to Uganda. For Sudanese, it is from Uganda to South Sudan or Sudan. The process appears designed not just to discard unwanted refugees, but to shield the Israeli, Rwandan, and Ugandan governments from any political or legal accountability.

While a handful of the Eritreans and Sudanese have managed to maneuver or mislead their way into asylum in Rwanda or Uganda, and dozens more live in a stateless limbo in the Ugandan capital of Kampala, most have given in to the pressure to leave those countries, making dangerous illegal border crossings that leave them vulnerable to blackmail and physical abuse at the hands of smugglers and security forces. Some have continued north to Sudan or Libya in an effort to reach Europe. A few have been captured and killed by Islamic State fighters or drowned on the treacherous Mediterranean crossing.

Officials across several relevant ministries in Israel, Rwanda, and Uganda all issued denials or refused repeated requests for comment. But the nearly identical experiences of asylum-seekers arriving in Rwanda and Uganda, as well as their ability to bypass standard immigration channels and occasionally procure official documents from their handlers, suggests a level of government knowledge, if not direct involvement, in all three capitals.

Semene fled Eritrea in 2007, after four years in the country’s military. Service there is compulsory and it can stretch on indefinitely. Instead of training, conscripts are often forced to work on their commanders’ private farms or for state-owned businesses. The conditions are so restrictive and the compensation so negligible that in 2016 a U.N. Human Rights Council report on the country determined that “Eritrean officials have committed the crime of enslavement … in a persistent, widespread and systematic manner.” During his four years of service, Semene, a small, slight man with an easy smile, was allowed to visit his family only once.

Semene is a pseudonym. Life under military dictatorship instilled in him a deep sense of caution, and he is hesitant to share too many details about his past in case security forces target his family members who still live in Eritrea. Risking imprisonment and possible execution there, he ran — first to a refugee camp in Sudan, where he faced constant shortages of food and water, and then to Egypt. Finding the environment for refugees there only marginally better, he paid smugglers $2,800 to take him across Sinai into Israel. He knew little about the country, except that it was a democracy. “Simply, I try my luck,” he said.

And finally, luck seemed to be on his side. In 2008, Israeli authorities issued him a visa that was renewable every six months. He found a job stocking groceries at a Tel Aviv shop, and applied for official refugee status. “I adopt the place,” he told me, including learning Hebrew. “I adopt their food. I know the language. I see Israel as my country.”

Thousands more asylum-seekers like Semene continued to arrive — mostly from Eritrea, but also from Sudan, including hundreds fleeing a government-perpetrated genocide in the country’s Darfur region. By 2012, a leading Israeli politician was denouncing the asylum-seekers as “a cancer in our body” and residents of south Tel Aviv were organizing protests against them. That same year, the minister of interior suggested making “their lives miserable” in order to dissuade even more from coming.

One way the Israeli government did just that was by erecting a sprawling detention center for asylum-seekers in the middle of the Negev Desert. Operated by the Israel Prison Service (IPS), Holot — which means “sand” in Hebrew — now holds more than 3,000 male asylum-seekers, who had previously been allowed to live and (unofficially) work while they awaited a decision on their refugee applications. Most detainees said they learned they had been randomly chosen to relocate to Holot only when they attempted to renew their visas. They were given days to report to the facility, where they can legally be held for up to a year. Some politicians are pushing to make the sentence indefinite.
Asylum-seekers take part in a day of protest at the Holot detention center in the southern Negev desert on Feb. 17, 2014. (Photo credit: ILIA YEFIMOVICH /Getty Images)
Semene was summoned to Holot in early 2014. “It’s really a prison,” is how he described what appears on the outside to be a beleaguered tent city. I made two visits to the facility, though I was not allowed to enter. Instead, I sat with detainees outside the chain-link fence topped with razor wire, as they described conditions inside. They live 10 to a room and though they can come and go from the facility, they are required to check in with authorities once per day. Failure to do so earns a short stint in a nearby maximum-security prison. Residents are not allowed to work or even to bring food brought by friends or family members into Holot. With the nearest town hours away, they spend most of their time sitting at the makeshift restaurants they have constructed near the entrance to the camp. IPS authorities regularly tear them down, but the detainees keep rebuilding them.

To Semene, the restrictions of Holot, combined with the monotony of life there, seemed designed to break the occupants — men who had previously survived murderous raids, the deprivations of refugee camps, and, in some cases, torture. There is limited assistance for people managing chronic health conditions or in obvious need of mental healthcare. Instead, they are left to wander the desert, overseen only by their fellow inmates. (IPS did not respond to multiple requests for comment.) Semene remembers becoming so distressed by the treatment one day that he began pleading with a guard: “We are human. Treat us as a human,” he said.

Then, after he had been locked away for seven months, the authorities seemed to offer him a lifeline: Leaflets from the Israeli Population and Immigration Authority started to appear within the facility, saying that Israel had secured an arrangement with other countries willing to accept asylum-seekers. Anyone who agreed to a transfer would receive travel documents, a free one-way plane ticket to a yet-unnamed country, and $3,500. “On the first day of arrival in the country, you will be placed in a hotel. Everything that you need — work and living permit — will be given to you,” the flyer read, according to a translation provided by the UNHCR office in Tel Aviv.

Soon, the guards at Holot began whispering to the asylum-seekers that the third countries were Rwanda for Eritreans and Uganda for the Sudanese. There was no explanation for the division. The Israeli government has never officially confirmed the two countries involved, explaining in various legal settings that the agreements prevent them from doing so. “We do not comment in the media on those issues or on our relations with third countries,” a spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in an email.

Semene was among those who jumped at the opportunity. “You close your eyes and choose,” was how he explained it to me. In the weeks leading up to his departure in late 2014, he was summoned to meet with an Israeli immigration officer, who presented him with an Israeli travel document filled out with his name, date of birth, and — though he had no passport — a passport number. The laissez-passer was valid for two weeks, from Dec. 14 to Dec. 28, 2014. The official also showed him a letter, allegedly from the Rwandan government, guaranteeing that he would be granted a one-month tourist visa when he arrived in the country. The official handed over the promised $3,500 in U.S. dollars.
Semene wondered why he was getting a one-month tourist visa when he had been told he would be receiving asylum. He also wondered why the laissez-passer was valid for only two weeks. He said he quizzed the official about both apparent discrepancies, but was assured any issues would be sorted out when he arrived in Kigali. Not quite convinced, he took photos of the documents with his cell phone, which he later showed me. A few days later, he received a call telling him to get ready. He would be leaving on Dec. 22. Despite his growing skepticism of everything the Israeli authorities were telling him, he decided to approach the trip with guarded optimism. It had been more than seven years since he fled a life of endless military service in Eritrea and more than half a year since he’d been incarcerated in Israel. He wanted desperately to believe that Rwanda would be the place where he would finally be free.

A group of Eritrean asylum-seekers inside Israel's Holot detention facility on Feb. 17, 2014. (Photo credit: ILIA YEFIMOVICH /Getty Images) 
The pistachio-colored house where Semene and dozens of other Eritreans were held in Kigali sits at the end of a deeply gashed dirt road. About 50 yards away, down a steep embankment, there is a small kiosk painted Coca-Cola red, where men from the neighborhood often gather to drink sodas and chat. One day last spring, I stopped by to see if they had ever noticed any unusual activity at the house atop the hill. Through a translator, they explained that groups of “foreigners” regularly stayed there. Sometimes they could be spotted pacing on the white-trimmed balconies. None ever seemed to venture outside the house’s heavy black gate and they were always gone after a few days.

Later, I trudged up the hill and knocked on that gate. It swung open to reveal two young Rwandan men lazily sweeping the driveway. I asked if I could speak to the owner. They indicated that he wasn’t home, but passed along a phone number. When I dialed it, a man who identified himself only as Robert acknowledged that the house was indeed his. Yes, he intermittently hosted visitors from Eritrea. In fact, a group had just left a few days earlier.

He explained that he had begun renting out the house to unknown groups of foreigners more than a year earlier after a friend of his — a driver who works at the airport — called to see if he could host some people who would be spending a few days in the country. Robert agreed, he said, because the house was vacant at the time. Since then he has accommodated a handful of groups, he told me. The process is always the same: The driver friend calls him a few days before a new party is set to arrive and Robert sends workers to prepare the house for them. The foreigners stay for a few days — never more than three — and then leave. He didn’t know to where. He had never met any of them.
When I started to press Robert for more details — How much was he paid? Did the driver work for the government? — he grew cagey and insisted we meet in person. We set a time for the following day. When I called back to confirm the location, he hung up on me and declined each of my subsequent calls.

It is unclear whether the driver friend is John, the man who picked Semene and the other Eritreans up from the airport, or someone working for him. It is also unclear whether John is actually an immigration official or just posing as one. But in a country as notoriously repressive as Rwanda it is almost inconceivable that anyone regularly bypassing immigration isn’t operating with the blessing of senior government officials. (My calls from different lines to a number allegedly belonging to John have gone unanswered for months.)

What happens to those asylum-seekers who refuse John’s offer to be smuggled into Uganda is yet another mystery. Kabtom Bereket, an Eritrean who arrived separately from Semene in July 2014, told me that several members of his six-person group asked to visit the UNHCR offices in Kigali immediately after they arrived at the house from the airport. John refused their request, Bereket said, telling them, “We are immigration. There is the security on the gate. You stay here.” No one in the group was allowed out of the house, according to Bereket, which is also a pseudonym, until they all left to cross illegally into Uganda.

Of the at least 1,400 other asylum-seekers who have arrived in Kigali from Tel Aviv over the last three years — the figure Israeli officials provided in court — Semene is certain that the vast majority have been smuggled out of the country.

Some Eritreans have managed to escape the house. According to documents from the UNHCR office in Tel Aviv, Rwandan authorities have arrested at least four of the asylum-seekers who attempted to stay in Kigali on charges of lacking documentation. Others, though UNHCR won’t say how many, have approached UNHCR staff in Kigali for support, claiming to have relocated from Israel. Of the at least 1,400 other asylum-seekers who have arrived in Kigali from Tel Aviv over the last three years — the figure Israeli officials provided in court — Semene is certain that the vast majority have been smuggled out of the country.

Across the border in Uganda, UNHCR officials haven’t heard of even a single successful asylum applicant among the Sudanese arriving directly from Tel Aviv or the Eritreans arriving from Rwanda, though they are aware of multiple rejections from among this pool. This is strange because Uganda has one of the most progressive refugee policies in the region. Nearly 3,300 Sudanese are currently registered as refugees in Uganda, according to the UNCHR office in Kampala. The problem seems to be exclusive to those being resettled from Israel. Sudanese I spoke to in Kampala said they have now learned not to mention Israel anywhere in their asylum applications.

Officials in the office of Uganda’s prime minister, which oversees the country’s immigration procedures, offered no explanation for the rejected asylum claims of migrants arriving via Israel. Rwandan officials do admit having discussed a deal with Israel to accept asylum-seekers, but say that no agreement was ever reached. It may be that the Ugandan and Rwandan governments do not want to answer questions about what they are receiving in exchange for accepting refugees. (Speculation among Israeli activists centers on weapons and cash.)

Unable to get asylum in Uganda, many Eritreans and Sudanese live in constant fear of the authorities. Within hours of his illegal scramble across the Rwandan border, in fact, Semene nearly landed behind bars. He and the other Eritreans in his group emerged from the borderlands thicket to find a van waiting on the Ugandan side that carried them the remaining 10 hours to Kampala. They arrived at a cheap hotel in the crowded, dusty area of downtown known as Old Kampala at 4 a.m. Five hours later, Ugandan security officials raided the hotel and arrested several of the asylum-seekers. By that point, however, Semene had already split off from the group and melted into the neighborhood, his doubts having turned into outright distrust over the course of the journey.

More than a year later, he spends most of his evenings in a local bar watching football matches or playing pool. It is a short walk from the apartment he shares with a rotating group of Eritrean refugees. Sometimes up to a dozen people cram into the one-room space. His world is now just a few blocks of Old Kampala, but he figures limiting his movement is the best way to avoid running into police officers or other security officials who might ask for his papers and then arrest him or demand a bribe when he is unable to produce them.

He is depressed, and also eaten up with resentment toward the Israeli government. This was not the life they promised him. “I am not safe here,” he said. “I am not safe anywhere.”
Ugandan police officers cordon off a crime scene in Kampala on March 17, 2017. (Photo credit: ISAAC KASAMANI/AFP/Getty Images)
The linchpins of this system of human smuggling — and key to establishing whether the Israeli, Ugandan, and Rwandan governments are officially involved in it — are the men who pressure new arrivals from Tel Aviv to forget the promise of asylum and to cross illegally into third countries. Hassan Ali is one such man. He agreed to meet me on the condition that I not reveal his real identity. A squat 32-year-old Darfuri refugee, he steered me off a crowded Kampala street into a fried chicken restaurant with low ceilings and a greasy, tiled floor. He chose a side table and spoke in a quiet, quivering voice lost easily in the lunchtime bustle. He was among the very first asylum-seekers in Israel to accept the proposed transfer to Uganda, he said. He had been in Israel since 2008 and sensed the mood toward asylum-seekers was growing increasingly hostile. He happened to have friends and family in Uganda, so when the offer came to relocate to Kampala in early 2014, he eagerly accepted.
But within weeks of his arrival, just as he was beginning to feel settled in his new life in the city, he started getting phone calls from a man he would identify only as Ismail. Ismail was also Sudanese and he needed Ali’s help. Would he be willing to meet with groups of new arrivals — mostly people Ali knew from his own time in Israel — and talk to them about resettling elsewhere? Ali is not sure how Ismail got his number or why he wanted Ali to be involved, but — for reasons he chose to keep vague — he decided he was willing to try. The requests from Ismail are relatively sporadic, but they have become more frequent. Ali estimates that he has now met with at least a dozen groups of asylum-seekers.

He usually joins them on their second day at an upscale hotel called Forest Cottages, where the Sudanese flown from Tel Aviv are brought from the airport. Unlike their Eritrean counterparts in Rwanda, they are offered a brief respite before the pressure to relocate begins. But when the time comes, Ali is the one who applies that pressure.

He starts by talking about how much the men must be missing their families after years — and in some cases decades — away from Sudan. Except now, in Uganda, they are so much closer to home than they were in Israel. Using Ismail’s connections, Ali says he can get them the rest of the way. For $200, he will arrange the paperwork and logistics to transport them safely to South Sudan, the buffer between Uganda and Sudan. For $100 more, he can get them to the Sudanese capital, Khartoum.
The reasons other refugees chose to return to Sudan, despite the risk of arrest and torture, are much more straightforward: They believe their options are exhausted. They miss their homes. They want to see their families.

Both countries harbor significant dangers. Sudan remains a police state, and killing continues in Darfur, though at a lower level than before. South Sudan is mired in a bloody civil war that has killed tens of thousands if not hundreds of thousands of people and forced 1.7 million to flee the country. But the new arrivals in Kampala are discombobulated and often poorly informed. Ali fuels their confusion by telling them that Ugandan officials will hound them, blackmail them, and potentially deport them. South Sudan, because of the chaos there, actually seems to some refugees like a much easier place to disappear or to begin another journey toward a country that might actually grant them asylum. The reasons other refugees chose to return to Sudan, despite the risk of arrest and torture, are much more straightforward: They believe their options are exhausted. They miss their homes. They want to see their families.

Ali has learned to manipulate these fears and emotions. “I say, ‘Welcome to Africa. If you tell me you’re going to pass to Sudan, you come here, you will pass.’ They’re very happy,” he said. Dozens of people have taken Ali up on his offer, he says, at which point Ismail collects their information and money and hands it over to a man named George, the Ugandan minder who picked the new arrivals up at the airport — essentially the Ugandan version of John. Within hours of securing their agreement, George returns with individualized Ugandan travel documents stamped with South Sudanese entry visas.

I asked Ali about the level of government involvement in this scheme. After some prevarication, he conceded that Ugandan officials are not only aware of what is happening, but actively involved in pushing asylum-seekers from Israel into South Sudan. “This is the secret they don’t want to tell,” he said. But aside from the Ugandan travel documents he claims to have seen handed over to the asylum-seekers, he had little evidence to support his claims. That is, except for one additional piece of paper: a permit granting him temporary residence in Uganda.

At the beginning of our conversation, he had showed me a photo of the one-year legal residency permit George had secured for him from Uganda’s Ministry of Internal Affairs. None of the other Sudanese asylum-seekers I met had received anything similar from George, although several said they had asked for one. Ali only received the document, he acknowledged, in exchange for helping Ismail.

Before we parted ways, Ali offered to take me with him when the next group of Sudanese transfers arrived at Forest Cottages. But less than 10 minutes after we left the restaurant, he called to tell me the deal was off. Apparently, he had phoned Ismail immediately after our meeting and had been lamba
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          The Revolution in Transatlantic Affairs   

The year 2001 could have been an eye-opener but the West, too traumatized by the Islamist attack on America, failed to notice an equally important, if less spectacular, development: the creation by China of a coalition, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, including Russia and Central Asia as members, Iran as a silent partner, and India and Pakistan as observers. It took another five years for Western foreign policy experts to realize that this emerging SCO was, for all practical purposes, an OPEC with nukes, which had the potential to develop, over time, into a full-fledged "NATO of the East."

At the NATO summit in Riga in November 2006, a little-noticed transatlantic revolution of sorts finally occurred when the Atlantic Alliance acknowledged that it would have to "go global" in order to remain relevant. Divided, America and Europe will fall; united, they can retain the lead. But all manners of "going global" are not equal, and the coming globalization of NATO is as much full of promises as it is fraught with perils.

Some will argue that, with 50,000 troops present in three continents today, NATO is in essence already global. Others will counter that the story of this halfhearted, haphazard globalization reads at times like a tale told by an idiot, full of rhetorical fog and bureaucratic friction, and signifying nothing more than "flight forward" or "muddling through." In fact, in the post-Cold War period, NATO's desire to have its cake (collective defense) and eat it too (collective security) has created a certain conceptual confusion.2

As a political organization, the Alliance rushed to invoke Article 5 within twenty-four hours of 9/11; as a military organization, NATO turned out to be as ill-prepared to do counterinsurgency in Afghanistan as the U.S. military in Iraq. It would be a mistake, however, to claim that NATO's credibility is at stake in Afghanistan. Afghanistan may have been the graveyard of empires in the past, but it won't be the graveyard of the Alliance -- for a simple reason already pointed out by one European observer:

When the territorial integrity of one of its members is threatened by an attack, NATO cannot afford to lose. It would sacrifice its credibility as an alliance. . . . But in stabilization operations the existence of NATO is not threatened. Here NATO can afford to fail without losing its credibility as an alliance. . . . There are, thus, fundamental differences between collective defense credibility and stabilization credibility. To lump them together or to blur the distinction between the two, shows a lack of understanding for the very nature of such interventions. The consequences of getting stuck in hopeless operations as well as holding NATO's authority and standing hostage to fortune is doubly dangerous. The UN, the institution with the widest experience in post-conflict stabilization to date, has never made these operations a test for its credibility. NATO needs to do likewise.3

If the Alliance survived a debacle of the magnitude of Suez in 1956, it can withstand anything. The main danger for NATO therefore is not military failure or even a Suez-like temporary political meltdown, but something more insidious. Over time, what an ill-conceived globalization of NATO could lead to is the transformation of the tactical coalition that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization currently is into a strategic "NATO of the East" while at the same time perverting the Atlantic Alliance into, so to speak, a "SEATO of the West" -- namely, a make-believe alliance with no viable strategy (because a conventional military configuration is irrelevant when the threats are of the asymmetric variety) and no coherent policy (because the interests of the global members are simply too heterogeneous to ever converge.)

The Long War promises to be a thinking man's war. As a full-fledged Alliance, NATO possesses the kind of staying power that mere ad hoc coalitions cannot deliver; but NATO still has to come to terms with the fact that thinking power will matter more than fighting power. If NATO is to avoid the twofold danger of the SCO becoming a NATO of the East while NATO becomes a mere SEATO of the West, the Alliance will have first of all to downgrade its "toolbox" dimension and beef up its "think-tank" dimension.

The revolution in strategic affairs

Ever since the 1999 intervention in Kosovo, NATO has been eager to prove that it stands for more than "No Action, Talk Only." But the adoption by the Alliance of the Marge Simpson doctrine ("Are we gonna just stand there like the French, or are we gonna do something?") has proved to be no substitute for a new strategic concept. Kosovo itself, waged in no small part to maintain the credibility of the Alliance, ended up paradoxically weakening NATO's credibility and the mutual bad blood afterwards constituted the single most important underlying reason of the 2003 near-death experience over Iraq.

By the time of the 2006 NATO Riga summit, two eminent Americans argued in no uncertain terms in favor of a re-invention of the Alliance: "It is time to stop pretending that everything is fine in Brussels and Mons. NATO will never generate the political impetus and leadership to reinvent itself unless we face that truth and openly debate what this Alliance can and should become. . . . NATO leaders have thus far demonstrated neither the vision nor the political will to reinvent the Alliance."4

Strong words, to be sure, but perhaps the wrong diagnostic: to the extent that there is indeed a danger of NATO drifting into irrelevance, it is due not so much to an absence of philosophical vision and/or political will as to a deficit of strategic literacy on the part of NATO leaders and cheerleaders.

On the American side, there is certainly no shortage of will and vision. Our two authors themselves were instrumental in forcing Europeans to look beyond Brussels sandbox politics and leading the drive for a successful enlargement of NATO. In the process of preaching a gospel of "broader and farther is always better," though, they elevated enlargement to the rank of a Kantian categorical imperative and by the same token lost sight of the Hobbesian iron law known in the jargon of political science as the security dilemma. Simply put: however defensive in intent, any actor's move to increase its security always runs the risk of being perceived as an offensive move by another actor.5

As Vladimir Putin reminded the West in a very Russian way in his Munich speech earlier this year, one state's idea of "projecting stability" is another's idea of "exporting subversion." Enlargement has been a bold move that played a critical (and often underappreciated) role in the successful transition to democracy of the former captive Europe, but for every action there is a reaction, and the gradual enlargement of NATO to the East has been the main cause of Russia's gradual rapprochement with China. A bold move today would be to acknowledge that, for a host of reasons, this process has reached diminishing returns, and that projecting stability should from now on be achieved at less cost through other means, be it security cooperation or global partnerships.

If Americans these days tend to have forgotten something as basic as the security dilemma, Europeans for their part have serious difficulties remembering something equally basic that they used to perform with undeniable virtuosity: coercive diplomacy. Be it with Iraq yesterday or Iran today, an astounding percentage of the allegedly sophisticated EU elites have the hardest time grasping what any American redneck knows intuitively: namely, that the collective threat to use force is still the best way to avoid having recourse to actual force. Fifty years of increasing focus on intra-EU politics has led EU elites to mistake "multi-level governance" (read: horse-trading by capitals in Brussels) for the whole of statecraft. But genuine diplomacy always rests on the implicit threat to use force, and the EU mantra about force as last resort should logically lead Europeans to view coercive diplomacy as their preferred weapon.6

Iraq, to be sure, was in many ways sui generis. Iran, by contrast, should be a no-brainer, since a nuclear Iran would lead to nuclear proliferation throughout the Middle East all the way to Algeria. Were coercive diplomacy to fail, then, as Senator McCain put it, there would still be one thing worse than military intervention in Iran -- a nuclear Iran.

This question of "strategic literacy" of NATO leaders cannot be overemphasized at a time when NATO allies are elaborating a new (i.e., post 9/11) strategic concept. The task promises to be a daunting one if only because, since the end of the Cold War, the very concept of "strategy" has become increasingly problematic in the West -- in no small part because the concept of the "West" itself is no longer self-evident.7

Forget the "Americans are from Mars, Europeans from Venus" mantra that gave the Brussels Eurocracy the vapors in the summer of 2002.8 Though the slogan captured well a moment of transatlantic relations, over time this mantra has obscured the issue. The truth is, for the past 15 years, and on both sides of the Atlantic, there have been two major attempts underway to get rid of the strategy problematique altogether.

In the civilian world, politicians and bureaucrats have robbed the concept of "strategy" of any meaning by systematically using it interchangeably with "policy." Academics and think-tankers, for their part, have chosen to blow out of proportion a Revolution in Security Affairs in which "the dividing lines between hard and soft, civil and military security are rapidly dissolving, requiring far more flexibility and causing much confusion as allies and partners have disagreed significantly about how to manage such complexity." This supposed Revolution has been used as a pretext to dissolve the concept of "strategy" in the catch-all notion of "security," the concept of "national security" itself in a nebulous "human security," and last but not least, the concept of grand strategy into that of global governance -- whatever that may mean.9

Within the military, the concept of "strategy" has not fared much better. The post-Cold War era has witnessed a surreal debate between the disciples of Clausewitz, who invariably confuse strategy with the operational level of war, and the supporters of the supposed Revolution in Military Affairs reducing war to "targeting and shooting," and whose network-centric paradigm leads to a tacticization of strategy.10

Between the shock-and-awe slogans of the military Mars, and the human security fairy tales of the civilian Venus, Strategy in the West has been MIA for too long. Since the real Revolution in Strategic Affairs happens to be a non-Western affair, NATO leaders will have to start by learning the new grammar and logic of the kind of unrestricted warfare elaborated by the Chinese and the fourth-generation warfare practiced by Islamists.11

As U.S. NATO Ambassador Victoria Nuland argued, "if the divisive debate over Iraq taught us one thing, it is that NATO must be the place where we talk about all the issues affecting our future -- the Middle East, Iraq, North Korea, China, Iran, just to name a few." The North Atlantic Council has recently broadened its range of consultations to include global issues ranging from energy security to transnational terrorism. But increased consultation, in and of itself, will not mechanically lead to better conceptualization. Enhancing the strategic literacy of NATO's stakeholders should be the logical prerequisite to a debate about the future NATO strategic concept.

The SCO as NATO peer competitor?

In the past hundred years, the instrumentalization of Islam has been a recurrent temptation on the part of every rising power, be it Wilhemine Germany or Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany or Soviet Russia, not to mention America itself. As the latest rising power, China itself would not be immune to that temptation even if it were energy self-sufficient. The fact that China's energy needs are huge guarantees that the constitution of a Sino-Islamic axis is for Beijing not just a tactical option, but a strategic necessity.12

While the pivotal states of this strategy appear to be Pakistan, Iran, and (more recently) Saudi Arabia, the geopolitical situation of Iran puts it in a class by itself, as the most precious proxy in China's "indirect approach" against American primacy. It is therefore no surprise to learn that China is using Iran as a conduit for the delivery of arms to both Iraqi and Afghan insurgents, and providing Iran itself the kind of small boats needed to conduct attacks against commercial shipping or the U.S. Navy in the Persian Gulf.13

If the instrumentalization of Islam constitutes the geographical axis of China's grand strategy, the functional axis is -- or ought to be -- of equal interest to NATO, since it consists in the artful combination of space power, sea power, and soft power.

Space power. While lending support to Russia's ludicrous posturing on NATO missile defense, China is experimenting with antisatellite weapons -- a disturbing trend given the reliance of modern military (especially navies) on space power.

Sea power. A hundred years after Theodore Roosevelt sent his Great While Fleet around the world to signal the emergence of a new great power, China is rediscovering the writings of Admiral Mahan on the importance of sea power in history and dreaming of a Great White Fleet of its own. Against the backdrop of an ever-shrinking U.S. Navy (more on that later), China is transforming itself as a maritime superpower at such high speed that Western analysts estimate it could become the world's leading naval power by 2020.

Last but not least, soft power. On the military side, China is focusing on developing security cooperation within the ASEAN Regional Forum framework with the intent of marginalizing America. On the civilian side, China is peddling "Asian values" from Africa to Eurasia and from Latin America to Southeast Asia. For the past six years, China has been promoting autocracy through soft power while America has been promoting democracy through hard power, and the verdict is in: China today has a more positive image worldwide than America.14

Russia's relation to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and its expectations, are of an altogether different nature. On the surface, to be sure, China and Russia appear to be the two main pillars of the SCO. Economically and militarily, the two countries' relation is, for the time being at least, one of genuine complementarity. But while the SCO constitutes the core of China's Islamic strategy, it is for Russia a tactical option to both manage the rise of China in Eurasia and to gain leverage over the West.15

Unlike China, Russia is energy self-sufficient; and unlike China's Confucianism, Russia's Eurasianism actually comes in two opposite versions: one pro-West and anti-Islam; the other pro-Islam and anti-West. American Putin-bashers would do well to realize that the Putin regime clearly favors the former version --- which may not be the case for his successor. Putin's Russia is a mystery wrapped in an enigma only for those caught in a 15-year time warp. In a nutshell: While Yelstin's choice of an alleged Polish model of transition in 1992 resulted, by 1999, in 38 percent of the population living below the poverty line, Putin's reorientation toward a Chinese model has since created an annual growth rate of 6 percent for Russia -- and a 70 percent approval rating for Putin. Having taken considerable domestic risks by siding with America after 9/11, Putin, for the past 5 years, has received nothing in return -- other than a seemingly endless enlargement of NATO in his own backyard.

Now that Russia is rich with oil money and has paid its debts to the West, what Russia wants from the West is respect.16 Russia's nuisance capacity should not be underestimated, even though threats to withdraw from the CFE Treaty, or to turn the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) into a "natural gas OPEC," are intended primarily for domestic consumption and to signal that NATO has enlarged far enough.

Unlike China, Russia is not a rising power. Russian hearts and mind are still up for grabs, though, and there are three reasons why it would be grossly irresponsible to alienate Russia gratuitously. In the short term, Russia's support is critical to solve (militarily or not) the Iranian question; in the middle-term, Russia has considerable leverage over Europe, with much bigger sticks and carrots than America's, and the risk of a creeping Finlandization of Europe is real were America to indulge in brinkmanship; in the long term, the West would have nothing to gain were Russia, against its best interest, to upgrade its relations to the SCO from the tactical to the strategic level.

The current demonization of Russia in some American quarters is thus incomprehensible, unless one keeps in mind the particular conceit of democracies at war that Kennan, following Tocqueville, pointed out long ago: "There is nothing in nature more egocentrical than the embattled democracy. It soon becomes the victim of its own propaganda. It then tends to attach to its own cause an absolute value which distorts its own vision of everything else. . . . People who have got themselves into this frame of mind have little understanding for the issues of any contest other than the one in which they are involved."17

This tunnel vision, and the incapacity to distinguish between the essential and the peripheral, is all the more surprising when it comes from the neoconservative side. Among the new generation of neocons, many seem to have forgotten the lessons of the older generation, as captured in Jeanne Kirkpatrick's celebrated 1979 essay on "Dictatorships and Double Standards." Simply put: when all is said and done, there is a difference in kind between totalitarianism and authoritarianism. If Islamist totalitarianism is the main enemy, as the neocons rightly claim, then it follows logically that Russian authoritarianism, however unpalatable to democratic sensibilities, is something we can live with. In that respect, the arch-realist Kissinger is paradoxically closer to Kirkpatrick than some of today's neocons in arguing:

Russia may be tempted to pursue tactical rapprochement with China. But any meaningful strategic rapprochement with China would move Russia further away from the United States and into a position of dependence on Chinese support. This would run counter to the strategic realities Russia faces on its far-eastern border, given the decline in its population and negative demographic trends. We cannot be fixated by things that are in the power of Russia and China to do. The wise American policy is to establish close relations with both Russia and China. And we should conduct it on the basis that whenever possible there should always be at least equal if not greater incentives or prospect of risks to cooperate with the United States than with each other.18

Similarly, a wise NATO policy should always make sure that NATO-Russia security cooperation is always stronger than Russia-China security cooperation. By the same token, and given the always-possible energy Finlandization of Europe, a wise NATO policy should make sure that the NATO-Russia Council always remains one step ahead of the EU-Russia Permanent Council.19

The Great Game and the Long War

One thing is certain: the Great Game and the Long War will be the two global and generational challenges confronting the West in the next 30 years. While the two challenges at times overlap, they remain analytically distinct. Attempts to conflate the two challenges with a new geopolitical concept like "Greater Middle East" risk confusing the issues. The Great Game? While the West remains fixated on the continental dimension, the East shows more lucidity in giving as much importance to the maritime dimension (more on that later). The Long War? Due to mass migration, the sociopolitical umma no longer coincides with the geopolitical Dar al-Islam.20

So much for the Greater Middle East, then. When all is said and done, globalization has not so much led to the "spiritualization of borders" (as the flute-players would have it) as to the partial "virtualization of geopolitics." The Great Game and the Long War are global and generational, but the geopolitics of oil, of Islamic banking, of Islamic media, etc. only partly overlap, and the geopolitical mapping required is a multi-level mapping including both the real and the virtual worlds.

One of the unfortunate consequences of the globalization theology of the 1990s has been the withering away of geopolitical thinking in the West. This eclipse of geopolitics is not totally negative, to be sure, for as one pundit put it, "few modern ideologies are as whimsically all-encompassing, as romantically obscure, as intellectually sloppy, and as likely to start a third world war as the theory of 'geopolitics.'"21

Yet, globalization theology itself has proven even more intellectual sloppy than the theories of geopolitics. And while the West thought it could do away with geopolitics altogether, the foreign policies of Turkey, Russia, China, and other players were becoming increasingly shaped by distinctive geopolitical visions based less on theories than on memories (with often a tenuous link to historical reality). Thus in Turkey, memories of the Silk Road were the main driving forces in Ankara's turn away from pro-Western Kemalism and toward neo-Ottomanism. In China, a country that had traditionally viewed itself as a quintessential continental power, it is the rediscovery of the short-lived maritime adventures of Admiral Zheng He (the Chinese Columbus) and the awareness of missed opportunities, coupled with the revival of Admiral Mahan's navalist theories, that were being invoked to mobilize public opinion around the idea of turning China into a maritime superpower. Intellectually sloppy or not, these representations have real effects in the foreign policies of non-Western nations. The West can ignore them only at its own peril.

In the West itself, the current fixation of America on Central Asia and of Europe on the Middle East -- the closest thing to a "Western" geopolitical vision -- is based on two flawed premises. To put it crudely: Americans believe that Caspian Sea oil is the key to success in the Great Game; Europeans are convinced that the resolution of the Palestinian question holds the key to victory in the Long War.

Talk about intellectual sloppiness: Warnings about a Caspian mirage were already common among energy experts a decade ago, and time has only made them more relevant: "The current fixation with the Caspian Basin's alleged resource bonanza is exaggerating the region's commercial and strategic significance, distorting US foreign policy calculations and raising the risk of unnecessary contention with other actors, particularly Russia and Iran. . . . Russian analysts could be forgiven for construing US/NATO policies as encirclement from the West through open-ended NATO expansion. . . . The myth [of Central Asia and the Caucasus as a region of independent democracies buoyed by new-found oil wealth and part of an expanding "Euro-Atlantic community"] is diverting policy-makers from a far more profound geopolitical challenge to energy security in the twenty-first century: the rising dependence of Asian nations on Persian Gulf oil. . . . It might be wise to ponder how comfortable China will be in relying on the US Navy to defend the sea-lanes through which its Persian Gulf oil must pass."22

Ten years later, it is clear that just as NATO enlargement to the East has sent Russia into the arms of China, Western energetico-military forays in Central Asia have led China, in turn, to increase its activities in the backyards of Europe (Africa) and America (from Cuba to Panama and Venezuela). America's fixation on Central Asia has been based on probable reserves, which were then contrasted to proven reserves in Persian Gulf, though never with probable reserves offshore worldwide. Since Caspian Sea oil now seems to combine all the problems associated with landlocked transportation and offshore extraction, not to mention geopolitical entanglements, it may be time for a reappraisal.

If American fixation on Central Asia is questionable, European fixation on the Palestinian question as the panacea of the Greater Middle East is downright irrational. As Edward Luttwak pointed out recently: "Yes, it would be nice if Israelis and Palestinians could settle their differences, but it would do little or nothing to calm the other conflicts in the Middle East from Algeria to Iraq, or to stop Muslim-Hindu violence in Kashmir, Muslim-Christian violence in Indonesia and the Philippines, Muslim-Buddhist violence in Thailand, Muslim-animist violence in Sudan, Muslim-Igbo violence in Nigeria, Muslim-Moscovite violence in Chechnya, or the different varieties of inter-Muslim violence."

This European fixation is all the more irrational in that as far as the proverbial Arab Street is concerned, the resolution of the Palestinian question ranks only seventh in importance, way behind the usual bread-and-butter issues (employment, health, corruption, education, and even combating extremism and protecting civil rights). And who can blame Ali Six-Pack for his lack of interest? Unlike the Kurds, who have proven capable of self-government, Palestinian leaders have never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity, as the saying holds. The pathetic clash between Fatahland and Hamastan is today leading many Palestinians themselves to reconsider the long-abandoned possibility of forming a confederation with Jordan. It is time for Europeans to realize that, as Joseph Joffe demonstrated in a seminal article, "far from creating tensions, Israel actually contains more antagonisms than it causes" -- though of course you would never know it, since Israeli public diplomacy is nonexistent.23

Flawed premises aside, there is another, more pedestrian reason why the closing of the transatlantic mind is particularly pronounced within NATO. As the Alliance underwent a gradual transformation from collective defense to collective security, this functional broadening focused on the continental dimension led to a neglect of the maritime dimension and thus to transatlantic tunnel vision.

During the Cold War, the Atlantic Alliance had two geographic pillars: the Brussels-based Allied Command-Europe (ACE) for continental affairs, the Norfolk-based Allied Command-Atlantic (ACLANT) for maritime affairs. From 1991 to 2001, the maritime dimension, once identified with the Atlantic, became confined to the Mediterranean (Operation Sharp Guard). Yet, despite the shrinking of the maritime dimension at the operational level, ACLANT continued, at the intellectual level, to deliver outside-the-box, yet topical thinking on issues like "Multinational Naval Cooperation and Foreign Policy into the 21st Century."24

The real change occurred with the 2002 Prague Summit's decision to transform these two geographical pillars into functional pillars: Allied Command Operations (ACO) and Allied Command Transformation (ACT). The transformation of the geographical ACLANT into a functional ACT did more than marginalize the maritime dimension; it also brought the wrong transformation to the fore. NATO-ACT being twinned with the U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM), the Alliance, in the name of interoperability, soon adopted all the shibboleths of the RMA: network-centric warfare, information dominance, the change from threat-based planning to capabilities-based planning which can only aggravate the idea of the Alliance as a "toolbox," and last but not least, the religion of jointness itself, whose unintended effect was to downplay the specificity and autonomy of navies when it comes to constabulary and diplomatic missions.

The whole RMA folklore was introduced to NATO right at the time when, in Iraq and Afghanistan, its limits were becoming too obvious to ignore. The Pentagon is today trying to find a better balance between Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) and Culture-Centric Warfare (CCW), and one would hope that ACT will quickly NATO-ize the lessons learned in theater.

In and of itself, though, this rebalancing will not bring the kind of maritime domain awareness that is so crucial for an understanding of both the Great Game and the Long War. Outside the Anglo-Saxon world, to be sure, Western policymakers and opinion leaders have rarely been literate when it comes to naval strategy. Though this is not the place for a comprehensive tour d'horizon of the military, political, diplomatic, and constabulary uses of seapower25, basic "maritime domain awareness" is necessary when discussing the future globalization of NATO.

On the military side, the importance of the maritime dimension begins with the fact that, for all the talk about airlift capabilities, 90 percent of military lift remains sealift. But what is more noteworthy about the post-Cold War period is the fact that the decline of "maritime domain awareness" within the Atlantic Alliance took place precisely at the time when globalization was significantly increasing the importance of the maritime dimension on the commercial side (85 percent of world trade volume and 60 percent of oil and gas travels by sea) and of maritime security, all too often confused with -- and reduced to -- maritime safety.

It is hard to imagine a "Global NATO" -- in whatever shape or form -- that would continue to ignore the global commons the way today's NATO does. It is time for NATO's maritime commitment to match its continental commitment. To put it only half in jest: Either NATO will go out to sea, or it will go out of business.

The new Rimland

NATO was created as the political-military expression of the containment doctrine. While the father of the doctrine was diplomat George Kennan, the godfather of containment was geopolitician Nicholas Spykman. During World War II Spykman had challenged the centrality of the concept of the "Heartland" developed a generation earlier by Halford Mackinder (against Mahan's sea power thesis), and focused instead on what he called the "Rimland," by which he meant essentially continental countries with a maritime facade.

As Spykman defined it, the Rimland "functions as a vast buffer zone of conflict between sea power and land power. Looking in both directions, it must function amphibiously and defend itself on land and sea." On this geopolitical foundation laid by Spykman, Kennan simply built a chronopolitical strategy of containment, which would pay off 50 years later (much later than initially anticipated by Kennan).

In 1904, Mackinder had made the grandiose pronouncement: "Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; who rules the Heartland commands the World Island; who rules the World Island commands the World." The Cold War was to prove Mackinder wrong and Spykman right: For 50 years, the Soviet Heartland did rule Eastern Europe; if it fails to command the world, it's because it failed to rule what really matters, i.e., the Rimland.

Throughout the Cold War, then, it is the concept of Rimland which provided the geopolitical underpinnings for a grand strategy of containment and its security architecture, of which NATO constituted only one pillar (arguably the most important) along with SEATO and CENTO. Today, the Soviet Union is gone and, against all odds, NATO is still around. True, today's NATO is not your father's NATO, but equally true, today's Rimland is not your father's Rimland -- and it is not clear that today's NATO has fully grasped all the implications of the sea-change.

Today's Rimland is a 400-mile wide amphibious area. In contrast to 1904, the Heartland today is an empty shell, and not just because of Russia's demographic decline. In China, the population is deserting the Heartland and moving to the coast. Worldwide, today's Rimland is both leaner and meaner than a century ago; no longer the "buffer zone of conflict" described by Mackinder or Spykman, this overpopulated Rimland, with 4 billion people living within 200-mile wide coastlands, is the "epicenter of all conflicts."

Should NATO care? As a military alliance, NATO cannot afford to ignore the increasing covergence of littoral warfare, amphibious warfare and urban warfare -- an issue to which the U.S. Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps are devoting increasing attention. As a security organization, NATO's reasons for caring should be based on a recent report produced by the Center for Naval Analyses entitled "National Security and the Threat of Climate Change," describing a number of not exactly rosy scenarios regarding the political-military consequences of rising sea levels in the next 30 years. The hard security consequences of soft-power issues: This is the kind of outside-the-box thinking that NATO should itself promote.26

Equally interesting is the other phenomenon happening on the new Rimland: the so-called territorialization of the seas. The belated implementation, in the 1990s, of the 1982 Law of the Sea (UNLOS) and in particular of the 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), has had over time unintended effects. Due to the existence of more than one hundred EEZs, 32 percent of the ocean is today under some sort of national jurisdiction. We are talking an area of 28 million square miles, i.e. four times the size of Russia (America's EEZ itself is two-thirds the size of the continental United States and accounts for 30 percent of the U.S. oil production).

The process of territorialization of the seas has been twofold: the "enlarging" of territorial waters from 12 miles to 200 miles, but also the "deepening" of territorialization. Twenty years ago, offshore wells were being drilled in just a few hundred feet of water; with ever-improving technology, prospecting then moved to deep water (i.e. beyond 1,300 feet) and more recently still to "ultra-deep" drilling under as much as 10,000 feet, with dramatic consequences for some countries like Brazil, who went from quasi-total dependence on foreign oil to quasi-total independence.

For all the post-Cold War talk about the decline of the state, there is at least one domain where the state is in expansion, and it is the sea. And for all the talk about a Great Game in Central Asia, it is worth keeping in mind that more than 30 percent of the world's oil and 50 percent of the world's natural gas is produced offshore. The percentage is greater still when moving from proven reserves (i.e., 90 percent certainty) to probable reserves (50 percent certainty). Add to that the fact that 60 percent of the world's oil and gas is transported by sea, and in the end, it is hard to deny that command of the high seas will matter just as much as control of the Heartland.

A little-noticed global chasm is occurring today in terms of geopolitics: As the center of gravity of world history is shifting from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the Western mind, traditionally maritime, is rapidly closing itself to anything other than continental matters, while the Asian mind, traditionally continental, is becoming increasingly maritime in outlook.

In the East, a region lacking a security regime analogous to NATO, the lack of clarity of the law of the sea regarding such issues as military and intelligence-gathering activities in the EEZs of other countries, and the competing claims for territorial waters and seabeds, has become a game increasingly fraught with dangers. The best known example is the Spratly Islands, one hundred or so islands scattered over an area the size of France, said to hold more oil than Kuwait, and situated right in the middle of one of the busiest sea lanes, used by 300 ships a day. The Islands are claimed in part or totality by no fewer than 17 countries, and five of them (including China) actually have small military forces on these otherwise uninhabited islands.

Unlike the legendary Great Game between England and Russia throughout the nineteenth century, the current Great Game at sea involved more than two players: America and China, the two greatest oil consumers, but also Japan and India, Malaysia and Indonesia, and other countries. This multiplicity of actors gives the seaborne Great Game a greater unpredictability. And unlike the slow moving Great Game in Central Asia in the nineteenth century, which resembles a leisurely game of chess, today's Great Game in the Asian Sea at times is more like Russian roulette, in that "incidents at sea" -- like the October 2006 close encounter of a Chinese sub with the USS Kitty Hawk -- have the potential to trigger unintended and unpleasant developments quickly.

The Great Game at sea is too complex to be examined in detail here. Suffice it to say that if in terms of transportation, the true identity of the players takes forever to sort out (the nationalities of the owner, the crew, the flag, the cargo), there is a clear trend in the nationalization of oil companies when it comes to production: "The percentage of the world's oil reserves held by publicly traded international oil companies (IOCs) has declined, while the percentage held by state-owned national oil companies (NOCs) has increased. Currently, 72 percent of the world's proven oil reserves are held by NOC's [the majority of which are Russian and Chinese]."27

Should NATO care? When you put together the territorialization of the seas and the nationalization of oil companies, the Great Game at sea becomes worth examining (e.g., the 2006 decision of the Cuban regime to hire Chinese NOCs for offshore drilling -- 45 miles off the coast of Florida). China's interest in Cuba, Panama, and Venezuela shows that the "string of pearls" strategy of China goes beyond the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea and the Gulf of Guinea, extending into the Western Hemisphere all the way to America's Caribbean backyard. Since Chinese NOCs are present in 50 countries and play with different rules than regular international oil companies, one would think that the geopolitics of the NOCs could be a suitable topic of discussion in the NAC.

For now, the Great Game at sea affects the Pacific more than the Atlantic, and as such has not directly affected NATO. But it certainly affects NATO's new global partners (Australia and Japan, Korea and New Zealand), who all happen to be maritime powers in the Pacific, and this is something that NATO will have to factor in when deciding the nature of its relationship with non-Atlantic powers. Global partnerships will have to be a two-way street, or there will be no global partnership.

In that respect, it is worth remembering that, in its day, SEATO included non-Asian countries like the UK and France, whose threat perceptions over time evolved differently from those of Australia and New Zealand (not to mention Thailand or the Philippines), and eventually SEATO went the way of the dodo.28 Therefore, when talking about NATO's global partners, one cannot avoid raising SEATO-related issues: Do allies and would-be partner nations have the same threat perceptions? What kind of "added value" will the concept of global partnership offer not only to the former, but also to the latter? In what ways can global partners become a force multiplier for the Atlantic Alliance, and in what way can it lead instead to an "entangling alliance"?

New perils, then, but also new promises. The maritime dimension is an opportunity for European allies to go beyond the "EU sandbox" and play a global role at relatively little cost, if only because public opinion will always find a maritime commitment more palatable than a continental one. For many allies like Norway and Greece, a greater maritime commitment on the part of NATO would also be a way to display niche capabilities (it's not as if the U.S. Navy had a surplus of mine-sweepers) that they don't necessarily possess in land operations. Last but not least, for a country like France, a middle-sized power as a land power but a maritime superpower of sorts (the third largest EEZ in the world thanks to its South Pacific possessions), a greater maritime commitment would be a way to maintain a leadership position. When it comes to NATO, to be sure, France, since 1958, has never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity. With Chirac and Villepin gone, however, it may well be that France will no longer confuse History with histrionics, and volonte de puissance with capacite de nuisance.

The Great Game at sea is only beginning. However fanciful they may be given the current international legal regime, Putin's claim in June 2007 to a chunk of the North Pole holding twice the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia gives an idea of the challenges ahead as global warming increases the areas available for offshore drilling.

The Long War at sea

The maritime dimension is as important for the Long War as it is for the Great Game. Before the attack on the Twin Towers, the attack on the USS Cole gave the West an idea of what asymmetric warfare can accomplish (17 sailors killed and $250 million worth of repairs for a terrorist operation that cost $40,000 to launch). That asymmetric warfare at sea shows great promise has not been lost on the jihadists who, when all is said and done, are less interested in restoring a caliphate (a goal they know is beyond their reach) than in making the West bleed to death economically.

Nine million containers enter U.S. ports each year, and 80 percent of U.S. port facilities these days are owned by foreign companies. It is estimated that the detonation of a 10-to-20 kiloton nuclear weapon in a container would cause a disruption of trade valued at $100 billion to $300 billion, property damage of $50 billion to $500 billion, and the loss of 50,000 to 1 million lives. A mere dirty bomb smuggled in a container would kill very few people, but the disruption would cost $58 billion and it would take 19 days for ports to resume normal operations and 92 days to stabilize the container backlog -- by which time the disruption could well spawn a recession.

The trauma caused by two planes crashing into the Twin Towers has made us forget that al Qaeda and its associates have a maritime strategy more sophisticated than blowing up the USS Cole. Before his arrest, the man responsible for the Cole attack himself had undertaken preparation to attack shipping in the Mediterranean with a four pronged-strategy: "ramming, blowing up medium-size ships near other vessels or at ports, attacking large vessels such as supertankers from the air by using explosive laden small aircraft, and attacking vessels with underwater demolition teams using limpet mines or with suicide bombers. During his interrogation, Nashiri revealed that if warships became too difficult to approach, tourist ships could be targeted. The cruise ship industry, which in the U.S. alone carries nearly seven million passengers every year, is facing this new threat."29

Eighty percent of world trade travels by sea, and 60 percent of the world's oil is shipped by about 4,000 tankers: "Were terrorist pirates to hijack a large bulk carrier or oil tanker, sail it into one of the chokepoints, and scuttle it to block the sea-lane, the consequences for the world economy would be severe: a spike in oil prices, an increase in the cost of shipping due to the need to use alternate routes, congestion in sea-lanes and ports, more expensive maritime insurance, and probable environmental disaster. Worse yet would be several such attacks happening simultaneously in multiple locations worldwide."30

A rogue nuclear missile on Paris or Berlin is decidedly more unlikely in the next five years than the hijacking and sinking of a couple of supertankers in the Strait of Gibraltar or the Bosphorus. The latter, in particular, is less than a mile wide in some areas, and 10 percent of the 50,000 ships that pass through it each year are tankers carrying Russian and Caspian oil.

In the Turkish strait in 1996, the nine pro-Chechen gunmen who hijacked a Turkish ferry and held 255 passengers hostage for three days had first considered the possibility of sabotaging one of the two suspension bridges with explosives to bring down the bridge and close shipping traffic. The worst case scenario, now that the Russian Duma has passed a bill to transport 20,000 tons of nuclear waste through the straits in the next ten years, is the possibility of one of these tankers being hijacked in the vicinity of Istanbul, a city of 12 million inhabitants. It is expected that traffic on the Bosphorus will be 50 percent higher in 2010 than it was in 2005, and so will the opportunities to create catastrophic mischief.

NATO military planners and civilian policymakers continue to think in terms of nation-states and regional "areas of operation," whereas, as the navy community knows full well, maritime threats are more often than not nonstate and transregional in nature. But terrorist networks are genuinely transnational: the Sri Lankan LTTE not only owned and operated a fleet of ten ocean-going freighters flying Panamian, Honduran, and Liberian flags, it also hijacked commercial vessels carrying weapons to reroute them to the Tamil Tigers. In 1994, the LTTE shipped 50 metric tons of TNT on board one of its own freighters operated by a front company from a Ukrainian Black Sea port via the Turkish Straits to Sri Lanka.

NATO is today paying less attention to potential maritime threats affecting its own civilian populations than to making the non-Western world safe for democracy (or sharia, since the jury is still out). If NATO wants to survive another 30 years, it will have to focus a little more on the concerns of its own population.

Global NATO, thousand ship navy

In the 1990s, some foreign policy analysts called on the United States to adopt a policy known as "offshore balancing." Succinctly put, "offshore balancing is predicated on the assumption that attempting to maintain U.S. hegemony is self-defeating because it will provoke other states to combine in opposition to the United States, and result in a futile depletion of the United States' relative power, thereby leaving it worse off than if it accommodated multipolarity."31 Whether such an offshore balancing is still possible or desirable for the U.S. in a post-9/11 environment is highly debatable. But a maritime globalization of NATO could become, for the Alliance itself, the continuation of "offshore balancing" by other means. Its main merit would be to constitute a hedging strategy of sorts against the SCO.

China is emerging as a maritime superpower as quickly as America itself (not to mention the UK) is declining as a naval power, to the point where China could become the leading naval power by 2020. The Russian Navy, which until now was a pale shadow of Gorshkov's navy (since 1991, the number of submarines has declined from 317 to 61 and of surface ships from 967 to 186) has announced plans to build a class of four new aircraft carriers in 2013-14, with initial service to begin in 201732. One would do well to remember that it took hardly more than a decade during the Cold War for Russia, the quintessential land power, to develop a formidable navy. In 20 years, we could realistically see a China/Russia-led SCO that is hegemonic not only on land but at sea. As counterintuitive as it may be at first, NATO would be wise to consider the possibility of making maritime cooperation the centerpiece of NATO-Russia security cooperation.

Maritime operations are of course not foreign to NATO. In the 1990s, Operation Sharp Guard constituted a dress rehearsal of sorts for Operation Active Endeavor after 9/11. In 2003, OAE was expanded functionally and geographically to cover the whole Mediterranean and ended up including some Mediterranean Dialogue countries as well as Russia and Ukraine. Many NATO allies participate in the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), and it is no coincidence that the former head of Joint Forces-Naples, Admiral Mullen (the current chief of naval operations and JCS chairman-designate), is the one who developed the concept of the "Thousand Ship Navy" (TSN), which is today the talk of the U.S. Navy.

Though globalization has increased the importance of maritime affairs, there has been both a relative and an absolute decline of U.S. seapower, with a U.S. Navy today at its lowest level in the post-World War II era. For the first time in 20 years, the U.S. is in the process of drafting a new maritime strategy, but with a considerably reduced force that went from 600 to fewer than 300 ships, and with new responsibilities in terms of nonmilitary maritime security. Hence the concept of the Thousand Ship Navy, which is meant to create a global maritime partnership with foreign navies.33

TSN is much more than an attempt to make a virtue of necessity. The Thousand Ship Navy -- the "Great White Fleet" of the twenty-first century -- represents a revolution in military affairs in that the concept raises the "network-centric" paradigm established by Admiral Cebrowsky from the domain of strategy (Network-Centric Warfare) to that of security (Global Maritime Partnership). In the process, it brings back a much-needed balance between techno-centric and culture-centric skills as components of success. Just as important, the TSN concept also represents a revolution in diplomatic affairs, in that a global maritime partnership would go beyond the traditional military-to-military contacts and, as Admiral Mullen points out, would unite "maritime forces, port operators, commercial shippers, and international, governmental and nongovernmental agencies to address mutual concerns."

As the Proliferation Security Initiative in Asia shows, though, this twenty-first- century naval diplomacy presents formidable challenges in terms of redefinitions of "sovereignty." Though the TSN concept is still a work in progress, it is worth noting that naval representatives from 72 countries have already taken part in the first symposium on the subject. NATO would do well to examine if the indirect approach of "going global" through a Thousand Ship Navy path is not also the best way to avoid making self-defeating waves in Asia.

Strategic considerations aside, there is an additional reason for Global NATO to get associated with the Thousand Ship Navy. Hard as it is to remember today, there was a time when NATO captured the imagination of Western audiences: Until the mid-sixties, in fact, the prospect of an Atlantic Union was seen in Europe as the wave of the future, while the idea of a European Union was associated mainly with coal, steel, and the standardization of electric plugs.34 Today, hard as they try, the 700 million people of the West can't really bring themselves to get exited when the "deliverables" of NATO Summits amount to -- the purchase of three C-17s? If that is NATO's level of ambition these days, no wonder that even the EU is beginning to look good. NATO will require nothing less than a Thousand Ship Navy if it is to recapture the imagination of public opinion.

NATO and the rise of UN-istan

Two organizations emerged in short succession from the 1941 Atlantic Charter: the United Nations in 1945 and, when the UN proved ineffective in a Cold War context, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. For the next 50 years, NATO's role in waging and winning the Cold War was as central as that of the UN was marginal.

In the early days of the post Cold War, there were, on both sides of the Atlantic, great hopes that the UN could finally play the role it was initially designed for. A former ambassador to the UN, the elder Bush in particular hoped to make the UN the cornerstone of a New World Order. In Europe as well, as the EU was toying with the idea of transforming itself from an Europe-espace to an Europe-puissance, many thought that an EU military force could constitute the military arm of the UN, and that the EU, in turn, could use the UN as a force multiplier to provide a "counterweight" to the US.

The fixation of EU elites on this idea led them to overlook the various scandals that marred the UN throughout the 1990s (from the Rwanda genocide to the Iraq oil-for-food program). More important, there is great reluctance on the part of EU public opinion at large to acknowledge the fact that, in the process of enlarging 54 members in 1945 to 184 in 1993, the UN's initial goals have been perverted.

Once the embodiment of Western ideals, the UN has turned into a lean, mean anti-West machine. Though European publics no longer have any illusion today about a Europe-puissance, they still retain a surprisingly boy-scoutish view of the UN, one that no longer corresponds to reality. European public opinion saw nothing wrong, for instance, in the recent establishment of an International Criminal Court that would give its prosecutor the power of a grand inquisitor, in part because they are not aware of the politicization of the UN (and of the potential use of the ICC as an anti-Western weapon), but also in part because, over the years, they have resigned themselves to the creeping judicial and technocratic imperialism pursued at home by the EU Court of Justice and the EU Commission.

If, against all odds, the European public has a more positive image of the UN than of NATO, it is for a simple reason: When it comes to strategic communication, today's NATO is your grandfather's NATO. Meanwhile, over the years, the UN has turned itself into a slick, global propaganda machine.

In that respect, the UN's main achievement since 1949 has been the transformation of a once-peripheral issue into a global Passion Play. Though the number of refugees throughout the world were millions after 1945 (and 15 million more with the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947), the UN decided to focus quasi-exclusively on the 700,000 refugees of the 1948 Israeli-Arab war. For these Palestinian Arabs, the UN created not only a specific agency (UNRWA) but a unique, and Orwellian, definition of "refugees" carefully designed to maintain the issue forever alive.35

Twenty years later came a new development. The demagogic UNESCO projects about a New World Information and Communication Order did not disappear when the US and the UK left the organization in protest and UNESCO, as a result, lost one fourth of its budget. The NWICO project was simply quietly transferred from Paris to New York, from UNESCO headquarters to UN headquarters. Over the years, the UN-New York developed its radio and TV station and its global network of 60 centers. It has provided "training" to Third World journalists (with a particular predilection for Palestinians) and built both a formal and informal media empire on which the sun never sets. By 1998, the UN spent a greater share of its budget on self-promotion and propaganda through its Department of Public Information (5.37 percent) than on Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs (4.96 percent) or International Justice and Law (2.10 percent).

At the same time that it was becoming a major player in the propaganda game, the UN inside was gradually turning into a "lawfare" machine against the West. As Joshua Muravchik explains: "In the General Assembly, the Arabs have a unique leverage with which they can make the UN say whatever they want (except in the Security Council where the US veto has prevented that). The 22-nation Arab League constitutes a decisive bloc within the 56-nation Organization of the Islamic Conference [OIC], which is decisive in turn in the 115-nation Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which constitute nearly two-thirds of the UN and is the organization's main bloc."

The OIC, it will be remembered, was created by Saudi Arabia in 1969 as a weapon against the Egypt-led Arab League in the ongoing Arab Cold Wars. In recent years, under the leadership of the OIC, the UN has turned into UN-istan:

The OIC is silent on putting the blame for the slaughter of innocent Muslim pilgrims precisely where it belongs -- on other Muslims. Instead, the OIC squanders most of its energy condemning the West for defaming Islam whenever terrorism is in any way linked with adherents of their religion. . . . While as a group they pay less than 3 percent of the regular annual budget of the United Nations, they have managed to exercise an outsized amount of influence in the General Assembly and its subsidiary bodies over how the UN deals with such issues as Palestine, terrorism and human rights and terrorism. Next on their agenda is a permanent Islam seat on the Security Council. Iran has already been designated as the OIC's preferred candidate for election to the Security Council in 2008. . . . In short, the Organization of the Islamic Conference bloc has been able to manipulate the UN's machinery to turn the liberal vocabulary of racism, oppression, genocide, tolerance and multiculturalism against the critics of reactionary Islam.

How delusional is the OIC today? So delusional that, at its May 2007 summit, the 56 foreign ministers agreed that the "greatest form of terrorism" in the world today is -- Islamophobia! The same OIC is the main force behind the election of Iran as vice-chairman of the Disarmament Commission, the presence of representatives of the worst dictatorship on the planet in the UN Human Rights Committee, not to mention the attempt, following the Danish cartoon affair, to make the UN recognize "blasphemy" as a crime.

In this ongoing weaponization of the UN against the West, China has not remained passive: beyond the OIC and NAM proper, the largest group in the UN happens to be the "G-77 + China," i.e., 132 countries representing 69 percent of UN members. China's UN dues may be 2 percent of the UN budget, but Chinese activism in the past decade has spectacularly increased in recent years.36 It is reportedly under Chinese pressure that the US was evicted from the Human Rights Commission in 2001 to make room for Arab dictatorships.

While the UN was sinking in global parochialism, NATO has gone global geographically (50,000 troops deployed now on three continents) and functionally (broadening of political consultations in the NAC). It is also beginning to go global in its cooperation with non-Atlantic partners like Japan to Australia.

In some American and European quarters, this globalization of NATO has led some observers to assert rather boldly that "NATO's next move must be to open its membership to any democratic state in the world that is willing and able to contribute to the fulfillment of NATO's new responsibilities."37 But to add four or five global partners is one thing, to add the 88 countries recognized as democracies by Freedom House is quite another. The necessary, if not sufficient, condition for turning NATO into a UN of democracies would be to change the flawed images of the UN and NATO that European publics currently have. That said, this long-term scenario of NATO as a UN of democracies cannot be ruled out given the ongoing deconstruction of the Tower of Babble by China and the OIC.

With the possible emergence of a NATO Security Providers Forum consisting of the leading contributors, three key questions are likely to keep the Allies busy in the coming years. What would happen with the four NATO Partners who are also SCO members in the event the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council was to be disbanded in favor of a Security Providers Forum. What will be the nature of the articulation between the North Atlantic Council, the Security Providers Forum, and the NATO-Russia Council? Has the time come for NATO to adopt an EU-style, "variable geometry" decision-making process? At the same time, the debate on the future Global NATO should not be limited to these organizational matters.

The Western-inspired international legal order is today under assault at the UN; at the same time, an obsolete Law of Armed Conflict is preventing the West from defending itself on the ground. As a military organization, NATO should today articulate a "Counter-Lawfare" doctrine for the sake of intellectual interoperability. As a security organization, NATO should not wait until it has become a full-fledged UN of Democracies to start elaborating a New Law of Armed Conflict adapted to the realities of post-modern warfare.38 Last but not least, the Alliance should take strategic communication more seriously and make better use of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly (information) and the NATO Defense College (education).

If the Atlantic alliance is to genuinely "go global," it will have to achieve a better balance between "toolbox" and "think tank" and to focus more than has been the case so far on increased strategic literacy, broader situational awareness, and state-of-the art strategic communication.

History on the move again

Two hundred years ago, Napoleon Bonaparte, who knew a thing or two about epochal change, remarked: "When China awakens, the world will tremble." China is awakening, all right, and promoting worldwide authoritarianism all the more successfully that the spectacle of Western democracies lately has not been exactly edifying. If the Chinese promotion of "Asian values" has a global, rather than regional, historical significance, it is because Confucius today speaks with a very strong German accent: that of Carl Schmitt. While Western pundits were enrolling Kojève for their musing on the "end of history," the Chinese were translating nine books by Schmitt to philosophically buttress their return in history. The future of liberal authoritarianism has never looked brighter.39

The return of China alone would be enough to make the West "live in interesting times." To make things even more interesting, Islam too is back, this time in the form of a totalitarianism which manages to combine an ideological comprehensiveness (Salafism) unseen since Communism and an existential nihilism (jihadism) worthy of Nazism. A generation ago, the post-Vatican II Catholic world finally espoused the 20th century, and the Church went on to play a critical role in the collapse of communism; meanwhile, under the increasing influence of Wahhabism, the Muslim world was going in the opposite direction, and this great leap backward brought them back to the 14th century.40 If the Saudi caliphate does not soon undertake its own Vatican II, chances are the Muslim world will never make it back to the 21st century.

It is time for the Transatlantic chattering class to realize that there is a time for problematizing, and a time for strategizing -- and that its first order of business should be to stop mistaking a simple transatlantic time lag for a metaphysical problem. In the wake of 9/11, there was an extreme disconnect between an America that had just experienced its first continental aggression since the "second war of independence" (the war of 1812) and a Europe convinced that the then-imminent opening of the Brussels constitutional convention was, if not the beginning of universal peace, at least the world's most important event since the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.

Hence the temptation in certain quarters to reify this temporary disconnect into a Mars/Venus gap. But the most cursory examination of twentieth-century history shows that transatlantic time lags have always been the rule rather than the exception. The First World War began in 1914, the U.S. only joined in 1917. The Second World War began in 1939, the U.S. only joined in 1942. The Cold War began in 1947, and it took Europe a full two years to give up the temptation of neutrality and side with the U.S. Since the Long War is of an asymmetric kind, it is no surprise if it took longer than usual for America and Europe to synchronize their chronopolitica

          Remembering Mark Colvin   

Earlier today, I went to the public memorial of Mark Colvin. Mark Colvin was the voice of my youth. As a former foreign correspondent I watched him on TV; through such dark events as his coverage of the Ayatollah’s ascension in Tehran during 1980, to others, like the absolute horror of the Rwandan genocide. Being a […]

The post Remembering Mark Colvin appeared first on Marlin Communications.


          Génocide au Rwanda : BNP Paribas indexé   
PNB Paribas accusée d’avoir autorisé un transfert d’un million de dollars durant l’embargo sur les armes au Rwanda en 1994.
          Comment on “River Nyabarongo, Bridge, Rwanda” by Mpuhwe17   
I like this, it is really amazing.
          Comment on Kicukiro, Sonatube, Rwanda by Patience   
Wow, Kigali yanjye nijoro!! This is really a good piece of work done. #KeepItUpBrother.
          Comment on Amahoro National Stadium, Remera, Rwanda by Patience   
Keep it up, brother! I like the view so much!!
          Génocide rwandais : une plainte déposée contre BNP Paribas   

Cette page est réservés aux abonnés. Pour pouvoir la consulter, rien de plus simple, vous pouvez vous inscrire ICI.
Merci et à bientôt dans votre espace !


          Re: Rwanda / Burundi   
slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?
          Re: Au Rwanda   
I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones.
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
          Rwanda 94 : La BNP coupable d'avoir aidé à armer les génocidaires ?    
none
          Rwanda: Fighting Gender Based Violence Through Drama   
[New Times] Umurage will be aired thrice a week on seven local radio stations, namely Radio Rwanda, Radio 10, City Radio, Isango Star, Salus, Radio Isangano, Radio Izuba and once a week on Radio Ishingiro.
          Blog Tour ♥ It Takes a Thief by Layla Wolfe ♥    

Title: It Takes a Thief
Series: The Bare Bones MC #7
Author: Layla Wolfe
Genre: MC Romance
Release Date: June 26, 2017


Great outlaws lost their lives to Ford. Great ladies lost their hearts.

Ford Illuminati, Prez of the famed Bare Bones MC, is in the crosshairs of Noodlum, a whacked thug recently joined with the Cutlasses. When Ford’s company steals some highway workers of theirs, Noodlum lashes out with subterfuge, placing fake news stories about the club and stealing their identities to charge Cialis and penis weights.

But the clincher is when Noodlum targets Ford's old lady, Madison. His twisted obsession with Madison puts Ford on the alert, and Santiago Slayer on his trail. But things haven't been going well between Ford and Maddy lately. His two jobs—Prez of the MC and his construction company—have got him working more than double time. Neglected and feeling unloved, Maddy has a meltdown when a patient of hers dies. She needs to do something different--something fulfilling.

When she works at a clinic on the Indian Rez, a heartthrob doctor catches her eye. But he's not the real menace. Noodlum has come unhinged, targeting the light of his life—Madison Illuminati. Ford is forced to play along with the whacko's games, step by step. It will take the combined forces of his club and his company to emerge triumphant...to save his one true love and reclaim their marriage.













I continued, "It's not even just the recent fake news story. Cecil came to tell me that someone got ahold of our corporate credit cards and is charging shit all over town."


Everyone nodded and murmured. Sax was the first to speak up. "Maybe that's why the bank texted me. They were curious why someone had charged thirty copies of World of Warcraft from Rwanda."



"I got the same thing," said Knoxie. "Someone was trying to rush order some penis weights from Sierra Leone."



I pointed at Knoxie. "See? That's the exact thing that not only tries to make us look like assmunchers, but rips us off into the fucking bargain. I had a charge for twelve hundred bucks for ten model Ford Torinos. The charge went through because of my name."



Faux Pas, Duji, Speed and Gollywow nodded sagely. But Roman asked, "Your name? Because it was a toy model Ford?"



"A Torino," explained Duji. "Ford was nicknamed Torino by, ah..."



"His father," said Faux Pas, almost in a whisper.



The silence this time was uncomfortable, with everyone looking everywhere except at each other. Slushy tapped a pen on his desk and sucked on the inside of his mouth. Wolf broke the silence by going,



"What's a penis weight exactly? Some kind of bondage thing?"



Everyone laughed with relief. Lytton, the resident bondage king, said, "Not at fucking all, man. Not that I know the details, but I believe it's some kind of—"



"Penis enlargement device." Knoxie was bold to say that, because it cast him into a questionable light. "I know, because I had to deal with the bank for an hour straightening it all out. It's definitely someone trying to make us look like dingbats."



"And steal our money at the same time," I added. "Wolf, you're in charge of shredding all the accounting and other paper at the Citadel. Don't you have an industrial strength shredder in your parts shed?"



Wolf looked like he was watching a tennis match. A shady look if ever there was one. "Well, sure," he said uncertainly. "I bag up most of it and this recycling company hauls it away after it's shredded so no one can sit there putting the pieces together again."



"But?"



"But, ah, see, we've started up this organic garden outside the Unexploded Ordnance shed."



I wasn't sure I heard correctly. "What?"



"The hippies always out there meditating by the vortex gave me the idea."



"And me," said Slushy. "I'm all about the organic."



"Especially eggplant." Duji kissed his fingers. "I make the finest moussaka around."



"I thought you were Italian," said Faux Pas.



I couldn't fucking believe it. One, that they had an organic garden outside the Citadel. Two, that I hadn't noticed it. I'd been so fucking busy lately, I rarely looked at, much less answered, my texts. My bank had probably texted about the strange charges, too. What else had they charged on my corporate card? A shipment of butterfly vibrators? "So what does this have to do with the shredded documents?"



"Well," said Wolf, "the hippies gave me the idea to start a compost pile. It's really awesome, actually! But you need a certain amount of greens, water, dirt, and paper. You need to get the balance just right. Lytton helped me with the science of it all, and—"



"You put our shredded documents into your fucking compost pile?"



"They get wet! And dirty! And bugs come to eat them, and—"



There was some rustling outside the closed office door. Wolf eagerly looked at the door, glad for the interruption. But I shot him a look that said "I'm not done with you yet." I'd make him clean the bathrooms for another year, always the Prospect's job. Wolf had done it for a year. Now he'd do it for another. I couldn't believe these fucking guys. Even my old-timer brothers from the shorts pants days were acting like a bunch of hipster goofballs. Where did we live, Marin County? Sedona? They were more concerned with their intestinal flora than with the fact someone was obviously trying to push up on us.



At last, it was fucking Tobiah Weingarten in all his nerdy glory. He slammed shut the office door behind him in a rush, squeaking over in his tennies. He pivoted on one heel in the center of our chairs as though about to do a standup routine. In fact, he did grin under that eagle's nose of his and point dazzlingly at Wolf. "Sorry I'm late. I ran into Tracy in town and we had a nice chat."



The ire in Wolf's face seemed to imbue the entire room. He'd been sitting backward in his chair, and now he half-rose, gripping the seat back, and bashed the chair angrily. "Where the fuck—"



See, they'd been having a rivalry over this chick for quite some time. Tracy wasn't totally eye-banging, but those two nerds had it bad for her. First, she'd lived with Tobiah. Then she'd lived with Wolf. I guessed she was currently with Wolf—not sure, really. I knew I should take more interest in the ins and outs of my brothers' true lives, but fuck it. I was a busy man.



Tobiah held out a calming hand. "Sorry to shit on your campfire, Nerdulent." Everyone burst out into a hearty round of laughter, seeing as how Tobiah was way nerdier than Wolf. Wolf at least dressed the part of a brother at heart. Tobiah wore white belts, skinny velveteen jeans, and turtlenecks. "We just had coffee. Nice girl, though! Pretty green eyes—"



Before Wolf could rise like the Incredible Hulk, I put the kibosh on this whole affair. "Enough! Tobiah! Explain your findings. Who's behind the fake news stories?"



"Well!" Tobiah was always glad for a chance to be the center of attention, and now he literally was. His X-Files belt buckle flashed in my face when he turned. "Turns out it's some guy named Noodlum. I know, I know, not much to go on, is it? But I delved deeper into the mystery. Turns out the postings were coming from near the Discovery Channel Telescope—"



Lytton and Wolf gasped.



"—near Happy Jack."



"My house!" cried Lytton.



"That's what I thought, too. I thought oh great, someone's making it look like we're stabbing each other in the back to create dissention among our ranks. But no. Upon further investigation, the culprit was high up in the mountains, more toward Long Lake."



Now everyone was confused. They all had that resting bitch face as they drew back and looked at each other suspiciously.  



Could it be? The Cutlasses hadn't caused trouble in quite a while. Seemed they'd burned out and faded into the rearview since my brother had taken out a few of them. Sure, we'd stolen their workers. But what jobs did they have going on, anyway? They hadn't tried to jack a truck in months.



"Cutlasses," a few men murmured.



I said, "But who's this Noodlum asswipe? I know Doug Zelov, the Prez, as we all do. Is he their IT guy?"



Toby shrugged. "That's where the trail went cold. But you can bet dollars to donuts it's the Cutlasses behind it."



"Muldoon," mumbled Wolf, looking at his phone.



"What?" I said.



He looked at me. "Muldoon. That's Noodlum spelled backward."



"Muldoon!" cried Fox. "I knew a sociopath named Muldoon in my travels." Fox was a former hit man for the Jones cartel. If there were sociopaths to be known, Fox was our man. "Damn, that guy was a few clowns short of a circus. He once left twenty legs as a warning for Ortelio Jones. Just the legs, all arranged in a neat row like can-can dancers. And yeah, they were all womens' legs, all Mexicans, probably trafficked. There were rumors he was into toon porn because once, when we almost hit him, he had to leave so fast he left a full-on bunny suit behind."



"That would be furries, not toon porn," said Speed, ever knowledgeable. "They dress up in furry costumes and bump uglies in the night."



"No, it was toon porn," Fox said with authority. "We found a video showing that Family Guy's wife getting pile-driven, the usual animé, and Judy Jetson giving George a skull job."



Duji shook his head with wonder. "Kids these days."



"He wasn't stupid," said Fox, "which made him more dangerous. He just had splinters in the windmills of his mind, if you know what I mean."



I did. "You think he's working for Zelov now? Why else would he be up there? That's where their feeble shack of a clubhouse was, last I heard."



"Hot Stuff. Tread lightly with this Noodlum," said Slushy. "A pile of Mexican legs is a good sign that you don't want to get all up in his shit."



"They're up in ours," I said darkly to our lawyer.



Wolf exploded with a lip fart so resounding it made a few guys jump in their chairs. "Holy motherfuck! Ford! This guy has crossed the fucking line, man!" He stretched his arm out to hand me his phone. I whipped it from him and read:



Woman Wearing Too Much Makeup Mistaken as Clown, Attacked by Angry Mob.



Highlighted with a photo of my wife, Madison.



It was a photo taken from her hospital's website, but she wasn't wearing anything that would identify her as a nurse. She was just smiling from the shoulders on up, her little chipmunk features all shits and giggles, and she definitely didn't have too much makeup. The article went on, and I read aloud.



"Madison Illuminati, the wife of Bare Bones MC Prez, Ford Illuminati, was taken into custody last night in Cottonwood when her makeup scared bystanders into thinking she was a menacing clown come to lure their children into the woods."



That's how far I got before I slammed Wolf's phone into the wall, and my men erupted onto their feet.  



Some punched walls, too. "Men, men!" shouted Slushy. "Calm the fuck down!"



Duji waved a finger in my face. "That's the limit, Ford! That's the fucking limit! These motherfuckers have pushed us over the edge!"



Sax shouted, "This is their first fucking inroad, and you know it won't be their last!"



Faux Pas intoned between clenched teeth, "We need to have a sit-down with these dirtbags."



Everyone was making too much noise for me to talk. I just closed my eyes and thought Yes. We're having a face-to-face.  



We were all going to the wall for each other. Someone was going to pay for this libel. God would do the accounting when it was over.

Bestselling author Layla Wolfe likes to bring you alpha males--sometimes two at a time--and the kick-ass women who love them. Her BARE BONES MC series explores the dark, disturbing life of the biker club in Arizona. Her spinoff series THE BENT ZEALOTS MC is a gritty MM saga. She is currently at work on Book One of THE ASSASSINS OF YOUTH MC, another spinoff set in Utah.
Layla Wolfe is the pen name of multi-published erotic romance author Karen Mercury.


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          Arrestation de 5 présumés combattants du M23 au Nord-Kivu   

Cinq présumés combattants du M23 ont été appréhendés par les FARDC vendredi 30 juin à Kabagana, dans le territoire de Nyiragongo au Nord-Kivu, à la frontière avec le Rwanda. Selon la société civile territoriale, ces combattants en tenue civile et non armés, avec une importante somme d’argent, ont été arrêtés alors qu’ils voulaient traverser pour retourner au Rwanda.


          Rwanda : BNP Paribas visé par une plainte pour "complicité de génocide"   
VIDÉO. Trois associations accusent le groupe bancaire d'avoir "participé au financement de l'achat de 80 tonnes d'armes ayant servi à la perpétration du génocide".
          How Rwanda's Only Ice Cream Shop Challenges Cultural Taboos   
Rwanda has a warm climate, and the people love milk. You'd think ice cream would be an easy sell. But mention ice cream to Chantal Kabatesi, and she rubs her jaw like she's at the dentist with a toothache. When she first tasted ice cream at the age of 35 "it was like eating hailstones," the kind that fall on her childhood village once or twice a year. "I thought, 'Oh no, what are we serving to our customers? Is it dangerous?' " she said. Yet Kabatesi had just been hired to work at Rwanda's first and only ice cream shop, Sweet Dreams. It opened four years ago and was recently profiled in a documentary film of the same name. The shop is a joint project of a Rwandan artist and an ice cream proprietor from Brooklyn named Alexis Miesen, whose first task was to teach her employees how to eat the stuff to avoid an aching jaw. "No teeth!" she'd say. "Just your tongue!" The women who staff this shop are used to exploring the unfamiliar. In a country where traditional drummers are exclusively
          Remembering Rwandans Who Followed Their Conscience   
Olive Mukankusi lives in a two-room house with mud walls and a dirt floor in a village called Igati, in eastern Rwanda's Rwamagana province. To get there, you have to drive about 30 minutes down a dirt road. It's there, in her home, on a warm and sunny afternoon, that she tells a story that she's only told three times in 20 years: first to a local judge, then to an American genocide researcher — and now. The story begins in April 1994, at the start of the genocide of Tutsis carried out by Hutu militias called Interhamwe. As she walked down a road of recently torched houses, Mukankusi, a Hutu, met two Tutsi girls, age 15 and 17. The girls had been her neighbors before she married and moved away. "They seemed to be confused, not knowing where to go," Mukakusi remembers. "They had a few things folded in their hands." The girls told her to go back home. And she told them: "Come with me." Mukankusi, now 42, knew the act of hiding Tutsis was punishable by death. But in that moment, it didn't
          How Abandonment In Rwandan Genocide Changed Peacekeepers' Role   
It's been 20 years since the Rwandan genocide, in which political ideology and ethnic hatred gave license to thousands of Hutus to kill Tutsi families. But ethnic ideology may not have unleashed the genocide if the international community had not stepped back and allowed it to happen. One notorious episode of abandonment changed forever the role of the United Nations peacekeeper. Early in the morning of April 7, 1994, thousands of Tutsis began arriving at a school on the outskirts of the capital, Kigali, seeking the protection of Belgian soldiers stationed there for the U.N. "We believed in those brave soldiers," said survivor Venuste Karasira this weekend from a memorial stage set up on that school's soccer field. Karasira described how Hutu militiamen surrounded the school, but were blocked from entering by their fear of the Belgians. Imagine our panic, he said, when one afternoon the Belgian soldiers packed up to leave. The Tutsis, including men and women and children, begged them
             
Coltan and Your Mobile:  Disturbing effect of a key electronic material on the ongoing disaster in the Congo.  "Columbite-tantalite (from here on referred to as Coltan). On its own it looks and feels like a very fertile soil, but when refined you get a highly heat-resistant metal powder called tantalum. Once refined, coltan has myriad uses, all of which pertain to its particular properties of being a dense mineral with the ability to withstand high temperatures and stress.To the high-tech industry this tantalum is a magic dust that is essential in making computer chips, stereo’s, VCR and DVD players and mobile phones. As such, coltan derivatives are used as capacitors in devices such as mobile phones and even complex missile guidance systems. ..

Coltan is mined by hand in the Congo by groups of men digging basins in streams by scrapping off the surface mud. They then “slosh” the water around the crater, which causes the Coltan ore to settle to the bottom of the crater where it is retrieved by the miners...

While a fair majority of the worlds tantalum supply comes from legitimate mining operations in Australia, Canada and Brazil the recent demand for tantalum has caused a more sinister market to begin flourishing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where 80% of the world’s known coltan supply is subject to “highly organized and systematic exploitation.” There, warring rebel groups - many funded and supplied by neighboring Rwanda and Uganda - are exploiting coltan mining in the Eastern DRC to help finance political and human oppression, child enslavement, torture and war. The mining area is also within one of the main ranges of the threatened Eastern Lowland Gorilla  .. In April of 2001 the United Nations issued a report on the rape of resources from the DRC. In their findings field investigators reported that Rwandan, Ugandan and Burundian rebels had looted and smuggled thousands of tons of coltan from the Congo into their countries to export to the global market, using the profits to finance their militias. ..Coltan smuggling has also been implicated as a major source of income for the military occupation of Congo which is also linked to forced child enlisting, rape and the rampant spread of HIV. ..

Manufacturers rely on their “suppliers” which are Tantalum capacitor makers like Kemet of Greenville, S.C., the world’s largest tantalum capacitor maker and on the companies trading the minerals. .. some 80 percent of the worlds Coltan comes from the DRC and most of that passes through several black market hands before its finally delivered to the refineries it what appears to be legitimate means."

          Rwanda: Rayon's Nshuti Set to Join as Kigali as a Free Agent   
[New Times] Rwanda International and Rayon Sports attacking midfielder Dominique Savio Nshuti has confirmed that he will depart league champions Rayon Sports at the end of the season to join their rivals AS Kigali following his contract expiration.
          Curtis Welling   

As the chief executive of AmeriCares, one of the planet's premiere philanthropies, Curtis Welling oversees the distribution every year of hundreds of millions of dollars worth of medical supplies and services to the poverty-stricken and war-torn pockets of the Third World, but also to poor Americans at clinics in the Unites States.

The 59-year-old Welling, who has been running the private nonprofit since 2002, is doing good after doing well, having spent a quarter century accumulating a fortune on Wall Street (and getting to know Bernie Madoff in the bargain).

"He was just a very hard-driving, successful, creative equity business guy," Welling told Portfolio.com about his former colleague in an exclusive interview from AmeriCares' Connecticut headquarters. "I never had any reason to question any of his business principles.... I suspect what happened here was he had a trading strategy that went bad fairly early on in the game, and he just kept trying to trade his way out of it and it got worse and worse and worse."

Lloyd Grove: Let me begin by wishing you a Merry Christmas and a happy holiday.

Curt Welling: Thank you very much and the same to you. It's obviously an interesting holiday season.

L.G.: It is. I'm looking at your annual report and year over year, 2007 to 2008, you had a pretty significant uptick in donations, mainly in-kind but also cash and securities. What's going to happen next year, given the financial meltdown?

C.W.: I guess I would say a couple of things. 2008 was a high-water mark year in many ways for us as you suggested, and the image of 2008 gets smaller and smaller in the rearview mirror with each passing day. I'm sort of looking at it fondly the way one looks at a quaint little town one's driven through as one heads down the road to some unknown but perhaps less hospitable destination.

L.G.: Watch out for that 18-wheeler overturned on the highway, Curt!

C.W.: Exactly. We don't know what the road's going to be like, don't know what the traffic's going to be like, and don't know what the weather's going to be like. The period we're in right now is obviously the period of maximum uncertainty. It's uncertain because we're in the transition to the new administration, because we're uncertain with respect to who the leadership is going to be in the new administration, we're uncertain what their policy priorities are going to be—we're uncertain about what the economic environment is going to be. And so we're reflecting that uncertainty in everything we're doing here to think about how we're going to deal with 2008. It seems to be a virtual certainty that charitable contributions and philanthropy will be down this year as they only have been a few times since the Depression, and everybody's wrestling with the question of how much. The problem that creates for us is that we're in the season when typically philanthropy would be at its peak for individuals. And, as you know, AmeriCares is entirely supported by private entities—individuals, foundations, and corporations. We don't take any money from the government, so our uncertainty is a little more complicated than some other people in our space.

L.G.: Do you think you'll be affected at all by the Bernie Madoff debacle?

C.W.: I think it's part of the frame, isn't it. I don't know of any particular donors to AmeriCares who have had their wealth managed by Bernie Madoff.


L.G.: "Managed." That's a very charitable term.

C.W.: Yeah. I know Bernie. In my previous incarnation, a long time ago, I had the opportunity to spend some time with him.

L.G.: Is that when you were working for that quaint little town called Bear Stearns?

C.W.: It was actually before that—that quaint little town called First Boston. And this is just incredibly sad on a whole bunch of levels. This is going to sound like a funny thing to say, he doesn't need any defense from me, but I don't think he started out to create a criminal enterprise. I think he's like a lot of people that find themselves doing something they shouldn't do, and rather than deal with the consequences at the beginning when they might be trivial, he tries to figure out a way to bury them, and make things right and it just gets out of hand. And obviously this got out of hand in a spectacular way, but I don't think there's anything that's going to affect AmeriCares particularly as a result of that. We didn't have any money with them. I'm sure there may be some of our donors that had money with them, but I doubt very many. So this is just another odd picture in what is becoming sort of an odd montage this year. And I don't think anybody has a lot of conviction of exactly where it's going to come out.

L.G.: You got to know him when you were at First Boston. Give me your sense of the guy, and in what capacity was First Boston doing business with him?

C.W.: I was running the equity business and he was running a very significant over-the-counter brokerage business. We worked in the same industry together, and his firm was well known to be one of the most aggressive and successful over-the-counter trading firms. He was very creative. He was actively involved in creating the Cincinnati Stock Exchange as an alternative execution venue to the New York Stock Exchange. There's a lot of inside baseball here, but there was a time when you could only trade New York Stock Exchange stocks on the New York Stock Exchange, so when people were looking for ways to make money, create different execution forums, Bernie was very creative in developing the Cincinnati Stock Exchange as an alternative, and he was just a very hard-driving, successful, creative equity business guy. I never had any reason to question any of his business principles. His
firm was very a reputable, stand-up firm to deal with and they were a very big player in the over-the-counter securities market.
 

L.G.: I'm not a sophisticated investor. I have a 401(k) that, I have to admit, when the envelopes come with the statements in them, I can't even bear to open the envelopes anymore.

C.W.: That shows good judgment actually. My advice to you would be you take the envelopes and don't open them for about a year to 18 months. Everything will be fine then.

L.G.: So explain to me how ostensibly smart, knowledgeable, sophisticated people, including people who put their money with Madoff, thought it reasonable that in all kinds of market conditions, they should be getting 8 to 9 to 15 percent returns on their money year after year without deviation.

C.W.: Of course, it's why people like fairy tales, because they make you feel good even though you know they're not true. There's a quality in the investment community which is sort of like the willing suspension of disbelief—that everybody wants to believe that someone's found the ability to repeal the laws of gravity. And so, when people
are ratified by the stature of other investors who preceded them, they suspend their disbelief and their critical faculties because they want to believe and because they're a little greedy, and they go along. This is a spectacular example of a story that's older than the hills. The same phenomenon, you may recall, happened maybe 10 to 12 years ago with an amazing fundraising Ponzi scheme that had swept up, among other people, several senior partners at Goldman Sachs. I think John Whitehead might've been on the board of this organization where some fellow whose name I've forgotten, went around to a bunch of very high-profile charities and said, "I've got a great, committed group of investors who are social philanthropists who want to be anonymous, so if you give me $100,000, I'll give you back you $100,000 and 25 percent interest on it in six months."

L.G.: And the guy wasn't even Nigerian, huh?

C.W.: No, no, exactly. And that's the classic, the same thing. You don't have to have all the money, you just have to have enough money so you can keep giving people back money when you promise it. That's what Bernie did. And I'm not sure but I suspect what happened here was, he had a trading strategy that went bad fairly early on in the game, and he just kept trying to trade his way out of it, and it got worse and worse and worse.

L.G.: What about the enforcement agencies? How can you explain the Securities and Exchange Commission's complete falling down on the job?

C.W.: Well, I think you explain it by a complete failure of responsibility and incompetence. It's stunning to me. As people investigate this story, you're going to start reading all kinds of things about the fact there were a lot of professional investors who had reason to believe this was not a sound investment firm for a long time, that there was sort of a suspicion in the sophisticated investment community. You're starting to hear some of these people come forward who had actually done the due diligence who had raised exactly the question you're raising, so that information is all out there.

L.G.: And some of them had gone to the S.E.C. and said "Hey, take a look at this."

C.W.: Exactly, as far back as 1999.

L.G.: And an enforcement official at the S.E.C. was somehow related to Bernie by marriage.

C.W.: I don't know the family relationship, but I'm sure in part, Bernie got a pass because he was a member of the board of the N.A.S.D. [National Association of Securities Dealers], and he was a big figure on Wall Street and so on and so on. Of course, this is one of the things that happens in a protracted period of a growth and economic prosperity, and it's a reminder that the S.E.C. exists not to be chummy with people in the business, it exists to make sure people are doing what they're supposed to be doing. I don't think there's any way of sugarcoating this. This appears to be a complete breakdown of responsibility and competence at the S.E.C.

L.G.: Do you feel like by getting out of the business when you did, in the early part of the century, that you perhaps dodged a bullet?

C.W.: Well, I'm not sure. I obviously have 25 years' worth of friends who are involved in all kinds of organizations that are going through all kinds of pain, or have gone through pain and are out of business, and I'm not sure I have any sort of existential conclusions about all that. I would say that I think at its core, the investment banking business—capital raising and providing advice to companies and governments—is a worthy business. And the vast majority of people that did it have values and morals and integrity and so on. There is a clear sense in which this thing sort of spun out of control. It happened over a period of time, it didn't happen over the last couple months. If you go back and you trace the history of real estate lending in the United States and the creation of the subprime lending industry, it was aided and abetted by many of the same congressmen who are now raising demagoguery to a new level, and certainly aided and abetted by government institutions and banks. And everybody sort of had their hands in this pot. I think the period from the late '90s to today was a period where a sense of value and balance and some core values was lost in some ways. I had a great 25 years in the industry, I met many of the people I'm closest to as friends during that period of time, but part of the reason why I and I think other people have looked and continue to look for things to do beyond the securities industry is I think there is, for a lot of people, sort of a spiritually and morally empty prosperity that characterized Wall Street.

L.G.: Did you not believe in the tenet "Greed is good"?

C.W.: [Laughs] I'll give you two perspectives on that. "Greed" is obviously a pejorative word, but the more ennobling characterization of that is "initiative and aspiration to create prosperity for ones' self and ones' family," which is another way of characterizing greed, and it is what drives the fundamental free-enterprise system in an economic democracy. So the inherent human quality to aspire to be better off and to have one's family be better off is something I think is not only good but we rely on it in our form of government. The problem is that it needs to be bounded. Unfortunately the '90s and the first part of this century was a period in which we took down all the bumpers and the barriers and had this sort of slavish mantra that the market knows best. Well, the market doesn't know best. The market needs to be policed. The market does a spectacular job of allocating capital through a price-discovery mechanism, and it relies on the self interest and the aspirations—or the greed, if you will—of individuals to do that. But it needs limits and it needs boundaries, and all the people who were supposed to be maintaining the boundaries took the boundaries down. Then people did what people do when they don't have any boundaries.
 
L.G.: You once told a reporter, "There were no people more self-important than investment bankers, including me." What does that mean?

C.W.: I do recall saying it, and I think it's true. I'm not sure I would say today there are no people more self-important. I think there is occasionally the politician and the corporate executive that rises to that level. But this is the Michael Lewis observation that when you take relatively young people and you expose them to the perquisites that one normally associates with wealth and power, and you give them amounts of money which by any other social perspective are the result of either a lifelong pursuit of something or inherent wealth, then people become very self-important. It's the old story about the guy who wakes up on third base and assumes he hit a triple. There are an awful lot of people in the securities industry that got swept up with this rising tide, and somehow believed that they'd earned it or they'd done something to deserve it or that it meant they were somehow superior or more insightful. One of the things that is a particularly poignant element of the contraction of Wall Street is a lot of these people were swept up into a position where they didn't acquire any transferable skills. And it's a long step from that step down to the next step, where they actually have to go compete in the real marketplace to do something that someone will pay them a wage for. I'm not sure I'm ready to conclude that the industry is going to become humble.

L.G.: Perish the thought!

C.W.: A lot of the self-importance has been washed away with the multiple houses and the planes and those kinds of things. You know, Lloyd, you could've made a small fortune, perhaps a large fortune, if you had said 12 months ago that by the end of 2008 there would be no major American investment bank left in existence, which is the case. We have only bank holding companies.

L.G.: Tell a complete ignoramus how I would've acted upon that to make my large fortune?

C.W.: Well, first of all you could've bet on it economically through any number of ways, but you would've become a celebrity savant. That would've been like saying, "I guarantee there will be a cure for cancer in 2008." It was inconceivable that firms like Lehman Brothers, Bear Stearns, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley would either go out of business or would become bank holding companies. Just inconceivable. It's still very hard for people to process, and I think it's hard for those organizations. You're seeing this in the aftermath of this October debacle. They're still sort of groping for modus operandi in this new, more-regulated, less-leveraged environment, which presents a completely different set of economic opportunities.

L.G.:
So at this point you don't envision AmeriCares as setting up free clinics for former Lehman Brothers employees?

C.W.: No, but if a Lehman Brothers employee without work, and without health insurance or was part of the working poor community in Connecticut, presented himself to our Norwalk or our Bridgeport or Danbury clinic, we'd give them the same quality of healthcare which we give to anyone else—and it's a very high quality indeed.

L.G.: Excellent. Tell me—at one point after you left your last position in business, and you were 51 years old, you were quoted somewhere as saying you were going to be working on polishing your golf game.

C.W.: That didn't last very long, as you'd well understand if you'd seen my golf game.

L.G.: You obviously made a decision that you'd made your fortune and that you were going to do something else. You were involved in your church. Tell me a little bit about your own process in terms of getting involved with AmeriCares.

C.W.: The seeds of this go back quite a while. I grew up in Rochester, New York, which is up on Lake Ontario and is certainly a more Midwestern community than it is a Northeastern community. And my parents and the people in our church and the people that we associated with had the old-fashioned value of community orientation and so on—the idea of being involved and the idea of philanthropy at some level. We didn't use that highfalutin term, it was just giving money to people who needed it. It was something that was always present in our family, so that was a fairly natural thing. So when I got to New York after graduate school, in fairly short order I began looking around for something to be involved in, became involved in a number of nonprofit organizations, one of which I'd chaired for 10 years, which is Spence Chapin, a spectacular adoption and child-service organization. I remember at one point, probably in the early '80s—I'd been pretty successful at First Boston at that point—I was up at Spence Chapin and we were doing some strategic work on setting up an adoption think tank. I went back to work thinking, Gee it would be fun to do this kind of thing full-time, and that was the first time I had the conscious thought that maybe at some point in the future, that would be a fun thing to do. That notion stayed with me and became more concrete as time went by, and I've said to a couple of people, everyone has a life list, whether it's well-defined and explicit or not, things you want to do. They made a movie out of this, with Morgan Freeman and Jack Nicholson.

L.G.: The Bucket List.

C.W.: The thing about having the list is you have to start doing the things or you have to cross them off. So when I left Société Générale, where I was responsible for their investment banking activities in the Americas. I think that is when I made that observation about polishing my golf game, and I was sort of thinking about what to do next, and I was seduced by the internet like a lot of other people at that time and went to run this wonderful bill-payments company in New Jersey. Then after September 11th, when the world turned upside down, I stepped back and said well, you've got to make another conscious decision of what to do. If you're serious about this, you either ought to pursue it or you ought to cross it off your list. So I started to do the discernment and the networking, the investigation one needs to do to make that kind of continental shift in career and focus, and through a wonderfully serendipitous process about a year later, I found AmeriCares and was fortunate enough to be offered this job.

L.G.: It's obviously a charitable organization. It has an amazing ratio of overhead versus money to actual services. I think you're under 2 percent or something like that.

C.W.: Just under 2 percent goes to overhead and the rest goes straight into the field.
 
L.G.: But explain to people who think of charitable organizations a certain way, why the C.E.O. of a charitable organization should be making $300,000 or whatever your last paycheck was. I saw $275,000 quoted in one story.

C.W.: That's right. That's the salary I got when I came here, and that's been my salary for the entire time I've been here. I think that the answer to that is pretty straightforward actually. Charitable organizations, whether they're churches or universities or humanitarian-aid organizations, need quality leadership in order to be well run and to be successful and to be good stewards of the money they get. And there's a marketplace for people who do that, there's a standard of compensation in that marketplace, and if you want to have a high-quality team in any organization, whether it's profit or nonprofit, you need to pay people what the market is for people to do what they do best.

L.G.: You mentioned that you were not quite clear on what the policies of the incoming administration are going to be. What are you not clear on? What would you like to have defined that would help you out in deciding where to allocate your resources?

C.W.: I'm not sure it'll have as much impact on us directly, because, like I said, we don't take any money from the government.

L.G.: Right, but presumably if they're doing something, you don't need to be terribly redundant, if they're taking care of an area you might otherwise feel compelled to fund.

C.W.: That's one aspect of it. The bigger aspect is that most of the large humanitarian-aid organizations in this country, from the American Red Cross to CARE to Save The Children and so on, get somewhere between 30 to 70 percent of their money from the U.S. government. So they're very concerned about what the foreign assistance priorities, policies, and budget allocation in the new administration will be. We're concerned more from the perspective of what's the playing field going to look like, what are their priorities going to be, how much money are they going to be devoting to areas like global health, what is their universal health-insurance program really going to be, that will be relevant to our free clinic program here in the United States, and what's their approach to the economy going to be? We're really much more dependent on the prosperity of individuals and corporations than lots of organizations, and so we have a vested interest in having tax policy be favorable to philanthropy, for example. We have a vested interest in having tax policy not be confiscatory to people that have wealth in the sense that the biggest individual philanthropists are the people who have accumulated the most wealth. Those are all things we're concerned about and interested in. What I meant by the uncertainty of policy priorities is we've got a lot of campaign rhetoric, but right now in the reality, where you're confronted with a trillion-dollar federal budget deficit and the worst economic situation since the Great Depression and I think the most complex economic situation in the history of the republic, there are going to be all kinds of unintended, unforeseeable effects on all kinds of entities. And certainly the not-for-profit world is going to be affected dramatically, foreign assistance of not-for-profit is going to be affected too. There is this uncertainty, and it will gradually resolve itself. I think the president-elect is doing a good job in managing the transition. I think he's done a good job in honoring his commitment to focus on competence rather than traditional politics. But being president of the United States is a political job, so he can't be completely free from that. The biggest uncertainty we're going to deal with in the next two months is fundraising. This is the time of the year when American charities raise 50 to 70 percent of their money. So we're spending a lot of time here coming up with contingency plans for what we'll do if our fundraising is down anywhere from 5 to 25 percent relative to last year.

L.G.: It seems like the bulk of your fundraising is in-kind contributions of goods and services.

C.W.: That's correct. The value proposition, the leverage in our operations, comes from the fact that AmeriCares is the world's largest recipient of quality donated medicines and medical supplies from all the world's great pharmaceutical and medical-supply companies. We have very good relationships with you-name-a-company and the odds are that they're a donor to us. And so we raise cash to allow us to deliver those medicines, medical supplies, and other health-oriented relief supplies to needy communities around the world and increasingly even in the United States.

L.G.: I see that about 20 percent of your work, delivery of services, is domestically in the United States.

C.W.: That's right, and that's actually been a program which has been growing in the last couple years. And we think we'll grow significantly in 2009, obviously subject to the overall economic climate. But the combination of the magnitude of the uninsured population and the consequences of the economic downturn have put very much greater demand on safety-net suppliers of health services. So free clinics, federally qualified clinics, so-called safety-net clinics that provide either no-cost or very-low-cost primary care to individuals as an alternative to going out into the emergency room. And we are supplying medicines and medical supplies to over 100 of those clinics in more than 30 states last year, and we expect there to be more demand for that this year.

L.G.: So you think that the domestic part of your mission will increase relative to the other parts?

C.W.: You know, it's the sad reality of the context in which we work, which is quite different than the for-profit world. If you're in the for-profit world, you spend all your time trying to figure out a product, and how you go capture a demand for your product. Here in a world where there are somewhere between 2 to 3 billion people that don't have access to medicine, the demand for what we do is essentially infinite. So, yes, I think we will do more in the United States, and whether that will be more relative to what we do outside the United States depends on how big the overall pie is. We're resource-constrained, based on that amount of cash donations we get as well as the amount of donated medicine we get.

L.G.: Do you raise money outside the United States?

C.W.: We do, but not very much. We don't have a staff which is focused other than anecdotally on people outside the United States.

L.G.: And it might be more difficult this time to shake down Prince Alwaleed bin Talal.

C.W.: Yeah, there was a lot more discussion about international philanthropy and generosity at 150 bucks a barrel than there is at 40 bucks a barrel. But, as you probably have seen, we opened earlier this year our first integrated program office outside the United States in Mumbai, India. We did that for a couple reasons. One is, India has become a very important site of manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, and it's located in such a way that strategically it allows us to get assistance to a part of the world which is very tough for us to get to from here economically. We'll be spending a lot of time trying to figure out how to raise money from wealthy individuals, companies, and foundations in India, but 98 percent of the money we raise, or maybe a little bit more, comes from the United States.
 
L.G.: How much of your time is allocated to raising money versus checking up on programs and administering the programs of AmeriCares?

C.W.: Right now it's a little higher percentage. As a general matter I probably spend one third to a half of my time either raising money or speaking with both corporate donors and individual donors, cultivating them and so on, and the rest of my time I would divide between sort of general management kinds of things and policy and strategy work.

L.G.: Are you on the road a lot going to far-flung places where AmeriCares is doing its work?

C.W.: Yeah, I probably travel to international locations half a dozen times a year. Just a few weeks ago I was in Indonesia and India, and then last week I was in El Salvador. I've got the plan that's coming in the New Year to be in Sri Lanka, again in India, probably a couple trips to Africa.

L.G.: You have some stuff going on in Darfur, do you not?

C.W.: We do. We've done now 11 airlifts of planes full of medicines, to supply the essential medicine requirements of the refugee camps in the three regions of Darfur. Darfur is, sadly, one of those things that the Western world pays attention to when it can afford to. I first flew there on the first airlift that we did in 2004, when I and most of the rest of the people in developed countries really didn't have any idea where Darfur was, and I remember having learned quite a lot about it. And I was flying in a plane of about 15 tons of medicine, and I remember thinking this is a horrific thing, but at least now that the world has focused on it, in the post-Rwanda environment where everybody says "never again," at least now that people are focused on it this will get solved relatively quickly. That was more than 100 tons and 10 airlifts ago, four years ago.

L.G.: Do you have any idea that because this incoming president has such a unique relationship with Africa that the situation might change?

C.W.: Well I think this is apropos of the conversation we were having earlier about a little bit of uncertainty. This is a good example. I think he has the potential to redefine in an important way the nature of the foreign policy relationship between the United States and Africa in a way that would be important for the United States and for Africa. Where that will rank on his priority list, which list also needs to include oh, Iraq, Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, India, the Middle East, and on and on, remains to be seen. There's a limit to the amount of power that the United States could project, just a practical limit, both financial and logistical. And there's a limit to the financial power that the United States can project at this time, and there's also a span of control set of issues. So I would like to see the president set engagement with the African Union as a high priority and set the resolution of Darfur as a high priority, as a signal of what the new relationship could be. I'd like to see that on political grounds but most importantly on humanitarian grounds. Whether that's something that will be on the list or not remains to be seen. This is going to sound like an odd analogy, but Darfur shares the willing suspension of disbelief that the Bernie Madoff situation shares. There are so many people with dirty hands that allow this atrocity to continue, including the United States, but not limited to the United States, to people who support the Sudanese regime for their economic reasons, most importantly the Chinese, the Russians, and on and on. And so what you have here is a manifest atrocity of the most despicable kind, where the people that are in the position of doing something about it, including the Africans, by the way, for their own reasons, have just chosen to turn away. So it's one of those rare moments when the true nature of human nature is revealed. Some of those are wonderful, and some of them are not. And this is one that is not.

L.G.: By the way, do you plan to be in Washington around the time of the inauguration?

C.W.: I don't. I plan to be as far away from Washington as I could possibly be and still see it on cable television.

L.G.: With all the traveling that you do, I have to think all your shots are up to date, but have you ever gotten hugely ill?

C.W.: No, I've been very fortunate. I travel with traveler's pharmacy. I travel with the range of things designed to get at bugs and bites and things like that. But I haven't ever been hugely ill. I've been around some people that have been pretty sick. One of the things that I greatly admire among the people who do the kind of work we do and the places we're doing it, is their willingness to subject themselves to healthcare conditions, living conditions, and physical risks that are really quite intense. You can't imagine that conceptually until you've actually slept under a mosquito net on the floor of a cement slab in the desert.

L.G.: Which you have done?

C.W.: I have done. In fact, one of the moments of greatest irony and cognitive dissonance for me was that Darfur trip in 2004, which was in October, so the Red Sox were playing the Cardinals in the World Series. And I watched about half of a game of the World Series under a mosquito net in the desert in Darfur on a satellite downlink

L.G.: That shows how loyal a Red Sox fan you must be.

C.W.: It also tells you something about how interesting the world has become from a connection and a communications standpoint. You can imagine the dissonance that creates.

L.G.: Indeed. Let's say there are normal people out there who are moved by your mission. You take contributions of any size, right?

C.W.: In fact, one of the things that's the great strength of AmeriCares is over 27 years we have a very large and dedicated donor base. We have over 10,000 people who give us gifts on average of $50 to $60 to $70 a year.

L.G.: Do you think you've learned anything from the Obama fundraising operation?

C.W.: Well, it's pretty clear that all gift-supported organizations are spending a lot of time thinking about social networking and the power of the internet to create communities, so we're certainly trying to learn as much of that as we can. It's an area where my prediction is, like a lot of things having to do with the internet, the rhetoric will precede the reality for some considerable period of time. But there's no question that internet-based fundraising and community-building is going to be a very important part of all nonprofit organizations going forward.

L.G.: What's your Christmas wish or your holiday wish for the coming year?

C.W.: That's a terrific question. I guess my holiday wish would be for a smooth transition to what I think has the potential to be a new era in the American experiment, and for there to be a return to the kind of aspirationally based politics that characterized this country maybe up through the '60s, maybe up to the Nixon administration, and the turning away of the partisan attack element that we see manifest in so much of the society.


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          Rwanda: Kagame, WHO Regional Director Discuss Healthcare   
[New Times] President Paul Kagame yesterday met with Dr Matshidiso Moeti, the World Health Organisation's (WHO) regional director for Africa at Village Urugwiro in Kigali, where they discussed a range of Rwanda's health issues.
          Comment on Why Reinstating a Military Draft May Be the Quickest Route to Peace by Jeri B   
"There are without a doubt times when the United States is called upon and morally obligated to step in and assert a military presence in order to prevent atrocities, such as the Holocaust and Rwandan genocide. "To his credit, I believe that Trump’s recent missile strike against Assad falls under this category, as it was in response to a horrendous chemical attack committed against Syrian civilians." ------------------------- The United States did not enter WW2 to end the Holocaust. The United States did nothing to stop the Rwandan genocide. Asaad did not use chemical weapons (does it REALLY not strike you as odd that whenever Asaad has the upperhand in Syria the US bombs up that old CW canard again?) and if the US Administration really thought he had, they would not have bombed the evidence to perdition before it could be examined! This site is called "study." If this is what passes for education in the US is not surprising you're likely the most dumbed-down people on the planet - and the comments here do nothing to allay that certainty. Two hint for you: Nations do not go to war for "moral" reasons! And the US least of any. And "I believe" belongs to gods and ghosts - not facts.
          Tom Close, Daktari wa aina yake nchini Rwanda   
Wako wale wanaomuita Dr Thomas Muyombo, na wako wale wanaomuita Tom Close, Msanii wa muziki wa kizazi kipya nchini Rwanda ambaye pia ni Daktari wa Binadamu
          kakula: 1 июля. События...    
первенство СССР по футболу (550x700, 79Kb)
в 1959 году состоялись матчи на первенство СССР по футболу:
СКВО (Ростов-на-Дону) - "Спартак" (Москва) 1:3
"Динамо" (Москва) - "Молдова" (Кишинев) 2:1

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в 1959 году Генрих Любке избирается президентом Западной Германии и сменил на этом посту Хейса (позиция Аденауэра не позволила Эрхарду выдвинуть свою кандидатуру на этот пост от Христианско-демократического союза).

в 1960 году образовано Конструкторского бюро ПО «Полет». Конструкторское бюро ПО «Полет» создано как Сибирский филиал Днепропетровского КБ «Южное» для конструкторского обеспечения производства боевых баллистических ракет на Омском авиационном заводе. В 1960-1970 гг. КБ вело проектирование и экспериментальную отработку элементов перспективных ракетных комплексов, разрабатывало уникальный международный научно-исследовательский ракетный комплекс «Мир-2», осуществило запуск ряда космических зондов. С 1968 года КБ «Полет» принимает участие в разработках спутников «Циклон» и космических аппаратов «ГЛОНАСС», ракет-носителей серии «Космос». С 1990-х гг. занимается конверсионными проектами, разрабатывает малые космические аппараты, авиационную технику. Совместно с войсками Министерства обороны РФ осуществляет запуски коммерческих космических аппаратов.

в 1960 году Всесоюзное радио начало передавать «Радиоэнциклопедию здоровья» (с декабря 1963 г. ее заменил радиожурнал «Здоровье»).

1959Ilze (700x560, 250Kb)
в 1960 году в Москве состоялась премьера художественного фильма «Илзе» (оригинальное название: Ilze; премьера в Риге 9 сентября 1959). Производство: Рижская киностудия, 1959. Режиссер: Роланд Калныньш (Калнынь). Сценарист: Анна Броделе. Оператор: Марис Рудзитис. Композитор: Мендель Башс. Художник: Герберт (Херберт) Ликумс. Актеры: Маргарита Жигунова, Эдуард Павулс, Лидия Фреймане, Роберт Мустапс, Юлий Бебриш, Янис Лусенс, Вилма Лиепиня, Гунар Плаценс, Улдис Лиелдидж, Марис Рудольф Лиепа, Карп Клетниекс, Эмилия Берзиня. По роману латышской писательницы Анны Броделе «Кровью сердца». 1947 год. Одна из латвийских деревень. Илзе горячо любит Рудиса (Эдуард Павулс), хотя он и сын кулака и о нём ходят разные слухи. Илзе знает, что Рудис ушёл от отца и вступил в колхоз, работал хорошо, стал бригадиром и подал заявление в партию. Он настоял на том, чтобы жена вступила в комсомол, а теперь предлагает ей ехать в город учиться. Между тем в колхозе орудуют какие-то скрытые враги: убит парторг Рутиньш, оклеветан лучший бригадир, происходят всякие неполадки… Правда, новый парторг Марта энергично взялась за дело, начала налаживать хозяйство. Но враги только затаились. Случайно Илзе услышала разговор Рудиса со своим отцом. И только тут она поняла, кем на самом деле является её муж. Он участвовал в убийстве Рутиньша и теперь готовит покушение на Марту. В ужасе выбегает Иззе из дома и спешит предупредить Марту и колхозников. Заговорщиков арестовывают.

первенство СССР по футболу (550x700, 79Kb)
в 1960 году состоялись матчи на первенство СССР по футболу:
"Шахтер" (Сталино) - "Адмиралтеец" (Ленинград) 0:0
"Беларусь" (Минск) - "Локомотив" (Москва) 0:2
"Нефтяник" (Баку) - ЦСКА (Москва) 2:0
"Спартак" (Вильнюс) - "Крылья Советов" (Куйбышев) 1:2
"Динамо" (Киев) - "Кайрат" (Алма-Ата) 3:0

в 1960 году продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация ООН начинает кампанию по борьбе с голодом.

1960Василий Поляков _235 (700x409, 198Kb)
1960Василий Поляков 40---- (700x427, 454Kb)
в 1960 году пилот истребителя перехватчика «МиГ-19» гвардии капитан Василий Поляков сбил над Баренцевым морем американский самолет-разведчик «RB-47». Поляков В. сделал 2 залпа, после чего «ЕRB-47Н» загорелся и развалился на части. 3 члена экипажа во главе с командиром удачно катапультировались, 3 оператора выбраться из горящего самолёта не сумели. После приводнения командир воздушного судна запутался в стропах и захлебнулся, правый пилот капитан Фримэн В.Олмстед и штурман Джон Р.Маккоун через 6 часов были случайно подобраны советским траулером "Тобольск"и остались живы. Обломки самолёта-разведчика упали в Баренцево море близ мыса Святой Нос. Через три дня капитана-именинника вызвали в Москву. Летчик доложил о полете командующему истребительной авиацией ПВО страны генерал-полковнику Савицкому и главкому Войск ПВО СССР маршалу Бирюзову. Председатель Президиума Верховного совета СССР Брежнев вручил Полякову орден Боевого Красного знамени. На следующий день вышел "Огонек" с его фотографией на обложке. На этом командировка в Москву не закончилась. В течение нескольких дней майор Поляков участвовал в очных ставках с уцелевшими американцами. На первом же допросе второй пилот Олмстед сообщил: «Над СССР наш самолёт всё время уклонялся в глубину территории. Когда штурман докладывал командиру об этом, тот отвечал, что сам знает. Палм был весьма опытный пилот. С подобными заданиями он облетел едва ли не весь земной шар. Такой мог вполне обойтись и без штурмана». Американские летчики признались, что «RB-47» проводил разведку советской системы ПВО. Но командование ВВС США заявило, что самолет не вторгался в советское воздушное пространство.

1960Flag_of_Somalia (700x466, 23Kb)
в 1960 году провозглашается создание нового независимого африканского государства - Сомали, одна часть территории которого ранее принадлежала Италии, а другая - Великобритании. Незамедлительно правительство объединенного государства заявлянт претензии на обширные территории соседних Эфиопии и Кении, где проживает сомалийское население.
1960Coat_of_arms_of_Somalia (700x564, 323Kb)
Сомали́ (сомал. Soomaaliya, араб. الصومال‎ эс-Сумаль), официальное наименование — Федеративная Республика Сомали — восточноафриканское государство, фактически распавшееся в результате гражданской войны и деятельности сепаратистов на множество частей. В настоящее время небольшая часть провинций страны объединена общепризнанным федеральным правительством. Член ООН с 20 сентября 1960 года.

1960Flag_of_Ghana (700x466, 32Kb)
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в 1960 году независимое государство Гана провозглашается республикой. Президентом становится премьер-министр Кваме Нкрума.
Га́на (Ghana), Республика Гана (Republic of Ghana) — государство в Западной Африке. Входит в Содружество наций.
1960Coat_of_arms_of_Ghana (700x583, 433Kb)
Граничит на западе с Кот-д’Ивуаром, на северо-западе и севере — с Буркина-Фасо, на востоке — с Того. С юга омывается водами Гвинейского залива Атлантического океана.

в 1960 году на Кубе объявляется об экспроприации счетов и имущества американских нефтяных компаний "Шелл" и "Эссо". В ответ правительство США прекратит закупки кубинского сахара. Фидель Кастро обратится к СССР, и Москва даст обязательство закупать на Кубе сахар - основной экспортный товар страны. Этот сахар нам обойдется в 2 раза дороже мировых цен.

в 1960 году Великобритания и Кипр окончательно определяют порядок предоставления независимости Кипру, включая вопрос о британских военных базах на этом острове (10 июля объявлено о том, что провозглашение независимости переносится на 16 августа).

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в 1960 году состоялась первая запись песен Ареты Франклин (Aretha Franklin).

1960John Thomas (405x700, 160Kb)
в 1960 году в Пало-Альто (США) Джон Томас (John Thomas, США) установил мировой рекорд по прыжкам в высоту – 2.22 м.

в 1961 году председатель Президиума ВС СССР Л.И.Брежнев подписал Указ «Об усилении уголовной ответственности за нарушение правил о валютных операциях». Хотя считается, что закон обратной силы не имеет и «усиление ответственности» должно было коснуться только тех, кто совершил преступление после опубликования этого Указа, но оно коснулось уже осужденных валютчиков Рокотова и Файбишенко. Генпрокурор Руденко подал протест на «мягкость» приговора, вынесенного этим валютчикам Мосгорсудом. Дело принял к рассмотрению Верховный суд РСФСР, который приговорил Рокотова и Файбишенко к расстрелу.

1961TupolevTu-22K (700x425, 199Kb)
в 1961 году начались официальные испытания «Ту-22К». Первый полет с ракетой «Х-22» был запланирован на октябрь. В этом же месяце завод № 22 выпустил второй экземпляр ракетоносца. Обе машины испытывались параллельно. К 11 ноября они совершили 39 полетов и осуществили шесть пусков ракет. Серийное производство «Ту-22К» запланировали на 1964 год. В тот год удалось выпустить на заводские испытания три машины, строившиеся параллельно с бомбардировщиками-разведчиками. На четвертом серийном самолете уже установили новые двигатели «РД-7М2».

в 1961 году в Ижевске организована контора «Горгаз».

в 1961 году вступил в строй Ляскельский лесопильный завод.

первенство СССР по футболу (550x700, 79Kb)
в 1962 году состоялся матч на первенство СССР по футболу:
"Локомотив" (Москва) - "Спартак" (Ереван) 2:1

1962Flag_of_Rwanda (700x466, 48Kb)
в 1962 году провозглашение независимости Республики Руанда. Республика Руанда (до 1991 года — Руандийская Республика; французское название - République Rwandaise) — государство в Восточной Африке. Руанда граничит с Демократической Республикой Конго на западе, Угандой на севере, Танзанией на востоке и Бурунди на юге. Из-за холмистого ландшафта имеет прозвище Земля тысячи холмов (французское название - Pays des Mille Collines, руанда Igihugu cy’Imisozi Igihumbi). Руанда расположена в центре Африки, невдалеке к югу от экватора. На западной границе с ДРК находятся озеро Киву и река Рузизи, являющиеся частью Восточно-африканской рифтовой долины. В центре страны находится её столица — город Кигали.
1962Coat_of_arms_of_Rwanda (640x700, 314Kb)
Рельеф Руанды в основном образуется невысокими холмами, на западной границе высотность резко обрывается у берегов озера Киву и реки Русизи, на востоке постепенно сокращается в направлении Танзании, где расположены в основном долины и болота. В Руанде расположены некоторые истоки Нила. Реки бассейна Нила и Конго. Крупнейшее озеро — Киву, единственное в Африке озеро, не заселённое крокодилами. На юге и востоке страны — цепь мелких озёр (там крокодилы водятся). Климат — субэкваториальный, сезонно-влажный, мягкий из-за значительной высоты над уровнем моря. В Кигали (на высоте 1550 м) среднемесячные температуры круглый год 17-21 °C. Осадков около 1000—1500 мм в год. Сухой сезон — с июня по сентябрь. Растительность — в основном саванна, на склонах гор влажные тропические леса. Животный мир почти истреблён. Крупные животные (антилопы, буйволы, носороги, зебры, львы, слоны, бегемоты, крокодилы, гориллы) сохранились лишь в заповедниках.

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— Бурунди получил Независимость от Бельгии (700x348, 284Kb)" />
в 1962 году провозглашение независимости Республики Руанда и Королевства Бурунди. Хуту появились в XIV столетии, ассимилировав большую часть тва. В XV столетии после прихода тутси было создано королевство, подобное королевству тутси в Руанде. Однако кастовая система в Бурунди не была такой строгой: часты были браки между тутси и хуту, хуту пользовались большой экономической свободой. XVIIIв. – сложилось самостоятельное феодальное государство Бурунди.
1962Coat_of_arms_of_Burundi (554x700, 174Kb)
1825 – 1852 гг. – расцвет страны во время правления короля Нтаре II, приобретение современных границ. 1899г. – в столице учрежден германский военный пост. В 80-е годы XIX столетия Бурунди (в то время Урунди) вместе с Руандой была оккупирована Германией и в 1903 включена в состав Германской Восточной Африки. 1919г. – после поражения Германии в I мировой войне управление над территорией Бурунди перешло к Бельгии (бельгийская подмандатная территория).
1 июля 1962 года 1 июля 1962 года Бурунди получила независимость как конституционная монархия. В 1966 году после военного переворота страна была провозглашена республикой. В 1990-е годы в стране начались межэтнические столкновения между хуту и тутси. Бурунди является членом ООН, ГАТТ, МВФ, ВОЗ, Организации африканского единства<br /> <br /> в 1962 году Соединенные Штаты перестали признавать катоба Северной Каролины как племя. Несмотря на прогнозы, катоба не потеряли племенную идентичность после терминации, сохранив свое единство. Терминация, посредством которой федеральное правительство пыталось прервать свои межправительственные отношения с индейскими народами, фактически упразднив племена, стала федеральной политикой. Ключевым элементом этой политики было переселение – программа, призванная выманить индейцев из резерваций в города, где был большой спрос на рабочую силу. Человеком, которого президент Гарри Трумэн (1945-1953) выбрал для руководства программами терминации и переселения в качестве комиссара по делам индейцев, был Диллон Майер. До этого Майер имел опыт работы с меньшинствами в годы Второй мировой войны, когда он возглавлял Военное управление по вопросам переселения – ведомство, в подчинении которого находились лагеря для интернированных американцев японского происхождения. Распределение земель привело к потере 65 процентов индейских земель - во многом вследствие терминации и переселения. Сегодня более 70 процентов коренных американцев живут за пределами резерваций.<br /> <br /> в 1962 году Роберт Соблен, приговоренный в США за шпионаж к пожизненному заключению, прибывает в Лондон после депортации из Джордана (британский министр внутренних дел отказывается предоставить ему убежище, после чего 11 сентября Соблен кончает жизнь самоубийством). <br /> <br /> в 1963 году <a href=/www.libussr.ru/doc_ussr/ussr_5965.htm" target="_blank"> Постановление Бюро ЦК КПСС по РСФСР, Совмина РСФСР от 01.07.1963 N 825 "О состоянии и мерах улучшения работы детских театров Российской Федерации"

в 1963 году в Ленинграде открыто движение поездов по второй ветке метро от "Технологического института" до станций "Площадь Мира", "Невский Проспект", "Горьковская", "Петроградской". Эта ветка во многом определила облик ленинградского метро на много лет вперед. Она появилась уже после начала борьбы с "архитектурными излишествами" и получилась предельно строгой, если не сказать скромной.

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в 1963 году станция Ленинградского метро «Невский Проспект» открыта в составе участка «Технологический институт» — «Петроградская». Название связано с расположением на одноимённой главной магистрали города. В проекте станция носила название «Площадь Плеханова» (прежнее название площади перед Казанским собором). Наземный павильон отсутствует, вход в вестибюль осуществляется через подземные переходы, имеющие выходы на Михайловскую улицу и Невский проспект. Вестибюль и подземный переход выполнен по проекту архитекторов А.К.Андреева, А.С.Гецкина, В.П.Шуваловой. Подземное размещение вестибюля было применено впервые в Санкт-Петербурге. При его сооружении Перинные ряды с «портиком Руска» были разрушены, в 1972 году — портик был восстановлен с несколько изменёнными пропорциями, в 2004 году был построен торговый центр, совершенно непохожий на предыдущие постройки. Выход на Михайловскую улицу после открытия станции осуществлялся посредством каскада из двух эскалаторов (как на «Пролетарской»), но во время ремонта наклонного хода (1998 года) малые эскалаторы были демонтированы и заменены на трёхпролётную лестницу. Летом 2007 года освещение вестибюля было заменено на стандартное. Другой выход со станции — общий со станцией «Гостиный двор» на канал Грибоедова (бывший Екатерининский). Иногда из-за этого станцию неофициально называют «Канал Грибоедова». Выход был открыт 30 апреля 1967 года и расположен в северном торце станции. Малые эскалаторы этого выхода в город находятся в том же эскалаторном зале, что и пересадочные эскалаторы. «Невский проспект» — пилонная станция глубокого заложения (глубина — 63 м). Подземный зал сооружен по проекту архитектора С.Г.Майофиса и инженера Б.Д.Максимова. Своды и пилоны оштукатурены, в нижней части украшены рёбрами из полированного алюминия. Форма пилонов в композиции с оформлением среднего зала напоминает форму тоннеля. Путевые стены были выложены стеклянной плиткой с красной подложкой, заменённой в 2006 году на искусственный камень того же цвета Пол центрального зала из габбро и лабродорита. Асфальтовый пол путевых тоннелей в 2007 году заменён на каменный. В середине зала на части свода между двумя пилонами (В этом месте свод сделан намного выше) помещён текст Указа Президиума ВС СССР «О награждении Ленинградского метрополитена имени В.И.Ленина орденом Ленина». До 2004 года станция освещалась ртутными лампами, затем освещение было заменено на натриевое.

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в 1963 году станция Ленинградского метро «Петроградская» открыта в составе участка «Технологический институт» — «Петроградская». Наименование получила из-за расположения на Петроградской стороне, одном из исторических районов города. Наземный вестибюль выполнен по проекту архитекторов А.К.Андреева, Я.Е.Москаленко и встроен в здание «Дома мод», расположенного на пересечении Каменноостровского проспекта и Большого проспекта Петроградской стороны, у площади Льва Толстого. Вестибюль имеет Г-образную форму в плане. Над эскалаторным ходом размещался витраж на тему комсомола, уничтоженный 31 декабря 1993 года в результате взрыва в доме № 37. «Петроградская» — станция закрытого типа («горизонтальный лифт») глубокого заложения (глубина ~ 53 м). Подземный зал сооружён по проекту архитекторов В.Ф.Белова, А.В.Говорковского, В.Л.Ривина, Н.Н.Трегубова и Л.И.Шимаковского. Гофрированная поверхность стен перронного зала выполнена облицовкой из керамики. Торцевая стена украшена золотистым декоративным панно на фоне синей решётки, с профилем молодых рабочего и крестьянки, отражающих тему революционного Петрограда (художник Г.Н.Васильев). Наклонный ход (выход со станции), содержащий 3 эскалатора, расположен в северном торце станции.

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в 1963 году станция Ленинградского метро «Горьковская» открыта в составе участка «Технологический институт» — «Петроградская». Данное название получила благодаря тому, что расположена в начале бывшего проспекта Максима Горького (ныне Кронверкский проспект), где в доме № 23 долгое время жил писатель. «Горьковская» — пилонная станция с укороченным центральным нефом (залом) глубокого заложения (глубина ~ 53 м). Станция начинает серию из семи пилонных станций, идущих подряд. Подземный зал сооружён по проекту архитекторов С.И.Евдокимова, Н.И.Башнина, А.П.Изоитко, С.Л.Михайлова и Е.И.Травникова. Художественное оформление станции посвящено пролетарскому писателю М.Горькому. Оформление станции простое и суровое, пилоны облицованы сааремским известняком с включением грубо обработанных блоков. Под карнизом пилонов установлены круглые лампы. Торцевую стену центрального подземного зала украшает портрет писателя, выполненный из камня той же породы (скульпторы М.Р.Габе, А.М.Торич, П.А.Якимович). На путевых стенах установлены декоративные решётки с узорами на тему произведений писателя. Кроме того, на дверях кабельных шкафов в путевых тоннелях находятся изображения буревестника, выполненные из тёмных металлических полос. Пол центрального нефа выстлан серым гранитом, полы перронных залов — асфальтом, который в процессе реконструкции был заменён гранитом. Кафель на путевых стенах был заменён белым мрамором. Наклонный ход (выход со станции), содержащий 3 эскалатора, расположен в северном торце центрального нефа (зала). Новый вестибюль станции метро «Горьковская», выход на Каменноостровский проспект. Новый вестибюль станции — одноэтажное здание в виде инопланетного корабля. Как и прежний вестибюль, который был построен в 1963 году по проекту архитекторов Арона Гецкина и Валентины Шуваловой, он располагается на Кронверке Петропавловской крепости у развилки Кронверкского и Каменноостровского проспектов. Проект нового здания был выполнен ООО «СУАР. Т-проект». 27 марта 2009 года его поддержал градостроительный совет. Площадь павильона увеличилась в три раза. Как и старая постройка, для предотвращения затопления в связи с близостью реки Невы, новый вестибюль поставлен на возвышении. Старый вестибюль являлся типовым для станций Ленинградского метрополитена, открытых в хрущевскую эпоху (аналогичен вестибюлям станций «Парк Победы», «Электросила», «Фрунзенская»). Он представлял собой приземистое цилиндрическое здание с куполом и застеклёнными входами. Козырек над входом после трагедии на «Сенной площади» был укреплён специальными подпорками.

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в 1963 году станция Ленинградского метро «Сенная площадь» открыта в составе участка «Технологический институт» — «Петроградская». Наименование получила из-за близости к одноимённой площади. До июля 1992 года носила название «Площадь Мира». Наземный павильон выполнен по проекту архитекторов А.С.Гецкина, В.П.Шуваловой и располагается у Сенной площади, в непосредственной близости от места снесённой в 1961 году Успенской церкви (Спаса-на-Сенной). Обращён к площади широким витражом входа. Изначально планировалось впоследствии встроить вестибюль в крупное здание общественного назначения: газета «Смена» писала: он (вестибюль) будет встроен в большое здание, которое поднимется на площади. Естественно, на месте взорванной церкви и разрушенного уже после постройки вестибюля метро жилого здания на углу площади Мира и улицы Ефимова. Возможно, в 1981 году этим зданием должен был стать Ленинградский Аэровокзал, в нём должен был находится вестибюль. В июле 2007 года начальником метрополитена была обнародована информация о том, что вестибюль станции метро «Сенная» будет «объединён с новым зданием, в котором разместится небольшой торговый центр». 10 июня 1999 года в 19 часов 40 минут произошла трагедия: обрушился пятиметровый бетонный козырёк наземного павильона, в результате погибли 7 человек. Судебная экспертиза сделала заключение о том, что при разработке проекта павильона метро были допущены грубые ошибки. Для недопущения повторения трагедии на всех станциях метро произвели укрепление козырьков, в случае невозможности укрепления — козырьки были сняты. «Сенная площадь» — станция пилонного типа глубокого заложения (глубина ~ 55 м). Подземный зал сооружен по проекту архитекторов А.И.Прибульского, А.Я.Мачерет, В.В.Ганкевич. При открытии пилоны были облицованы мелкой серо-кремовой кафельной плиткой (т. н. «ириской»), торец центрального зала украшала надпись: СССР оплот мира. Оформление станции простое, пилоны отделаны мрамором, путевые стены — голубой керамической плиткой (цвет мира). Лампы, освещающие центральный зал и платформы, скрыты за карнизами люверсных решёток, выполненных из аннодированного металла. Наклонный ход (выход со станции), содержащий 3 эскалатора, расположен в северном торце станции. В южном конце станции построен переход на станцию метро «Спасская». Торец у перехода украшает надпись: «1703 Санкт-Петербург 1914 Петроград 1924 Ленинград 1991 Санкт-Петербург», символизирующая переименования города. Под надписью расположено панно с тремя колоннами: ионической слева, дорической в центре и коринфской справа, символизирующие либо три названия города (исходя из расположенного вверху), то ли три века истории и зодчества Санкт-Петербурга.

в 1963 году в Ленинграде (ныне Санкт-Петербург) начал издаваться шрифтом Брайля литературно-художественный журнал «Литературные чтения». Задача журнала – перепечатывать из разных российских и зарубежных журналов, альманахов, сборников глубокие по содержанию, яркие высокохудожественные произведения. На страницах журнала читатели находят разнообразные по жанрам публикации: от лирических стихов и романов до литературоведческих статей. «Литературные чтения» пользуется популярностью, тираж журнала составляет 1000 экземпляров.

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в 1963 году введена в строй первая очередь Петрозаводского завода тяжелого бумагоделательного машиностроения. Ныне – АО «Петрозаводскмаш» – крупнейшее машиностроительное предприятие в Карелии и единственное в России, производящее бумагоделательные машины.

в 1963 году состоялась премьера художественного фильма «Завтрашние заботы». Производство: Ленфильм, 1962. Режиссеры: Григорий Аронов, Будимир Метальников. Сценарист: Будимир Метальников. Оператор: Константин Рыжов. Композитор: Люциан Пригожин. Художник: Михаил Иванов. Актеры: Анатолий Азо, Елена Добронравова, Юрий Дедович, Сергей Плотников, Вера Титова, Станислав Фесюнов, Гелий Сысоев, Виктор Терехов, Борис Павлов-Сильванский. По мотивам одноименной повести Виктора Конецкого. Трудным оказался этот рейс по Северному морскому пути для капитана Глеба Вольнова (Анатолий Азо). Его беспокоит команда - курсанты, впервые вышедшие в море. Беспокоит его и механик Битов, отец его погибшего друга. Он вышел в море после долгого перерыва: никто не хотел рисковать и брать на борт больного старика. Глеб также переживает личную драму. Его новый друг капитан Левин познакомил Глеба со своей давней приятельницей Агнией (Елена Добронравова). Но Глеб оскорбил Агнию своим равнодушием и слишком поздно понял, что она для него значит.

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в 1963 году в Великобритании окончательно выясняется, что Ким Филби был третьим лицом, причастным вместе с Гаем Берджессом и Дональдом Маклином к шпионажу в пользу СССР. Выступая в Палате общин британского парламента, лорд-хранитель печати Эдвард Хит впервые официально информирует английскую общественность о побеге Кима Филби в "одну из стран советского блока".

в 1963 году министерство почт США вводит почтовые индексы.

DC-3 компании Varig copy (700x522, 206Kb)
в 1963 году Пассо Фундо, Бразилия. Разбивается самолет «DC-3» компании «Varig». 15 человек погибают.

в 1963 году «The Rolling Stones» дают концерт в клубе Кена Кольера “Studio 51” (Сохо, Лондон).

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в 1963 году «The Beatles» записывают свой новый сигл «She Loves You» / «I'll Get You», в лондонской «EMI Studios». Две песни для сингла были записаны за четыре с небольшим часа. Релиз сингла состоялся в августе 1963-го, «She Loves You» cтанет для группы первым синглом проданным в количестве более миллионов копий.

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в 1964 году в 11:16 UTC с космодрома «Байконур» осуществлен пуск ракеты-носителя "Восход 11А57", которая вывела на околоземную орбиту советский спутник оптической разведки "Космос-34" (00822 / 1964 034А). Космический аппарат фоторазведки типа "Зенит-4" выведен на орбиту с параметрами: наклонение орбиты - 64.97 град.; период обращения - 90 мин.; минимальное расстояние от поверхности Земли (в перигее) - 205 км; максимальное расстояние от поверхности Земли (в апогее) - 360 км.

в 1964 году на территории СССР совершил посадку спускаемый аппарат советского разведывательного спутника "Космос-33" ("Зенит-2").

первенство СССР по футболу (550x700, 79Kb)
в 1964 году состоялся матч на первенство СССР по футболу:
"Торпедо" (Москва) - "Динамо" (Тбилиси) 1:1

в 1964 году в Сиднее основан Азиатско-Тихоокеанский союз радиовещания – крупнейший международный союз радиовещания в АТР.

в 1964 году государство Ньясаленд переименовано в Малави.

в 1964 году замужние женщины в Квебеке получили равные права с мужчинами.

1964McDonnellDouglasPhantomFG1F-4K (700x424, 179Kb)
в 1964 году королевский флот дал официальное разрешение на создание варианта истребителя «F-4» «Phantom» в соответсвии с британскими требованиями. Для замены устаревавшего палубного истребителя «De Havilland» «Sea Vixen» командование Королевского флота Англии планировало перспективный двухмаховый истребитель с вертикальным взлетом и посадкой «Hawker Siddley» «P.1154». Но из-за неоправданной дороговизны и затянувшейся разработки правительство Британии закрыло этот проект. В то же время между правительством Англии и компанией «McDonnell» велся диалог по предложению о создании варианта истребителя «F-4» «Phantom» («McDonnell Douglas» «F-4K» «Phantom II»).

1964Henry Clay (700x540, 324Kb)
в 1964 году садится на мель американский подводный атомный ракетоносец «Генри Клей» (Henry Clay), который удаётся снять лишь с помощью спасательных буксиров.




в 1964 году «битловский» («The Beatles») сингл «Hard Day's Night» вышел на 1 место в списке синглов и продержался 2 недели.

в 1964 году группа Рода Стюарта (Rod Stewart) "Steam Packet" впервые играла на разогреве у «The Rolling Stones» на площадке «London Palladium».

1964terje-pedersen (667x700, 295Kb)
в 1964 году в Осло (Норвегия) Терье Педерсен (Terje Pedersen, Норвегия) установил мировой рекорд в метании копья на открытых стадионах - 87,12 м.

Рузаевская трикотажная фабрика.  (700x526, 356Kb)
в 1965 году введена в эксплуатацию Рузаевская трикотажная фабрика.

первенство СССР по футболу (550x700, 79Kb)
в 1965 году состоялся матч на первенство СССР по футболу:
ЦСКА (Москва) - "Торпедо" (Кутаиси) 3:0

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в 1965 году Канзас Сити (штат Миссури, США). Самолет «Боинг-707» компании «Continental Airlines» при посадке проскользывает за конец полосы и переломляется пополам. Погибших нет. Произошло глиссирование колес шасси на мокрой полосе, что сделало неэффективным торможение.

1964The-Great-Race-2539465 (449x700, 347Kb)
в 1965 году в Нью-Йорке состоялась премьера художественного фильма «Большие гонки» (оригинальное название: The Great Race; премьера в Нидерландах 27 января 1966; премьера в Франции 17 февраля 1966; премьера в Турции 2 марта 1967; премьера в Испании 10 апреля 1966; премьера в Дании 9 июня 1966; премьера на Каннском Международном кинофестивале в Москве 7 июля 1965; премьера в Финляндии 26 августа 1966; премьера в Бельгии 9 сентября 1966; премьера в Мексике 6 октября 1966; премьера в Великобритании 14 октября 1965; премьера в ГДР 11 ноября 1966; премьера в Португалии 7 декабря 1965; премьера в ФРГ 9 декабря 1965; премьера в Австралии 17 декабря 1965; премьера в Бразилии 25 декабря 1965; премьера в Японии 25 декабря 1965; премьера в Швеции 26 декабря 1965). Производство: Warner Bros., 1964. Режиссер: Блейк Эдвардс. Сценаристы: Блейк Эдвардс, Артур А.Росс. Оператор: Рассел Хэрлан. Композитор: Генри Манчини. Продюсеры: Дик Крокетт, Мартин Джуроу. Актеры: Тони Кёртис, Джек Леммон, Натали Вуд, Питер Фальк, Кинан Уинн, Артур О'Коннелл, Дороти Провайн, Ларри Сторч, Росс Мартин, Джордж МакРиди, Марвин Каплан, Вивиан Вэнс, Хэл Смит, Денвер Пайл, Кен Уэльс.



Широкоформатный фильм. Знаменитый испытатель Лесли (Тони Кертис) по прозвищу Великий инициирует беспрецедентную акцию - автомобильную гонку Нью-Йорк - Париж. Находясь за рулем уникальной по оснащению машины, он соперничает с самыми отчаянными авантюристами. Однако основным его противником становится завистливый неудачник профессор Фэйт (Джек Леммон) со своим помощником Максом, строящий козни и не гнушающийся самых коварных методов достижения заветной цели. К тому же в гонках участвует очаровательная и напористая журналистка Мэгги (Натали Вуд), намеревающаяся сделать сенсационный репортаж о соревнованиях и тем самым добиться признания. Премия "Оскар" (1965): Лучшие звуковые эффекты (Трег Браун). Номинация на "Оскар" (1965): Лучший оператор (Расселл Харлан); Лучший монтаж (Ральф И.Уинтерс); Лучший звук (Джордж Гроувс); Лучшая песня (Генри Манчини, Джонни Мерсер).

1960советские колхозники (700x433, 58Kb)
в 1966 году советские колхозники впервые стали получать ежемесячную зарплату. На смену печально известному трудодню пришла новая система оплаты труда: ежемесячные выплаты считались авансом, а в конце года производился окончательный расчет - в зависимости от личного вклада колхозника и денежных доходов колхоза.

1966DAqtUaiFUo0 (700x399, 246Kb)
в 1966 году в Челябинске открылся универмаг "Детский мир". Универмаг "Детский мир" в Челябинске мог открыться на тридцать лет раньше. Еще в 1936 году был утвержден проект возведения крупного магазина, который разработал архитектор Б.Н.Егоров. К 1939 году уже были завершены основные строительные работы, а открытие запланировали на 1941 год, но помешала начавшаяся Великая Отечественная война. На протяжении нескольких военных лет в здании только что построенного предприятия торговли разместился наркомат танковой промышленности, а также велась работа по подготовке профессиональных кадров, поскольку в Челябинске находились в эвакуации моторные и станкостроительные заводы из разных городов Советского Союза.
1966ddRV32cvdDE (700x523, 313Kb)
Подготовка специалистов осуществлялась по двум направлениям на факультетах колесно-гусеничных машин и механико-технологический. После окончания войны, вплоть до 1949 года в здании будущего универмага производились работ
          6/30/2017: FINANCE & MARCHES: BNP Paribas visé par une plainte pour « complicité de génocide » au Rwanda   
Trois associations de défense des droits de l’homme ont annoncé jeudi avoir déposé une plainte avec constitution de partie civile contre BNP Paribas pour complicité de génocide, de crimes contre l’humanité et de crimes de guerre au Rwanda, confirmant...
          BNP Paribas visé par une plainte pour « complicité de génocide » au Rwanda   
L'établissement aurait participé au financement d'un achat illégal d'armes.
          Self driving in East Africa   
Hello, does anyone has experience regarding self-driving through East Africa? We will start a round-trip for 2.5 month in about 2 weeks, that will take us from Nairobi to Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania back to Nairobi. We've read several blogs and reports and are confident, that we can do the driving ourselves with great caution and patience. For a safari, we would always take a guide for several reasons (a.o. not get lost, find the animals...). Unfortunately, we couldn't find any reports re ... [Posted by IvoS - Jun 30, 16:47]
          Comment on ADEPR: Baramponda Sinoga! Nyuma ya Gisozi, ubu harasabwa ituro ryo kubaka urusengero muri Uganda. by Nhabimana Mary   
Hhhhhh!niba mutarasobanukirwa ko Yesu amaze kuzuka yatukiyemo akaduhindura insengero zera z'Imana mufite ibibazo muyatange kbs munaguze ubundi inzara nayo ibarye iyo ubuze ubwenge Imana irakureka bagiye iBugande umusaruro badusigiye mu Rwanda ni uwuge harya ?hhhhhhhh!babanze bavuge inkuru za Yesu hano bere imbuto nibarangiza hariya bizikora
          'When Nollywood stars stormed Kigali for AMAA nominees party'   

IT was a long night of fun, camaraderie, swashbuckling, Saturday night, in Kigali, Rwanda, when Africa Movie Academy Awards, AMAA, hosted Rwadan celebrities, business executives and their Nigerian counterparts during the 2017 AMAA nominees party in the East Africa country.


          Kagame's female challenger faces exclusion from Rwanda's presidential race   

Rwanda's National Electoral Commission has rejected the candidacy of 35-year-old Diane Shima Rwigara for not meeting filing requirements. She and four other candidates fell short of required number of signatures, NEC Chairman, Kalisa Mbanda told journalists on Tuesday.


          NGOs file suit alleging BNP Paribas complicity in Rwandan genocide   

PARIS, June 29 Three non-government organisations have filed a lawsuit in Paris against the French bank BNP Paribas, alleging that it knowingly approved a transfer of $1.3 million from the Rwandan central bank to an arms dealer during the Rwandan genocide in 1994. More than 800,000 ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus were slaughtered during a three-month killing spree by Hutu extremists after a plane carrying the president, Juvenal Habyarimana, was shot down.


          Rwanda: Rwanda, Afreximbank Negotiate $500m Investment   

Rwanda and African Export-Import Bank are in talks on the bank disbursing about $500million into the country in the next one year. The talks and negotiations are taking place on the sidelines of the ongoing bank's Annual General Meeting at the Kigali Convention Centre.


          Rwanda: 2 Out of 6 Presidential Aspirants Qualify   

Only incumbent President Paul Kagame and Frank Habineza, of the Democratic Green Party of Rwanda, made the cut when the National Electoral Commission released the provisional list yesterday. After scrutiny of the nomination papers of six candidates, NEC found that four candidates did not fully meet the set requirements.


          Kenya gives in to U.S. threats after proposed used clothes ban   

Kenya has withdrawn a proposed ban on used clothes by the East African regional bloc after threats by the United States to review trade benefits to specifically Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. Kenya's Trade and Industrialization Principal Secretary Dr Chris Kiptoo said the country had decided to comply with the African Growth and Opportunity Act conditions, reports web portal The East African.


          Roadmap guiding universal immunization in Africa launched in Rwanda   

A roadmap to guide African countries' implementation of a declaration on immunization was launched here Tuesday at the first World Health Organization Africa Health Forum. The declaration, named the Addis Declaration on Immunization was initially drafted and signed by ministers and other high-level representatives at the Ministerial Conference on Immunization in Africa last February.


          Experts call for better approach to humanitarian situation in conflicts in Africa   

Experts on conflicts have called on African governments and the international community to adopt better approaches to address humanitarian crisis during urban armed conflicts. Speaking on Monday at a public regional conference on challenges and humanitarian consequences of urban armed conflicts in the Rwandan capital Kigali, experts argued that humanitarian crisis in urban armed conflicts is quite alarming, especially the urban setting which need better and sustainable approaches to address the challenge.


          UN official urges Africa to prevent conflicts which could lead to atrocities   

The UN secretary General's Special Adviser for Prevention of Genocide Monday urged African countries against poor leadership, corruption to prevent conflicts which may lead to atrocities. Preventing wars and armed conflict requires state and non-state actors even at individual level, said Adama Dieng at a regional conference on challenges and humanitarian consequences of urban armed conflict around the globe held in Rwanda's capital city Kigali.


          East Africa: Rwanda Defy U.S. Threats, Kagame to Ban Used Clothes Imports   

Dar es Salaam - Rwanda's President Paul Kagame has insisted that Rwanda will proceed with its plan to phase-out importation of second-hand clothes despite threats from the US that the move could lead to a review of his country's eligibility to duty-free access to the American market. President Kagame made the remarks yesterday while addressing a news conference moments after submitting his nomination papers to the National Electoral Commission .


          France – Mali / France – Libye / France – Egypte / France – Maroc / France – Rwanda / France – Tchad ; Quai d’Orsay – Déc larations du sous-directeur de la presse et agenda du ministre, de la ministre chargée des affaires européennes et d u secrétaire d’Etat   
Au point de presse de ce jour, le sous-directeur de la presse a rappelé la déclaration du ministre, fait les déclarations et répondu aux questions suivantes : […] 3 – Mali – Adoption de la résolution 2364 du conseil de sécurité des Nations unies renouvelant le mandat de la MINUSMA (29 juin 2017) La France […]
          MRADI WA UMEME STIEGLER’S GORGE HAUTAATHIRI MAZINGIRA YA PORI LA SELOUS   
Na Mwandishi wetu, Katavi

Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii imewataka wadau wa uhifadhi kote nchini kuunga mkono mpango wa Serikali wa kujenga mradi mkubwa wa uzalishaji wa umeme katika mto Rufiji kwenye pori la akiba la Selous ambao ukikamilika unatarajiwa kuzalisha zaidi ya megawati 2,100.

Katibu Mkuu wizara ya Maliasili na utalii Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amesema utekelezaji wa mradi huo wa umeme ni wa muhimu kwa taifa kwani utasaidia kuharakisha maendeleo ya taifa kuelekea azima yake ya Tanzania ya viwanda na uchumi wa kati.

Akiongea wakati akifunga mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapaori kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania -TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro, Katibu mkuu Meja Jenerali Gudance Milanzi amesema mradi huo wa umeme pamoja na mradi wa bwawa la maji la Kidunda utachukua eneo dogo tu la pori la akiba la Selou lenye ukubwa wa zaidi ya kilomita za mraba elfu 50.

Amesema pori hilo ndilo kubwa miongoni mwa mapori ya aina hiyo ulimwenguni na ukubwa wake ni zaidi ya nchi za Rwanda na Burundi zikiunganishwa kwa pamoja.

Katibu Mkuu amesema ujenzi wa miradi hiyo hauna tafsiri kwamba Tanzania haithamini masuala ya uhifadhi bali unazingatia uhifadhi wenye manufaa kwa jamii na maendeleo ya taifa na hasa dhamira ya serikali ya rais Dk John Pombe Magufuli kuelekea Tanzania ya viwanda ambayo inahitaji nishati ya umeme itakayoyotosheleza mahitaji ya taifa.
Kaimu Mkurugenzi Mkuu –TAWA Bw. Martin Loibooki akisoma risala mbele ya mgeni Rasmi
katibu mkuu akiwa kwenye picha ya pamoja na wahitimu wa jinsia ya kike 10 kati ya 97 waliyohitimu, wa tatu kutoka kushoto waliyokaa ni kaimu mkurugenzi mkuu-tawa
wahitimu wakitoa heshima mbele ya mgeni rasmi.


          Awakening the innovating giant in Africa   
Esther Nakkazi Freelance journalist, SciDev.Net   Awakening the giant within is what two funds, the Rwanda Innovation Endowment Fund (RIEF) and the Innovation Prize for Africa (IPA), intend to do for African innovators. With support from President Paul Kagame of Rwanda, who is a great fan of information technologies (IT), the RIEF is a sure […]
          MRADI WA UMEME STIEGLER’S GORGE HAUTAATHIRI MAZINGIRA YA PORI LA SELOUS   
Kaimu Mkurugenzi Mkuu –TAWA Bw. Martin Loibooki akisoma risala mbele ya mgeni Rasmi
katibu mkuu akiwa kwenye picha ya pamoja na wahitimu wa jinsia ya kike 10 kati ya 97 waliyohitimu, wa tatu kutoka kushoto waliyokaa ni kaimu mkurugenzi mkuu-tawa
wahitimu wakitoa heshima mbele ya mgeni rasmi



KM akisoma kiapo cha wahitimu

…………………….

Na Mwandishi wetu, Katavi

Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii imewataka wadau wa uhifadhi kote nchini kuunga mkono mpango wa Serikali wa kujenga mradi mkubwa wa uzalishaji wa umeme katika mto Rufiji kwenye pori la akiba la Selous ambao ukikamilika unatarajiwa kuzalisha zaidi ya megawati 2,100.

Katibu Mkuu wizara ya Maliasili na utalii Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amesema utekelezaji wa mradi huo wa umeme ni wa muhimu kwa taifa kwani utasaidia kuharakisha maendeleo ya taifa kuelekea azima yake ya Tanzania ya viwanda na uchumi wa kati.

Akiongea wakati akifunga mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapaori kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania -TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro, Katibu mkuu Meja Jenerali Gudance Milanzi amesema mradi huo wa umeme pamoja na mradi wa bwawa la maji la Kidunda utachukua eneo dogo tu la pori la akiba la Selou lenye ukubwa wa zaidi ya kilomita za mraba elfu 50.

Amesema pori hilo ndilo kubwa miongoni mwa mapori ya aina hiyo ulimwenguni na ukubwa wake ni zaidi ya nchi za Rwanda na Burundi zikiunganishwa kwa pamoja.

Katibu Mkuu amesema ujenzi wa miradi hiyo hauna tafsiri kwamba Tanzania haithamini masuala ya uhifadhi bali unazingatia uhifadhi wenye manufaa kwa jamii na maendeleo ya taifa na hasa dhamira ya serikali ya rais Dk John Pombe Magufuli kuelekea Tanzania ya viwanda ambayo inahitaji nishati ya umeme itakayoyotosheleza mahitaji ya taifa.

Amesema Tanzania inatambua umuhimu wa uhifadhi ndiyo maana imetenga eneo la zaidi ya asilimia 28 ya eneo lote la nchi kavu Tanzania bara kwaajili ya uhifadhi wa aina mbalimbali ukiwemo wa wanayamapori na misitu ya vyanzo vya maji ambayo ni muhimu kwa shughuli za kijamii na kiuchumi, “ ni nchi chache sana duniani zenye eneo kubwa la uhifadhi kama Tanzania” alisisitiza katibu mkuu.

Katibu mkuu amewataka wafanyakazi wa wizara na watanzania kwa ujumla kutokuwa kikwazo kwa utekelezaji wa mradi huo na kwamba wadau wanaotaka kuisaidia Tanzania wasaidie kuhakikisha inatumia maliasili zake kupiga hatua ya kimaendeleo ikiwemo misaada ya teknolojia za kisasa na rafiki wa mazingira kusaidia kufikia malengo yake kimaendeleo.

“Mtakumbuka mh. Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, Dk John Pombe Magufuli hivi karibuni alipokuwa kwenye ziara ya kikazi mkoani Pwani amezungumzia kwa kirefu sana umuhimu wa miradi hiyo ukiwemo wa bwawa la Kidunda na wa umeme wa Stieglars Gorge, sasa sisi kama wahifadhi na kama watumishi lazima tumuunge mkono na tusiwe kikwazo katika dhamira hii njema” alisema Jenerali Milanzi’’.

Ametoa mfano wa nchi ya Qatar ambayo amesema ilikuwa na eneo la uhifadhi lililokuwa kwenye orodha ya maeneo ya urithi wa dunia kutokana na uwepo wa baadhi ya viumbe adimu lakini walipogundua mafuta, waliamua kujitoa kwenye urithi wa dunia ili wachimbe mafuta na kuinufaisha nchi hiyo na maendeleo ya wananchi wake.

Akizungumzia kuhusu tatizo la mifugo kwenye maeneo yaliyohifadhiwa, Katibu mkuu amewataka wahifadhi kuhakikisha wanakabiliana na changamoto hiyo na kusimamia sheria zilizotungwa na Bunge la Jamahuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ambazo zinakataza mifugo kuingia hifadhini kinyume cha sheria.

Amesema ndiyo maana serikali inatumia fedha nyingi kugharamia mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapori na wahifadhi ili kuwaongezea ujuzi na weledi wa kulinda maliasili za taifa kwa kuzingatia sheria zilizopo.

Katibu Mkuu Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amezungumzia pia umuhimu wa kuhakikisha mapori ya uhifadhi yanatumiwa kwa uhifadhi badala ya kutumika kwa mambo mengine ikiwemo kilimo cha bangi na maficho ya majambazi na majangili na amewataka wahifadhi na askari kushirikiana na vyombo vingene vya ulinzi na usalama kuwafichua wahalifu wanaojificha kwenye mapori hayo na kufanya ujangili na uhalifu mwingine.

Mapema katika taarifa yake kwa katibu mkuu, Kaimu Mkurugenzi wa Mamlaka ya Wanyamapori Tanzania -TAWA Martin Loibooki alieleza kuwa mafunzo hayo yamesaidia kuimarisha uhifadhi kwenye mapori mbalimbali ya akiba nchini na maeneo ya uhifadhi wa wanyamapori.

Aliwashukuru wadau mbalimbali wa uhifadhi wa ndani na nje ya nchi wanaofadhili mafunzo hayo na vitendea kazi juhudi ambazo amesema zimeanza kuzaa matunda ikiwemo kuongezeka kwa idadi ya tembo na wanyamapori wengine kwenye mapori mengi nchini.

Mfunzo hayo yaliyowashirikisha askari wa wanyamapori wapatao 98 kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro ni mwendelezo wa mafunzo yanayotolewa na Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii kwa askari wa wanyamapori na watumishi wengine wa wizara hiyo katika hatua za kuelekea mfumo wa jeshi usu.

          TGGA YATOA SOMO JUKWAA LA UWEZESHAJI WANAWAKE KIUCHUMI KISARAWE   

Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia) akipata maelezo kutoka kwa Kamishna wa Chama cha Tanzania Girl Guides (TGGA) Makao Makuu, Rose Majuva kuhusu kazi zinazofanywa na chama hicho ikiwemo kuwapa uwezo wanawake wa kujitambua na kujiamini alipokwenda kuzindua Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani humo.

Majuva aliwaasa wanawaje kuacha kutumia mikopo ya benki kuchezea ngoma bali waitumie kujiendeleza kibiashara na kuwa na tabia ya kulipa kwa wakati mikopo hiyo. Pia aliwaeleza mbinu mbalimbali za kufanya biashara na miiko yake. (PICHA NA RICHARD MWAIKENDAKAMANDA WA MATUKIO BLOG.

Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia), akiangalia kiroba cha mkaa uliotengenezwa kiasili kwa kutumia taka mbalimbali alipokuwa akitembelea mabanda ya wajasiriamali kabla ya kuzindua Jukwaa hilo. Kushoto ni Gifti Mbaraka wa banda hilo la Vijana Wasiriamali Wakulima Kisarawe. Katikati ni Mkurugenzi wa Halmashauri ya Kisarawe, Mussa Gama.

Wananchi wakisikiiza kwa makini maelezo kutoka kwa Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Valentina Gonza jijsi ya kutengeneza jiko la kutumia mwanga wa jua kupikia vyakula mbalimbali kwa gharama nafuu wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe.

Girl Guides wa TGGA, wakitengeneza Green House ya kupanda matunda na mbogamboga majumbani waliposhiriki uzinduzi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani Kisarawe. Kutoka kushoto ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda, Michelle kutoka Rwanda na Happy Mshana wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Dar es Salaam.
Kamishna wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Rose Majuva (kulia) akisoma maadili ya kiongozi anavyotakiwa awe wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi Wilaya ya Kisarawe.
Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam,Rehema Kijazi akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Valentina Gonza akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akikusanya kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
Baadhi ya viongozi wa TGGA wakihesabu kura wakati wa uchaguzi huo
Viongozi wa TGGA wakiwa kwenye banda lao wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa Jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe
Mwampamba akiangalia bidhaa mbalimbali za wajasiriamali
Girl Guides kutoka Madagascar akijitambulisha wakati wa mkutano wa Jukwaa hilo. Kutoka kulia ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda na Michelle kutoka Rwanda. Vijana hao wapo nchini kwa miezi sita katika programu ya kubadilishana uozefu katika masuala ya utamaduni, uongozi na ujasiriamali
Mkufunzi kutoka Makao Makuu ta TGGA, Happy Mshana akielezea jinsi alivyopata uzoefu alipoiwakilisha TGGA kwenye mafunzo ya kubadilisha uzoefu nchini Madagascar

           TGGA YATOA SOMO JUKWAA LA UWEZESHAJI WANAWAKE KIUCHUMI KISARAWE    
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia) akipata maelezo kutoka kwa Kamishna wa Chama cha Tanzania Girl Guides (TGGA) Makao Makuu, Rose  Majuva kuhusu kazi zinazofanywa na chama hicho ikiwemo kuwapa uwezo wanawake wa kujitambua na kujiamini alipokwenda kuzindua Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani humo.

Majuva aliwaasa wanawaje kuacha kutumia mikopo ya benki kuchezea ngoma bali waitumie kujiendeleza kibiashara na kuwa na tabia ya kulipa kwa wakati mikopo hiyo. Pia aliwaeleza mbinu mbalimbali za kufanya biashara na miiko yake.
 Wananchi wakisikiiza kwa makini maelezo kutoka kwa Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Valentina Gonza jijsi ya kutengeneza jiko la kutumia mwanga wa jua kupikia vyakula mbalimbali kwa gharama nafuu wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe.

 Girl Guides wa TGGA, wakitengeneza Green House ya kupanda matunda na mbogamboga majumbani waliposhiriki uzinduzi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani Kisarawe. Kutoka kushoto ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda, Michelle kutoka Rwanda na Happy Mshana wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Dar es Salaam.
 Kamishna wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Rose Majuva (kulia) akisoma maadili ya kiongozi anavyotakiwa awe wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi Wilaya ya Kisarawe.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam,Rehema Kijazi akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Valentina Gonza akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akikusanya kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Baadhi ya viongozi wa TGGA wakihesabu kura wakati wa uchaguzi huo
 Viongozi wa TGGA wakiwa kwenye banda lao wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa Jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia),  akiangalia kiroba cha mkaa uliotengenezwa kiasili kwa kutumia taka mbalimbali alipokuwa akitembelea  mabanda ya wajasiriamali kabla ya kuzindua Jukwaa hilo. Kushoto ni Gifti Mbaraka wa banda hilo la Vijana Wasiriamali Wakulima Kisarawe. Katikati ni Mkurugenzi wa Halmashauri ya Kisarawe, Mussa Gama.
 Mwampamba akiangalia bidhaa mbalimbali za wajasiriamali
 Girl Guides kutoka Madagascar akijitambulisha wakati wa mkutano wa Jukwaa hilo. Kutoka kulia ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda na Michelle kutoka Rwanda. Vijana hao wapo nchini kwa miezi sita katika programu ya kubadilishana uozefu katika masuala ya utamaduni, uongozi na ujasiriamali
Mkufunzi kutoka Makao Makuu ta TGGA, Happy Mshana akielezea jinsi alivyopata uzoefu alipoiwakilisha TGGA kwenye mafunzo ya kubadilisha uzoefu nchini Madagascar.
  (PICHA NA RICHARD MWAIKENDAKAMANDA WA MATUKIO BLOG

          Samantha Power righteously condemns the Russians et al   
When I googled "Syria genocide" the main article I found which made sense to me is written by a right wing think tank: Nothing can be done in Syria? Not true

Every night we watch the newsreader read the news, augmented by social media horrific footage, about the latest Aleppo massacres. It is just the news, which report facts, and doesn't reflect on the policies which created those facts.

Somewhere in memory I recall that the west had apparently learnt a lesson from the Rwandan genocide and at a later date intervened in Kosovo:
The most important precedent supporting the legitimacy of unilateral humanitarian intervention was established by the events that transpired in Kosovo between March and June of 1999.1 NATO’s intervention in Kosovo has confirmed the doctrine of humanitarian intervention as legal custom. The Kosovo incident also gave expression to the moral consensus in the international community that severe tyranny should not be tolerated.
- KOSOVO: A POWERFUL PRECEDENT FOR THE DOCTRINE OF HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION
I remember that the first George Bush created a no fly zone in Iraq which saved the Kurds from massacre by Saddam Hussein

President Obama could have created a no fly zone many years ago in Syria but instead he created a power vacuum. Putin saw this as weakness and moved in.

Samantha Power, the American UN Ambassador who has published a few books about genocide has righteously pilloried Russia, Iran and Assad for their Aleppo massacres:
Ms Power began her speech by saying how those left are now saying their final goodbyes as a city was “being erased from history”.

“This is what is being done by Member States of the United Nations who are sitting around this horseshoe table today,” she said.

“This is what is being done to the people of eastern Aleppo, to fathers, and mothers, and sons, and daughters, brothers, and sisters like each of us here.”

She went on to say how Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is being backed by Russia and Iran who are using militia on the ground to cut off the city and then hiding this shame from the world.

“To the Assad regime, Russia, and Iran, your forces and proxies are carrying out these crimes,” the speech continued.

“Your barrel bombs and mortars and air strikes have allowed the militia in Aleppo to encircle tens of thousands of civilians in your ever-tightening noose. It is your noose.

“It should shame you. Instead, by all appearances, it is emboldening you. You are plotting your next assault. Are you truly incapable of shame?

“Is there literally nothing that can shame you? Is there no act of barbarism against civilians, no execution of a child that gets under your skin, that just creeps you out a little bit? Is there nothing you will not lie about or justify?”
What she forgot to add is what she wrote in her book, "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide:
Power observes that American policymakers have been consistently reluctant to condemn mass atrocities as genocide or take responsibility for leading an international military intervention. She argues that without significant pressure from the American public, policymakers avoid the term "genocide" altogether. Instead, they appeal to the priority of national interests or argue (without merit, she contends) that a U.S. response would be futile and accelerate violence as a justification for inaction

          Cable Compendium: a guide to the week’s submarine and terrestrial developments   
Mumbai-based telecoms provider *Reliance Jio Infocomm* has revealed that the *Asia Africa Europe-1 (AAE-1)* submarine cable system has entered commercial operations. The 25,000km network – owned by a consortium of 19 global service providers – connects Asia, the Middle East, East Africa and Europe. AAE-1 is described as ‘the longest 100Gbps technology-based submarine system’ and offers design capacity of over 40Tbps. The fibre-optic system landed in Pakistan earlier this week, with 19 international terminal stations – out of a total of 21 (20 landing points and a land extension in Singapore) – now live. AAE-1 consortium member *Retelit* of Italy disclosed that the last section of the system connecting the Hong Kong PoP will be completed ‘immediately after the summer’. *A trio of companies – China-based operator *China Unicom*, Cameroonian state-owned telecoms provider *CamTel* and equipment vendor *Huawei Marine* – have signed an agreement to construct the *South Atlantic Inter Link (SAIL)* system aiming to connect Kribi (Cameroon) and Fortaleza (Brazil). Adopting Huawei Marine’s advanced 100G technology, the 6,000km system will feature four fibre pairs with a design capacity of 32Tbps. When completed, the network – which is aiming to be the ‘first direct access cable connecting Africa and South America’ – will provide reliable, high-quality telecoms infrastructure to support growth in the two developing regions. As previously reported by TeleGeography’s Cable Compendium, in December 2016 *Nexans* disclosed that it will supply the required submarine repeatered optical cables (ROC) for the SAIL system. The cables will be manufactured and tested at Nexans’ Rognan factory in Norway, with contract delivery scheduled to be completed by the end of 2017.*The *TKO Express* system connecting Hong Kong’s data centre campuses of Chai Wan and Tseung Kwan O (TKO) has entered operations. The construction of the cable system – which features 1,728 fibre cores – was completed earlier this year, with full end-to-end testing of the system commencing on 20 February. TKO Express is owned and operated by Asian dark fibre and Ethernet provider *Superloop*. The cable was manufactured in *Prysmian’s* Calais (France) factory and was airlifted to Sydney (Australia) for the application of additional layers of moisture barriers and aluminium tape, with final sheath applied in the group’s Liverpool (Australia) plant. The whole manufacturing process took a total of six months.*The government of the Solomon Islands and the newly established *Solomon Islands Submarine Cable Company (SISCC)* have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with *Huawei International* for the deployment of the *Solomon Islands Submarine Cable (SISC)* linking the South Pacific nation to the rest of the world. Under the turnkey contract, Huawei will deploy a 3,400km fibre-optic cable from Sydney to Honiara, comprising two optical fibre pairs with potential capacity of 2.5Tbps, in addition to a 600km domestic network linking Noro in the Western Province and Auki (Malaita Province) with Honiara. The planned system – expected to be ready for service (RFS) in early 2019 – also includes a Branching Unit for a possible use by another regional operator.*Internet services in Congo-Brazzaville have now been restored, following a two-week disruption to the *WACS* system caused by a fishing vessel 12km from Pointe-Noire in mid-June, AfricaNews writes. During the system repair, services were offered using VSAT links connected via a cable from Kinshasa in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).*Three East African Community (EAC) member countries – *Uganda*, *Rwanda* and *Tanzania* – have agreed to speed up interconnectivity between their respective National Fibre Networks. Mr Bagiire Vincent Waiswa, Permanent Secretary of Uganda’s *Ministry of ICT and National Guidance*, told the Daily News that negotiations between the sector ministries are currently being finalised to ensure that the interconnection was completed within the set timeframe: ‘In some cases, road networks had already been connected. What now remains is interconnection of ICT between the three countries. We are looking forward that the exercise will be completed soon. These are the final steps.’*Lastly, *GTT Communications* has agreed to acquire US-based service provider *Global Capacity* from owner Pivotal Group for USD100 million in cash and 1.85 million shares of GTT common stock. The announcement comes hot on the heels of GTT’s planned takeover of *Perseus* (revealed earlier this month) and a deal to acquire *Hibernia Networks* (announced in November 2016). Global Capacity operates a software-defined backbone network, dubbed *One Marketplace*, which covers 98% of US businesses (85% of global businesses). The deal will expand GTT’s overall footprint with last-mile connectivity to more than 9.6 million US commercial addresses, from 41 data centres and 1,750 central office PoPs. *We welcome your feedback about the *Cable Compendium*. If you have any questions, topic suggestions, or corrections, please email *editors@commsupdate.com*
           Rwanda Genocide Stories: Fiction after 1994 . By N icki  H itchcott    
<span class="paragraphSection"><span style="font-style:italic;">Rwanda Genocide Stories: Fiction after 1994</span>. By HitchcottNicki. (Contemporary French and Francophone Cultures, 38.) Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2015. x + 229 pp.</span>
          Commentaires sur THIERRY MEYSSAN : UN DISSIDENT FRANCAIS CONTRAINT A L’EXIL par gumpdotfr   
C'était il y a dix ans... C'était hier et les faits se sont plutôt confirmés... La paranoïa avec l'ignorance et le conformisme permettent en France comme en 1940 au fayotants de prospérer. Nous sommes tous coupables, co-responsables de l'utilisation de nos avions, nos navires qui oppressent des Etats indépendants parce qu'ils ont commis le crime de négocier trop durement contre le commerce ultra-Libéral. La Syrie par exemple qui n'a jamais refusé de vendre son pétrole ou de faire passer des pipe line à travers son pays, a refusé le prix que Sarkozy voulait lui imposer au nom de ses partenaires. Le pourcentage prévu était habituel pour un pays d'Afrique, mais pour un Président éduqué en Angleterre comme les autres humains, ce tarif était humiliant.... Ce n'est pas la couleur de la peau qui fait la civilisation. C'est l'éducation. Un Syrien légèrement bronzé, pas tout à fait Africain "noir" mais pas non plus complètement €uropéen (blanc) ne pose pas de problème aux dirigeants des pays "riche" tant qu'il n'exige pas d'être traité a égalité. Le problème en Syrie, c'est que la France tue des syriens qui parlent Français et qui n'ont jamais agressé la France. On trouve aux Antilles beaucoup de Syriens. Ils ne font pas la mendicité, ils ont des commerces. Ils ne se réfugient pas dans un islam agressif. Certains se mélangent avec les Afrodescendants et d'autres non. Tous le monde à peur de devenir "noir"... Le souvenir de ce que les Français font à ceux qu'ils jugent "noirs" est encore présent et c'est parce que ces pratiques persistent... Et si ces pratiques persistent, c'est précisément parce qu'aucun dirigeant Africain n'a pu à ce jour résister à la coalition coloriste qui crée ses alliances sur ce critère invisible car nié. La raison n'est ni le racialisme, ni la religion, c'est que le pauvre "noir" est trop riche, mais qu'il est incapable de défendre ses richesses contre les hyènes, les prédateurs qui lui volent ses petits un a un et qui pourraient la menacer elle même. La richesse des pays les plus pauvre montre que plus le sous sol d'un pays Africain possède de mines, de diamant (qui maitrise l'industrie du diamant ?), de pétrole (quel pays indexe sa monnaie sur le pétrole), de produit fissile (Areva, entreprise Française exploite des carrières en Afrique et notre nouveau Premiers Ministre est un ancien cadre de cette malheureuse entreprise) etc... Les "gros bec" pavoisent dans la cours, forts, courageux et unis contre les petits. Ils n'hésitent pas à s'allier entre forts pour torturer les plus jeunes et même à les tuer (cas de la Libye). Quand on est africain et qu'on est dans la cours de récré, il faut faire attention. Le dirlo fait semblant de ne pas voir que les grands pratiquent le racket, les brimades et grâce à leur parents qui sont super riches, ils ne sont même pas punis lorsqu'il se font prendre à commettre les crimes les plus graves. Ils font faire leurs devoir par les plus petits, ils leur volent leurs gouters, il les font pleurer pour rien ou pour comparer entre eux leurs muscles. Ils leur prêtent certains jouet dangereux si les petits acceptent de se tabasser entre eux avec. Ils les rackettent, les empêchent d'étudier, leur disent du mal de leur parents, rapportent tout ce qu'il font de mal, se prétendent leurs amis et parfois utilisent contre eux ceux qui sont leurs amis. Ils réservent le même traitement à ceux qui parmi les grands essaie de lier des amitiés ce qui fait que personne n'ose être trop proche des petits africains. Les Boers ont essayé en Afrique du Sud de créer leurs communauté. Lorsqu'ils s'en sont aperçu les Anglais leur ont fait la guerre, on créé des camps de la mort dont le Pape à du s'émouvoir pour qu'on en laisse sortir quelques uns... Et l'Afrique du Sud super riche à été créé sur l'Apartheid créée par la couronne. Détruisant tout équilibre entre les peuples Africains et les €uropéens installés là. La règle est apprise et connue par le personnel enseignant qui est parfois complice des grands. Il ne savent pas pourquoi c'est ainsi mais après tout ce n'est pas son problème. Parfois même, les enseignant croient dans ces mensonges et pratiquent eux même ces brimades. Favorisant les grands dans "leur" pays contre les petits à qui ils reprochent leur faiblesse. Considérant que le petit noir est sale, bête ou que son intelligence est dangereuse, ou qu'il est méchant ou indigne de confiance, ou bien haïssant sa pauvreté, ou encore critiquant la richesse de ses parents. Lorsqu'un petit noir commet des bêtises, ou se défend par les mêmes comportement qui lui sont appliqué, se sont tous les petits noirs qui sont punis indifféremment. Si l'un passe au terrorisme dont il est victime par les institutions et dont même ses parents et ses grands parents ont connu des séquelles, c'est toute la communauté des petits noirs qui se voit reprocher ce choix. Un petit noir ne se représente plus lui même aux yeux de ces encadrants: quoi qu'il fasse il est jugé comme membre d'une communauté. £ Sauf si ce qu'il fait est bien. Si ses actes forcent le respect, il peut accéder à une sorte de sainteté surveillée qui lui fera accéder à un traitement d'exception qui lui permettra de se représenter lui même, d'agir en son nom, d'acquérir peut être une âme propre. La complexité du problème pour les petits est telle qu'elle ne leur permet pas toujours de résoudre ces paradoxes. Ils sont considérés comme un groupe mais eux ne peuvent pas et ne doivent traiter que des cas séparer d'agression sous peine de se voir accuser de racisme inversé. En fait, les grands ne pratique pas tous les brimades, certains sont plus enthousiastes que d'autres. Tous redoutent l'agression d'un de leurs pairs s'il passent des accords avec un petits. Une des solutions, pour les petits, c'est de décourager par des attaques surprise les grands qui les rackettent. Mais les grands se sont organisés, ils ne pratiquent plus leur racket eux même ! Ils sous-traitent auprès de petits qui se sont spécialisé dans l'agression. Des petits endurcis par les mauvais traitement des grands et qui préfèrent attaquer leurs propres parents plutôt que de subir ces humiliations. C'est d'autant plus logiques que leurs parents n'ont pas su ou pas voulu les défendre à l'école. Les nouveau Etat terroristes extrémistes islamistes appelés Isis, Daesh, Boko Haram tout comme leurs ancêtre talibans créés par la CIA au Pakistan pour limiter l'influence Russe incarnent cette tendance. D'ailleurs, le Pakistan à été arraché à l'inde par les Anglais grâce à l'utilisation de ces techniques de favoritisme pour les familles les plus pauvres contre les familles les plus riches. Couvrant les crimes des uns, ne poursuivant pas les crimes les plus horribles, fournissant même les armes, l'argent, les transports grâce a des agents discrets à ceux qui au nom de l'Islam plaçaient le Pakistan sous le pouvoir d'une junte militaire. L'Inde à perdu un de ses pays qui est depuis utilisé comme base arrière pour les équipes de la CIA et qui surtout à servi de laboratoire pour créer les Etat dis Islamique... Pour ceux qui ont besoin de preuves mais qui n'ont pas le temps de tirer les diverse ficelles convergeante vers la CIA et l'Angleterre, ils peuvent faire une recherche sur le rôle de Gandhi dans la partition du Pakistan. Rompant la stabilité géopolitique de l'Inde datant de plus de 4000 ans. La stabilité de cette situation dans la cours des petits permet aux classes des grands de faire des prévisions à très long terme... Les grands ont bénéficient de l'expérience de leurs parents qui les conseillent et de classe en classe (certains sautent même des classes) alors que les petits redoublent chaque année, les grands progressent dans leurs manipulations a mesure que leur confort leur assurent plus d'avance dans leur développement. Les grands font du sport, ils sont de plus en plus grand. Ils accumulent les sciences qu'ils spolient aux petits... Mais ils n'hésitent plus à recruter les petits qui se montre prometteurs, tant qu'il reste à sa place et n'exige pas un traitement égalitaire. Une des solutions, serait d'interdire aux Grands de se mélanger aux petits. Actuellement les flux financiers des grands vers les petits comme le Rwanda montrent qu'après avoir roué de coup cette population, ils lui accordent la paix américaine: tant que la population accepte le "progrès". C'est à dire l'industrialisation qui tue la qualité de l'eau, de l'air, des terres, corrompt le feu par l'exploitation du nucléaire.. Ce progrès construit des grands bâtiments pour concentrer ses cadres puis de plus petits pour concentrer ses travailleurs, asservis ses agriculteurs, dénature son histoire, acculture ses populations, ne laisse plus de temps pour la création mais récompense le labeur à outrance et les amusements couteux... Cela s'appelle le progrès tant qu'il rapporte à ceux qui financent et cannibalisent la nature par le système de consommation sans recyclage que ce système entraine. La croissance rapide impose qu'on laisse derrière les vieux, les faibles, les rêveurs pour ce concentre sur ceux qui avancent... Les animaux incapables de s'adaptés sont transformés en bois de chauffe pour ces économies. Il s'agit de reste le premier, devant, pour rester dominant... La peur d'être rattrapé par les petits provient de l'illusion de régression et la menace de revenir au stade de petit, agitée par ceux qui croient que la couleur de peau, un bronzage génétiquement programmé, serait synonyme de retour en arrière. Le grand et clair de peau est récompensé par une bonne image de soi, par la protection de sa dignité, par la poursuite de ceux qui y portent atteinte tandis que les autres doivent se débrouiller entre eux. La justice ne les protègera pas contre les vols, les hôpitaux ne prendrons en charge leurs malades qu'au minimum ou pas du tout, les religions passeront en boucle à travers les médias leur petite chanson méprisant ceux qui voudraient vivre autrement. L'enseignement encourage à la conformité et pointe le malheur de ceux qui s'égarent dans des voies individuelles. Malheureusement le conformisme amène avec lui le gommage du courage, de l'originalité, de la créativité et produit des sociétés d'insectes fragiles devant un danger imprévu. Une maladie, un prédateur inconnu, un cataclysme.
          BNP Paribas visé par une plainte pour « complicité de génocide » au Rwanda   
L'établissement aurait participé au financement d'un achat illégal d'armes.
          Bosenibamwe Aime yagizwe umuyobozi mukuru w'Ikigo cy'Igihugu gishinzwe Igororamuco #Rwanda via @kigalitoday   

Bosenibamwe Aime wahoze ari Guverineri w'Intara y'Amajyaruguru yagizwe umuyobozi mukuru w'ikigo cy'igihugu gishinzwe Igororamuco (NRS).

- Mu Rwanda /
          Rwanda’s opposition candidates finally have a voice—but no real shot at the presidency   
Kigali, Rwanda Diane Shima Rwigara, a 35-year-old accountant from Kigali, declared her presidential bid at a hotel in downtown Kigali. Seated alone behind a wooden…
          Extrait / La députée française Eva Joly s’indigne: Comment la France pille le Cameroun et l`Afrique.   
Extrait / La députée française Eva Joly s’indigne: Comment la France pille le Cameroun et l`Afrique.

Nous ne résistons pas à l'envie de publier pour nos lecteurs ces extraits du dernier livre de la députée française Eva Joly, détaillant les «crimes» de la France en Afrique en général et au Cameroun en particulier; elle parle notamment du massacre des Bamilékés par son pays.

Je n`avais rien compris à ce que l'écrivain Slimane Zeghidour appelle «le secret de famille de la République».

Lorsque j'ai pris en charge l'instruction de l'affaire Elf, j'avais en face de moi les puissants du pétrole français, je n'aimais pas leur arrogance, la façon qu'ils avaient de se servir dans les caisses, mais lorsqu'ils invoquaient les intérêts supérieurs du pays, j'étais prête à les croire.

Je sortais de plusieurs années en détachement au Ministère des Finances, entourée de hauts fonctionnaires intègres, d’une compétence absolue.

J`avais confiance dans les institutions de mon pays d`adoption. Je n`imaginais pas que la finalité des dirigeants des sociétés nationales du pétrole fut autre chose que le bien commun. Je traquais les dérives et non le système lui-même.

Pourtant au fil de mon enquête, j`ai découvert un monde souterrain. Magistrate, limitée par le cadre de ma saisine et des compétences nationales, je devais m`arrêter sur le seuil de certaines portes, qui menaient vers l`étranger.

 

Je découvrais des chemins qu`il aurait été passionnant de remonter, des connexions qui m`ahurissant. Avec des chiffres, des comptes, nous avions sous nos yeux le déchiffrage d`un vaste réseau de corruption institutionnalisé, dont les fils étaient reliés en direct à l'Elysée.

Ce n'était pas mon rôle d`en tirer les conclusions politiques, mais j`en ai gardé l'empreinte. Nous avions dessiné alors un vaste schéma, que j`ai toujours avec moi. Il fait huit mètres une fois déplié.

Il serpente depuis le bureau d`un directeur des hydrocarbures d`Elf, jusqu`à des comptes obscurs alimentés par le Gabon, aux mains d`Omar Bongo: quarante ans de pouvoir et une difficulté récurrente à distinguer sa tirelire et sa famille d`une part, le budget de l`Etat et le Gouvernement d`autre part.

J`emporte souvent ce schéma avec moi, au fil des rendez-vous. Je l`étale sur les tables, un peu comme un capitaine au combat sort ses vieilles cartes.

Les positions ont sans doute varié, les techniques de camouflage se sont sophistiquées, mais le système est là: les tyrans sont des amis que la France a placés au pouvoir et dont elle protège la fortune et l'influence par de vastes réseaux de corruption; en échange ils veillent sur les intérêts et les ressources des entreprises françaises venues creuser le sol. Tout ce beau monde a intérêt à ce que rien, jamais, ne stimule ni les institutions ni l'économie des pays.

La France aide à appauvrir le Gabon.

 

Et si je m'arrête un instant au Gabon, qu'est-ce que j`y vois? Un pays riche qui exporte plus de treize milliards de dollars de pétrole brut par an et affiche un PIB par habitant largement au-dessus de la moyenne africaine (6 397 $)? Ou un pays pauvre où l`espérance de vie est estimée à 55 ans pour les femmes et 53 pour les hommes, ce qui leur laisse un an de moins que les Malgaches nés sur un sol sans pétrole? Le taux de mortalité infantile est au Gabon particulièrement élevé, le taux de vaccination contre la rougeole est de 40% contre une moyenne de 79% dans les pays en développement.

Voilà où en est le Gabon, chasse gardée de la France, fournisseur des trésors du pétrole et de l`uranium, fief de Total-Elf, la première capitalisation boursière française.

Si les habitants de Libreville n`ont pas bénéficié de la richesse de leur pays, c`est parce que la France s`est accaparée ses ressources minières, avec la complicité d`unu Président, enrôlé dès son servicemilitaire par l`armée française et ses services secrets, placé à la tête du pays à 32 ans par Paris, il était alors le plus jeune Chef d`Etat du monde. La France contrôle son armée, ses élections et protège sa fortune.

 

En retour, Omar Bongo fait table ouverte plusieurs fois par an, Avenue Foch ou l`Hôtel Crillon, où il reçoit les hommes politiques, des publicitaires et les journalistes français qui comptent. Chacun se presse à ces audiences.

 

Dans les années 1990, un homme politique français de premier plan, alors en fonction, bénéficiait en parallèle d`un contrat de «consultant» signé par Omar Bongo et largement rémunéré. De Roland Dumas, le Président gabonais dit qu`il est un «ami intime». Prévoyant, il apprécie aussi NicolasSarkozy, venu «prendre conseil» en tant que candidat à l`élection présidentielle.

 

Lorsqu’au cours de l`instruction, nous avons perquisitionné au siège de la FIBA, la banque franco-gabonaise, nous avons consulté lelisting des clients qui paraissait tenu à la plume sergent-major. C`était une sorte de Who`s Who de la France en Afrique, qui en disait long sur l`envers de la République et des médias.

 

La France fait semblant d`aider des pays qui sont riches en matières premières.

 

A ceux qui croient encore à l`aide désintéressée de la France en Afrique, il suffit de consulter les chiffres du PNUD (Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement). La corrélation est régulière entre le montant de l`aide française et la richesse en matières premières.

 

En clair, celui qui n`a rien dans son sous-sol ne doit pas attendre grand-chose de Paris. Il n`est pas étonnant de retrouver le Gabon comme l`un des premiers bénéficiaires de l`aide publique française au développement. Le résultat est affligeant en termes de système de santé et d`éducation. L`argent s`est perdu en route. Il est justement fait pour cela.

 

Il ne s`agit pas d`une dérive mais d`une organisation cohérente et raisonnée. Dans chaque audition durant notre instruction, nous entendions parler de pressions physiques, d`espionnage permanent et de barbouzes.

 

Les perquisitions dans la tour Elf à la Défense livraient une moisson de documents révélant la confusion des genres, nous les transmettions au Parquet de Nanterre, qui se gardait bien d`ouvrir des enquêtes. Car Elf hier, Total aujourd’hui, est un Etat dans l`Etat, conçu par Pierre Guillaumat, un ancien Ministre de la Défense, patron des services secrets et responsable du programme nucléaire français afin de servir les intérêts géopolitiques de Paris.

 

La Norvège a utilisé son pétrole pour construire et assurer le paiement des retraites futures. La France se sert d`Elf Total pour affirmer sa puissance.

 

La compagnie intervient dans le Golfe de Guinée, au Nigeria, au Congo-Brazzaville, en Angola… Tous ces pays ont connu la guerre civile et la dictature, derrière laquelle la main française s`est fait sentir. Le chaos, lorsqu`il se produit, ne trouble pas le système. Il n`est qu’à voir l`Angola en guerre pendant des dizaines d`années, mais dont aucune goutte de pétrole, jamais, n`a raté sa destination.

 

Pendant la guerre, les affaires continuaient…les banques françaises, Bnp-Paribas en tête, ont même profité de l`occasion pour élaborer des montages financiers destinés aux pays en guerre, à des taux affolants, tout en sachant qu`elles ne prenaient pas le moindre risque. L`argent, là aussi, n`a pas été perdu pour tout le monde. C`est un miroir dans lequel il ne faut pas trop souvent regarder les élites françaises.

 

Depuis que j`ai ouvert le dossier Elf dans mon bureau de la galerie financière, j`ai voyagé physiquement et intellectuellement bien loin de la Seine et de ses quais gris et bleus…j`ai appris en marchant. A l`arrivée, le tableau est effrayant.

 

L`Afrique a refait de moi une Norvégienne, fière de l`être. Mon pays est riche, mais, il se souvient avoir été pauvre, un peuple d`émigrants regardant vers le nouveau monde américain.

 

Son esprit de conquête, ses allures vikings sont des traces d`un passé très lointain, vinrent ensuite les tutelles danoise puis suédoise, dont il fallut se libérer, Il envoya vers l`Afrique des missionnaires protestants, personnages austères au visage buriné, taillé par la parole chrétienne et l’œuvre humanitaire, plutôt que des nouveaux colons, comme on les croise encore dans les quartiers d`expatriés blancs.

 

Pendant que la France fondait Elf, la Norvège mettait en place l`exploitation des ressources de la mer du Nord, accumulant un fonds de réserve, aussitôt placé pour les générations futures et soigneusement contrôlé. Ce petit pays des terres gelées est devenu la première nation donatrice en dollars par habitant.

 

Bien sûr, les pétroliers norvégiens ne sont pas des enfants de chœur. De récentes enquêtes ont montré que certains d`entre eux ont versé des commissions et que la tentation d`abuser de leur pouvoir est permanente. Mais la Norvège n`a pas à rougir de ce qu`elle a fait de son pétrole. Ce que j`ai vu, les rapports internationaux qui l`attestent, est une œuvre d`espoir.

 

La République française, à la même époque, a mis en place en Afrique un système loin de ses valeurs et de l`image qu`elle aime renvoyer au monde. Comment des institutions solides et démocratiques, des esprits brillants et éclairés, ont-ils pu tisser des réseaux violant systématiquement la loi, la justice et la démocratie? Pourquoi des journalistes réputés, de tout bord, ont-ils toléré ce qu`ils ont vu? Pourquoi des partis politiques et des ONG, par ailleurs prompts a s`enflammer, n`ont-ils rien voulu voir?

 

L`Occident a fermé les yeux sur les crimes de la France

 

Je ne condamne pas. J`ai partagé cet aveuglement. J`étais comme eux, avant de glisser l`œil dans le trou de la serrure et de prendre la mesure de ce secret de famille: la France reste un empire et ne se remet pas de sa puissance perdue. L`indépendance politique a été largement une mascarade en Afrique de l`Ouest.

 

L`Occident a fermé les yeux, car la France se prévalait d`être le «gendarme» qui défendait la moitié du continent contre le communisme. Les Français ont laissé faire, car astucieusement, De Gaulle et ses successeurs ont présenté leur action comme un rempart contre l`hydre américaine. Elf était l`une des pièces maîtresses de cette partie géopolitique.

 

Le double jeu a été facilité par la certitude, ancrée dans les mentalités, que «là-bas, c`est différent». Là-bas, c`est normal la corruption, le népotisme, la guerre, la violence. Là-bas, c`est normal la présence de l`armée française, les proconsuls à l`ambassade ou à l`état-major, les camps militaires. Là-bas, c`est normal l`instruction des gardes présidentielles. Là-bas, c`est normal la captation des richesses naturelles.

 

D`ailleurs, «tout le monde fait pareil». Jeune ou vieux, de gauche ou de droite, nul Français ne songe à s`offusquer de voir nos soldats mener, presque chaque année, une opération militaire en Afrique, au Tchad, en Côte d`Ivoire, au Rwanda, quand tous se gaussent de cette Amérique venue faire la police en Irak, en maquillant d`un fard démocratique les intérêts géopolitiques et pétroliers de Washington. Il y a pourtant bien des symétries.

 

J`ai vu récemment un documentaire sur la guerre du Biafra, quatre ou cinq demi-heures de témoignage brut des principaux acteurs, sans commentaires. Je suis restée sans voix. A ceux qui sont nés après 1970, le Biafra ne dit rien. Dans cette région du Nigeria, riche en pétrole, une ethnie, chrétienne et animiste armée par la France, réclama l`indépendance. S`ensuivit une guerre meurtrière de trois ans, révolte financée depuis l`Elysée via des sociétés suisses.

 

La télévision française aimait alors montrer les enfants affamés que les militaires français ramenaient par avion pour les soigner, jamais elle ne laissait voir la cargaison de l`aller, remplie d`armes. A l`image maintenant, les anciens collaborateurs de Jacques Foccart, repus dans leurs fauteuils Louis XV, détaillent sans émotion ces montages illégaux. Les officiers, lieutenants d`alors, généraux d`aujourd`hui, racontent ce bon tour le sourire aux lèvres. Fin du documentaire. Pas un mot, pas une ligne dans les livres d`histoire.

 

La France au cœur de la guerre du Biafra et du massacre des Bamilékés au Cameroun

 

Des drames comme celui-ci, l`Afrique en contient des dizaines, soigneusement passés sous silence. Les massacres des Bamiléké au Cameroun par la France du Général De Gaulle, le génocide des Tutsi commis par un régime soutenu par François Mitterrand, les assassinats d'opposants, les manipulations d`élections.. Le passif de la France sur le continent africain n`a rien à envier à l'impérialisme américain en Amérique latine ou au Moyen-Orient.

 

Il est à la mode parmi les intellectuels français de se plaindre du mouvement de repentance qui s`est répandu depuis quelques années. Les bienfaits de la colonisation, à inscrire dans les manuels scolaires, ont même fait l'objet d'une proposition de loi, largement soutenue par les députés.

 

Bien sûr, l'histoire de la France en Afrique ou en Asie du sud-est a compté aussi des aventuriers sincères, exportateurs, instituteurs ou pionniers, qui ont fait corps avec les pays qu`ils ont découverts. A Madagascar, les Vazas, ces pieds noirs malgaches, ne cessent de louer devant moi l`état des routes et des infrastructures françaises au moment de l`indépendance.

 

Mais les peuples sont comme les familles. On ne peut pas faire le tri de la mémoire. Il est des secrets soigneusement cachés dont l`onde portée va bien au-delà d`une ou de deux générations. Les enfants héritent de tout: du malheur comme du bonheur, de la richesse comme des dettes.

 

La République française paie aujourd'hui la facture de son passé. Il suffit de dérouler la liste des appellations officielles des Maghrébins nés dans un département français avant 1962 ou sur le sol hexagonal depuis les années 1970. Par la loi, ils furent et sont des Français comme les autres.

 

Les gouvernements successifs n`ont pourtant cessé d'inventer des périphrases : «indigène musulman», «sujet africain non naturalisé», «JFOM» (Jeune français originaire du Maghreb), «jeune issu de l`immigration», «fils de harkis», «jeune des quartiers», «Arabo-musulman», «Français d'origine arabe», «Français musulman»…

 

La France vit encore comme si en Afrique, elle était chez elle, et comme si, ses enfants d`ascendance africaine n`étaient pas Français. Le développement de la Françafrique, notre tolérance vis-à-vis des réseaux, tout ramène à ce secret colonial, cet empire qui hante les esprits comme un fantôme. Oui, Total, la première entreprise française, est riche et prospère.

 

Mais la manière dont la firme s`est bâtie fait partie de l`héritage. Qui osera un jour rendre au Nigeria, au Cameroun, au Gabon, au Congo-Brazzaville ce que la France leur doit? Qui contestera les contrats conclus par Areva pour l`uranium du Niger ou ceux des mines d`or de Sadiola au Mali, deux pays parmi les plus pauvres du globe, qui ne touchent qu`une part dérisoire des richesses prélevées dans leur sol? La République a contracté une dette qu`il lui faudra bien honorer.

 

Notre prospérité est nourrie de richesses que nous détournons. A certains de ces sans-papiers qui risquent leur vie pour gagner l`Europe, il pourrait-être versé une rente au lieu d`un avis d`expulsion. Je rêve pour ce pays que j`aime, d`un réveil collectif.

 

Une France digne de son idéal et de son héritage de 1789 est incompatible avec la Françafrique: ce qu`une génération a fait, une autre peut le défaire. C`est possible.

 

Extrait de :

La force qui nous manque

Eva Joly. Editions des Arènes (Paris) 190 pages.

Les intertitres sont de la rédaction .

 

Opération marrée rouge le 18 juin à la CPI.

          MRADI WA UMEME STIEGLER’S GORGE HAUTAATHIRI MAZINGIRA YA PORI LA SELOUS   
Katibu Mkuu Mej. Jen. Gaudence S.Milanzi akizungumza na wahitimu wa Mafunzo Maafisa Wanyamapori
Katibu Mkuuakimkabidhi zawadi Afisa wanyamapori wa Kike Bi; Salome G. baada ya kufanya vizuri mafunzo ya Nadharia na vitendo, wa pili kutoka kushoto ni Kaimu Mkurugenzi Mkuu-TAWA
Kaimu Mkurugenzi Mkuu –TAWA Bw. Martin Loibooki akisoma risala mbele ya mgeni Rasmi
katibu mkuu akiwa kwenye picha ya pamoja na wahitimu wa jinsia ya kike 10 kati ya 97 waliyohitimu, wa tatu kutoka kushoto waliyokaa ni kaimu mkurugenzi mkuu-tawa
wahitimu wakitoa heshima mbele ya mgeni rasmi




KM akisoma kiapo cha wahitimu

…………………….

Na Mwandishi wetu, Katavi

Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii imewataka wadau wa uhifadhi kote nchini kuunga mkono mpango wa Serikali wa kujenga mradi mkubwa wa uzalishaji wa umeme katika mto Rufiji kwenye pori la akiba la Selous ambao ukikamilika unatarajiwa kuzalisha zaidi ya megawati 2,100.

Katibu Mkuu wizara ya Maliasili na utalii Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amesema utekelezaji wa mradi huo wa umeme ni wa muhimu kwa taifa kwani utasaidia kuharakisha maendeleo ya taifa kuelekea azima yake ya Tanzania ya viwanda na uchumi wa kati.

Akiongea wakati akifunga mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapaori kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania -TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro, Katibu mkuu Meja Jenerali Gudance Milanzi amesema mradi huo wa umeme pamoja na mradi wa bwawa la maji la Kidunda utachukua eneo dogo tu la pori la akiba la Selou lenye ukubwa wa zaidi ya kilomita za mraba elfu 50.

Amesema pori hilo ndilo kubwa miongoni mwa mapori ya aina hiyo ulimwenguni na ukubwa wake ni zaidi ya nchi za Rwanda na Burundi zikiunganishwa kwa pamoja.

Katibu Mkuu amesema ujenzi wa miradi hiyo hauna tafsiri kwamba Tanzania haithamini masuala ya uhifadhi bali unazingatia uhifadhi wenye manufaa kwa jamii na maendeleo ya taifa na hasa dhamira ya serikali ya rais Dk John Pombe Magufuli kuelekea Tanzania ya viwanda ambayo inahitaji nishati ya umeme itakayoyotosheleza mahitaji ya taifa.

Amesema Tanzania inatambua umuhimu wa uhifadhi ndiyo maana imetenga eneo la zaidi ya asilimia 28 ya eneo lote la nchi kavu Tanzania bara kwaajili ya uhifadhi wa aina mbalimbali ukiwemo wa wanayamapori na misitu ya vyanzo vya maji ambayo ni muhimu kwa shughuli za kijamii na kiuchumi, “ ni nchi chache sana duniani zenye eneo kubwa la uhifadhi kama Tanzania” alisisitiza katibu mkuu.

Katibu mkuu amewataka wafanyakazi wa wizara na watanzania kwa ujumla kutokuwa kikwazo kwa utekelezaji wa mradi huo na kwamba wadau wanaotaka kuisaidia Tanzania wasaidie kuhakikisha inatumia maliasili zake kupiga hatua ya kimaendeleo ikiwemo misaada ya teknolojia za kisasa na rafiki wa mazingira kusaidia kufikia malengo yake kimaendeleo.

“Mtakumbuka mh. Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, Dk John Pombe Magufuli hivi karibuni alipokuwa kwenye ziara ya kikazi mkoani Pwani amezungumzia kwa kirefu sana umuhimu wa miradi hiyo ukiwemo wa bwawa la Kidunda na wa umeme wa Stieglars Gorge, sasa sisi kama wahifadhi na kama watumishi lazima tumuunge mkono na tusiwe kikwazo katika dhamira hii njema” alisema Jenerali Milanzi’’.

Ametoa mfano wa nchi ya Qatar ambayo amesema ilikuwa na eneo la uhifadhi lililokuwa kwenye orodha ya maeneo ya urithi wa dunia kutokana na uwepo wa baadhi ya viumbe adimu lakini walipogundua mafuta, waliamua kujitoa kwenye urithi wa dunia ili wachimbe mafuta na kuinufaisha nchi hiyo na maendeleo ya wananchi wake.

Akizungumzia kuhusu tatizo la mifugo kwenye maeneo yaliyohifadhiwa, Katibu mkuu amewataka wahifadhi kuhakikisha wanakabiliana na changamoto hiyo na kusimamia sheria zilizotungwa na Bunge la Jamahuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ambazo zinakataza mifugo kuingia hifadhini kinyume cha sheria.

Amesema ndiyo maana serikali inatumia fedha nyingi kugharamia mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapori na wahifadhi ili kuwaongezea ujuzi na weledi wa kulinda maliasili za taifa kwa kuzingatia sheria zilizopo.

Katibu Mkuu Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amezungumzia pia umuhimu wa kuhakikisha mapori ya uhifadhi yanatumiwa kwa uhifadhi badala ya kutumika kwa mambo mengine ikiwemo kilimo cha bangi na maficho ya majambazi na majangili na amewataka wahifadhi na askari kushirikiana na vyombo vingene vya ulinzi na usalama kuwafichua wahalifu wanaojificha kwenye mapori hayo na kufanya ujangili na uhalifu mwingine.

Mapema katika taarifa yake kwa katibu mkuu, Kaimu Mkurugenzi wa Mamlaka ya Wanyamapori Tanzania -TAWA Martin Loibooki alieleza kuwa mafunzo hayo yamesaidia kuimarisha uhifadhi kwenye mapori mbalimbali ya akiba nchini na maeneo ya uhifadhi wa wanyamapori.

Aliwashukuru wadau mbalimbali wa uhifadhi wa ndani na nje ya nchi wanaofadhili mafunzo hayo na vitendea kazi juhudi ambazo amesema zimeanza kuzaa matunda ikiwemo kuongezeka kwa idadi ya tembo na wanyamapori wengine kwenye mapori mengi nchini.

Mfunzo hayo yaliyowashirikisha askari wa wanyamapori wapatao 98 kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro ni mwendelezo wa mafunzo yanayotolewa na Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii kwa askari wa wanyamapori na watumishi wengine wa wizara hiyo katika hatua za kuelekea mfumo wa jeshi usu.

          24e assemblée d’Afreximbank : un eldorado pour la banque de développement du Rwanda et Heirs Holding   
Les 24e assemblées générales d’Afreximbank qui se tiennent présentement à Kigali, constituent un eldorado pour la Banque de Développement du Rwanda et le groupe multisectoriel, Heirs Holding. Ces deux institutions ont signé chacune un accord financier avec la banque multilatérale de financement du commerce en Afrique (Afreximbank). Signés vendredi 30 juin, les accords sont estimés […]
          Re: Rwanda / Burundi   
slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?
          Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counselling in Rwanda: Acceptability among Clinic Attendees and Workers, Reasons for Testing and Predictors of Testing   
Introduction: Routine provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) may increase HIV testing rates, but whether PITC is acceptable to health facility (HF) attendees is unclear. In the course of a PITC intervention study in Rwanda, we assessed the acceptability of PITC, reasons for being or not being tested and factors associated with HIV testing. Methods: Attendees were systematically interviewed in March 2009 as they left the HF, regarding knowledge and acceptability of PITC, history of testing and reasons for being tested or not. Subsequently, PITC was introduced in 6 of the 8 HFs and a second round of interviews was conducted. Independent factors associated with testing were analysed using logistic regression. Randomly selected health care workers (HCWs) were also interviewed. Results: 1772 attendees were interviewed. Over 95% agreed with the PITC policy, both prior to and after implementation of PITC policy. The most common reasons for testing were the desire to know one’s HIV status and having been offered an HIV test by an HCW. The most frequent reasons for not being tested were known HIV status and test not being offered. In multivariable analysis, PITC, age ≥15 years, and not having been previously tested were factors significantly associated with testing. Although workload was increased by PITC, HIV testing rates increased and HCWs overwhelmingly supported the policy. Conclusion: Among attendees and HCWs in Rwandan clinics, the acceptability of PITC was very high. PITC appeared to increase testing rates and may be helpful in prevention and early access to treatment.
          Operating Characteristics of a Tuberculosis Screening Tool for People Living with HIV in Out-Patient HIV Care and Treatment Services, Rwanda   
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines for intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) includes a recommendation that PLHIV receive routine TB screening. Since 2005, the Rwandan Ministry of Health has been using a five-question screening tool. Our study objective was to assess the operating characteristics of the tool designed to identify PLHIV with presumptive TB as measured against a composite reference standard, including bacteriologically confirmed TB. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the TB screening tool was routinely administered at enrolment in outpatient HIV care and treatment services at seven public health facilities. From March to September 2011, study enrollees were examined for TB disease irrespective of TB screening outcome. The examination consisted of a chest radiograph (CXR), three sputum smears (SS), sputum culture (SC) and polymerase chain reaction line-probe assay (Hain test). PLHIV were classified as having “laboratory-confirmed TB” with positive results on SS for acid-fast bacilli, SC on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, or a Hain test. Results: Overall, 1,767 patients were enrolled and screened of which; 1,017 (57.6%) were female, median age was 33 (IQR, 27–41), and median CD4+ cell count was 385 (IQR, 229–563) cells/mm^3. Of the patients screened, 138 (7.8%) were diagnosed with TB of which; 125 (90.5%) were laboratory-confirmed pulmonary TB. Of 404 (22.9%) patients who screened positive and 1,363 (77.1%) who screened negative, 79 (19.5%) and 59 (4.3%), respectively, were diagnosed with TB. For laboratory-confirmed TB, the tool had a sensitivity of 54.4% (95% CI 45.3–63.3), specificity of 79.5% (95% CI 77.5–81.5), PPV of 16.8% and NPV of 95.8%. Conclusion: TB prevalence among PLHIV newly enrolling into HIV care and treatment was 65 times greater than the overall population prevalence. However, the performance of the tool was poorer than the predicted performance of the WHO recommended TB screening questions.
          Transitioning to Country Ownership of HIV Programs in Rwanda   
Funding from the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program in 2004 significantly bolstered Rwanda’s ability to develop a national HIV program with implementing partners. In 2009, after 5 years of expanding HIV services to achieve universal access to antiretroviral treatment, Rwanda and PEPFAR embarked on a sustainability and country ownership phase of the AIDS response. Commitment to the following seven principles helped to create a foundation for successful HIV program management transition from implementing nongovernmental partners to management by Rwanda: a political context of integration and decentralization, ownership through national coordination, participation and partnership, equity, efficiency, accountability, and integration of HIV care to strengthen the entire health system.
          Re: Au Rwanda   
I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones.
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
          Reading   
Late last year, with my studies winding down at LCC, I began wondering what I'd do with all my free time once I wasn't taking classes any more. Of course, I immediately thought about reading. Reading is how I always celebrated summer vacations and the end of school when I was younger.

Since it was the end of the year, I made it a goal to read more in 2017, and since my mind seems to work that way, I thought reading one book a month sounded like a good goal. It's not a lot, but honestly it was a lot more than I've read in a while.

I'm a big fan of the Little Free libraries and even had an LFL book in hand to start the new year. However, after Trump's inauguration as I watched him fill his cabinet with racists and try to implement his Muslim ban, I wanted to do more. So I shifted my focus to "diverse" books, and after more consideration, I decided I would buy my books new -- thus giving a little bit of support to people who write "diverse" books -- and I decided when I was done, I'd pop those "diverse" books into Little Free Libraries so others could easily read them as well.

"Diverse" is a pretty general word, so I defined it as books about people of color, written by people of color, ideally located in countries other than the U.S. And, I couldn't fall back on authors I had read before, like Diana Abu-Jaber (author of Arabian Jazz) or Khaled Hosseini (author of Kite Runner).

It turned out to be harder than I thought. My reading circle didn't include these kinds of authors and books so I had to do some research. I created a GoodReads account and did a lot of Googling. Finally, I found my first book through Barbara Kingsolver's Bellwether Prize.

Running the Rift was about a young boy (a Tutsi) growing up in Rwanda during the 1980s. Then I found Looking Like the Enemy a memoir written by a young Japanese American girl living in the San Juan Islands. She and her family were relocated to interment camps during WWII. My third book was the amazing The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, a true story and a little bit of medical non-fiction which I heard about from my podcasts because it just became an HBO movie starting Oprah. And finally, I just finished The Sympathizer, a thriller set in Vietnam and the US after the Vietnam war. A book which, frankly, I ended up slogging through at the end. Of those, only one truly fit my specific criteria, but I'm okay with that. 

I wasn't intending to read such heavy pieces, however, and I wasn't intending to read so many books centered around war. I'm looking forward to some lighter books in my near future.

As I do my own little bit of growing and expanding, I've read in a recent Slate article that I'm not the only one.  "Reading the Resistance: How book clubs—and the women who join them—are meeting the moment of Trump," has shown me that I am just one of the many book-reading women who have responded to the new year with a shift in my reading.

So far, I'm glad that I have. I'm liking the new perspectives and I'm liking getting out of my usual genres of reading. And, I'm enjoying having a theme. I'm even considering some other themes for the years ahead.

How am I doing on my goal? So far, I've read 5 books in 6 months, which I feel pretty good about. Especially since I don't feel I've really gained much free time since I'm now working full time. 


          Mradi Wa Umeme Stiegler’s Gorge Hautaathiri Mazingira Ya Pori La Selous   
Na Mwandishi wetu, Katavi
Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii imewataka wadau wa uhifadhi kote nchini kuunga mkono mpango wa Serikali wa kujenga mradi mkubwa wa uzalishaji wa umeme katika mto Rufiji kwenye pori la akiba la Selous ambao ukikamilika unatarajiwa kuzalisha zaidi ya megawati 2,100.

Katibu Mkuu wizara ya Maliasili na utalii Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amesema utekelezaji wa mradi huo wa umeme ni wa muhimu kwa taifa kwani  utasaidia kuharakisha maendeleo ya taifa kuelekea azima yake ya Tanzania ya viwanda na uchumi wa kati.
 
Akiongea wakati akifunga mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapaori kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania -TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro, Katibu mkuu Meja Jenerali Gudance Milanzi amesema mradi huo wa umeme pamoja na mradi wa bwawa la maji la Kidunda utachukua eneo dogo tu la pori la akiba la Selou lenye ukubwa wa zaidi ya kilomita za mraba elfu 50.
 
Amesema pori hilo ndilo kubwa miongoni mwa mapori ya aina hiyo ulimwenguni na ukubwa wake ni zaidi ya nchi za Rwanda na Burundi zikiunganishwa kwa pamoja.
 
Katibu Mkuu amesema ujenzi wa miradi hiyo hauna tafsiri kwamba Tanzania haithamini masuala ya uhifadhi bali unazingatia uhifadhi wenye manufaa kwa jamii na maendeleo ya taifa na hasa dhamira ya serikali ya rais Dk John Pombe Magufuli kuelekea Tanzania ya viwanda ambayo inahitaji nishati ya umeme itakayoyotosheleza mahitaji ya taifa.
 
Amesema Tanzania inatambua umuhimu wa uhifadhi ndiyo maana imetenga eneo la zaidi ya asilimia 28 ya eneo lote la nchi kavu Tanzania bara kwaajili ya uhifadhi wa aina mbalimbali ukiwemo wa wanayamapori na misitu ya vyanzo vya maji ambayo ni muhimu kwa shughuli za kijamii na kiuchumi, “ ni nchi chache sana duniani zenye eneo kubwa la uhifadhi kama Tanzania” alisisitiza katibu mkuu.
 
Katibu mkuu amewataka wafanyakazi wa wizara na watanzania kwa ujumla kutokuwa kikwazo kwa utekelezaji wa mradi huo na kwamba wadau wanaotaka kuisaidia Tanzania wasaidie kuhakikisha inatumia maliasili zake kupiga hatua ya kimaendeleo ikiwemo misaada ya teknolojia za kisasa na rafiki wa mazingira kusaidia kufikia malengo yake kimaendeleo.
 
“Mtakumbuka mh. Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, Dk John Pombe Magufuli hivi karibuni alipokuwa kwenye ziara ya kikazi mkoani Pwani amezungumzia kwa kirefu sana umuhimu wa miradi hiyo ukiwemo wa bwawa la Kidunda na wa umeme wa Stieglars Gorge, sasa sisi kama wahifadhi na kama watumishi lazima tumuunge mkono na tusiwe kikwazo katika dhamira hii njema” alisema Jenerali Milanzi’’.
 
Ametoa mfano wa nchi ya Qatar ambayo amesema ilikuwa na eneo la uhifadhi lililokuwa kwenye orodha ya maeneo ya urithi wa dunia kutokana na uwepo wa baadhi ya viumbe adimu lakini walipogundua mafuta, waliamua kujitoa kwenye urithi wa dunia ili wachimbe mafuta na kuinufaisha nchi hiyo na maendeleo ya wananchi wake.
 
Akizungumzia kuhusu tatizo la mifugo kwenye maeneo yaliyohifadhiwa, Katibu mkuu amewataka wahifadhi kuhakikisha wanakabiliana na changamoto hiyo na kusimamia sheria zilizotungwa na Bunge la Jamahuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ambazo zinakataza mifugo kuingia hifadhini kinyume cha sheria.
 
Amesema ndiyo maana serikali inatumia fedha nyingi kugharamia mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapori na wahifadhi ili kuwaongezea ujuzi na weledi wa kulinda maliasili za taifa kwa kuzingatia sheria zilizopo.
 
Katibu Mkuu Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amezungumzia pia umuhimu wa kuhakikisha mapori ya uhifadhi yanatumiwa kwa uhifadhi badala ya kutumika kwa mambo mengine ikiwemo kilimo cha bangi na maficho ya majambazi na majangili na amewataka wahifadhi na askari kushirikiana na vyombo vingene vya ulinzi na usalama kuwafichua wahalifu wanaojificha kwenye mapori hayo na kufanya ujangili na uhalifu mwingine.
 
Mapema katika taarifa yake kwa katibu mkuu, Kaimu Mkurugenzi wa Mamlaka ya Wanyamapori Tanzania -TAWA Martin Loibooki alieleza kuwa mafunzo hayo yamesaidia kuimarisha uhifadhi kwenye mapori mbalimbali ya akiba nchini na maeneo ya uhifadhi wa wanyamapori.
 
Aliwashukuru wadau mbalimbali wa uhifadhi wa ndani na nje ya nchi wanaofadhili mafunzo hayo na vitendea kazi juhudi ambazo amesema zimeanza kuzaa matunda ikiwemo kuongezeka kwa idadi ya tembo na wanyamapori wengine kwenye mapori mengi nchini.
 
Mfunzo hayo yaliyowashirikisha askari wa wanyamapori wapatao 98 kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro ni mwendelezo wa mafunzo yanayotolewa na Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii kwa askari wa wanyamapori na watumishi wengine wa wizara hiyo katika hatua za kuelekea mfumo wa jeshi usu.

          Re: Rwanda / Burundi   
slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?
          Re: Au Rwanda   
I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones.
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
          Running for justice, receiving blessings   
In May, Amaris Cole visited Rwanda on a Muskathlon trip to raise money for Compassion’s child survival programme in the capital, Kigali. A Muskathlon is a week-long adventure, culminating with a run, trek or ride through the communities that the Muskathletes are fundraising for. While she was there, Amaris and many of the other European Muskathletes on the trip met their sponsored child.
          Analyse du 30 juin 2017 sur l'indépendance de la RD Congo par Kerwin Mayizo (vidéo)   
1. Joseph. Kabila décrète la méditation pour la population Congolaise à l'occasion du 57ème de l'indépendance de la République Démocratique du
Divers:

- L'UDPS prend acte du désistement du gouvernement Congolais dans la participation aux obsèques d'Étienne Tshisekedi et les menaces de Ne mwanda Semi contre J.KABILA et les Rwandais
- Suivre ONANA sur France 24 " émission Débat ", avec invités : l'organisation les " Sherpa" et organisation " Survie"
- Décès de Simone Veil
Auditeurs du jour :
Suivez, commentez et partagez


          RDC : 3 choses à retenir de la vidéo postée par Ne Muanda Nsemi après son évasion   
Un mois et demi après son évasion de la prison de Makala, Ne Muanda Nsemi, chef de la secte politico-mystique Bundu dia Kongo, a fait réapparition dans une vidéo de près de 29 minutes, largement relayée sur les réseaux sociaux. Que retenir de son message ?

1. Ne Muanda Nsemi renie la nationalité congolaise de Kabila

Dans une vidéo diffusée sur YouTube, vraisemblablement enregistrée le 25 juin, Zacharie Badiengila, alias Ne Muanda Nsemi, s’en prend au président Joseph Kabila à qui il dénie la nationalité congolaise. À plusieurs reprises, le gourou de la secte politico-mystique Bundu dia Kongo (BDK) affuble le chef de l’État congolais du nom de « Hippolyte Kanambe » et le taxe de « rwandais ».

En conséquence, aux yeux de Ne Muanda Nsemi, tous ceux qui soutiennent Joseph Kabila ne seraient que des « traîtres ». Jouant sur le clivage Est-Ouest bien marqué en RDC, le député en cavale − il s’est évadé de la prison de Makala le 17 mai − pointe entre autres les swahiliphones qui auraient trahi, dit-il, la « pensée de Lumumba » en se rangeant derrière Kabila.

2. Il lance un ultimatum à Kabila

Fidèle à sa rhétorique anti-rwandaise, le chef politico-religieux de BDK lance également un ultimatum aux 3 000 Rwandais qui d’après lui « travaillent pour la colonisation du Congo ». « Je leur demande de rentrer au Rwanda avant le 7 août », menace-t-il, promettant de devenir « intraitable » à partir de cette date.

« Nous appliquerons la loi de la justice divine : œil pour œil, dent pour dent », promet Ne Muanda Nsemi qui appelle les Congolais à « se lever le 7 août pour chasser » le président Joseph Kabila du pouvoir.

3. Ne Muanda Nsemi tend la main à Sindika Dokolo

Homme d’affaires et gendre du Président angolais José Eduardo dos Santos, le Congolais Sindika Dokolo semble intéresser Ne Muanda Nsemi, qui milite depuis 2008 pour une République fédérale avec un Bas-Congo autonome. Sindika Dokolo multiplie ces derniers mois les prises de positions politiques anti-Kabila sur les réseaux sociaux.

« En moi, il a un allié puissant, [mais] s’il me tourne le dos, nous serons obligés de lui tourner aussi le dos », glisse Ne Muanda Nsemi. Un appel du pied auquel n’a pas encore réagi Sindika Dokolo, lequel s’est récemment affiché aux côtés de l’opposant Moïse Katumbi.

Jeuneafrique
          LA DERNIÈRE DÉCISION AMÉRICAINE METTANT FIN AU POUVOIR DE KABILA LE REND RÉELLEMENT FOU   
Le sénateur américain en charge du dossier Congo a déclare' hier que la dernière chance est retirée à Kabila qui doit partir du pouvoir avant les élections programmées cette année. C'est cette dernière nouvelle qui l'a paralysé pour voir fondre ses espoirs sur l'hésitation supposée de la nouvelle administration américaine.

La manifestation de son désespoir, s'est traduite par l'annulation de la célébration de notre jour de l'indépendance. Kabila c'est fini. Il sera arrêté bientôt comme le prédit l'Américain Bill Richardson qui a négocié le départ de Mobutu.
Aux Congolais de se prendre en charge de manière organisée et déterminée pour chasser ces produits pourris, Kabila, ses Rwandais et ses collabos congolais.
Les patriotes arrivent au pouvoir et ne veulent pas verser encore le sang sur le sol congolais. C'est pourquoi nous demandons :


- A Kabila d'arrêter les massacres des Congolais et de se préparer psychologiquement pour se livrer aux nouvelles autorités,
- Aux Rwandais infiltrés dans nos institutions et organes de l'État de rentrer tranquillement chez eux afin d'éviter la revanche aveugle de la population. Bien sûr, le calme revenu, la justice recherchera les criminels tutshis rwandais avec discernement.


- Aux collabos congolais de faire le choix judicieux maintenant: quitter Joseph Kabila massivement et collectivement, afin que vos fautes soient à moitié pardonnées.





Sinon votre fin sera fatale dans quelques jours. La mission de lobbying conduite par l'ancien ministre congolais des affaires étrangères, Reymond Tshibanda (la délégation est logée à l'hôtel Trump) à whasington en faveur de maintien de Kabila au pouvoir est un échec.
Vive le Congo et son peuple.
Cyrille Kamanga Ami Tar

          Rwanda: Over 3000 Children Resettled in Families   
[New Times] Over 3000 children from various orphanages in the country have been incorporated in families since 2012, an official of the National Children's Council said.
          Dustin Kensrue of The Modern Post   
This week we introduce you to a great new worship band, The Modern Post, as we talk to lead singer Dustin Kensrue (also frontman for the band Thrice). We also hear the incredible story of Alex Nsengimana, a Rwandan genocide orphan whose life was changed through an Operation Christmas Child shoebox. Plus, we give you […]
          #GirlsTravel   
#girlstravel is trending on twitter this morning. Seems a bit random that on Memorial Day there is a focus on women traveling solo, though it immediately caught my attention as I am heading to Kigali Rwanda next month as part … Continue reading
          Burundi e Rwanda prossimi al conflitto?   

Le tensioni militari di frontiere e i combattimenti tra le due opposte forze militari potrebbero scatenare un conflitto aperto tra i due Paesi. Ma entrambi pongono estrema attenzione a non dichiarare gli avvenimenti bellici

L'articolo Burundi e Rwanda prossimi al conflitto? proviene da L'Indro.


          Abashinzwe umutekano 98 bahuguriwe guhangana n'inkongi z'umuriro #Rwanda via @kigalitoday   

Abapolisi 68 abakozi b'ibigo byigenga bicunga umutekano 10 n'abacungunga gereza 20 barangije amahugurwa kuzimya inkongi yo kuzimya inkongi y'umuriro.

- Mu Rwanda / ,
          Child survival revolutions revisited - lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.   
Related Articles

Child survival revolutions revisited - lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.

Acta Paediatr. 2017 Jun;106(6):871-877

Authors: Persson LÅ, Rahman A, Peña R, Perez W, Musafili A, Hoa DP

Abstract
Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multisectorial development efforts and community engagement.
CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration.

PMID: 28295602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          Nei paesi in via di sviluppo nessuna norma protegge dall’inquinamento delle acque   
Considerando l’inquinamento dell’acqua da sostanza organiche provenienti da scarichi fognari, rifuti industriali e agricoli per lavoratore, troviamo nei primi 15 paesi più inquinanti tutti paesi in via di sviluppo, con al primo posto la Moldova, seguita dal Malawi, il Rwanda e Tonga. Questo dipende dal fatto che nei paesi del Terzo Mondo non ci sono […]
          TGGA YATOA SOMO JUKWAA LA UWEZESHAJI WANAWAKE KIUCHUMI KISARAWE   
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia) akipata maelezo kutoka kwa Kamishna wa Chama cha Tanzania Girl Guides (TGGA) Makao Makuu, Rose  Majuva kuhusu kazi zinazofanywa na chama hicho ikiwemo kuwapa uwezo wanawake wa kujitambua na kujiamini alipokwenda kuzindua Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani humo.

Majuva aliwaasa wanawaje kuacha kutumia mikopo ya benki kuchezea ngoma bali waitumie kujiendeleza kibiashara na kuwa na tabia ya kulipa kwa wakati mikopo hiyo. Pia aliwaeleza mbinu mbalimbali za kufanya biashara na miiko yake. (PICHA NA RICHARD MWAIKENDAKAMANDA WA MATUKIO BLOG
 Wananchi wakisikiiza kwa makini maelezo kutoka kwa Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Valentina Gonza jijsi ya kutengeneza jiko la kutumia mwanga wa jua kupikia vyakula mbalimbali kwa gharama nafuu wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe.

 Girl Guides wa TGGA, wakitengeneza Green House ya kupanda matunda na mbogamboga majumbani waliposhiriki uzinduzi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani Kisarawe. Kutoka kushoto ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda, Michelle kutoka Rwanda na Happy Mshana wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Dar es Salaam.
 Kamishna wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Rose Majuva (kulia) akisoma maadili ya kiongozi anavyotakiwa awe wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi Wilaya ya Kisarawe.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam,Rehema Kijazi akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Valentina Gonza akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akikusanya kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Baadhi ya viongozi wa TGGA wakihesabu kura wakati wa uchaguzi huo
 Viongozi wa TGGA wakiwa kwenye banda lao wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa Jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia),  akiangalia kiroba cha mkaa uliotengenezwa kiasili kwa kutumia taka mbalimbali alipokuwa akitembelea  mabanda ya wajasiriamali kabla ya kuzindua Jukwaa hilo. Kushoto ni Gifti Mbaraka wa banda hilo la Vijana Wasiriamali Wakulima Kisarawe. Katikati ni Mkurugenzi wa Halmashauri ya Kisarawe, Mussa Gama.
 Mwampamba akiangalia bidhaa mbalimbali za wajasiriamali
 Girl Guides kutoka Madagascar akijitambulisha wakati wa mkutano wa Jukwaa hilo. Kutoka kulia ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda na Michelle kutoka Rwanda. Vijana hao wapo nchini kwa miezi sita katika programu ya kubadilishana uozefu katika masuala ya utamaduni, uongozi na ujasiriamali
Mkufunzi kutoka Makao Makuu ta TGGA, Happy Mshana akielezea jinsi alivyopata uzoefu alipoiwakilisha TGGA kwenye mafunzo ya kubadilisha uzoefu nchini Madagascar

          AZAM FC WAANZA KUJIFUA KWA MSIMU MPYA WA 2017/18   
Golikipa wa Azam aliyesajiliwa kutoka timu ya Mbao Fc Benedict Haule akiwa ameanza mazoezi na klabu yake ya zamani.

KLABU Bingwa ya Afrika Mashariki na Kati, Azam FC, jana jioni ilianza rasmi mazoezi ya kujiandaa na msimu ujao (2017-2018) huku ikiwa imepata mwaliko maalum nchini Rwanda kutoka kwa mabingwa wa nchi hiyo, Rayon Sports.
Awali Azam FC ilipanga kuanza maandalizi ya msimu mpya Jumatatu ijayo Julai 3, lakini kutokana na mwaliko huo imeamua kuanza mazoezi mapema, ambapo Rayon imealika kwa ajili ya kucheza nao mchezo wa kirafiki Julai 8 ikiwa ni sehemu ya kusherehesha ubingwa walioutwaa.
Wachezaji waliofanikiwa kuhudhuria kwenye mazoezi hayo ya kwanza ni pamoja na makipa Mwadini Ally, Benedict Haule, aliyerejea Azam FC kwenye usajili huu akitokea Mbao FC, Metacha Mnata na mabeki Bruce Kangwa, Abbas Kapombe, Ramadhan Mohamed, Abdul Omary.

Viungo ni Frank Domayo, Masoud Abdallah, Stanslaus Ladislaus na mshambuliaji Yahaya Zaidi, huku wachezaji wengine wakiwa na udhuru na baadhi wakiwemo kwenye kikosi cha timu ya Taifa ya Tanzania ‘Taifa Stars’ kinachoshiriki michuano ya COSAFA, Nahodha Msaidizi Himid Mao ‘Ninja’, kiungo Salmin Hoza na mshambuliaji Mbaraka Yussuf.

Kocha Msaidizi wa Azam FC, Idd Nassor Cheche, alisema kuwa mbali na mwaliko huo kupelekea kuanza mapema mazoezi, pia sababu nyingine ni kuwaweka fiti zaidi wachezaji ambao hawakuchaguliwa timu ya Taifa ili watakapoungana na wale walioitwa waweze kwenda sawa.
“Tukapokwenda Rwanda kati ya tarehe 5 hadi 6, tunaweza kupata siku kadhaa za kufanya maandalizi yetu pamoja na kucheza mechi kadhaa kabla ya kurejea nyumbani tayari kabisa kufanya maandalizi ya mwisho kwa ajili ya ligi ya msimu ujao,” alisema.

Cheche alisema amefurahishwa sana na namna alivyowaona wachezaji kwenye mazoezi hayo ya kwanza huku akieleza kufurahishwa na usajili unaoendelea kufanywa na timu hiyo mpaka sasa na sera ya klabu ya kupandisha wachezaji kutoka Azam Academy.
“Maingizo ni mazuri na kilichobakia hivi sasa ni kufanya mazoezi kwa pamoja na kuelewana na wenzao, wajuane kitabia nje na ndani ya uwanja ili waweze kushirikiana ma kubwa kuweza kulisukuma mbele gurudumu hili la Azam FC,” alisema.
Azam FC inayodhaminiwa na Benki bora ya NMB na kinywaji safi cha Azam Cola, itaendelea tena na mazoezi kesho saa 10 jioni.



          When a Tree Falls in the Forest …   

Today's slide show: Images from Corcovado. Today's audio: Two platform survivors talk about their overnight. Today's video: Ascent into the trees, and the view from the platform.

CORCOVADO—One of the good things about being in a bona fide "eco-location" like Corcovado National Park is that you don't have the luxury of guilt. If you're lolling about the beach on a poor Caribbean island while starch-shirted locals serve you Kahlúa 'n' cream, well, you should be lubricated with as much guilt as sun lotion; it's only seemly. But if you're in a tent camp picking blood-drunk ticks off your thighs and really, really missing hot showers and noticing that your toenails are starting to look like weasel claws, well, then, you're free! You are not a spoiled gringa. You are doing your job. You are loving nature, and nature, ever gracious, is loving you back.

Not long ago eco-tourism was served up as the perfect solution to a terrible dilemma. The people with the most money lived in places with the least amount of untouched wilderness, while those in the places still blessed with bio-bounty were impoverished. How could we exchange the two classes of wealth and so preserve the world's remaining biodiversity, which, who knows, we Homo sapiens might actually need at some point, and even prefer over another Sears-anchored shopping mall? Answer: Seduce the rich tourists to the poor nations with the promise of showing them what they're missing. Turn a golden-headed tanager into a golden-egged goose.

Dreamy though that plan sounds in theory, in fact not every wilderness area makes for effective eco-tourism. As Bill Weber of the Wildlife Conservation Society explained to me, you need a few things to make a nice place to visit. You need dramatic flagship species, like the mountain gorillas of Rwanda, which, before the genocidal Rwandan civil war, were a huge tourist draw; or the monkeys, tapirs, toucans, macaws, anteaters, coatis, etc., ad Darwinitum of Costa Rica. You need reasonable social and political stability, a definite Costa Rican draw since the country abolished its army in 1948, the same year, incidentally or not, that Costa Rican women won the right to vote. And you need mountains or similarly elevated ranges with great views. It's not much fun to be slogging through a tropical forest where you're stuck in the lowlands and most of the action is in the canopy, as I remember all too well from my visit to the Venezuelan rain forest. We hardly saw anything beyond docents of the arthropod order. But Costa Rica has lots of mountains and lots of high places, which helps to explain its unusual success as a vacation destination.

Today we got very high indeed, in altitude as well as on pura vida—pure life, a common Costa Rican interjection. Should you be casting about for an alternative to "Cool!" or "That's awesome!" why not try "POO-ra VEE-da."

First we took a nice bracing hike 600 feet up from the Corcovado Lodge—a tent-camp right on the beach—accompanied by architecture student and sometime nature guide Esteban Erichsen, who is spider-monkey thin and Frida Kahlo browed. Esteban is my kind of guide, shamelessly free-associating and anthropomorphizing. He points out to us the red-capped manakin's "yellow underwear." He scoops up an anole lizard and talks of the male's expandable vermilion throat pouch as the "big red tie he wears on a date." Hearing a distinctive whistle, Esteban tells us it's the famous Costa Rican taxi bird. After the hike, we ascended 120 more feet up a tree and onto the famed Corcovado canopy platform. What do I mean by "ascend"? I mean, put on a helmet, a frankly unflattering doggy harness, and a giant red diaper, and get hoisted up the tree by pulleys. Whee! It's a lot more fun than changing diapers, I'll tell you that. Though maybe Karla won't: She's done the ascent many times, and still she cursed bilingually as she rose.

From the platform, you can look out way across the canopy, the uppermost layer of the forest, where most species spend most of their time: the primates, the birds, the poison dart frogs, the two-toed sloths, the three-toed sloths, the busy, bulging-bellied tiger ants. Corcovado has some of the tallest trees in Costa Rica, and some of the most virginal forest. It seemed that no two trees in view were of the same species or the same shade of green. I wondered how that one modest bit of the visible electromagnetic spectrum between yellow and blue could be subsectioned so finely. Tropical rain forests are known for their astonishing biodiversity, of course: many many species, with relatively few members of each species managing to elbow their way into the room. Temperate regions, by contrast, have fewer species but more representatives of each—more oaks, more maples, more gray squirrels. Why are tropical rain forests so diverse? Why are no two creatures like each other? I don't know; go ask your mother. I'm not just being coy here. The precise reasons why diversity reigns in the rain forest remain mysterious.

Yet certain themes play themselves out again and again. Parasitism, for one, as exemplified by the strangler fig. The strangler begins life as an epiphyte on a host tree, hanging in mock innocence on a branch and letting its woody roots start growing soilward. The roots wrap around the host trunk and grow thicker and thicker, as does the foliage of the fig plant above. The fig roots look to be suffocating the host, but really the crown is the killer, as it outcompetes the host leaves for photosynthetic lifeblood. Eventually, the host tree dies and is hollowed out by termites, leaving the lacey fig supermatrix standing its ground. Sooner or later, though, the fig will start tottering too and be attacked by termites and battered by woodpeckers, until the whole towering mass crashes to the ground. At which point all the understory foliage, eager for its chance in the sun, will seek to fill the vacancy. Sunlight is at a premium in Corcovado, and when a tree falls in this forest, you can be sure that everybody hears it.

Today, we also heard a sound of real joy, when Karla first laid eyes on a turquoise cotinga, a small bird with a dazzling iridescent blue body. She'd never seen one before, and that is unusual for a woman who has spent the past 12 years studying the bioscene of Costa Rica. Karla couldn't wait to tell her husband: Guess what, dear. I saw turquoise cotinga, and you haven't! Life is good, life is awesome. Pura vida.

Things to know before you go to Costa Rica.


          CHILD SOLDIERS - INNOCENCE UNDER FIRE   

From Medieval times to the modern day, young children have been put to tragic use in warfare.

1. Children of “hard flesh”.

Wrenched from their homes at the age of seven, Sparta’s boys were battle-ready by 20.

The ancient Greek city of Sparta was a military superpower, and its children were enveloped within this fighting ethos from a very early age. Soon after birth, a council of inspectors would judge a male infant’s physical attributes; if he was deemed unfit, the baby would most likely be abandoned on a nearby hillside. At the age of seven, Spartan boys were removed from their parents’ homes and conscripted into the ‘agoge’, a military training scheme. The first-century AD Roman historian Plutarch detailed their regime: “Their training was calculated to make them obey commands well, endure hardships and conquer in battle... When they were 12 years old, they no longer had tunics to wear, received one cloak a year, had hard flesh and knew little of ths.”

Despite the boys’ early military education, the Spartans didn’t entertain the concept of a child army. From a practical perspective, children weren’t strong enough to handle the heavy weapons of the time. Instead, the youthful recruits served by conducting menial chores, such as bearing shields and mats for the more senior warriors. It was only when he turned 20 years old that a Spartan man would be deemed fit to serve as a soldier ofthe state.

2. The fearless fledglings of God

Armed with the gospel, a young Christian army set off on a crusade to Jerusalem. It turned out to be mission impossible.

In 1212, around 30,000 children from across Europe banded together and marched towards Jerusalem. Although the facts are marred by mythology and a lack of historical sources, we know that their aim was to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity. Versions of the story – over 50 of which have been found dating back to the 13th century – tell us of various child leaders marching to the Holy Land.

One was a young French boy, Stephen of Cloyes, who believed he’d been chosen by Jesus to lead the divine mission. He gathered followers by performing miracles and portents, and claiming that the Mediterranean Sea would part for his followers on their journey. Across the continent, droves of children joined the cause, taking the crusader’s vow, which was both militant and legally binding.

Sadly, their mission was to end in disaster. Once the band of children reached the coast and the sea remained unmoved, those who chose to continue their journey on ships were either taken to Tunisia and sold into slavery or died in shipwrecks. Despite their failure, however, their quest could be considered as the first mass European youth movement.

3. Noble warriors

Boy pages were often seen on medieval battlefields and were deadly with a crossbow.

In Medieval Europe, boy pages were a regular sight in the homes of aristocrats. At the age of seven, noble boys would be sent from their family homes and stationed in another aristocratic household, where they would dutifully serve the lord of the estate through menial chores and personal service. In return, they received hospitality and education. They also underwent military training, learning how to use weapons and ride. The children would mount wooden horses, learn how to handle lances and conduct target practice.

Boy pages witnessed their fair share of conflict, dressing and arming their lords on the field. They mainly performed minor auxiliary roles but, in the event of a siege, were expected to know the basics of how to defend a castle with a crossbow. This was one of only a few weapons a child could use; the string could be pulled back with a lever, or by winding a crank, giving the bow tension, power and the ability to travel long distances – all of which meant a child could kill without engaging in direct combat with an adult. Despite their military training, even in the heat of battle it was bad form to consider the boys a target. In the 1415 battle of Agincourt, it is rumoured that Henry V was so enraged by the French targeting his army’s boy pages, that he retaliated by slitting the necks of his prisoners.

4. Trained to die for their sultan masters

As the Ottoman empire flourished, non-Muslim children were rounded up and forced into military slavery.

Between the 14th and 19th centuries, the Ottoman empire trained elite infantry units known as Janissaries. These units were populated by strong children, aged 7–18, who had either been kidnapped from local non-Muslim families or taken during military campaigns against Christian communities. This system of abduction and enlistment became known as ‘devshirme’, which is Ottoman Turkish for ‘lifting’ or ‘collecting’.

Upon capture, the children were dressed in red so that they would be recognised in the event of an escape. They would then be circumcised and converted to Islam. As the sultan’s personal slaves, the children were trained for a life of service; indoctrinated to fight and die for their master. They were known in society as ‘kapikulu’, servants who were neither free nor ordinary slaves.

Over the centuries, Janissaries were used in all major campaigns, including the 1453 capture of Constantinople and the Battle of Mohács in 1526. Despite their life in captivity, many considered their high standing in the Ottoman administration an honour.

5. In the powder keg of war

Children endured tough conditions while serving in some of history’s most famous naval battles.

The British Royal Navy first began using the term ‘powder monkey’ in the 17th century. In the golden age of sail, young boys would be recruited or press-ganged to service artillery guns on warships. Their job was to ferry gunpowder from the magazine in the ship’s hold to the gun crews. It was a dangerous job: gun carriages would regularly dismount and maim crewmembers, scalding iron rained from misfired guns and giant splinters would penetrate flesh.

Brief autobiographical accounts from powder monkeys survive. One such account is from a boy named Robert Sands, who worked on Admiral Nelson’s ship during the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. He explained that “the smoke sofecated us… our skreens took fire and burnt the Leftanant of mereans [marines] badley. I had jest left thair wen the exploshon took place. The men inside the skreens was burnt to deth... Then I had to go to the fore magesene for my powder.” Despite his age and lower-class status, Sands’ unlikely memoir is one of the few accounts that exist from the battle.

6. Beating hearts

Historically, drummer boys have played a central role on the battlefield, especially in the American Civil War.

The use of drummer boys on the battlefield has been a longstanding western tradition. These musical mascots had a practical role to play, using different drum rolls to enable officers and troops to communicate with each other. Despite their wide-spanning history, drummer boys have become synonymous with 19th-century American warfare: sentimentalist poetry, art, sculpture and autobiography from the era juxtaposed these innocent children with sweeping battlescapes.

The American Civil War propelled drummer boys to semi-celebrity status. The youngest recruit of the war, nine-year-old John Clem, rose to fame after he opened fire on a Confederate colonel who’d ordered him to surrender, and managed to escape. ‘The Drummer Boy of Chickamauga’, as he became known, was subsequently promoted to sergeant, making him the youngest soldier ever to become a non-commissioned officer in the US army.

Other notable Civil War drummer boys include 13-year-old Charles King, the youngest recruit to be killed in the war; 12-year-old William Black, who lost his left arm during battle; and Louis Edward Rafield, who inspired the sentimental Confederate song ‘The Drummer Boy of Shiloh’, written by Will S Hays in 1863: On Shiloh’s dark and bloody ground The dead and wounded lay; Amongst them was a drummer boy, Who beat the drum that day.

7. The teenage Tommies

Children as young as 12 and 13 lied about their age to fight for Britain in the First World War.

During the First World War, British youth movements such as the Boy Scouts, the Sea Scouts and the Girl Guides militarised the youth of the nation and provided them with practical medical and survival skills. These children were quick to volunteer their services. One such child, nine-year-old Alfie Knight, pleaded with the then-secretary of state for war, Lord Kitchener, to let him join the army: “I want to go to the front. I can ride jolley quick on my bicycle, and would go as a despatch ridder. I wouldint let the Germans get it.” Kitchener replied to thank the lad, but noted that he was a little too young to fight.

Many young boys did, however, find their way into the army. Approximately 250,000 British soldiers were under the legal age limit of 19. The youngest recognised soldier was 12-year-old Sidney Lewis, who fought in the battle of the Somme. Another young recruit, 13-year-old George Maher, lied about his age and was sent to the front line.

His true age was revealed after he was found crying during heavy shelling. Punch magazine satirised this epidemic of willing youths with a cartoon. In it, an officer points to a young boy in a soldier’s uniform and booms: “Do you know where boys go who tell lies?” The applicant replies: “To the front, sir.”

8. Hitler’s final hope

Only lightly trained, the youthful soldiers recruited to support the Nazis’ last stand were essentially cannon fodder.

The Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were among the primary tools used by the Nazi regime to control Germany’s future generation. Despite the compulsory gender roles attributed to each movement, the militant rhetoric that implored young subjects to devote themselves to the strength and defence of the ‘Fatherland’ was similar.

The Hitler Youth received only quasi-military training as part of their political programme, learning how to march, drill, throw grenades, dig trenches and escape through barbed wire reels under pistol fire. And when they were ordered to join the fight against Allied forces in the final months of the war, the boys were woefully inexperienced and ill-prepared. They were sent out in lightly armed ambush squads, fulfilling their vow to “be ready as a brave soldier, to stake my life at any time for this oath”. Fifteen-year-old Heinz Shuetze was put in an SS uniform and sent to fight Soviet forces on the front line after being given just half a day’s training. He was armed with a panzerfaust, an anti-tank rocket.

A survivor from some of the Soviet confrontations, Guenter Dullni,  noted: “They [the Soviets] had no mercy for child soldiers, particularly when you were slapped into an SS uniform.”

Tragically, many of the children who lost their lives in battle were sent to fight after the fate of the war had effectively been decided.

9. Young guns

How the proliferation of assault rifles gave birth to a new breed of child warriors.

While children were once of little use in combat roles, the invention of assault rifles like the Kalashnikov and the M-16 – smaller, lighter and with less recoil than previous guns – has enabled youngsters to be deployed as deadly ‘soldiers’. The Cold War marked the emergence of this trend, El Salvador in the 1980s being a prime example. Fighting between government troops and the rebel FMLN (Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front) resulted in the kidnap and rape of children, but also their conscription into the military by both sides. It’s reported that more than one in five of the FMLN’s troops were children, while 80 per cent of the government’s forces were under 18. In other words, children fighting children.

The FMLN would send ‘kids units’ into villages to recruit even younger children, but also deployed them in active fighting. The government forces reportedly sent children to kill or injure members of their own family to ‘prove’ their loyalty. Like the FMLN, they also used children in overt active combat roles. One former child soldier recalled “eight-year-olds carrying M-16s and losing their whole families”.

10. “Eyes wide, screaming in pain, fear and hatred”

Child soldiers in recent conflicts in Africa have been forced to participate in a number of terrible atrocities.

The impact of child soldiers was ramped up to brutal new levels during the African civil wars of the 1990s, with mercenaries, gangs, arms dealers, militias and weakened governments all incorporating children into their ranks. In Liberia, ‘Small Boys Units’ were frequently used by the warlord/president Charles Taylor. Armed with Uzis or AK-47s, children would be used to engage against UN peacekeepers, pillage and plunder communities, or commit mass atrocities. One former child soldier recalled “the scent of gunpowder, eyes stinging from smoke, your friend crying… it was terrible. I missed my mother at that moment.”

Children were also used by the FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda) to take part in the country’s devastating 1994 genocide. Boys aged 14 and younger, many of them orphaned and desperate for protection, were drugged, kidnapped and sold, then for to act as com tants taking part in rape, mutilation and the killing of civilians. A staggering 800,000 people were murdered in the space of just 100 days. As the commander of the UN mission in Rwanda said at the time: “Those child soldiers’ eyes were wide and brilliant, screaming in pain and anguish, fear and hatred.” For these fresh-faced fighters, the innocence of youth is short-lived.

By Emma Butcher and James Rogers in "BBC History Magazine" UK, July 2017, excerpts pp. 25-30. Redigized, adapted and illustrated to be posted by Leopoldo Costa.
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          Weaving in Nyanza, southern Rwanda A weaver at Nyanza vocational training...   

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France’s largest bank is facing serious accusations after three NGOs on Thursday said they filed legal action against BNP Paribas alleging “complicity in genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity” during Rwanda’s 1994 genocide.
          Radio Sputnik: Les infos du 29 juin 2017!   
BNP Paribas visé par un dépôt de plainte pour « complicité de génocide » au Rwanda ; Mossoul : les forces irakiennes reprennent la mosquée Al-Nouri ; Marine Le Pen affirme vouloir tout changer au Front National ; Jean-Luc Mélenchon : « Donald Trump n’est pas le bienvenu » au défilé du 14 juillet
          La France et BNP Paribas rattrapés par le génocide rwandais   
La France et le groupe bancaire BNP Paribas sont visés par deux plaintes déposées par plusieurs associations qui souhaitent faire la lumière sur les évènements dramatiques qui se sont déroulés au Rwanda en 1994.
          Rwandaise komplett postatiszta sor, állatok 80 - Jelenlegi ára: 30 Ft   
Azt a minőséget kapja, amit a képen lát, megtekintett állapotban!
Utánvétel nem postázok,   összevárás lehetséges, kérem jelezze.
Licitet nem törlök, kérem mielőtt licitál, kérdezzen!
A posta költséget utalás előtt egyeztessük. (függ súly, vastagság, méret stb)
Folyamatosan töltöm fel egyre bővülő termékeimet, sok termék indul 1 Ft-ról, kérem figyelje aukcióimat.
Minden nyertes licitálót arra kérek emailben vegye fel velem a kapcsolatot, munkám miatt, nem tudok telefont felvenni, de aznap visszajelzek. Ha az emilre 2 napon belül nem válaszolok kérem a Vaterán jelezni, mert akkor nem kaptam postát.
Emailban és utaláskor kérem hivatkozni a felhasználó névre! köszönöm.
Jó licitálást kívánok!

Rwandaise komplett postatiszta sor, állatok  80
Jelenlegi ára: 30 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2017-07-13 19:34
          Rwanda : Faut-il sacrifier la liberté pour sauver la croissance ?   

Depuis 2000, Paul Kagamé tient le pouvoir d'une main de fer. Fort de son leadership éclairé et de son bilan économique reluisant (7% de croissance au cours des 3 dernières années), l’homme fort du Rwanda, entend briguer un nouveau mandat, ce qui lui permettra, potentiellement, de rester au pouvoir jusqu'en 2034. L’intention de Kagamé de se représenter est soutenue par des partisans qui sont prêts à renoncer à l’alternance démocratique en échange de la croissance. Ce contrat social - croissance en échange de liberté - est-il viable ?

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          TGGA YATOA SOMO JUKWAA LA UWEZESHAJI WANAWAKE KIUCHUMI KISARAWE    
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia) akipata maelezo kutoka kwa Kamishna wa Chama cha Tanzania Girl Guides (TGGA) Makao Makuu, Rose  Majuva kuhusu kazi zinazofanywa na chama hicho ikiwemo kuwapa uwezo wanawake wa kujitambua na kujiamini alipokwenda kuzindua Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani humo.

Majuva aliwaasa wanawaje kuacha kutumia mikopo ya benki kuchezea ngoma bali waitumie kujiendeleza kibiashara na kuwa na tabia ya kulipa kwa wakati mikopo hiyo. Pia aliwaeleza mbinu mbalimbali za kufanya biashara na miiko yake. (PICHA NA RICHARD MWAIKENDAKAMANDA WA MATUKIO BLOG
 Wananchi wakisikiiza kwa makini maelezo kutoka kwa Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Valentina Gonza jijsi ya kutengeneza jiko la kutumia mwanga wa jua kupikia vyakula mbalimbali kwa gharama nafuu wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe.

 Girl Guides wa TGGA, wakitengeneza Green House ya kupanda matunda na mbogamboga majumbani waliposhiriki uzinduzi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi wilayani Kisarawe. Kutoka kushoto ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda, Michelle kutoka Rwanda na Happy Mshana wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Dar es Salaam.
 Kamishna wa Makao Makuu ya TGGA, Rose Majuva (kulia) akisoma maadili ya kiongozi anavyotakiwa awe wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa la Uwezeshaji Wanawake Kiuchumi Wilaya ya Kisarawe.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam,Rehema Kijazi akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Valentina Gonza akigawa karatasi ya kupigia kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Mkufunzi wa TGGA, Makao Makuu Dar es Salaam, Ruth Namatanga akikusanya kura kwa Wajasiriamali wakati wa uchaguzi wa viongozi wa Jukwaa hilo.
 Baadhi ya viongozi wa TGGA wakihesabu kura wakati wa uchaguzi huo
 Viongozi wa TGGA wakiwa kwenye banda lao wakati wa maonesho yaliyofanyika wakati wa uzinduzi wa Jukwaa hilo mjini Kisarawe
 Katibu Tawala wa Wilaya ya Kisarawe, Mtera Mwampamba (kulia),  akiangalia kiroba cha mkaa uliotengenezwa kiasili kwa kutumia taka mbalimbali alipokuwa akitembelea  mabanda ya wajasiriamali kabla ya kuzindua Jukwaa hilo. Kushoto ni Gifti Mbaraka wa banda hilo la Vijana Wasiriamali Wakulima Kisarawe. Katikati ni Mkurugenzi wa Halmashauri ya Kisarawe, Mussa Gama.
 Mwampamba akiangalia bidhaa mbalimbali za wajasiriamali
 Girl Guides kutoka Madagascar akijitambulisha wakati wa mkutano wa Jukwaa hilo. Kutoka kulia ni Rachel Baganyire kutoka Uganda na Michelle kutoka Rwanda. Vijana hao wapo nchini kwa miezi sita katika programu ya kubadilishana uozefu katika masuala ya utamaduni, uongozi na ujasiriamali
Mkufunzi kutoka Makao Makuu ta TGGA, Happy Mshana akielezea jinsi alivyopata uzoefu alipoiwakilisha TGGA kwenye mafunzo ya kubadilisha uzoefu nchini Madagascar

          Rwanda Govt Bans Import of Poultry Products from SA, Zimbabwe   
RWANDA - The Ministry of Agriculture has temporally banned importation of poultry products, including chicken, eggs and chicken meat, from South Africa and Zimbabwe, following an outbreak of avian influenza, commonly known as Bird-Flu in the Southern African countries.
          Rwanda > Literature : Scholastique MUKASONGA   
Extract : Scholastique Mukasonga born in 1956 is Rwandan writer. Her family were exterminated....
          Rwanda > Politics : Mary BAINE   
Extract : ...
          Όταν ο Μιτεράν αποκαλύπτεται πίσω (και) από τη γενοκτονία της Ρουάντα!   
Γιώργος Μητραλιάς


Η σφαγή, την Άνοιξη του 1994, τουλάχιστον 800.000 ανθρώπων στη Ρουάντα μέσα σε λίγες εβδομάδες, δεν ήταν ένα συνηθισμένο έγκλημα και για αυτό δίκαια έμεινε στην ιστορία σαν “η μεγαλύτερη γενοκτονία της μεταπολεμικής εποχής”! Και προφανώς, η αναζήτηση των υπευθύνων για αυτό το τεράστιο “έγκλημα κατά της ανθρωπότητας” δεν σταματάει ποτέ ειδικά μάλιστα όταν αυτοί οι υπεύθυνοι εντοπίζονται (και) στην κορυφή μιας χώρας σαν τη Γαλλία, και μάλιστα στην ίδια την προεδρία της Δημοκρατίας της, στον τότε πρόεδρό της Φρανσουά Μιτεράν!

Πράγματι, πάνε πολλά χρόνια από τότε που οι υποψίες για κάλυψη ή ακόμα και εξοπλισμό των γενοκτόνων από μέρους της επίσημης Γαλλίας στράφηκαν προς τον τότε πρόεδρο της χώρας, σε μέλη της οικογένειάς του (στον γιό του Κριστόφ) και στους στενότερους συνεργάτες του. Μάλιστα, γράφτηκαν δεκάδες βιβλία και εκατοντάδες άρθρα όχι μόνο με απλές υποψίες αλλά και με ενδείξεις ή ακόμα και με αποδείξεις για την ενεργό γαλλική εμπλοκή στο φοβερό έγκλημα. Όμως, η αποκάλυψη που έγινε μόλις πριν από 4 μέρες έπεσε σαν βόμβα και δίκαια προκάλεσε αίσθηση όσο και αν τα “πειθαρχημένα” γαλλικά ΜΜΕ φρόντισαν να μην της δώσουν την κάλυψη που της αξίζει: ο άνθρωπος που διέτασσε (γραπτώς) τους δυστροπούντες επικεφαλής του γαλλικού εκστρατευτικού σώματος στα σύνορα Ρουάντας-Κονγκό να (επανα)εξοπλίσουν το καθεστώς των γενοκτόνων, κατά παράβαση μάλιστα του εμπάργκο όπλων που λίγο πριν είχε επιβάλει ο ΟΗΕ, ήταν ο τότε Γενικός Γραμματέας της Προεδρίας της Γαλλικής Δημοκρατίας, κατοπινός Υπουργός Εξωτερικών της Γαλλίας και σημερινός πρόεδρος του Ιδρύματος Μιτεράν, ο και “γνωστός φίλος της Ελλάδας” κ. Υμπέρ Βεντρίν!

Την αποκάλυψη που έκανε ο καλός δημοσιογράφος Πατρίκ ντε Σεντ-Εξυπερί (μακρινός ανηψιός του διάσημου συγγραφέα) που, όπως και η σπουδαία ελληνικής καταγωγής δημοσιογράφος στη Liberation Μαρία Μαλαγαρδή, έχει αφιερώσει τη ζωή του στην εξιχνίαση αυτής της γενοκτονίας και στην απονομή δικαιοσύνης για τα θύματά της, την ακολούθησαν σε διάστημα λίγων ωρών δυο διαφορετικές μηνύσεις εναντίον της (πολύ) μεγάλης τράπεζας ΒΝΡ. Μιας τράπεζας που κατηγορείται τώρα ευθέως και βάσει ντοκουμέντων ότι παραβίασε και αυτή, προφανώς κατ’εντολή πολύ υψηλά ιστάμενου προσώπου, το εμπάργκο του ΟΗΕ, χρηματοδοτώντας την παράνομη αγορά των όπλων που θα εξόπλιζαν το στρατό των γενοκτόνων. Λεπτομέρεια με ιδιαίτερο ελληνικό ενδιαφέρον: Τα όπλα ήταν σερβικά, είχαν φορτωθεί σε λιμάνι του Μαυροβουνίου σε πλοίο με ελληνική σημαία, το οποίο μάλιστα άλλαζε συνεχώς όνομα (Maro, Bana 1, Maria,…) καθώς είχε “ειδικευθεί” σε τέτοιου είδους παράνομες και ανήθικες αποστολές με προορισμό πάντα τις εμπόλεμες περιοχές της Αφρικής. Χρήσιμη υπενθύμιση: Ήταν η εποχή που η “σύσφιξη” των σχέσεων της Ελλάδας με τη Σερβία των Μιλόσεβιτς-Μλάντιτς-Κάραζιτς στο όνομα του διαβόητου “Ορθόδοξου Τόξου”, είχε -μεταξύ πολλών άλλων συνεπειών- και την μάλλον ανομολόγητη συνέπεια να συμβάλει αποφασιστικά στη δημιουργία μερικών τεράστιων ελληνικών περιουσιών σε χρόνο ρεκόρ…

2017 06 30 03 miteranΌμως ας επιστρέψουμε στη Γαλλία και ειδικότερα στον μακαρίτη Φρανσουά Μιτεράν με την εξής εισαγωγική παρατήρηση: Μόνον αφελείς και απληροφόρητοι θα εξεπλάγησαν από την αποκάλυψη ότι ο εξοπλισμός των γενοκτόνων της Ρουάντα γινόταν κατ’εντολή εκείνου που ήταν έμπιστος και δεξί χέρι του προέδρου Μιτεράν. Και ο λόγος απλός: Αυτό δεν ήταν ούτε το πρώτο ούτε το μοναδικό έγκλημα του Μιτεράν!

Συγκεκριμένα, ο και ιδρυτής του εσχάτως “αποθανόντος” γαλλικού Σοσιαλιστικού Κόμματος, που διετέλεσε στα νιάτα του και όταν ο φασισμός σάρωνε την Ευρώπη του μεσοπολέμου, μέλος και ακτιβιστής της τότε φασίζουσας άκρας δεξιάς (Croix de Feu), υπηρέτησε κατόπιν στην Κατοχή το δωσιλογικό καθεστώς του στρατάρχη Πεταίν από τον οποίο εξάλλου και παρασημοφορήθηκε. Αργότερα και διαβλέποντας την τελική ήττα του ναζισμού, ο Μιτεράν, όπως και αρκετοί άλλοι δωσίλογοι και όχι μόνο στη Γαλλία, φρόντισε να αποκτήσει “αντιστασιακές δάφνες” με αποτέλεσμα να μην αντιμετωπίσει κανένα πρόβλημα κατά την απελευθέρωση.

Μέχρις εδώ, θα μπορούσαμε να πούμε ότι η ιστορία μας είναι μάλλον κοινότυπη επειδή στη Γαλλία η πλειοψηφία του πληθυσμού με επικεφαλής την αστική της τάξη, στήριξε μάλλον ένθερμα το καθεστώς του Βισύ τουλάχιστον μέχρι το 1943. Η “ιδιαιτερότητα” του Μιτεράν έγκειται στο γεγονός ότι όχι μόνο μετά τον πόλεμο αλλά ακόμα και όταν έγινε πρόεδρος της Δημοκρατίας συνέχισε να περιστοιχίζεται από παλιά ανώτερα και ανώτατα στελέχη του γαλλικού κατοχικού δωσιλογισμού! Στην τεράστια μάλιστα πλειοψηφία τους, τα μέλη αυτής της ιδιότυπης “αδελφότητας δωσιλόγων-φίλων του προέδρου” δεν ήταν κομπάρσοι ή απλοί “ιδεολόγοι” του φασισμού αλλά πρωταγωνιστές των πιο αποτρόπαιων εγκλημάτων του Τρίτου Ράϊχ. Όπως π.χ. ήταν ο Ρενέ Μπουσκέ, Γενικός Γραμματέας της δωσιλογικής αστυνομίας, προσωπικός φίλος του αρχιτέκτονα του Ολοκαυτώματος Χάϊντριχ και δήμιος των Εβραίων και των αντιστασιακών της Γαλλίας. Ο προστατευόμενος του Μιτεράν αρχιδωσίλογος Μπουσκέ, που έκανε επίδειξη ζήλου και “δώρο” στους ναζιστές και μερικές χιλιάδες εβραιόπουλα που δεν περιλαμβάνονταν στο πρόγραμμα εξόντωσής τους (!), γινόταν δεκτός στο προεδρικό μέγαρο και συνέτρωγε με τον πρόεδρο και την οικογένειά του ακόμα και όταν είχε κινηθεί εναντίον η διαδικασία δίωξης για εγκλήματα κατά της ανθρωπότητας! Μια διαδικασία που προχώρησε με απελπιστικά αργούς ρυθμούς καθώς ο Μιτεράν έκανε τα πάντα για να μην δικαστεί ο παλιόφιλός του…

2017 06 30 04 miteranΌμως, ο Μπουσκέ, που δολοφονήθηκε τελικά από έναν “ανισόρροπο” (;) πριν αρχίσει η δίκη του και οι πιθανές “ενοχλητικές” αποκαλύψεις που θα την συνόδευαν, δεν ήταν ο μόνος δωσίλογος και φασίστας με τον οποίο ο Μιτεράν διατηρούσε φιλικές έως στενές σχέσεις. Μεταξύ των διασημότερων “υποστηρικτών” και φίλων του Μιτεράν περιλαμβάνονταν κατά καιρούς ο -και χρηματοδότης της γαλλικής φασιστικής (και πραξικοπηματικής) γαλλικής ακροδεξιάς της δεκαετίας του 1930- ιδρυτής της αυτοκρατορίας καλλυντικών L’Óreal, ο ηγέτης της μεταπολεμικής γαλλικής άκρας δεξιάς και δικηγόρος του Πεταίν Τιξιέ Βινιανκούρ… ακόμα και ο πατήρ Λε Πεν στον οποίο ο Μιτεράν ανταπέδωσε αργότερα (το 1983) την “εξυπηρέτηση” ανοίγοντάς του, με προσωπικό του σημείωμα στον τότε πρόεδρό της, τις πόρτες της γαλλικής δημόσιας τηλεόρασης, με αποτέλεσμα το κόμμα του Λε Πεν να εκτοξευθεί μέσα σε μερικούς μήνες από το μόνιμό του 0,5% ή 0,7% στο…12,5% !

Αυτή η εντελώς συνοπτική και ατελέστατη προσωπογραφία του Φρανσουά Μιτεράν όχι ως “σοφού ανθρωπιστή” και “βαθειά φιλοσοφημένου ηγέτη”, όπως ο ίδιος ήθελε να παρουσιάζεται, αλλά ως κυνικού πολιτικάντη βαρυνόμενου με εγκλήματα κατά της ανθρωπότητας, δεν μπορεί να ολοκληρωθεί χωρίς να περιλαμβάνει μια αναφορά στο “έργο” που επιτέλεσε ως υπουργός Δικαιοσύνης (1956) στη διάρκεια του εθνικοαπελευθερωτικού πολέμου των Αλγερινών εναντίον της γαλλικής αποικιοκρατικής τους δύναμης. Ως υπουργός Δικαιοσύνης της τότε “αριστερής” γαλλικής κυβέρνησης του Γκι Μολέ, ο Μιτεράν διακρίθηκε ιδιαίτερα για την έφεσή του να αποκεφαλίζει (με γκιλοτίνα) τους Αλγερινούς αγωνιστές, αγνοώντας συστηματικά τις εκκλήσεις για απονομή χάριτος ακόμα και όταν αυτές προέρχονταν από συναδέλφους του υπουργούς! Μπροστά στην… “ιστορική ανάγκη” -όπως ο ίδιος πίστευε ακράδαντα- να φτάσει στην κορυφή, ο Μιτεράν δεν δίστασε ποτέ να συμμαχήσει και με το διάβολο ή ακόμα και να βάψει τα χέρια του με άφθονο ανθρώπινο αίμα…

Όλα αυτά θα ήταν απλώς…ιστορία, αν ο νέος και νεαρός πρόεδρος της Γαλλικής Δημοκρατίας δεν έδειχνε από την επομένη -κυριολεκτικά- της εκλογής του (!) ότι φιλοδοξεί να συνεχίσει το “θεάρεστο” αφρικανικό έργο του Μιτεράν με τον οποίο μοιράζεται εξάλλου και τη “μοναρχική” αντιμετώπιση της Προεδρίας της Δημοκρατίας. Ας έχουν και αυτό υπόψην τους εκείνοι που αφελώς ή εκ του πονηρού σπεύδουν να διαβλέψουν ανθρωπιστές και σωτήρες εκεί όπου δεν υπάρχουν παρά αδίστακτοι και κυνικοί δυνάστες της δύσμοιρης ανθρωπότητας…

ΠΗΓΗ: contra-xreos.gr



Η Σφήκα: Επιλογές





          Eliminazioni di Massa    

Ogni volta che si parla di genocidio tutti noi pensiamo a un'anomalia della Storia, un'eccezione non ripetibile.

Dal Rwanda alla Shoah, dal Darfur all'ex Jugoslavia, gli stermini di massa sono però troppo frequenti per essere considerati una devianza.

Non solo: il fatto di ritenerli un'aberrazione è per molti versi - assolutorio, mentre un genocidio si può non solo prevedere, ma anche prevenire, a patto che si riesca a capire. In realtà la chiave per smontare il meccanismo quasi fatale che conduce alla catastrofe sta nella semplice frase "bisogna pure fare qualcosa". È solo così che lo spettatore passivo può trasformarsi in soccorritore, e la spirale di odio generata dal disprezzo può essere interrotta.

Allo scopo di indagare i confini, le caratteristiche comuni a tutti i massacri e soprattutto individuare le modalità per bloccare un processo che dall'intolleranza porta allo sterminio, gli autori hanno creato un'eliminazione di massa "da laboratorio", un mosaico di tutti i genocidi della Storia, entro cui si muovono i personaggi che - più o meno attivamente - concorrono al genocidio: ideatori, perpetratori, collaboratori, spettatori, manipolatori, studiosi e vittime, in tutte le loro declinazioni. Assumendo i punti di vista dei diversi attori, possiamo delineare le istruzioni tattiche da applicare nella vita quotidiana.

Perché il genocidio ci riguarda molto da vicino: anche se ci sentiamo impermeabili all'odio, l'odio può coinvolgerci in maniera inaspettata.


          Ruhango: urubyiruko rwiyemeje kuba abarinzi b’ibyagezweho   
Ku munsi mpuzamahanga wahariwe urubyiruko, u rwo mu karere ka Ruhango, rwiyemeje kuba abarinzi b’ibyagezweho n’u Rwanda ruharanira kubiteza imbere. Umunsi mpuzamhanga w’urubyiruko uba tariki ya 12/08 buri mwaka, ariko mu Rwanda ukaba wijihijwe tariki ya 22/08/2015, ukaba ufite insanganyamatsiko igira iti “twimakaze uburere mboneragihugu dutegura ejo h’igihugu cyacu.” Ubwo uyu munsi w’izihizwaga mu karere […]
          Polisi y’u Rwanda ifite ibigwi byinshi cyane mu myaka 15 imaze: Minisitiri Uwacu   
Ubwo yatangizaga icyumweru cyahariwe Police“Police week”ku rwego rw’Intara y’Uburengerazuba,cyanahuriranye n’imyaka 15 Police y’u Rwanda imaze ibayeho, Minisitiri w’umuco na Sport Uwacu Julienne yavuze ko ibikorwa Police y’u Rwanda yakoze ari byinshi ku buryo wagirango ntimaze imyaka 15 gusa ibayeho. Iki gikorwa kikaba cyatangirijwe mu karere ka Rubavu,ahitwa kuri Tam Tam ku kibuga cya Ningo. Ahereye […]
          Rulindo: umuyobozi wa Polisi y’u Rwanda yatangije ibiro bishya bya polisi   
tariki ya 27/4/2015, mu karere ka Rulindo habereye umuhango wo gutaha inyubako izajya ikoreramo  polisi y’igihugu, iyi nzu ikaba iherereye mu mudugudu wa Buhande ,Akagari ka Gasiza murenge wa Bushoki. Ataha iyi nyubako nshya  ku mugaragaro ,Umuyobozi wa Polisi y’u Rwanda, IGP Emmanuel Gasana,  yavuze ko ku bufatanye hagati ya Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’ Igihugu na […]
          Diritti in Campo   
Argentina. Brasile. Romania. Iugoslavia. Sierra Leone. Iran. Repubblica Democratica del Congo. Rwanda. Russia. Italia.

Paesi diversi, lontani, per raccontare un calcio inedito.

Ottostorie di resistenza e di ribellione, dove i temi della libertà e delladifesa dei diritti umani si intrecciano con famosi eventi del calcio.

"Questonon è il solito libro sul calcio, sulle sue stelle supergriffate. Èqualcosa di più e di meglio. È lo strumento più efficace percomprendere l'intima relazione tra la storia e un gioco meraviglioso".(dalla prefazione di Giorgio Porrà)

          Comment on MacLean on Nutter and Buchanan on Universal Education by Octavian   
IOW, because people (including black people) tend to put their own interests ahead of other people's rights. In the end, the unavoidable problem is: if you have groups A and B, and group A wants policies that are pro-A, and you want policies that are agnostic to what group one belongs to, when group A is in power, of course group B supremacists are going to agree with you and maybe even join your party. At this point, we need to dispense with the myth that the left is the side of equality. Affirmative action is not equality. Considering that, of course white supremacists are going to tend to agree with libertarian criticism of statist aff. action, and walk hand in hand with them. We absolutely should not disavow such opposition on that basis. To employ an exteme analogy, a Tutsi who hates Hutus can be expected to support and join opponents of the Rwandan genocide. Does that imply opponents of the Rwandan genocide are racist against Hutus?
          Survivors of War-Rape Break the Silence   
"I was 12 years old when I was raped. I did not understand what was happening." Nelle is now 36 years old. But in 1993 when war broke out in Burundi, armed men came to her village near the capital, Bujumbura. They killed her mother and father and six siblings. She was raped, but she survived. “I saw people were killing each other. They were running away and killing each other. I hid myself under dead bodies for five days,” she said. Nelle’s story of survival was long and difficult to tell.  After living through years of instability, she told VOA that she left for South Africa in 2004 when a new government came to power in Burundi. “I was scared,” she said. “I was afraid war was coming and I did not want to go through the same thing as in 1993. I did not want to be raped again. So, I quit the country and became a refugee in South Africa.” Nelle is one of 25 rape survivors from South Sudan, Mali, Colombia and 12 other conflict-affected countries around the world who attended a four-day retreat this week in Geneva. They came to share their experiences and to devise strategies for the creation of a global movement to end rape as a weapon on war. “These 25 women have suffered unthinkable things and developed remarkable powers,” said Esther Dingemans, director of the Mukwege Foundation. “They have experienced the cruelest violence. But the perpetrators did not succeed in breaking them,” she said. The foundation is headed by Denis Mukwege, a renowned surgeon from the Democratic Republic of Congo, who has treated thousands of survivors of sexual violence in Congo.   “We hope that this week will be the beginning of a large long-term movement that leads to a global platform of survivors,” said Dingemans, “and that their voices will finally be heard.” In 1992, after the atrocities committed in the Bosnian war, especially against Muslim women, rape, for the first time was recognized as a weapon of war by the United Nations Security Council. In 2000, the Security Council adopted resolution 1325, which was the first formal and legal document that required parties to a conflict to “protect women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict.” It also was the first U.N. resolution to specifically mention women. Ulrike Lunasek, vice president of the European Parliament, who spoke at the ceremony honoring the 25 women survivors, said it is "important to break the vicious circle of shame and silence" that women usually feel when they are raped. She said women raped in war must be supported, helped to heal and then “be encouraged to speak up, but also to tell the truth about what military conflict and war means for women.” Women did speak up at this conference. Several survivors presented searing testimony about their ordeals. Solange Bigiramana, who survived the horrors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, now lives as a stateless person in South Africa. “My situation of being a survivor, that comes from a situation of war. It happened for me to face rape. I know what rape means." “And I am here with a story of hope,” she said. "I once was under a shadow. I want every survivor to be out of the shadow and to be into the light." Another survivor, Farida Abbas-Khalaf, a Yazidi girl from the Iraqi village of Kocho, described the torment to which she and other members of her community were subjected by the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, in her book The Girl Who Beat ISIS. She spoke movingly and in agonizing detail about being raped, beaten, insulted, and forced to pray and read the Koran. "Young boys were brainwashed and sent to ISIS training camps to become ISIS fighters while women and young girls were taken as sex slaves and sold at slave markets," said Abbas-Khalaf. She said that she was able to heal because of support from her family, her community and her spiritual leader who she said made a statement "that the surviving girls are an important part of the Yazidi community and that what happened to them was against their will." She added, “It is time that survivors break the silence. But mostly it is time for the world to hear their voices."    
          Qatar Airways – $874: Dallas – Kigali, Rwanda. Roundtrip, including all Taxes   
A good sale to Kigali. ITA will price this at $914, using those dates on Qatar Airways should reprice to $874. Sample Travel Date: September 18th – 25th This is just ONE SAMPLE travel date, for more availability, please follow the “Fare Availability” and “How to Search for Availability” instructions below Fare Availability: Valid for […] ...

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          Re: Rwanda / Burundi   
slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?
          Re: Au Rwanda   
I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones.
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
          MRADI WA UMEME STIEGLER’S GORGE HAUTAATHIRI MAZINGIRA YA PORI LA SELOUS   

Kaimu Mkurugenzi Mkuu –TAWA Bw. Martin Loibooki akisoma risala mbele ya mgeni Rasmi
katibu mkuu akiwa kwenye picha ya pamoja na wahitimu wa jinsia ya kike 10 kati ya 97 waliyohitimu, wa tatu kutoka kushoto waliyokaa ni kaimu mkurugenzi mkuu-tawa
wahitimu wakitoa heshima mbele ya mgeni rasmi



KM akisoma kiapo cha wahitimu
…………………….

Na Mwandishi wetu, Katavi

Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii imewataka wadau wa uhifadhi kote nchini kuunga mkono mpango wa Serikali wa kujenga mradi mkubwa wa uzalishaji wa umeme katika mto Rufiji kwenye pori la akiba la Selous ambao ukikamilika unatarajiwa kuzalisha zaidi ya megawati 2,100.

Katibu Mkuu wizara ya Maliasili na utalii Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amesema utekelezaji wa mradi huo wa umeme ni wa muhimu kwa taifa kwani utasaidia kuharakisha maendeleo ya taifa kuelekea azima yake ya Tanzania ya viwanda na uchumi wa kati.

Akiongea wakati akifunga mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapaori kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania -TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro, Katibu mkuu Meja Jenerali Gudance Milanzi amesema mradi huo wa umeme pamoja na mradi wa bwawa la maji la Kidunda utachukua eneo dogo tu la pori la akiba la Selou lenye ukubwa wa zaidi ya kilomita za mraba elfu 50.

Amesema pori hilo ndilo kubwa miongoni mwa mapori ya aina hiyo ulimwenguni na ukubwa wake ni zaidi ya nchi za Rwanda na Burundi zikiunganishwa kwa pamoja.

Katibu Mkuu amesema ujenzi wa miradi hiyo hauna tafsiri kwamba Tanzania haithamini masuala ya uhifadhi bali unazingatia uhifadhi wenye manufaa kwa jamii na maendeleo ya taifa na hasa dhamira ya serikali ya rais Dk John Pombe Magufuli kuelekea Tanzania ya viwanda ambayo inahitaji nishati ya umeme itakayoyotosheleza mahitaji ya taifa.

Amesema Tanzania inatambua umuhimu wa uhifadhi ndiyo maana imetenga eneo la zaidi ya asilimia 28 ya eneo lote la nchi kavu Tanzania bara kwaajili ya uhifadhi wa aina mbalimbali ukiwemo wa wanayamapori na misitu ya vyanzo vya maji ambayo ni muhimu kwa shughuli za kijamii na kiuchumi, “ ni nchi chache sana duniani zenye eneo kubwa la uhifadhi kama Tanzania” alisisitiza katibu mkuu.

Katibu mkuu amewataka wafanyakazi wa wizara na watanzania kwa ujumla kutokuwa kikwazo kwa utekelezaji wa mradi huo na kwamba wadau wanaotaka kuisaidia Tanzania wasaidie kuhakikisha inatumia maliasili zake kupiga hatua ya kimaendeleo ikiwemo misaada ya teknolojia za kisasa na rafiki wa mazingira kusaidia kufikia malengo yake kimaendeleo.

“Mtakumbuka mh. Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, Dk John Pombe Magufuli hivi karibuni alipokuwa kwenye ziara ya kikazi mkoani Pwani amezungumzia kwa kirefu sana umuhimu wa miradi hiyo ukiwemo wa bwawa la Kidunda na wa umeme wa Stieglars Gorge, sasa sisi kama wahifadhi na kama watumishi lazima tumuunge mkono na tusiwe kikwazo katika dhamira hii njema” alisema Jenerali Milanzi’’.

Ametoa mfano wa nchi ya Qatar ambayo amesema ilikuwa na eneo la uhifadhi lililokuwa kwenye orodha ya maeneo ya urithi wa dunia kutokana na uwepo wa baadhi ya viumbe adimu lakini walipogundua mafuta, waliamua kujitoa kwenye urithi wa dunia ili wachimbe mafuta na kuinufaisha nchi hiyo na maendeleo ya wananchi wake.

Akizungumzia kuhusu tatizo la mifugo kwenye maeneo yaliyohifadhiwa, Katibu mkuu amewataka wahifadhi kuhakikisha wanakabiliana na changamoto hiyo na kusimamia sheria zilizotungwa na Bunge la Jamahuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ambazo zinakataza mifugo kuingia hifadhini kinyume cha sheria.

Amesema ndiyo maana serikali inatumia fedha nyingi kugharamia mafunzo ya askari wa wanyamapori na wahifadhi ili kuwaongezea ujuzi na weledi wa kulinda maliasili za taifa kwa kuzingatia sheria zilizopo.

Katibu Mkuu Meja Jenerali Gaudance Milanzi amezungumzia pia umuhimu wa kuhakikisha mapori ya uhifadhi yanatumiwa kwa uhifadhi badala ya kutumika kwa mambo mengine ikiwemo kilimo cha bangi na maficho ya majambazi na majangili na amewataka wahifadhi na askari kushirikiana na vyombo vingene vya ulinzi na usalama kuwafichua wahalifu wanaojificha kwenye mapori hayo na kufanya ujangili na uhalifu mwingine.

Mapema katika taarifa yake kwa katibu mkuu, Kaimu Mkurugenzi wa Mamlaka ya Wanyamapori Tanzania -TAWA Martin Loibooki alieleza kuwa mafunzo hayo yamesaidia kuimarisha uhifadhi kwenye mapori mbalimbali ya akiba nchini na maeneo ya uhifadhi wa wanyamapori.

Aliwashukuru wadau mbalimbali wa uhifadhi wa ndani na nje ya nchi wanaofadhili mafunzo hayo na vitendea kazi juhudi ambazo amesema zimeanza kuzaa matunda ikiwemo kuongezeka kwa idadi ya tembo na wanyamapori wengine kwenye mapori mengi nchini.

Mfunzo hayo yaliyowashirikisha askari wa wanyamapori wapatao 98 kutoka Mamlaka ya wanayamapori Tanzania TAWA na Mamlaka ya Hifadhi ya Ngorongoro ni mwendelezo wa mafunzo yanayotolewa na Wizara ya Maliasili na utalii kwa askari wa wanyamapori na watumishi wengine wa wizara hiyo katika hatua za kuelekea mfumo wa jeshi usu

          Re: Rwanda / Burundi   
slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?
          Re: Au Rwanda   
I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones.
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
          IGIHE N' IKI 6/30/17: AMB. GASANA EUGENE IKIBAZO CY' INGUTU MURUGO RWA KAGAME   
Urwishe yanka ruracyayirimo. Nyuma y' Inkuru yamamaye ko Amb. Gasana Eugene yaba afitanye umwana n' Umugore wa President Kagame, benshi bakaba barabyitaga ubihuha, Radio Itahuka iratangaza ko ifite  ibimenyetso simusiga ko atari ibihuha, ko umwe mubana Kagame yiyitirira ari uwa Amb. Gasana Eugene. Ibi bikaba byanyomozwa gusa na DNA. Ibi byaba bihuriye n' Imiyoborere y' Igihugu cy' u Rwanda? ni muri iki kiganiro. Civil Aviation mu Rwanda, indi Brigade ya Gisirikare. Bamwe mubakozi ba RwandaAir barasaba Itahuka kubatabariza, nyuma yaho bafunzwe bazira amaherere. Aba bakozi ba Rwanda air bafunzwe bazira ko ubwo bari mugihugu cy' Ubwongereza, basohotse muri Hotel bakajya gutembera. Byumvikane neza ko Indege itabasize, ndetse ko n' akazi bashinzwe katapfuye. Nyuma y' aho Kagame atangarije ko yaguriye Twagiramungu ikoti ryo kwambara, bamwe mubabanye na Kagame bavuga ko Kagame atazi ko ari President, ahubwo ari umutindi cyangwa umuhanya nkuko yabtyize abanyarwanda. Umwe mubatwandikiye yavuze ko Kagame yasabirizaga asaba abanyamuryango ko bagurira maman we imodoka, ndetse uwayiguze ubu akaba yaramwishe. Ibindi ni muri iki kiganiro. Turagaruka kuri canditure za Mwenedata Gilbert na Rwigara Shima Diane. Hagati yaba bombi na Kagame  ninde utujuje ibyangombwa? IBINDI NI MURI IKI KIGANIRO. Mukiganiro Igihe n' Iki, turasaba abumva ko bababajwe nimyitwarire ya Kagame kubijyanye n' Imiyoborere ku Rwanda, bagire icyo babikoraho bitari kubabazwa nabyo gusa kuko Kagame azavanwaho n' Umujinya mwiza mwagira mugira icyo mukora.  Watubona kuri numero 508.335.8771, 202.509.6774 Whatsup gusa.    
          France – Mali / France – Libye / France – Egypte / France – Maroc / France – Rwanda / France – Tchad ; Quai d’Orsay – Déc larations du sous-directeur de la presse et agenda du ministre, de la ministre chargée des affaires européennes et d u secrétair   
Au point de presse de ce jour, le sous-directeur de la presse a rappelé la déclaration du ministre, fait les déclarations et répondu aux questions suivantes : […] 3 – Mali – Adoption de la résolution 2364 du conseil de sécurité des Nations unies renouvelant le mandat de la MINUSM...


          Qatar Airways – $874: Dallas – Kigali, Rwanda. Roundtrip, including all Taxes   
Qatar Airways – $874: Dallas – Kigali, Rwanda. Roundtrip, including all Taxes
A good sale to Kigali. ITA will price this at $914, using those dates on Qatar Airways should reprice to $874. Sample Travel Date: September 18th – 25th This is just ONE SAMPLE travel date, for more availability, please follow the “Fare Availability” and “How to Search for Availability” instructions below Fare Availability: Valid for […]
          Mega project financing in Africa still a major challenge, report   
South Africa and Nigeria, who have a more developed infrastructure financing framework, are the leading in SSA along with Mauritius, Rwanda, Tanzania, Ghana, Botswana and Ethiopia. In many African countries government policies and financial markets challenges are hindering potential investors from....
          John Paul II Film Festival   
Starting this weekend, the John Paul II Film Festival will be running in theaters all across Miami-Dade County.

Why I am bringing this up? Aside from the concept, which I think is fantastic, what makes me proud is the fact that the event organizers attend the same church I do. We've been following the progress of the festival since its creation early this year, and their faith, motivation and drive in putting this together has been nothing short of inspirational to me and my fellow parishoners.

The Miami Herald did a nice story on the festival which is included below in its entirety (thanks Herald). Further proof that faith, sacrifice and spirituality is alive and well in Miami:

There's no shortage of film festivals in Miami: Colombian, Black, Brazilian, and Gay and Lesbian, to name a few.

This week, a trio of young Miamians will bring something different to the region's big-screen scene: a religious, interfaith film festival modeled after the life of a popular pope. The John Paul II International Film Festival, which kicks off Thursday and runs through Nov. 7, includes films varying from God in the Streets of NYC, a short on Jesus on the streets of New York City, and God in China, a documentary on religion and politics among the Chinese, to The 13th Day, a feature on the memoirs of a 20th-century Portuguese nun.

``There seemed to be a hunger for films with meaning rather than just sex drugs and rock 'n' roll,'' said Laura Alvarado, a 25-year-old actress who teaches at Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart in Coconut Grove. Alvarado and two friends from a youth group at Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church in Kendall brainstormed the festival nine months ago and were able to raise $40,000 in donations.

``At first, we thought, `Oh man, our name is John Paul II, people are going to get turned off,' '' Alvarado said.

Instead, dozens of people, including rabbis and Protestant ministers, have been promoting the event around South Florida houses of worship. More than 100 films were submitted this summer by directors from Miami to the United Kingdom. Thirty were chosen to be shown at theaters across Miami-Dade, including a Jewish community center in Kendall. Organizers said they came together through their interest in the former pope, who was an actor and playwright as a young Polish man and was known for his interfaith accomplishments.

REACHING OUT

``It didn't matter what your background was for John Paul II. He was the first pope to really try to cross that bridge and reach out to all the faiths,'' said organizer Rafael Anrrich, a 39-year-old therapist from Kendall. ``We're trying to do the same.''

As a pope, John Paul II made strides by improving the Catholic church's relations with the Jewish community -- including his historical visit to the Western Wall in Jerusalem -- and was the first pope to visit a mosque. He also met with Buddhist and Anglican leaders.

Festival submissions were not required to be about specific religions but did need to have a spiritual element. Many are about crossing boundaries, faith-related or otherwise. As We Forgive is about Rwandan women who attempt to confront and forgive the men who killed their families during a brutal genocide, while The Boy in the Striped Pajamas portrays a friendship that develops between a Jewish boy in a concentration camp and the son of a Nazi commander.

``People can get into theological arguments, but at the end, we're all human beings. We want to bring that idea to film and show how much love and passion there is in art,'' said Frank Brennan, a 24-year-old English major at Florida International University and an independent filmmaker. Brennan said he grew up in a nominally Catholic family and didn't begin to embrace his faith until three years ago when he attended a religious retreat on a whim. Now, he regularly attends Our Lady of Lourdes and helps organize monthly prayer sessions at the church for the film festival.

`DIFFERENT FAITHS'

``If I had something like this sort of festival when I was younger, I think I would feel more comfortable with learning about different faiths,'' he said.

In 1987, John Paul II made a historical visit to South Florida and spoke to tens of thousands of locals and pilgrims at Tamiami Park near Florida International University, where a handful of the film festival screenings will take place.

``Now,'' said Anrrich, ``he's coming back.''


          Ένας «φίλος της Ελλάδας» και μια τράπεζα στη σκιά της γενοκτονίας στη Ρουάντα   
Γιώργος Μιτραλιάς
ΠΗΓΗ: www.contra-xreos.gr
Η σφαγή, την Άνοιξη του 1994, τουλάχιστον 800.000 ανθρώπων στη Ρουάντα μέσα σε λίγες εβδομάδες, δεν ήταν ένα συνηθισμένο έγκλημα και για αυτό δίκαια έμεινε στην ιστορία σαν “η μεγαλύτερη γενοκτονία της μεταπολεμικής εποχής”! Και προφανώς, η αναζήτηση των υπευθύνων για αυτό το τεράστιο “έγκλημα κατά της ανθρωπότητας” δεν σταματάει ποτέ ειδικά μάλιστα όταν αυτοί οι υπεύθυνοι εντοπίζονται (και) στην κορυφή μιας χώρας σαν τη Γαλλία, και μάλιστα στην ίδια την προεδρία της Δημοκρατίας της, στον τότε πρόεδρό της Φρανσουά Μιτεράν!
Διαβάστε περισσότερα »
          Alors mon petit soldat, ce brevet d'histoire-géo nouvelle formule ? | Laurence De Cock   
Ici l'enseignement moral et civique devient le service-après-vente du Ministère de la Défense. Ainsi, après l'intervention héroïque de l'armée française au Mali proposée à l'examen il y a quelques années, les concepteurs.trices du sujet du jour, ont, dans un instant de clairvoyance aiguë, préféré à l'étude exhaustive de l'exemplarité de notre armée lors du génocide des Tutsi du Rwanda, celle de l'intervention de gentils militaires auprès de population civiles victimes des intempéries. Trêve d'ironie. Tout dans ce sujet d'EMC est catastrophique, grotesque et choquant :
          Epic TransAfrica Journey: The Skeleton   
As many of you know, I’m planning on taking a long overland trip from Kigali to South Africa after I finish my service in Peace Corps. I figure, I don’t have anything pressing to get back to America for, and it is far cheaper to fly from South Africa, so this gives me a chance […]
          Giving thanks   
Today is Thanksgiving, one of my favorite holidays. I love it because it’s a time we come together with family and friends and eat a lot of food. That really is a winning combination- I can’t think of anything better than eating too much with people I like. But it also a time of reflection, […]
          Trial Separation   
On Saturday, I arrived back in Kitabi after about three weeks away from site. It’s been a busy month! First, my friend Sophie visited me back in October. Sophie and I have known each other since preschool at TCS, and although we lost touch for a while, we reconnected in high school when we both […]
          Puppy Blues   
Saturday morning, I found a puppy on my doorstep. She was lying on her stomach on my porch, looking at her reflection in the plexiglass front door like she had been waiting for someone for a long time. I expected her to run away as soon as I opened the door, but she didn’t. She […]
          It’s ALIVE!   
I came home the weekend after my dad’s visit to a quiet school. It was mid-July. My students were still on break, and I expected to use the week to catch up on unfinished business around my village and finish drafting the grant applications for our Southern Province GLOW and BE camps which were due […]
          Photos from Dad’s Visit (gorillas, mostly)   

          Dad’s Visit   
Although it was only 9:30 in the morning, it was already getting hot. My dad and I stepped out of our taxi at Nyabugogo Bus Park and started looking for the bus that would take us to visit my host family in Kamonyi. Soon we found it- a Toyota mini-bus of the kind that is […]
          Seniority   
My site mate, Megan (or Munezero, as she is known in Rwanda) arrived at our site 5 months before me. She was the first Peace Corps Volunteer serving in Kitabi, and last week, she finished her 2 years of service in Rwanda. Site mates tend to develop complex relationships. These can range from bickering, love/hate […]
          Desire’s Wedding- The religious ceremony   
Following the dowry ceremony, we drove to a church near the center of Gitarama. When we arrived at the church, I was surprised to see that is was half built. Concrete had not yet been poured for the floor, there was no glass in the windows, and there were bricks piled in corners. Even the […]
          Desire’s Wedding- The dowry ceremony   
A few weeks after the civil ceremony, we had the official wedding day. Because Bibiane’s family is from the far west of the country, and Desire’s is from the far east, the wedding was held where in Gitarama, where the couple’s new house is as well. On the day of the wedding there were three […]
          Mode : l’imingongo, un art ancestral revisité par la marque Bull Doff   
En consacrant l’imigongo, un art décoratif rwandais, les créateurs de la griffe sénégalaise Bull Doff misent sur l’avant-garde et cassent les codes avec brio. Et voilà une collection qui pétarade ! Présentée à Genève, le 28 avril, dans le cadre du Marché des tendances africaines Afrodyssée, la dernière ligne mixte de la griffe sénégalaise Bull Doff, Imigongo, […]
          French Bank BNP Paribas Accused Of Complicity In Rwandan Genocide   
Three civil society groups in France have filed a lawsuit against French banking giant BNP Paribas, accusing it of complicity in the 1994 Rwandan genocide that killed more than 800,000 people. The groups Sherpa, the Collectif des Parties Civiles pour le Rwanda and Ibuka France said Thursday that the bank transferred $1.3 million that was used to purchase weapons, in violation of a U.N. arms embargo. They say it's the first lawsuit of its kind against a bank in France. The Rwandan genocide started after the plane of Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, an ethnic Hutu, was shot down. Hutu militias then massacred members of the minority Tutsi ethnic group over the course of 100 days. BNP Paribas has not addressed the allegations. "We became aware of the complaint through media," it said in an emailed statement to NPR. "At the moment, we do not have enough information regarding the complaint to be able to comment on it." The groups allege that one month after the U.N. implemented an arms
          Comment on Seniority by rwandanights   
Thanks Aunt Annie! I miss you all and I hope everyone's doing well. And don't worry, I'll definitely be coming home :)
          Comment on Seniority by rwandanights   
Cool! Yeah DC is a great town... except for the summer weather. Glad things are going well!
          City in a City: Day Trip to Downtown Roswell   
Roswell_shops_resize

Here in the ATL we've got lots of little neighborhood nuggets. You know the type–hidden boutiques, slammin' restaurants and awesome views. Well, as it turns out, OTP has quite a bit to offer too. (See our other OTP walking tour .) And downtown Roswell? That's one of our favorites. The town was built nearly 200 years ago around a mill, which is where all of its coolest stories (and even cooler ghosts) came from. So we set out to explore 'em all. And, of course, we couldn't do that without stopping into some of the best restaurants along Canton Street and a boutique or two, now could we?

So if you're spending a free day milling (get it? like a mill?) around your apartment, pile in the car and head just a few miles north to Roswell*. It's like a vacation, except you stay in the same city. Like a staycation! But with way less waterslides. Here our some of our highlights for a Roswellian day trip:

Land of a Thousand Hills Coffee House
352 South Atlanta Street
Nothing better to start the ol' staycation off on the right foot than some motivation (in the form of caffeine, preferably). And this coffee shop, located inside a quaint old house just outside downtown Roswell, is all about motivation and support. Fair Trade wasn't good enough for these folks–in fact, they employ people on the ground in Rwanda, Haiti and Thailand, build schools and provide coffee bikes. Really living up to their motto: "Drink Coffee. Do Good." Don't mind if we do.
Insider Intel: The Samoan Chill tastes like a frozen, blended-up cookie. Frankly, we have no idea how they did it. But we're okay with not knowing everything.

Bulloch Hall
180 Bulloch Ave.
You'll recognize this stately Greek Revival home from blocks away, but you might not register that this is the 1839 home of Mittie Bulloch. In fact, you may very well be asking yourself: "Do I even know who that is?" Well, you do. She's the mother of Mr. President Theodore Roosevelt himself. Seriously, have you seen dat 'stache? Not to mention, we kinda like seeing how Roswellians lived back in the day.
Insider Intel: If your thirst for history is not yet slaked, opt for the Southern Trilogy–visits to three of Roswell's historic residences, Smith Plantation, Barrington and Bulloch Halls. It's okay to go on tours, really. Just don't dress like this

The Bilt-House
1035 Canton Street
Though Canton Street certainly encourages meandering and browsing, we're not above one-stop shopping. And at The Bilt-House in Roswell (the largest of their three locations), you'll find everything from dazzling footwear to swanky clothing and sleek design items for the home. Oh, and they've got some pretty spiffy yard art too–but we'll let you discover that on your own.
Insider Intel: Need some cowgirl boots? Ellen or Nancy can hook you up with a pair of some mighty fine Old Gringos.

Artisan Foods Bakery + Cafe
1169 Canton Street, Suite 100
Well, seems like it's just about lunchtime, eh? We've just the thing. Just past the hustle and bustle on Canton Street, lies a rustic, nostalgic bakery and cafe, tucked inside a comfy-looking log cabin-y building. Yes, it's a bakery. But in addition to the bread and beignets, they also cook up some mean lunch-time specials. We're talking roasted lamb sandwiches and barbecue paninis. Go ahead, Instagram the whole thing.
Insider Intel: It's not always easy to happen upon this bakery. No worries. Just turn into the gravel drive before Woodstock and point your nose toward the wafting smells of baked bread.

Raiford Gallery
1169 Canton Street
This is a veritable treasure trove and it's inside a barn? Talk about a deal. After grabbing a bite at the bakery, hop next door to visit Judie's gallery, which features art, crafts and jewelry from over 400 artists. All of it wondrously displayed in the two-story Amish-style building. Upon first stepping foot inside, you might want to stand back and soak it all in, which is just fine. Isn't that what adventure is about anyway?
Insider Intel: Judie Raiford herself is an expert metalsmith, and creates stunning pieces of jewelry that you can find in the gallery.

Old Roswell Mill
85 Mill Street
Roswell is a mill town, after all. And these two miles of trails are the ideal mode of exploration–waterfalls, scenic views and a pretty swell covered bridge are all included. And after, swing by Sloan Street Park to visit the Mill Worker Monument, dedicated to the 400 or so men, women and children who were deported during the Civil War for treason. Their crime? Making cloth for the CSA (Confederate States of America). The fate of many of them remains unknown, though there are stories of wives making it back to Roswell, only to learn that their husbands had remarried. And you thought long distance relationships were hard.
Insider Intel: Head down the trail, and you can see and/or climb around the mill's actual ruins. You, urban explorer, you.

Roux on Canton
946 Canton Street
After all that shopping and cavorting about, you'll begin to realize that you never ate dinner. And Canton Street is like the cereal aisle in a grocery store—too many choices. But if you're in the mood for some Southern/Cajun fare within a cozy, rustic environs, Roux on Canton will certainly fit the bill. Plus, toss in a few tall craft brews (some of which are exclusive to the joint) and you'll be livin' it up, Roswell style.
Insider Intel: For the perfect libation to wash it all down, look no further than the Black + Yellow: a concoction of New Amsterdam Gin, St. Germain & Guiness. Yum.

Roswell Ghost Tour
610 Atlanta St.
Round out your daytrip to Roswell with tour of ghostly proportions. Joe and Dianna aim to thrill and mystify as they regal you with true tales of Roswell's past and current paranormal phenomena. And it's not gimmicky or cheesy (you can bring your own along, if you're feeling peckish). The duo gets down to the history behind Roswell and the specters still dwelling in the old buildings, cemeteries and even an abandoned building, commonly referred to as the "creepy house". Shudder. This is a walking tour that lasts a couple hours, and covers about a mile stretch. So bring your ghost-hunting gear and wear your stomping shoes.
Insider Intel: Pets (on a leash) are welcome on a special tour once each month. Just one catch: they ought to like ghosts.

*Note: Roswell was founded by Roswell King. He looked like this, and he wasn't actually the King of Roswell. That was just his name. Though he did start Roswell Manufacturing Company, so he sort of was a king. It's all very confusing.


View Day Trip to Roswell in a larger map
          Lessons America Can Learn from the Rwandan Genocide   
Against All Enemies On Sunday, 11 November 2012, Major (ret.) Brent Beardsley gave a powerful presentation reflecting on his experience as a Christian Soldier in Rwanda during the Rwandan genocide from 1993-94.  He served as the personal staff officer to then Canadian General Romeo Dallaire before and during the Rwandan genocide that engulfed that nation and ultimately […]
          LATEST POINTS TO PONDER SUNDAY 3/3   

Top World News Now                 
March 3, 2013


United States
Obama Pardons 17 Felons, First in His Second Term
DHS built domestic surveillance tech into Predator drones
'Hundreds of thousands' of documents captured with Osama bin Laden, but only 17 released
Michigan governor moves to appoint emergency manager in Detroit
Pentagon Plans to Ask for Base Closures 
Thousands of Soldiers to Leave Europe
U.S. lawmakers question military aid to Egypt, citing concerns about Israel
US factory work is returning, but the industry has changed
'Anonymous' Hacker Explains Why He Fled The US
Among Most Polluted in US, NYC Area Awaits Cleanup
US Budget Cuts Force Yellowstone to Delay Opening
Obama signs sequester bill
Obama moves a step closer to approval of Keystone pipeline
Navy Building a Drone Base in Sunny Malibu


Russia
Ukrainian leader, fresh from EU talks, to meet Putin
Russian Arms Trade Czar Says "War" Declared on Weapon Supplies to Syria
Russian demonstrators rally in support of U.S. adoption ban
Moscow Police to Probe Alleged Rally Payment Scam
Moscow Mayor says no to more mosques in the city
Opposition’s ‘Social March’ Fizzles Out in Moscow
Uzbek National Shot Dead in Moscow
Putin, Obama stress cooperation, pledge to 'avoid deterioration' in relations
Russia presses for extradition of fugitive banker
Ukrainian President: Gas contract with Russia is killing us
Putin Signals Russia Can Be More Flexible on Syria
Putin says Russia should listen to French arguments on Syria, over vodka
Russians commend Putin's performance, believe he can keep election promises


China
Islands Dispute: China Warns Japan Ahead Of Legislative Session
A push for change in China as new leaders take the helm
China's reform roadmap gets clearer
China "fully prepared" for currency war
China divided on TV 'execution parade': judicial resolve or crude voyeurism
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Kills 12 in Chinese Coal Mine
Spill in China Underlines Environmental Concerns
China's fourth space launch center to be in use in two years
Xi Jinping taking on corruption in China
Premier Li Keqiang, as Hu Jintao protege, may be outgunned on policy
China calls for decreased tension on Korean Peninsula
5 Tibetans, mostly Buddhist monks, arrested for inciting self-immolations
Darkness at noon as worst dust storm in months mixes with morning smog
China's First Aircraft Carrier on Way to Permanent Base at Qingdao in North


United Kingdom
Cameron: UK 'can transform Africa' with G8
Cameron Vows To Stay The Course
Cameron buries hatchet with Plebgate MP Andrew Mitchell - and offers him £250,000 EU job
Government fights Europe over air pollution reduction
EU banker pay cap 'threatens thousands of British jobs'
Revealed: One in four of UK's top companies pay no tax
Banker Andrei Borodin granted asylum in Britain after fleeing Russia
UK Explorer: Green Campaigning Has Failed
UK commits £88m to Chilean telescope 'as big as all existing ones put together'
Paedophile ring leader, Colin Peters, linked to Barnes scandal
Cameron vows to defend UK banks


European Union
Hundreds of thousands march against austerity in Portugal
Italy paralysed as Grillo plots exit route from euro
Italian newcomer Grillo predicts collapse in six months
Italy President Napolitano calls for realism after vote
Greek military prepares for mass repression
1000s hold anti-austerity demo in Greece
At least 22 people hurt in Macedonia ethnic protests over new defense minister
Mass layoffs at Caterpillar in Belgium
Dark Rumblings Of A Coup D'État In Spain
Spain Delays Catalunya Banc Auction
Spain overturns Islamic face veil ban
Thousands march in Portugal to protest austerity

Germany
Germany Blasted for Role in Europe's Crisis
German states rail against 'stupid' wealth transfers
Italian president says Germany must give EU recovery a boost
Germany Debates Fracking as Energy Costs Rise
Bitter feud divides family of Germany's reunification leader
Racism in German military mirrors society
Germany discovers toxin in animal fodder
Angela Merkel Wishes Bulgaria's Borissov Quick Recovery
Merkel cabinet lowers bars to German labor market
Kerry praises Germany's 'exemplary leadership' in Europe
Italian president scraps meeting with German opposition leader over "clown" remarks

France
Hollande leads tributes to 'a great figure' and resistance fighter
As France's Mali mission grows, so does terror threat from homegrown militants inside France
France considers marijuana-based drug
France will not reach 2015 disabled access target
Paris seeks alternative to 75% tax
France-Qatar tensions rise over Mali war, Tunisia
Hollande juggles trade, human rights in Moscow
Hollande to Talk Syria Settlement With Putin
Kerry holds talks on Mali with French leadership
War For Global Energy Supremacy-World War III
Al-Qaeda leader behind Algeria gas plant hostage massacre killed in Mali
US Seeks to Confirm Report of Terror Leader's Death
Syria: Fierce Clashes in Provincial Capital Raqqa
Assad Forces Take Aleppo Village, Reopening Supply Line
Syrian President Assad Blasts British Government
Iran Says Syria’s Assad to Run for 2014 Election
How Does the U.S. Mark Unidentified Men in Pakistan and Yemen as Drone Targets?
Syrian Rebels Angry Over US Aid: ‘Only Thing We Want Is Weapons’

Insight Into Today’s News
Billionaires Continue To Dump Stocks
G20 issues empty declaration against currency wars
Norway Enters The Currency Wars
The Second-Mortgage Shell Game
The Last Liberal Branch of Government
US/NATO occupation of Afghanistan unraveling
Goodbye? We’ve Lost Who We Are?
US Schools Go Into Full Prison Mode
Hornady Addresses Ammo Shortage: We’re working 24/7
US Media Yet Again Conceals Newsworthy Government Secrets

Israel
Netanyahu secretly visited Jordan to discuss peace with Palestinians
Netanyahu gets two more weeks to form Israel coalition
3 Syrian Mortars Land in Southern Golan Heights
Gaza Border: Senior Officer's Vehicle Hit by Gunshots
New coalition will have to freeze construction outside settlement blocs
Tissue tests planned for Israelis in Gaza who want to cross border
Palestinian PM evacuated from West Bank after Israeli soldiers fire teargas at protesters
Sequestration: Israel Could ‘Gradually’ Lose $500 Million in US Aid
Netanyahu blasts Erdogan's 'dark and libelous' criticism of Zionism


Turkey
Scud Missile Fired in Syria Lands Near Iraqi Village
Bombs Kill at Least 22 in Iraqi Capital
Erdoğan: Islamophobia, anti-Semitism same
Turkey's Difficult Choice in Palestine, Israel
Erdogan Calls for More Support for Syrian Opposition
Kurdish leader 'outlines' Turkey peace plan
More Military Arrests in Turkey For 'Feb. 28 Process'
Turkey Provides Schools for Syrian Refugee Children
Iraq budget stalemate deepens over Kurd oil payments
Iraq continues to allow Iranian overflights to Syria


Egypt
John Kerry visits Egypt as dozens injured in violent protests
Kerry urges Egypt to take difficult economic steps; opposition figures skip meetings
Protesters Demand Armed Forces Intervention in Cairo
Ex-member: Muslim Brotherhood has secret societies in 80 nations, including U.S.
Bahrain Activist Zainab Al-Khawaja Sentenced to Jail
176 Protesters Held in Saudi Arabia
Qatar's Influence in Egypt Runs Deeper Than Its Pockets
Morsi criticized for reaction to tragedy
Parties who boycotted Morsi's national dialogue invited to send suggestions
Opposition refuse to stand in Egypt's parliamentary elections

Iran
Ahmadinejad: National dialogue only way to end Syria crisis
Ahmadinejad: West's war against Iran media doomed to failure  
Ahmadinejad to Visit Pakistan This Month to Inaugurate IP Gas Pipeline Construction
Threatening Iran Won't Help in Nuclear Talks, Envoy Says
Seized Chinese Weapons Raise Concerns on Iran
Head Of Iran's Qods Force Suggests Assad Is Vulnerable
Sanction-Hit Iran Fears Unrest as New Elections Near
Khamenei tells Zardari pipeline must advance despite US opposition
Ahmadinejad Aide’s Candidacy a Challenge to Iran’s Theocratic Status Quo
Ahmadinejad, Zardari Stress Expansion of Iran-Pakistan Ties


Venezuela
Hugo Chavez undergoing chemotherapy
VP Maduro: Capriles Seeks Destabilization in Venezuela
Venezuela decries "absurd" rumors over Chavez death
Maduro: Chavez ‘battling’ for his life
Rumours swirl as Chavez stays out of sight
Former envoy claims Venezuela's Chavez is dead
Venezuela government denies rumours about Chavez
Venezuelans hold demo in support of Chavez
Student demonstration dispersed by authorities in Venezuela
FARC: Colombia government to blame for coffee strike


Brazil
Brazil to get its first nuclear subs
Rousseff Meets Nigerian Leader for Trade Talks
Brazil's Unemployment Rises More Than Forecast in January
Prosecutors investigate spying charges against consortium building dam in Brazil
Brazil turns to Catholic Church to quash crack epidemic
Brazil Wind Developers May Be Required to Build New Power Lines
No one is safe from Argentina's drug war
Modern Slavery Rears its Ugly Head in Chile
Chilean Navy Saves 25 Stranded Whales, 20 Die
Peru says American couple found; family wants 'proof of life'


Mexico
Nieto Says Justice Will Be Done in Union Boss’s Case
Six Bodies Found in Mexico, Including Teenage Boy Earlier Arrested for Murder
Mexican Daily Hit by Third Attack This Week
Army Kills 4 Gunmen in Northern Mexico
Two Police Gunned Down in Guatemala
Fire hits big Mexico City marketplace
Pena Nieto enacts major education reform
Powerful head of Mexico teachers union is arrested
Mexico to Launch New Police Force Later This Year

Cuba Dissident’s Daughter Says Dad’s Death Was No Accident
Cuban Dissidents Hope to Build Mass Organization
A post-Castro Cuba
Chavez Congratulates Raul Castro on Re-Election
Castro Retirement News Prompts Tepid Response In Miami
Transition now seen as underway in Cuba
Cooperatives Could Save Cuban Socialism
South African medical students in Cuba may be deported
No ease for Cuba from US state sponsor of terrorism list


United Nations
U.N. Security Council asks for report on possible Mali peacekeepers
Ban Tones Down Criticism of Rwanda Over Congo Claims
UN chief says Iran should gain world confidence over its disputed atomic plan
Libya to ask U.N. to lift arms embargo
UN Removes Osama bin Laden From Sanctions List
Emir of Ansar Dine added to US, UN
          East Africa: Will Cosafa Drill Help Stars Overcome Chan Challengers   
[Daily News] Defying the poor record of the past two events, Tanzania's Taifa Stars had an impressive start in this year's Council of Southern Africa Football Associations (COSAFA) Cup tournament in South Africa With a mission to use the tournament as a build up for CHAN qualifying match against Rwanda's Amavubi, Taifa Stars are not underdogs as they were previously, they are serious contenders for the title.
          Rwanda: Masudi Rues Missed Chances After Rayon's Peace Cup Exit   
[New Times] Rayon Sports head coach Djuma Masudi has said that his side had only themselves to blame after they missed a number of chances in 1-0 win over Espoir in the return leg of this year's Peace Cup on Tuesday that saw them exit on a 1-2 aggregate score.
          Rwanda: APR Thrash Amagaju to Reach Peace Cup Final   
[New Times] APR FC humiliated Amagaju 5-0 in the second leg of their semi-final fixture at Stade de Kigali, yesterday.
          Harvard author notes leading role for women in post-genocide Rwanda   
Swanee Hunt, a lecturer at the Kennedy School and former U.S. ambassador to Austria, has written a book about the role of women in leading post-genocide Rwanda.
          Summer Students Visit Development Organizations in DC   

Back row, l-r: Hawi Burka Kebede (Ethiopia), Bantu Mabaso (Swaziland), Miranda Meyer MAIEM/MPA ’18 (Graduate Assistant), Javier Monterroso Montenegro (Guatemala), Jhader Aguad (Peru), Jose Merlo (Ecuador). Front row, l-r: Allan Martinez Venegas (Costa Rica), Shanina van Gent (The Netherlands), Amita Ramachandran (India). 

One of the added advantages the Institute’s Design Partnering, Management and Innovation (DPMI) program offers to students in its annual Washington DC session (sessions are also offered in Monterey and Rwanda) is the opportunity to take advantage of occasional mornings off during the three-week training to visit organizations involved in international development. On June 20, a group of Davis UWC Scholars enrolled in this summer’s DPMI in DC session had the opportunity to visit the Organization of American States (OAS).

Student Amita Ramachandran said she “really appreciated” the opportunity to visit OAS and “had a fantastic time with the amazing instructors and incredible cohort.”

Students in the intensive three-week DPMI program earn a certificate in international development and social change. Participants gain the program design, evaluation, strategic partnering, and facilitation skills needed to launch a career in international development, and become part of a global network of over 1,300 program alumni. Student Gabbie Santos (Midd '17) said “I’m grateful to DPMI for allowing me a close look at some of what international development work could involve. My interest in the field has been largely shaped and informed by my experiences at home in the Philippines.”

“Washington D.C. is a classroom in itself and our goal is to offer each cohort of DPMI in DC students both an intensive skill-building course and the chance to supplement it with invaluable networking opportunities,” added Director of Professional Immersive Learning and Special Programs Carolyn Taylor Meyer MAIPS ’05.

Each year since 2006, the DPMI in DC program admits eight Davis UWC scholars, who receive scholarships to attend the certificate program. The Davis UWC Scholars Program aims to build cross-cultural understanding by offering full scholarships to each United World College student who wishes to attend a participating university in the U.S. Since its founding in 2000, the program has provided scholarships to 7,686 scholars from 152 countries attending U.S. partner colleges and universities.

The Organization of American States considers itself to be “the world’s oldest regional organization,” dating back to the First International Conference of American States in 1889-90. The OAS was established in its current form in 1948 with goals including the promotion of collaboration, as well as the defense of the sovereignty and independence of the 35 independent member states.


          Week #19 – Rwanda Kanyege   
Region: Western Provence Town: Kanyege Altitude: 1,780 masl Variety: Red bourbon Processing: Washed In the cup: Toffee, stewed cherries, chocolate, dried apricot with a candied citrus acidity. Rwanda Trading Company helped establish this washing station early in 2015, providing some much needed capital and expertise for its construction. The station sits in Rwanda’s Western Province, a region […]
          آمبولانس ها در آینده بدون راننده میشوند   

مجلۀ فناوریهای توان‌افزا و پوشیدنی
مجلۀ فناوریهای توان‌افزا و پوشیدنی - فناوریهای پوشیدنی، توانبخشی و اسکلت بیرونی

در آینده آمبولانس‌های بدون راننده می‌توانند برخی از خدمات اورژانسی را ارائه دهند تا امدادرسانان به بیماران با خطر بالا رسیدگی کنند. هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین نیز می‌توانند توسط خدمات سلامت و بهداشت برای تحویل تجهیزات پزشکی و دارو به نقاط دورافتاده مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. در حال حاضر از هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین برای تحویل خون و دارو در سراسر Rwanda استفاده می‌شود. با مجله فناوری‌های توان‌افزا و پوشیدنی همراه باشید. انقلاب در...

آمبولانس ها در آینده بدون راننده میشوند
فریبا ماندگاری


          Re: Rwanda / Burundi   
slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?
          Re: Au Rwanda   
I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones.
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
          Rwanda: Foreign Investment in Rwandan Banks, Welcome   

The 24th Annual General Meeting of the African Export-Import Bank closed in Kigali yesterday after a week of activities; it attracted dozens of international business journalists one of whom I had a conversation with and is the inspiration behind this commentary. The journalist, an editor in chief for Finance with a respected France based publication was partly here to gather content for an upcoming journal about Africa's 200 largest banks and he wanted my insight into recent developments in Rwanda's banking sector.


          Ice Brew – Some Thoughts   
I’ve just finished reading Oliver Strand’s and James Hoffman’s (separate) writings on “Ice Brew”. The cold brewed coffee made by brewing manual filter over ice. Both are very interesting, and well and truly got me excited to try this method. Especially Oliver Strand’s description of Handsome’s Rwandan Dukunde Kawa that tasted like lemonade!! But in my mind the methodology …

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          Rwanda: Foreign Investment in Rwandan Banks, Welcome   
[New Times] The 24th Annual General Meeting of the African Export-Import Bank (Afreximbank) closed in Kigali yesterday after a week of activities; it attracted dozens of international business journalists one of whom I had a conversation with and is the inspiration behind this commentary.
          Business and Private Diplomacy: A Potential Catalyst for Sustainable Peace   

30 Jun 2017

By Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov for Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP)

The UN has frequently acknowledged that the private sector can function as a powerful agent of change. However, the world body’s preferred partners to resolve conflicts and build peace remain civil society and armed actors. Additionally, the leaders of UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business communities or use their influence to build peace. Well, these practices have to change, argues Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov, both at the multinational and micro-national levels.

This article was originally published by the Geneva Centre for Security Policy in June 2017.

Introduction

A general overview of what the term “private sector” entails will help define the scope of this paper. The private sector can be defined as the part of the economy that is not run by a state, but by individuals and companies for profit. It comprises a large diversity of organisations such as publicly or privately owned companies, including multinational companies (MNCs); organisations owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit such as cooperatives; or organisations that raise funds to operate and are financed by government or intergovernmental organisations or through hybrid business models, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), but excluding non-profit organisations (NPOs).1 When referring to the private sector, this paper will include publicly or privately owned companies, including MNCs, but exclude private military companies. All private sector organisations’ main driving forces can be summed up as a quest for profits, security and reputation.

Because it is multidimensional, the private sector can be classified in many ways. In addition to a classification by sector, businesses can be ranked by size, number of employees, geographical presence, if they are a local business or the subsidiary of an MNC, or are tailored to serve domestic needs or export markets (or both). In a violence-or conflict-affected context each category of business will evolve differently, reinvent itself or disappear.

Key Points

Small businesses/micro-companies serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process because they often constitute the only form of economic activity in a conflict zone.MNCs have a range of options to respond to conflict, but cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding initiatives, and rarely become involved officially. Track Two diplomacy is their more likely area of involvement.The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, the UN still engages only two players in conflict resolution and peacebuilding: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or use its influence to build peace.Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would produce a more formidable force for peace. World affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into a new UN system of governance; new routes are possible for a truly inclusive approach, recognising the business sector’s positive contribution to sustainable peace through informal mediation and collaborative engagement.

A converging definition and shared approach

Size is the most convenient and easily available criterion of classification for private sector companies. In emerging market economies affected by violence or conflict there would be five main categories of private businesses: formal businesses (big companies that are registered with local authorities and pay taxes); semi-formal medium-sized companies (which pay taxes, but are not systematically registered with authorities); small companies (which represent the vast majority of businesses, operate in a dedicated area or office, and are registered with local authorities); micro-companies (which operate from a variety of places such as markets or in the street and pay some form of tax on the temporary location from which they conduct business, such as a market place or handcart); and home workshops (which are mainly to be found in larger cities). Small companies operating from a dedicated or informal area provide more than half of the world’s formal jobs. They are key drivers of economic growth and development, as well as the backbone of a local economy. Among the medium-sized or small private companies mentioned above, government employees might run such small businesses in some countries in order to diversify sources of income or risk, and allow close or even remote family members to make a living.

As violence increases or conflict breaks out, micro-companies and MNCs will be impacted, but never in the same ways or at the same pace. Generally, the private sector will shift from traded to non-traded goods (i.e. goods provided by donors), cut investment, and shift its capital to foreign currency assets and away from its production tools. Commerce and tourism will be the first sectors to contract, followed by manufacturing and construction. This shift will create conditions for an informal economy (which employs 80% of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo/DRC2) as households’ incomes deteriorate and inflation affects official and parallel markets alike. Falls in employment will create falls in domestic savings and greater reliance on external aid. In such environments, agriculture and public administration will often remain the only source of official employment and income. Violence and conflict also change the prosperity equilibrium as individual roles evolve. When men die in conflict, women become responsible for ensuring the community’s survival by starting informal businesses or taking up farming.3

Small players, such as micro-companies, become important: in chaotic times grassroots, local entrepreneurs provide the only goods, services and jobs available in a given conflict zone. They can also make an important contribution to conflict transformation because they maintain their economic influence and local political contacts during the conflict, and thus serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process. So do business associations, because they often also have close links to governments and represent all sides of the conflict.

The Guatemalan experience illustrates the role of business associations. The 36-year civil war in that country was caused by interlinked social, economic and political factors, “specifically ideological differences embedded in the global political struggle of the Cold War”.Initially, the Guatemalan private sector was not a fervent supporter of the peace negotiations. The overall intensity of the war was low and geographically contained in mountainous areas, and the sectors that were most affected by the conflict were limited to tourism and the coffee industry. Negotiations with all stakeholders, including business, started on a very positive note. However, because of tensions between factions within the association representing the private sector, Comité Coordinador de Asociaciones Agricolas, Comerciales, Industriales y Financieras (CACIF), it refused to meet rebel groups, demanding instead an immediate ceasefire. Interestingly, the coffee industry did not embrace peace talks, because the peace process was associated with economic reform, while the tourism sector, too weak to lobby, was absent from the process. This tends to support the idea that different groups within the business sector are more or less willing or able to support mediation or a peace process.

At the other end of the size spectrum lie MNCs. They account for two-thirds of world trade and can be defined as large corporations incorporated in one country, implementing a consistent multinational response among their various subsidiaries. Their global number is estimated at 80,000, with 840,000 subsidiaries across the world, representing 75,000,000 employees. During the 1950s and 1960s host governments rarely intervened in the affairs of MNCs. Nowadays, these large companies are more flexible and more responsive to their host governments’ demands. But not all MNCs follow the same strategy, and some will sacrifice market participation to preserve strategic autonomy. “There can be no growth in an environment where there is no peace”, says Unilever boss Paul Polman, insisting that business “can and must be a force for good5”. The “corporate coalition” backing Peace One Day – including Skype, McKinsey, Ocado, Innocent, Coca-Cola and Burger King – is a start, but certainly not what corporations do best.6 Instead, they could engage in discussions on good governance and obstacles to peace.

An MNC subsidiary faces complex governance challenges in the wake of violence or conflict. It is controlled by its parent company, which is often based outside the region or country; this company bears the ultimate responsibility for the group’s worldwide strategic direction. The affiliate or subsidiary is expected to support the overall objectives of its group, contributing to its brand and matters of corporate priority such as Western-led concepts like corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is a first possible gap between the subsidiary of a MNC and its host country. Understanding often diminishes and misunderstandings widen as violence increases in the country hosting the subsidiary, due to the distance between the centre of power (company headquarters) and the local affiliate.

Going Beyond CSR; or, the limitations of policies

Recent literature7 has explored how MNCs are expected to contribute to peace and security in the absence of public or government capacity to fulfil this role. Most of those who participated in this research (through individual phone interviews or plenary sessions) were communications directors, CSR managers, and line and business managers from MNCs’ subsidiaries. Many respondents seemed to ignore the role their employer could or did play in peace and security. This might be because CSR involves voluntary self-commitments focusing mainly on the environment, health care, education or security. The role of business in conflict is rarely addressed in this context, either because the CSR agenda needs to be broadened or because businesses are indeed active in issues related to the conflict, but it is not considered part of CSR. This constitutes a second gap in the corporate governance of MNCs: local CSR is part of a more global CSR strategy and is often managed as an extension of local public affairs, public relations or marketing efforts. In order to offer any sense of how MNCs’ subsidiaries can have an impact on peace and security, further research is needed from the business point of view involving risk managers, chief financial officers, and members of the executive board in charge of audit and control committees.

Research by swisspeace focused on Swiss MNCs and how they engage in peace efforts.8 The paper in question is based on interviews with CSR managers from the MNCs’ head offices and focuses on their knowledge of their companies’ contribution to peacebuilding. The data covers eight to ten Swiss companies from various sectors. Most CSR managers appear to be unaware of the ways in which they could engage in peace processes or what role they could play. As the authors suggest, this might be because peacemaking or conflict transformation “is not linked to the business case”.9 Other explanations also come to mind. Firstly, involvement in a political process can only result from an informal individual initiative, not as part of a formal representation of the company, and strictly on a confidential basis, which means no public relations communications – in fact, no communication whatsoever. Secondly, the lack of institutional trust between civil society or advocacy NGOs and the private sector is so heightened that such high-level strategic information will be considered only on a need-to-know basis. The CSR manager will deal with philanthropic initiatives to improve the environment or help local communities, as well as manage advocacy NGOs or research foundations. CSR or security managers might not be involved in all formal or informal contacts between a local business manager and strategic stakeholders.

The review of existing grey research covering CSR managers in MNC subsidiaries and MNC headquarters demonstrates that there is an obvious need for more research in the area of violence and conflict resolution in terms of risk management. As a result, the issue of the relationship between business and peace might be more one of board policy or operational strategy, and therefore falls beyond CSR.

Take a positive peace perspective

When an MNC considers suspending its activities due to violence or conflict, the result is an important depletion of local knowledge – and an increase in risk for the local population and local business alike, because of outsourced goods and services. The immediate consequence of an MNC’s withdrawal or shutdown is undesirable from a local employment perspective: selling a subsidiary to a competitor might appear more desirable, but not if the new owner recognises fewer rights for employees and local communities (human rights, labour rights, development rights, social and economic rights).

Acting truly locally is a strategic challenge for global MNCs. Some are able to act like local businesses.10They employ local people, thus contributing to social mixing, and support those who wish to start their own businesses. This strategy maintains a certain level of economic normality in times of violence or conflict – and prepares for future peace. This can also be achieved by an MNC subsidiary maintaining local infrastructure such as transport, or temporarily covering basic health and social services. In all these examples the private sector can compensate for temporary state shortcomings or the total collapse of state-supplied services.

But in the absence of a mandate to participate in peace settlements, the private sector might resolve to consider its bottom line rather than its humanitarian impact, and shut down or sell its operations, despite adverse local consequences. In Nepal, for instance, the economic stagnation that marked the period following the end of civil war in 2006 was caused by the withdrawal of Indian MNCs that supported the Nepalese economy, and clearly hindered political and social stability.

It might be of interest to consider what strategies the private sector – MNCs and local businesses alike – can chose in a context of violence or conflict. Firstly, it can decide to take advantage of the economics of war and grow its business. Secondly, it can conduct business as usual, under local regulation or the absence of it, either because it cannot withdraw (e.g. a local business), or because violence is not affecting its operations. Thirdly, it can withdraw from the conflict zone and disengage. Fourthly, it can decide to engage proactively and contribute to public security.

From a positive peace perspective, business can foster economic development, support an emerging or existing legal system, and nourish a sense of community. It does not, however, consider the provision of assistance to local communities as a political act, but as tangible ways of reducing its operational costs. In matters of general strategy or corporate policy, CSR is considered as part of operations, while supporting peace or conflict resolution is the exclusive prerogative of the local or international political domain. In practice, the difference between CSR and working for peace and stability follows a very fine line, and is more of a corporate philosophy than an entrenched position. Businesses are committed to avoiding conflict as best they can. But as outsiders in a host country they must remain neutral: actively negotiating between warring parties cannot be part of their licence to operate. Business therefore cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding activities.

Because of the reputational and security risks involved in participating in peace mediation processes, companies rarely become involved officially, and if they do, it is with the utmost confidentiality and discretion. If the private sector contributes to conflict transformation efforts – for instance, through good offices or by supporting higher national interests – it is often on condition that its non-core contribution remains secret. If its contribution is publicised, its licence to operate and the safety of its staff, operations or infrastructure on the ground might be at risk. This need for discretion – for security or competitive advantage – is certainly one of the reasons why business’s engagement in peacebuilding or conflict mediation as a facilitator or information intermediary is rarely properly investigated or publicised. Short-term political ambitions only contribute to business’s caution when publicising any involvement in conflict prevention or resolution.

In terms of ‘economic’ peacebuilding, the private sector is encouraged to use its direct economic influence to promote peace. In terms of so-called ‘political’ peacebuilding, the private sector participates in initiatives such as ‘policy dialogues’ with local stakeholders. According to International Alert,11 this more political form of engagement includes participating in truth and reconciliation commissions; supporting weapons hand-ins; providing capacity-building support for local government, including judicial and police forces; supporting initiatives to attract foreign investment; and helping the local private sector build capacity and governance systems.

In a number of cases the private sector has decided to act as an agent of prevention in order to mitigate violence. One example is the campaign led by the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and its 100,000 members following the 2008 electoral violence in that country. This violence caused major disruptions to the Kenyan tourism, tea and flower industries: exports fell by up to 40% in some areas of the country, while tourist inflows decreased by more than a third and job losses increased dramatically. The private sector decided to embark on a five-year corporate campaign to prevent possible violence ahead of the 2013 elections. Many initiatives were conducted, including a communication and training campaign in cooperation with civil society organisations, interfaith groups, developmental partners and the media. KEPSA is also reported to have supported legislative advocacy to tackle the causes of poverty in Kenyan society, lobbied key politicians to commit to peaceful elections, and pressured members of the media to avoid inflammatory content in their publications. Mobile operators also took steps to prevent their networks from being used to disseminate political hate speech. This local perspective on conflict transformation remains an important avenue for further research.

Business’s motivations to remain in violence- or conflict-affected zones

Assuming it has the possibility to leave a violent or conflict area, a company might still decide to remain in an unstable environment for four main reasons. Firstly, it might still be able to make a profit: costs related to the conflict do not outweigh the income the business can generate. While ensuring income for both the company and its local staff, the company thus contributes to preserving some kind of economic normality for local communities. Heineken, the Dutch brewer founded in 1864, imported its first beer into Africa in 1900. It is now present in 23 African countries. The current CEO, Jean-François van Boxmeer, worked in Rwanda in the early 1990s. He then moved to the DRC, where he helped to deal with the refugee crisis that followed the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

Among the refugees were many of Heineken’s Rwandan employees and their families. As general manager of Bralima, Heineken’s DRC subsidiary, Van Boxmeer decided the company would help his former Rwandan employees, offering shelter and basic income. This meant that the company’s resources would go to humanitarian aid rather than running the company. But it was the only possible decision, Van Boxmeer says: “The larger the company, the larger the stakes. But you have a social contract. It’s one of the crucial elements for a leader to remember and live by.”12

Secondly, if the company represents the interests of a foreign state, it might need to balance the evolution of the relationship between its home country and its host government with regard to the conflict; this relationship will have an impact on its dealings with local authorities and its host government. It might not be in a position to balance the risk/opportunity equation, but the company will remain in the country for the purposes of its home government’s national interest. Total is one of the major world oil companies, and the French government has a 15% stake in it (down from 34% in 1992). Active in Burma/Myanmar since 1992, the company’s investments in the country are guaranteed by the French government through Coface (Compagnie française d’assurance pour le commerce extérieur). Over time, Total expanded its direct investments to become the largest foreign investor in Burma after all the major MNCs left the country following boycotts. In 2002 a case was filed against Total in Brussels by four Myanmar refugees for alleged complicity in violations of human rights in the course of the construction and operation of the Yadana Gas Pipeline. Belgian authorities dropped the case in 2008.13

Thirdly, the business might simply ‘hold the market’ and secure future resources or interests, as part of a long-term business strategy in the sector or region, and as mandated by its shareholders. And, finally, the company might decide to keep its operation active in a conflict zone to gain critical learning experience and ultimately improve the way in which it operates. When he sent the French army into Mali in 2013 to deal with an insurrection in the north of the country, President Hollande recommended that French citizens should leave the country, but hardly any left. In 2010, 60 French-owned subsidiaries and companies were in Mali, mainly in Bamako. These companies were active in mining (Vinci and Bouygues via subsidiaries), banks (BNP Paribas), telecoms (Alcatel-Lucent), transport (Air France), etc. Most of them considered that if security measures were put in place early, it was possible to continue working in near-normality; for instance, to limit travel and risk, employees could move into and live in the work site. Security procedures were submitted to the local French embassy for its future evacuation plans.

Some businesses are considered better peacebuilders than others, partly because of their exit options or the amount of capital invested. Extractive industries have few options in conflict-affected areas and require high investments over decades, but they also have powerful incentives to contribute to peace. Despite this economic stimulus, the extractive industry is often criticised for continuing to work in conflict-affected areas, while industries like tourism or telecoms are regarded as better suited to peacebuilding activities.

Engaging Business in Private Diplomacy

Would world affairs benefit from integrating the private sector into a clear UN mandate or as part of a new system of governance engaging traditional and new parties to multilateral diplomacy? First and foremost, business needs to recognise that conflicts provoke many emotions, “which in turn play a crucial role in the evolution of conflict”.14 If greed and grievance are the main sources of conflict, then government and business might very well share responsibility for a conflict. Poverty, social inequality, unemployment or divided identity politics fuel conflict, particularly when accompanied by illegal behaviour on the part of governments – through corruption or illegitimate private wealth accumulation, or when divisive political leaders plant the seeds of ethnic conflict. But this can also be the case when companies indulge in illegal or irresponsible behaviour.

Governments’ interests have always gone beyond their national borders, leading to foreign conquests and in many cases causing massacres and atrocities. These conquests were mostly conducted through either direct or indirect engagement. The private sector also contributed to these conquests, with the blessing of states, for better or worse, working with governments to export alleged liberalisation and democratisation. An example of direct military engagement is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A more recent example of indirect engagement is when Nasdaq-listed companies were sent as emissaries to Iran in 201315.

Because of the perceived shortcomings of governments and their political agendas, as well as business’s considered failure to act responsibly, new actors have entered conflict-resolution or mediation efforts: the Crisis Management Initiative, the Carter Center’s Conflict Resolution Programme, the United States Institute of Peace and the Geneva-based Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. These private organisations actively participate on behalf of governments in Track Two diplomacy (as part of unofficial government diplomacy), but also increasingly in Track One (official government) diplomacy initiatives, exploring new channels or contacts when the official lines of communication and negotiation have broken down. Their lack of a political mandate is recognised by all parties to mediation processes and is a welcome development in a peace market that has suffered from the presence of actors who promote peace, democracy and human rights, but do not strictly abide by the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence. Mediators themselves mention the relevance of business actors in the two diplomacy tracks and the increasing importance of business actors as economic actors and facilitators in fragile states: “local business actors may have more leverage within track 2 processes than as part of a large internationally peace mediation process.”16 From the mediator’s point of view, “it is of little relevance whether (the business) becomes engaged in a peace process for personal business interests or for more altruistic interests in peace”.17

The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, in real life the UN still considers two actors to be relevant in conflict resolution and peacebuilding processes: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. Peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or to help regulate their impact on peace, including in countries where the UN Security Council (UNSC) has imposed trade sanctions. This (voluntary?) decision by the UN and UNSC not to work with pro-peace businesses indicates a wider institutional pattern: “It is irresponsible of UN practice to ... overlook the way in which these actors might help – or hinder – near and long-term conflict transformation.”18 Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would probably produce a more formidable force for peace.

The only reference to business being consulted can be found in the December 2005 founding mandate of the UN Peace Building Commission (PBC); since then, neither the PBC annual session reports nor working papers for 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 mention encouraging the possibility of engaging with business in any peace process – with the exception of local business, which is merely reminded of its duty to pay taxes ...! One might consider that this is because business is publicity shy on topics it considers to be of political relevance. Or it might be because business has simply not wished to be actively involved in any PBC activities. The truth lies certainly somewhere between the PBC not knowing how to engage business and business not wishing to be seen as active in what it perceives to be part of the political arena. However, since perceptions effectively constitute reality, the PBC seems to be missing out on the engagement of an important stakeholder, while business is guilty of not supporting the peace efforts of intergovernmental organisations.

The feeling is that economic transformation might exclusively be the responsibility of policymakers. The absence of the private sector in the so-called inclusive approach to peacebuilding and the absence of engagement with businesses to generate improvements represent at best an omission and at worse ignorance on what important stakeholders can potentially contribute to building peace. As things stand today, except in communication and fund-raising events, the private sector is not considered as a sound partner in peace processes. There is hardly any formal record either in UNSC mandates or UN peace operations (MONUSCO, UNOCI, UNMISS, etc.) of consulting with commercial entities such as trade professionals, purchasers, suppliers or commercial agents. UN entities only address regulatory issues through civil society monitoring. The UNSC engages states to take the necessary measures to deal with natural resources-related conflicts and invites international financial institutions to contribute to establishing regulatory governance: it does not consult on, engage with or regulate this process, and does not deal with the issue directly.

Should the UNSC adopt a wider mandate, no doubt responsible companies active in natural resources would support conflict transformation efforts in post-conflict areas, but without an “exceptional transitional business regulatory role”.19 Business could also proactively initiate networks and engage actors or trade associations in the post-conflict business sector to adopt responsible peace-related business self-regulation.

Responsible leadership

A case can be made for a new kind of responsible leadership to support integrated and comprehensive peace processes through mediation. Through a collective, cooperative approach, the underlying causes of conflict could be addressed; such an approach would include companies, NGOs, labour organisations, and local and national governments. This approach might take time to set up and implement, but it would bring hope to and positive developments for all parties involved:

It will be argued that the factors affecting the issue are not within the control of companies – it is a matter for government. Or it will be claimed that the issue is not as widespread as suggested and that things are not really so bad. Or that it would require industry-wide effort to have an impact. Companies, like NGOs, are human organisations and they suffer from the natural conservatism of all human organisations – they like to carry on doing what they have been doing successfully for years and tend to resist any change to a smoothly running system.20

Understanding possible informal engagements among political actors, mediators and business, as well as the role of each industry within the economy, must be explored in order to influence the overall process. One of the most successful ways in which business can support peace has been through trade associations, including businesspeople from both sides of the conflict. Mediators praise their direct or indirect, pragmatic, economics-focused, bridge-builder approach21 and consider that it is relevant to include business actors, depending on the context or the stage of the mediation process: early in the process as part of formal Track One initiatives or on their own initiative in a Track Two or Track Three process; during the negotiation phase, using their knowledge of economic development, trade or employment; and/or during the implementation phase, for instance by providing suitable jobs to former combatants, thus providing them with gainful options other than armed violence, or hiring people from all sides of the conflict, thus contributing to breaking down stereotypes and biases.22

Facilitating informal, off-the-record talks between mediators and businesses is also a route that needs to be systematically explored. The inspiration for these informal/briefing talks between business and mediators is as much about rebuilding trust as building knowledge and understanding on both sides. For instance, the private sector was successfully involved at the Track One level in the recent successful negotiation process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), playing an important informal role throughout these negotiations. Some businesspeople were even members of the negotiation team. The government, the FARC and the business sector themselves welcomed the private sector’s engagement: “Business leaders held off-the-record meetings of multi-sectorial groups in order to generate space for developing personal relationships.”23 Members of the business sector sponsored and were involved in public demonstrations and activities to protest against the conflict and lobbied on numerous public occasions for a peaceful settlement. Business representativ