All about Care for an Acrylic Aquarium Kit   
The practice of keeping aquariums came about in the late 1800's. They were fairly crude. Usually these ancient aquariums only had one side that was made of glass, with the other three sides being made of metal or wood. Most aquariums consisted of fish that were native to the region of its owner simply because of availability. Also most old school fish tanks contained only fresh water fish. The reason being that salt water would corrode the metal frame that held the aquarium together.

Aquariums drastically changed in the 1960's with the invention of silicone adhesive. Metal frames became obsolete and more people started to keep salt water fish and invertebrates. More recently glass tanks have become less frequently used due to the flexibility of acrylic. Literally flexibility! Acrylic aquariums are far more for forgiving than there glass counterparts. If a heavy object strikes a glass tank, it will almost certainly break. The flexibility of an acrylic tank will prevent this catastrophe from happening. In addition, acrylic offers more flexibility in design than glass. Acrylic aquariums have been made into everything from coffee tables to gum ball machines.

That being said, there is a short downfall to owning an acrylic aquarium. They do scratch more easily than glass. When cleaning your aquarium, be careful not to use paper towels, and harsh or abrasive chemicals, as they can scratch the acrylic surface of the aquarium. Always use a cleaner specifically labeled safe for acrylic. Use plastic or rubber scrubbers, rather than metal to clean the sides of an acrylic tank. Be careful not to accidentally pick up a piece of substrate or gravel while cleaning the inside of the tank. However, if you do happen to scratch an acrylic aquarium, all is not lost. The tank can be repaired, unlike glass. There are acrylic repair kits available at specialty pet stores, your local hardware store and of course online.

When purchasing an acrylic aquarium kit, there will be many different options to choose from, at many different price points. Aquarium kits can be purchased at places such as specialty aquatic pet stores, from huge retail chains, or again online. A fish lover can choose from small cylinder shaped tanks that can double as a coffee table lamp to wall huge wall sized aquariums. While, there are some basic things that will be included in most kits, such as, a filter, some substrate or coral and sometimes lighting, the kits themselves can vary greatly. It really doesn't matter where you buy your starter kit, but keep in mind that it is extremely important to buy your fish from a reputable dealer. Don't buy fish that are hovering near the surface, or that are located in a tank with other dead fish. Fish diseases are extremely communicable. Be weary of a fish dealer that refuses to catch a specific fish out of the tank for you. After all this is going to be your fish and you have a right to choose.

Tristan Andrews is a freelance author who writes articles about pet health and pet supplies.

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Creative Agency: Asprey Creative
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Sapporo Australia
Location: Australia
Packaging Contents: Beer
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Glass, paper
Printing Process: Lithographic

Asprey Creative has designed a contemporary new look for the Sapporo beer brand in Australia. Established in 1876, Sapporo is the oldest brewery in Japan and can rightfully claim to be the authentic taste of Japan.

Our redesigned packaging is a striking, brand focused update in a market that has a rapidly growing enthusiasm for Japanese beer. By proudly projecting the iconic Sapporo gold star and confidently using Japanese calligraphy, we’re returning ‘Legendary Biru’ to Australian bars.”

This update to the visual style of Sapporo in Australia was applied to bottles, caps, cluster packs and outer shippers.

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          This is Laconia   

Creative Agency: Black Mamba
Creative Director: Panayiotis G. Fotos
Art Director / Illustrator: Panayiotis G. Fotos
Copywriter: Stelios Georgosopoulos / Veronica Fragia
Project Type: Commercial Work
Client: Laconian Herb Society
Packaging Contents: Handcrafted Herbs from Laconia / Greece
Location: Athens, Greece
Printing Process: Offset
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Plastic Cylindric Eco-Box / Paper-sticker

Hand crafted herbs from Laconia, south of Greece. The title clearly communicate to the users about the contents coupled with the consistency of the illustration of the hand in the multiple SKUs in the project.

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          Villa Pallato   

Creative Agency: Brandholic
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Villa Pallato
Location: Gaspar, Brazil
Packaging Contents: Fine mushrooms
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Paper, glass
Printing Process: Hot-stamping, Offset printing

Villa Pallato is a Brazilian brand specializing in the import of fine mushrooms, Italian truffles and derivatives. All carefully selected and rigorously approved. A line of products of high durability, maintaining the purest taste and texture of the mushrooms, in order to make it more accessible and considerably increase consumption in our country.

Villa Pallato, the Village of Paladar in Italian, refers to the time of immigrants and their importance to agriculture in the country. The company's hometown was heavily influenced by Italian immigration with traces of the culture scattered throughout the city. Cozy name that refers to something homemade, made with love, with a flowing sound, is easy to remember.

In addition to the graphic material that it used, the brand could not reach a conceptual connection with the target audience of this type of product, resulting in the lack of prominence deserved in the pdv. Our mission was to build the new brand, conceptualization, naming, create the design and communication materials, which resulted in a new positioning, visibility and sales for Villa Pallato.

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          Ambrosia - Olive Oil   

Creative Agency: Artichoke creative bureau
Creative Director/ Designer: Thomas Kiourtsis
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Ambrosia wines & spirits PTY LTD
Location: Athens, Greece
Packaging Contents: Olive Oil
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Glass, Tin
Printing Process: Screen printing, offset printing

The Brief: Ambrosia is a Sydney based company that imports greek olive oil & quality greek products. We've been asked to create a logotype and the product identity for their EVO & Premium EVO, they wanted to reflect the simplicity of everyday life of the Greek countryside.

The Design: The symbol is based on the myth that "ambrosia" - the food o the gods - was brought to mount Olympus by doves. We designed a dove with simple round forms that carrys a branch of olive tree - connecting the food of the gods with the olive products. The logotype with classic and simple typography, supports the symbol with circular forms and adding a greek identity with the greek letter β (beta) in the place of b. The product identity is based on a simplified illustration of an olive tree branch. Simpler layout, cleaner forms and smaller amount of branches for the Premium EVO and a more common approach for the EVO label is meant to show the difference of two products, in quality and difficulty of production.

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          Spice City - Spice Blends   

Designer: Tushar Diwan
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Aryaa Foods Inc.
Location: Mumbai, India
Packaging Contents: Spice Blends
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Sticker Labels on glass jars
Printing Process: Digital Printing

A project to come up with an identity and a packaging design for this brand of homemade spice blends which are very helpful to people leading a hectic life, on the go and would like to spice up their daily food.

The nomenclature had been fixed and decided upon and provided along with the brief for the project. The constraints include the size and shape of the bottle which were provided before initiation of the project.

The concept of using a map kind of an outline with overlapping areas to give the feel of a geographic location. This is further followed on later in designing each of the individual labels for the brand,by selecting very specific graphics and details of the sub brands as per the nation they are associated with.

The design language used also makes it easy and viable to add more and more flavours to the range of spices by following the same guidelines and simply changing the colours and cultural graphics according to the flavour.

There are more images of the bottles other than the ones submitted which are present in the online project and can be provided if required.

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          Feldstein Winery   

Creative Agency: XPRESSIONS
Designers: Eddie Goldfine, Liron Silkov
Photographer: Hagit Goren
Project Type: Produced, Commercial Work
Client: Feldstein Winery
Location: Tel Aviv, Israel
Packaging Contents: Wine Labels
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Paper, glass
Printing Process: Digital, Foil, Blind Embossing, Rustic white wine paper

"FELDSTEIN" is a privately owned winery located in central Israel. The head winemaker and part owner of this boutique winery, Avi Feldstein, asked us to develop a special series of labels characterizing his vision of a dynamic, diverse winery producing a rich variety of wines using chosen grapes from different locations. The labels use empty maps defined only by their coordinate borders as if to say, "we know not where the next harvest will occur".

"The spot is already located but our steps have yet to mark the path... our feet will draw the map" says Feldstein. The empty map is metaphorical as well- defining the varietals, areas, terrain, climate and history. "My winery's identity wishes to celebrate this search, the freedom and responsibility it allows and the magic it creates" adds Feldstein.

The empty map uses simple, elegant typography juxtaposed with visual elements from old maps and topographical graphics. The FELDSTEIN logo is designed using a scanned classic Hebrew wood-block typeface known as “Hatvi Hallul” designed in 1956 and is well known for its use in certificates, signs and official documents.

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          8 O'Clock Milk (Concept)   

Creative Agency: Brama Branding
Project Type: Concept
Location: Minsk, Belarus
Packaging Contents: Milk
Packaging Substrate / Materials: Plastic

The Belarusian milk shelf looks better with every year – packages are upgraded, new formats are evolving, and original solutions are emerging. The only segment remaining unchanged is low-priced milk: nothing interesting happens to a plastic pouch, its design is limited to the manufacturer's logo and “technical” information. So boring! What if to turn the form into the idea?

Visual concept of packaging, naming

A square package of milk resembles a sleeping pillow. And milk is usually consumed after sleep and before bedtime. In the morning, it is added to cereals, smoothies, flakes, coffee, and a glass of warm milk with a cookie before going to bed is a favorite treat for many children. Therefore, a variable name: “8 a.m.” for fatter milk and “8 p.m.” for a lighter product.

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           Investigation of the reactions between oxygen-containing iron and SiO2 substrate by X-ray sessile-drop technique    
Kapilashrami, E and Seetharaman, S and Lahiri, AK and Cramb, AW (2003) Investigation of the reactions between oxygen-containing iron and SiO2 substrate by X-ray sessile-drop technique. In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 34 (5). pp. 647-652.
          Global HDD Market with Focus on HDD Glass Substrate Analyzed to Gain an Impressive Growth Rate by 2021   
(EMAILWIRE.COM, June 30, 2017 ) Over the years, hard disk drive technology has advanced beyond the expectations of many owners of personal computers throughout the world. It has been analyzed that hard disk drives (HDDs) will continue to lead the overall storage market because of their cost advantage...
          The Reahu and Wayu Itou: He Borara Chapter 10   
Warrior Lineup
     Lac sneezes as he sits down at the table with paper and pen. I’ve got a beaut of a cold, he writes. He’s quarantined himself in his hut, so he figured he may as well catch up on his correspondence, beginning with the letter to Ken he’s been meaning to write. I went monkey hunting with the gang this week, he continues, in preparation for a big feast in honor of a visiting village’s slain headman.

The Monou-teri were only here a few days before the hanky-panky started. The buildup to the club fight that ensued was nothing like the tectonic force accumulating over the course of the Mahekodo-teri’s visit. For one, the Monou-teri don’t have a leg to stand on; they need the Bisaasi-teri far more than the Bisaasi-teri need them—which is probably why the local guy felt entitled to a romp with one of the visiting men’s wives. Plus this time around it was only two men facing off (though there were threats galore from each man’s male kin). These squabbles over women, while not a daily occurrence, are an ever-present source of testiness and suspicion, and the risk of violence seems to intensify whenever you have a mingling of groups like this.

I keep barely missing the club fights in the village, he goes on writing; this was the first one I witnessed directly, and I got some great photos. (I missed the last one by a couple of hours; another happened while I was here but I didn’t actually see any of it.) The good thing about the fights is they get people talking. I can just hover about the crowd and listen. Sometimes they’ll even let a name slip out of their tobacco-stretched mouths. I’d love nothing more right now than to be in the shabono collecting data—i.e. recording gossip—but I keep thinking I could end up killing some poor kid if my cold spreads.

It started after I nearly overheated trying to keep up with the hunting band. I can’t describe the sensation; I mean, I’ve hunted plenty before, but not like this. Hurtling yourself headlong through the underbrush and threading your way through the trees, always with your eyes darting about the canopy in search of your quarry. I had my shotgun at the ready, braced in front of me, getting frustrated because I didn’t think it should be slowing me down as much as it was. I manage to shoot a monkey or a tapir with it here and there, but this time it was an arrow that brought down our target. When we got back to the village and I kept walking back to my hut, I had sweat gushing from every pore on every part of my body and I felt lightheaded, so I sort of floated right past my door, wrestled off my clinging wet clothes, and jumped in the river to cool off.

That night I awoke around 2 in morning with a cough and a sore throat.

Lac doesn’t write that he heard—not imagined but heard—his mother’s voice ringing out in the darkened hut, chiding him for his ill-conceived efforts at returning his body to homeostasis. He writes instead of the Monou-teri headman’s death and of how the women are going to eat his ashes during the feast, and perhaps have a little reciprocal raid afterward. He’s not sure exactly why his impulse is to downplay the counterattack—counter-counterattack—other than that, after all, it’s murder they’re talking about, sort of.

He tells Ken to expect more arrows in a shipment to the museum, the first and far less impressive batch having arrived safely according to Ken’s last letter. He’ll also be sending some ebene tubes and pack baskets. Finally, he writes about the archeological site he discovered at what may have once been a village. He found scads of potsherds, most of which look like they would be from pots quite similar to the ones they use in Bisaasi-teri today, when they’re not using the aluminum pots traded in from the Ye’kwana or the missionaries (or now from him). But some of the fragments are much more delicate, as though they came from a more advanced ceramic tradition, making him wonder if the Yąnomamö might have regressed from some former higher level of technological and artistic sophistication. Such backward lurches must have happened to societies throughout history. Pick your catastrophe: plague, war, famine, environmental degradation. Guys like Percy Fawcett spent their whole lives searching Amazonia for these lost civilizations.   

Lac writes about a stone ax he found, a relic of a time before madohe. The thought that neither he nor any other Westerner will ever see how the Yąnomamö made axes almost brings tears to his eyes. The Waica claim they find these ax heads all the time, he writes to Ken, but seeing is believing.

Lac, feeling better for the past two days, is in his hut collecting names from an older man—in his mid-forties maybe—one he’s been finding delightfully easy to work with, so much so that he’s moved this informant to the top of his pay scale and begun going over the charts for the entire village with him. Theoretically, Lac thinks, I could get the names of everyone in Bisaasi-teri from this one man, whose own name is Kukumbrawa—according to his neighbor in the adjoining yahi, who’s also a parallel cousin, his father’s brother’s son. Lac moves his finger over the diagram, tracking the connection along the lines running between the names.

            He could fill in all the empty spaces with this one informant and then ask for the same information from some other similarly cooperative man, and then another, until it’s clear the names and relationships as diagrammed are consistent. The process shouldn’t take that long. He could collect all the preliminary data he needs—all the information Dr. Nelson has requested—and then move on to lineage histories. After that, he can start focusing on other villages. By mid-summer he could be ready to make an expedition inland from the Orinoco, maybe as far as the gigantic shabono near the headwaters of the Mavaca, the one Rowahirawa keeps telling him about.

            He’s leaning down to let Kukumbrawa whisper in his ear when he hears the drone of an outboard on the river. His informant stands up from the chair and walks to the door with him. Lac’s heart thuds with reverberations of his panic on the night last month when he was sure his hut was about to be besieged by raiders from another village. But he’s able to calm himself. That night, the boatman turned out to be Padre Morello; that’s probably who it is now—or else it’s more men from the Malarialogìa. They’ve been visiting the hut across the Orinoco a lot lately, the one he and Clemens stayed in his first night in the field. It could also be some of the padre’s other Salesian friends, the ones building the missionary compound across the river; Lac never hears from these men, but, though he’s loath to admit it, he’s been comforted by their propinquity.  

            The boat appears to be on a course for the bank near his hut, and Lac sees just one man sitting with his hand on the lever steering the engine. “Dr. Shackley,” the padre’s voice shudders out over the water before brittlely echoing back from the trees on the far bank. “How are you this fine day? You’re looking hale and formidable.” After his brief sickness, Lac finds these words relieving, the dubiousness of the flattery notwithstanding.

            Lac returns the greeting before telling Kukumbrawa they’ll have to continue the ohodemou later and giving him a portion of the standard payment he’s come to expect. Kukumbrawa is less disappointed with the payment than he is excited about the arrival of a visitor. Lac laughs silently. You wouldn’t be so excited, he thinks, if you knew even half of what this guy wants to persuade you of.

            As he steps down to the water’s edge, Lac sees the padre isn’t his old ruddy and buoyant self. Instead, he looks like he’s been missing too much sleep of late, and maybe done a little too much drinking. “Padre, I still haven’t adequately expressed my gratitude for all you did to help me make it to Caracas and back to visit my family.” Lac chuckles furtively at his own words, not because he’s fumbling with his Spanish, but because even in his current ragged state, the good padre has a way of inspiring excessive formality.

            “Now that you mention it,” Morello says as Lac reaches out for the canoe’s gunnel to pull it ashore, “there is something you can do for me.” He stands and wobbles his way along the length of the craft, where he grips Lac’s arm and steps onto dry land.

            “Sure,” Lac says. “Anything.”

            “Let’s discuss it inside,” the padre says, gesturing toward the hut. This gives Lac pause, not so much for the suggestion that they talk indoors—maybe he just wants to get out of the sun, away from the bugs—as for the reticence in his tone. He’s about to make an unpleasant request, Lac is sure.

            Lac guides him along the path through the high grass, on the lookout for snakes, exercising his now ingrained vigilance, as the padre enquires into the progress of his work. Now it’s Lac’s turn to be cagey; he looks around to see who’s in earshot before saying, “It’s going fantastic.” He feels his own face light up and sees a feeble reflection of his excited smile on his friend’s face. “I’ve finally started to get the names I need for my genealogies. I’ve already got the names of most people currently living here.”

            “That is fantastic! How did you get them to tell you their names?”

            Before proceeding to explain his name-gathering protocol in detail, Lac reminds himself that the only Spanish words any of the Bisaasi-teri know are sí and no. But he relishes finally being able to tell someone about his success. His excitement is too weightily palpable to keep to himself. Many of the villagers have emerged from the shabono to get a look at the visitor, and Lac takes a moment to explain to them in Yąnomamö who this new nabä is. Before continuing his description of his interview methods though, he guides the padre into the hut and closes the door to any curious Indians straggling along behind them.

            “Remarkable,” the padre says after hearing how Lac has accomplished the feat. “Ingenious.”

            Lac is suddenly his twelve-year-old self again on the day he held up a medium-sized trout to show his dad; Morello may as well be patting him on the head, saying, “Way to go, slugger.” Embarrassed by his swelling pride, Lac hastens to divert his guest from offering further praise and congratulations: “Now tell me, Padre, what’s bothering you? Something’s obviously been keeping you awake at night. Tell me how I can help.”

            Lac pulls a chair out for his guest, the same chair Kukumbrawa recently vacated. The padre puts both palms on the table and collapses onto the seat with a dignified grunt. “Hermano Marteens,” he says, “is having a great deal of difficulty with the Indians across the river.”

            Lac pulls out the other chair for himself. As he lowers himself into it, he looks over to see beads of sweat trundling from the padre’s forehead all the way down his cheeks into his thick wiry mass of beard. It would be hard to imagine a man more out of place—unless, that is, the good padre were to strip down, don a loincloth, scatter some buzzard feathers over his bald head, and dance in the courtyard with the villagers. Lac chokes back a laugh and says, “I gather Hermano Marteens is concentrating his efforts on the people across the Mavaca at Lower Bisaasi-teri; I’ve never encountered him here. Now that I think about it, it’s strange that no one from the other shabono ever mentions him either.”

            He’s speaking too fast, he realizes, because he’s uneasily anticipating that the padre is about to try to recruit him on behalf of the Salesians, to assist them in their efforts to accustom themselves to Yąnomamö ways. There’s no way I’m going to help them convert anyone, Lac thinks. I’ll agree to help with logistical stuff, sure, just as Morello has done for me. I don’t have anything against the padre personally of course, but the stark reality is that I’m completely opposed to the Salesians’ agenda for the Yąnomamö.

            Completely opposed? Even if it means medicine and protection for the women and kids?

            The padre says, “I’m afraid the good brother hasn’t been getting around to doing much mission work—which is the essence of the problem I’m currently working to remedy. When it was me first starting to build a mission compound, all those structures at Ocamo, I relied on many of the Ye’kwana from the area as a labor force. They have a long history with the Church and were accustomed to trading their work for things like tools, food, medicine.”

            “The Yąnomamö aren’t exactly slow to catch on to the value of our manufactured goods, Padre. Though trading with them comes with some pretty thorny complications.”

            “Yes, so I’ve been informed. The biggest challenge for Hermano Marteens—.” He breaks off midsentence, pauses for the span of a weighty thought, and begins again. “I’ve recently received word that your friend Mr. Clemens will soon be returning to the territory. He’s bringing his wife, and another couple will be accompanying them as well. It seems they plan to divide their time between the school at Tama Tama and the villages here at Bisaasi-teri, with each family taking up on its own side of the Mavaca.”

            Lac’s first thought is, that’s a lot of goddamned nabä. But his next thought is of Laura and how the presence of the other couples will make getting her here far easier. It will also make it a great deal safer for her and the kids to stay here when he travels to other villages. “Chuck’s coming back?” he says. “That’s great. I hadn’t heard.” He stops himself from saying, “But how the hell did you find out about all this?”

            “Dr. Shackley, do you know anything about a dictionary Mr. Clemens is working on?”

            “A dictionary? Like a Yąnomamö dictionary, one for translating the words to English or Spanish?”

            “Hermano Marteens, you see, he speaks both Spanish and English quite well.”

            Bahikoawa looks fine one moment and then as if he’s in severe pain the next. With all the parties under the same roof—or sharing the same plaza and palisade anyway—the raid can be launched any day the headman chooses.

            “The pata has sent word to the Shamatari,” Rowahirawa says. “The Bisaasi-teri are waiting for men from Mömariböwei-teri and Reyaboböwei-teri to accompany them on the raid. The people here have done much to cultivate the alliances; now it’s time to see if their efforts will pay dividends.”

            Lac sits up in the hammock next to Rowarhirawa in his father-in-law’s yahi, where he’s been lazing away the day’s hottest hours and asks, “Will the men from those villages make that big of a difference to the raid’s chances of success?”

            “Shaki, stop being such an imbecile. Ma, it won’t make any difference; it’s to solidify the alliance.” He repeats the last phrase, as Yąnomamö often do, all but dancing to the rhythm of his own words, so enthusiastic is he in his gesticulating. Lac decides his friend looks like a jaguar, because Yąnomamö faces remain shamefully indistinct in his mind and he’s determined to train his mind to zero in on subtle differentiating features. Unfortunately a lot of their faces could be said to resemble a jaguar's.  

            “But then why is Bahikoawa still waiting? They’re already two days late, and I hear the other men saying there’s a risk of big rainfall with the start of the wet season. You guys don’t want to get stuck having to march all the way back to Bisaasi-teri on muddy or flooded trails. Isn’t that what you’re counting on to slow the Patanowä-teri pursuit after you attack?”

            “We can’t leave for a raid after announcing when we’ll be gone.”

            “But you only announced it to the people you’re waiting on to go on the raid with you.”

            “That’s why we’re waiting. If they’re not here yet, it’s probably because they’re planning something.”

            “Aren’t they your allies?”

            “Shaki, don’t be so naïve. Awei, they’re allies to the Bisaasi-teri. That doesn’t mean they won’t try to steal our women from us.”

            “Ma! So that’s why you’re waiting.” The Yąnomamö aren’t very principled, he thinks; it’s always the thing that’s right in front of their nose. Or maybe, he tells himself, there’s some wisdom to it you simply don’t understand. Still, he can’t help being disgusted. “Shori, how often do villages go on raids that don’t result in anyone getting killed?”

            “It happens.”

            “How often do the raiders themselves get killed?”

            “It happens, but that means the raid wasn’t successful, even if the raiders kill someone else. You’ll have to go on another raid after that.”

            “If I were to travel with you and the other men from Bisaasi-teri, would I get killed?”

            “Shaki, are you hungry for the flesh of the Patanowä-teri?”

            “Ma, Shori, I’m fascinated by the ways of the Yąnomamö, like I’ve told you, and I want to go with you so I can record what I see in my white leaves.”

            “Will you bring your shotgun?”

            Lac began this line of questioning on a whim; he hasn’t considered going along on the raid until now, at least not consciously. Would he bring the shotgun? “Ma.” Absolutely not. “I’ve made a promise not to kill any Yąnomamö—.”

Rowahirawa rolls out of his hammock and slams his fist into Lac’s shoulder. “Don’t say what you just said!”

            “But it’s true.”

            “If men know you’re a coward, they’ll treat you as they would a woman.”

            Lac shakes his head pointlessly. “I understand.” So it’s true, he thinks; the only reason my hut ever goes a day unviolated is that the Yąnomamö are afraid of my shotgun.

            Rowahirawa laughs and gives him a hard shove. “You’re hopeless without me, Shaki. You know that?”

            Lac spends the latter half of the afternoon conducting an interview with a man whose behavior seems entirely choreographed, his answers entirely rehearsed. The earlier interviewees must have relayed to him in detail what he should expect—and maybe he caught on there’s an audition mentality to the proceedings. His every answer is a story, and Lac can’t decide whether to admire the man’s flare for drama or disdain him as a purveyor of compelling lies. The facts of his stories, the main characters, all check out with the picture that’s emerging of the village’s history and current composition through all his efforts at questioning and crosschecking. Something about the guy though—he seems fundamentally untrustworthy.

            Not exactly an objective observation, Shackley, he says to himself.

            “Towahowä, he was waiteri,” the man says. “He seduced his own brother’s wife in Monou-teri.”

            True, Lac thinks. I’ve heard this before. “Ma!” he says, encouraging the man to continue.

            “Awei, Towahowä had sex with her, and then the brother returned and became so angry he fired an arrow at her. He meant to shoot her in the thigh, because he wanted her to survive the wound. But he is sina, like Uhudima in the time of Moonblood, and the arrow implanted itself in her gut. She bled to death, leaving her husband inconsolable.”

            Many of the women Lac sees in the village are missing parts of their ears, souvenirs of similar episodes of violent jealousy. He’s seen one woman hit another with a smoldering log from the hearth, seen the men do that too. It’s not the type of culture you’d want to raise your daughter in.

            And, you, Lachlan Shackley, are not the type of scientist who lets himself get so loose with such value-laden sentiments.

            As the man continues telling his stories about the separation of villages and their post-fissioning political histories, Lac’s mind wanders to Nakaweshimi. She must be close to term about now. But she’s nowhere to be seen lately. Lac assumes it’s Yąnomamö custom for a woman to seclude herself in the days leading up to childbirth. Those are details he could be investigating for his ethnography, but he doesn’t know where to begin enquiring after information that sensitive.

            What he will be able to see is how the birth of the second baby impacts how Nakaweshimi cares for her other child, who’s still a tiny infant. The other thing that’s been preoccupying him is this silly idea of his about going along on the raid to Patanowä-teri. He and Rowahirawa agreed it would be possible for him to tag along on the journey but not participate in any killing. Still, the Patanowä-teri will probably pursue the raiders, and it’s not like he’ll have the time to explain to them that he’s only there in the capacity of neutral observer. If he’s not killed, he’ll likely still be forfeiting the reputation for impartiality he’s counting on to make travelling among villages relatively safe and easy.

            You’ll be compromised, he thinks, too deeply enmeshed in the culture to observe its dynamic operations and ongoing development from a detached vantagepoint. But, then again, you’ll also be going along to witness a custom few ethnographers have ever witnessed. And this is the part, the coalitional killing, warfare at its most primitive, that your professors and colleagues will say you’ve misrepresented, or fabricated outright. “Did you actually see any Yąnomamö killing each other?” he imagines Dr. White asking him. “It’s quite possible the attacks you heard rumors of were purely ritualistic, and that the men your friends claimed to have killed are alive and well and boasting of their own ritual kills.”

            Yes, my boastful friends.

            Lac has seen enough to know that Yąnomamö violence, while steeped in ritual and embedded in an intricate web of superstition, is all too real in its impact. Whatever mysteries he uncovers through his genealogical efforts, it’ll be Yąnomamö warfare that gets people talking back home—just like it does here. As for being compromised, it doesn’t have to go down that way. I won’t follow the warriors when they make their final charge, he thinks. I’ll hold back, with any luck remaining in eyeshot of the incident without being seen by anyone inside the shabono.

            So you’re just going along to watch some poor bastard get shot out of a tree?

            You may have to, if only to bolster your conviction, give you the confidence to stick to your guns in the face of all the scrutiny your work is bound to attract.

            He’s debating with himself as he’s half-heartedly attending to his informant’s performance with a healthy dollop of dismissive skepticism when the hut goes silent. Lac turns to see the man stand up and move to the door. He pricks his ears and picks out the sound of whistling in the distance—friendly visitors announcing their presence. The villagers raise their voices from within the shabono. Lac and his informant begin walking back to the opening in the palisade so they can see who the visitors are. It must be the men they’re expecting from Mömariböwei-teri and Reyaboböwei-teri at last; they weren’t waiting to steal women after all—or if they were, they realized the Bisaasi-teri and Monou-teri were wise to their treachery, and so their best bet for capturing women is to raid Patanowä-teri alongside their new allies.

            Now the raid will take place. And Lac knows regardless of which decision he’s able to marshal the best arguments for, he’ll be traveling alongside the raiders as well—or following behind them anyway. “There may be no turning back after this,” he mumbles to himself. I’ll need to talk to Rowahirawa, he thinks, do a lot a planning.

            The next day the overfull village is preparing for the feast, and Lac is looking right at Nakaweshimi, no longer pregnant, but not carrying a second infant. This could mean any number of things. He tries to think back to the two other births that have occurred since his arrival in Bisaasi-teri, but gets no useful insight from recalling them. Has she miscarried? Was the baby sick or deformed? He wants desperately to ask her, but she doesn’t look like she’s in any mood for questions. No one looks to be in the mood for questions today. Lac resigns himself to a full day of silent of observation, out of respect—and out of prudence.

He feels more unwelcome today than at any other time since his first entrance into the shabono. The Yąnomamö never hesitate to let him know how annoying they find him, but they usually also seem to find him amusing, or find it amusing to mess with him anyway. Today, though, people are preoccupied with their grieving, preoccupied with their efforts to keep the substrate of rage simmering beneath their sadness from boiling over. On any normal day, they’re not only short-tempered; they’re itching to show off how short their tempers are. His thumb still aches from the incident when Rowahirawa stubbed his toe and threw down the heavy log they were carrying together. That was probably getting off easy. But today he senses those tempers are even more raw.

The hours drag on as he either lies in a hammock next to Rowahirawa or minces from spot to spot around the plaza. Into the afternoon, the funereal mood hangs thicker and thicker in the air. There’s no laughter to be heard, no beaming expressions to behold. If I had just shown up from Caracas, Lac thinks, I might think there was tension mounting among the assembled villages—as when the Mahekodo-teri and Boreta-teri were here throwing their weight around—so nauseatingly palpable is this undercurrent of wrath to their mournfulness.

Moment by moment resisting his urge to ask questions, he instead wisps around with his cameras and tape recorder, doing his best impersonation of a cloud. He has to be subtle with his camera work, snapping photos only of incidents of highest import, because even on normal days the Yąnomamö sometimes get irritated with him for stealing their images, chasing him away with upraised clubs—or once, with flung rocks—but today the deterrents are bound to be more severe, the punishments more vicious.

The irritability isn’t the most ostensible of their emotional states though. He listens to the villagers’ tearful laments, as they call to the fallen headman with the most intimate of kinship terms, making pronouncements of never-ending sadness and forlorn longing to be reunited in hedu. This strikes Lac as strange because these same relatives of the Monou-teri headman have seemed emotionally even-keeled every time he’s seen them over the past few weeks. Towahowä was killed over a month ago, and yet it’s only now that the bereavement takes hold—or maybe it’s taking hold for the second time, the first having occurred when they learned of his death and cremated his body, producing the ashes the women are now consuming with their plantain soup.

It’s like they’ve all agreed now is the time to collectively wallow in grief, to sulk and cry out, so they’re deliberately concentrating on their loss, meanwhile reflecting each other’s sadness and anger, thus amplifying them both, the space of their passion spilling into an infinite regress of hitherto dormant devastation. Surprisingly, the spreading contagion of their emotions is affecting even him, a nabä who only encountered the deceased on a couple of occasions, never getting overly close.

What seems most bizarre to Lac however is that these people are so aggrieved about the death of a guy who treated many of them terribly. Towahowä was a total asshole. He seduced—or possibly raped—an untold number of these men’s wives, including his little brother’s. It was his stealing of another man’s wife that led to the fissioning of Monou-teri from Bisaasi-teri, which you could argue resulted in their present predicament. Then he further endangered the village by leaving them leaderless, because he was so reckless in his pursuit of women and greater renown. And who knows how many other women he’s abused, how many other men he’s intimated or assaulted or cuckolded—though none of these practices are exactly frowned upon by the Yąnomamö?

Lac tries to force himself to accept that they hold different virtues as praiseworthy, different vices as beneath contempt. That’s easy enough to understand in principle; it’s the liking part that confounds him. How could anyone have liked Towahowä? Or did they? Or is all this emotion on display separate from the discrete person of the former headman, more about his role than his individual identity? It’s a question he’ll have to return to when he’s attended more funeral feasts, more reahu, as the Yąnomamö call them.

            Throughout the day, villagers take turns shouting out formal speeches, somewhat like they do in their kąwa amou chants before bed but more lachrymose, about how their kinsman’s death has pierced to the depths of their being. “Ya buhii ahi,” he keeps hearing. My innermost soul is cold. One man sounds off in one part of the shabono, then another man somewhere else riffs on the theme. Hushuwo is another term he keeps hearing: angry and sad and volatile—much more volatile than usual.

            Lac wanders about the edge of the plaza, trying his hardest to be invisible, on the lookout for good spaces to tuck himself, vantages where he can witness the goings-on unseen. Late in the afternoon, the men, still in their yahis, all start doing something strange. Lac risks stepping closer to see a couple times. They’re biting into burnt logs, chewing the charcoal. Lac guesses it’s supposed to have some medicinal property at first, but then he sees them spitting it out and rubbing it between their hands. They’re mixing the masticated charcoal with their saliva to create a black sludge. He watches as they begin smearing it all over their arms and shoulders, going on to cover their entire bodies, painting them black.

Night camouflage.

Lac’s heart floats weightlessly, darting about like a hummingbird colliding with the bars of its cage. These sons of bitches are going to sneak up on another village, he thinks, and murder some poor bastard who doesn’t even know they’re coming. It hits him with all the absurd reality of a platypus waddling up to him with a stick of dynamite clamped in its bill. 

Lac’s been told that the mechanics of the pre-raid feast, if not the mood, are similar to those of feasts prefiguring morning trading sessions. Aside from the large troughs of plantain soup, though, the activities seem far different. Some time has passed since the women finished drinking their soup from calabashes, and now the men are busy dressing up a stripped-down tree trunk, evidently to make it look like a Yąnomamö, complete with wavy red lines down his torso, monkey tail headband, and sprinkling of white feathers atop the crown; the wooden man has donned his finest regalia for the occasion. The men lift this pithy white effigy onto a hammock—at maybe five feet tall, it fits nicely—before dispersing and preparing to stage a mock ambush. One of the raiders is a roughly eleven-year-old boy, Towahowä’s youngest son, and many of the charcoal-painted men pull him aside to give him instructions and advice.

             Now that the stage is set with the trunk swaying lazily in its hammock, a dozen warriors crouch down and make their way toward it from different parts of the plaza. Gesturing with weighty emphasis to each other, they waddle mostly in unison, deeply bent at the knees, coming from various angles—a band of hellfire-scorched demons capturing souls to build the ranks of their satanic subterranean army—until they’re close enough to make aiming all but moot.  All at once, they leap up to their full height to draw and fire their arrows. The tips bury themselves in the pulpy wood with a sickeningly rapid series of thuds. The victim is a pincushion before he could have ever known an attack was underway. All the men scream as they retreat, running out of the shabono in a series of sprints and halts, the warriors in front stopping to turn and cover the escape of the ones bringing up the rear in a repeating pattern.

            The mock raiders return one by one to their hammocks over time, but some of them remain in the plaza to practice and give the young boy plenty of coaching. Individually, no longer slithering toward their victim in a coiled mass of inhuman flesh, they’re less like demons than grown men playing dress-up. To Lac, all of these preparations and success rituals seem to be taking place at a distance, on the periphery of his sphere of concern. Yesterday, before deciding to travel along with the raiders, this same scene would have permeated his senses and thoughts with its dramatic implications: a young boy being taught to escape after being pressed to take lethal vengeance on his father’s killers.

As it is, he’s thinking more about the recent rains, how the rising waters will chase the poisonous snakes to higher ground, the same higher ground on which the Yąnomamö like to blaze their trails. The idea, if he understands Rowahirawa correctly, is to load up on plantains, walk slowly to the enemy’s village, deliberately pinpointing the ideal time to make the kill—likely when a suitable victim leaves the Patanowä-teri shabono to piss or fetch water—and, freshly unencumbered by the newly exhausted supply of food, run most of the way back, hastened by the knowledge that the people you just raided are fresh on your heels, eager to retaliate, desperate to avenge whoever just got killed. If the snakes don’t get you, he tells himself, the Patanowä-teri will.

            But I need to be there, he thinks. I need to see it happen at least once with my own two eyes. Or else it’ll live on as mere rumor, even to me, apt to rise and twist and disappear like a wisp of smoke. This is the part they won’t believe back home, those professors whose field experience consisted of living among highly acculturated Indians or Bushmen, conquered peoples, domesticated peoples. I need to be sure if I’m going to be able to stick to my guns. I need to see it happen.

As his thoughts and fears jostle about in his mind like bees in an agitated hive, he finds his eyes have come to rest on the effigy, the no owä, as he’s heard the Yąnomamö call it, still swaying in its hammock as if by its own exsanguinated volition—any man would surely have bled to death by now. He imagines the pool of blood on the floor, spreading toward the hearth. What percentage of the men here, he wonders, will be killed in their hammocks like this, or while they’re up in a tree harvesting fruit, or out in the forest searching for honey? How many will be killed taking a piss? What percentage of the women will be kidnapped and dragged off to some rival village to be sex slaves who graduate to become wives and mothers as though the original crime had never been committed?

            Those are empirical questions, he points out to himself, and it’s all information you can glean from exactly the kind of interviews you’re already conducting—if you could just find a more effective way to discuss people’s dead relatives. That’ll be my main focus when I get back. For now, I need to plan: what kind of food should I bring when I set out with the raiders tomorrow? How will I carry it? How am I going to keep up with them as they sprint home afterward? How am I going to avoid the snakes? How am I going to avoid impalement by half a dozen arrows, poison-tipped, all at once?

            Jesus, Lachlan, you’re either on the cusp of becoming a great anthropologist or you’re out of your god damned mind.

            It’s Bahikoawa, as racked with pain from his undiagnosed infection as he is, and Towahowä’s brother, as much as he’s struggling with a steady trickle of accusations of cowardice, who are directing the show today, and they’ll be the ones leading the raid tomorrow. It’ll be a miracle if they even manage to complete the two-day journey to Patanowä-teri, Lac thinks. He’s getting nervous. Rowahirawa has told him the Patanowä-teri are cultivating a new garden in some unknown spot, perhaps even returning to harvest the rasha from one of the Bisaasi-teri’s old sites. So once the raiding party has made it to the shabono they’ve set as a destination, they may have to do some tracking and searching before finding anyone to kill. That sounds to Lac like a greater chance they’ll be spotted and set upon by the rival village’s own waiteri, of whom there is a famously large number.

            Rowahirawa tells him the retreat is the tricky part, and he describes the two-by-two progression away from the enemy village, where two men stand hidden while another two or four flee along a path running right between them. It’s a preset trap for the pursuers, who unwittingly step into a crossfire and have their pursuit brought to a sudden, unsatisfying halt. That’s what he saw them practicing after shooting the no owä full of arrows as it reclined peacefully in its hammock.

Somehow, his mind has connected the upcoming post-raid sprint back to the mouth of the Mavaca with his running through the forest in pursuit of monkeys last week, and to his subsequent illness. He was stuck in his hut for days, hoarsely yelling at Rowahirawa through the door to come back another day. “Shaki, why don’t you do your ohodemou?” Hearing the phlegm in Lac’s voice, Rowahirawa suggested through the door that he let the shaboris free his soul from the hekura devouring it. Lac would have loved to participate in the ritual, but he couldn’t risk spreading the cold; for all he knew, it was something he picked up in Caracas, a crowd disease only people long accustomed to civilization have developed any immunity to. There are stories of careless outsiders decimating whole villages by merely showing up with the wrong sniffle. Still, he’s sure it was the heat and exertion of the hunt, followed by his impetuous plunge into the cold waters of the Mavaca, that laid him low, not any potentially village-destroying bug.

His biggest apprehension now is that he won’t be able to keep up with the men—and he harbors no illusion that they’ll wait for him. It’s a bad idea to go with them, plain and simple. Falling behind is far from the only thing that can go wrong. But he has to go at least once. And it’s not just for the sake of his confidence in any controversial ethnographic verdicts he arrives at; he’s also hoping it’ll help him break through another layer of the ice still separating him from the Yąnomamö, like when he danced at one of the feasts for the first time. Maybe after tagging along for a raid he’ll finally be able to get past all this edgy weirdness that still surrounds his genealogical work.

On the other hand, maybe the effects he hopes to bring about will be nullified by his being unarmed and making no effort to kill anyone. He has a feeling, though, they’ll be less impressed by his pacifism than by his willingness to accompany them on a mission so fraught with peril, such missions being their own preferred passport to heightened prestige.

As the precipitous falling of night gets underway in earnest, all the men are back to laying around in their yahis, swinging in their hammocks with pained, unfocused eyes. Lac steps through the passage outside and farther past the palisade to piss. The air outside the shabono is lighter, the atmosphere refreshingly cool, in marked contrast to the overheated oven of the village. When he comes back, there’s a thick silence hanging over the plaza, making him pause before continuing the rest of the way in. He takes a breath before finally stepping in, then makes his way around the edge of the courtyard again, determined to move with the lightest of steps. The stillness unsettles him. He’s wondering if he may be offending them by not keeping still like everyone else, when the pall hanging over the courtyard is shredded by a freakish animal sound that sends him scampering to the nearest shelter.

            The cry rattles through the gray evening light, a half human howl of outrage and pain. Lac at first can’t be sure whether it’s a human being making the sound, bowel-shaking and otherworldly. Then he understands: he’s imitating an animal’s growl, and now a
          Waterproof connector   
A waterproof connector (1) comprises: retainers (50) and (60) which include an inner receiving portion (91) formed on opposite surfaces (51) and (61) which face a wiring substrate (30); and a first seal member (70) which is filled in at least the inner receiving portion (91). An outer receiving portion (92) is formed on outer surfaces (55) and (65) and side surfaces (50d), (50e), (60d), and (60e) of the retainers (50) and (60). Defective portions (58) and (68), which pass from the outer surfaces (55) and (65) to the inner receiving portion (91), are formed in the retainers (50) and (60). The inner receiving portion (91) communicates with the outer receiving portion (92) at the side surfaces (50d), (50e), (60d), and (60e). The first seal member (70) includes: an inner seal portion (70a) which is received in the inner receiving portion (91); and; a defective seal portion (70d) and a side seal portion (70c) which are formed integrally with the inner seal portion (70a). The defective seal portion (70d) and the side seal portion (70c) reach the outer surfaces (55) and (65).
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An electronic interconnect device includes a substrate having a first surface and a second surface. The substrate has a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. Each opening has a conductive outer via, an insulative barrier and a conductive inner via. The outer via, insulative barrier and inner via are concentric within the opening such that the insulating barrier is disposed between the conductive inner via and the conductive outer via. The conductive inner via is configured to receive a conductor to be inserted therein.
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A coaxial cable connector including a body circuit borne by a non-conducting body substrate.
           Ubiquitin ligase RNF146 coordinates bone dynamics and energy metabolism    
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant human disorder characterized by abnormal bone development that is mainly due to defective intramembranous bone formation by osteoblasts. Here, we describe a mouse strain lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 that shows phenotypic similarities to CCD. Loss of RNF146 stabilized its substrate AXIN1, leading to impairment of WNT3a-induced β-catenin activation and reduced Fgf18 expression in osteoblasts. We show that FGF18 induces transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) expression, which is required for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through transcriptional enhancer associate domain (TEAD) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) transcription factors, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate that adipogenesis is enhanced in Rnf146–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, mice with loss of RNF146 within the osteoblast lineage had increased fat stores and were glucose intolerant with severe osteopenia because of defective osteoblastogenesis and subsequent impaired osteocalcin production. These findings indicate that RNF146 is required to coordinate β-catenin signaling within the osteoblast lineage during embryonic and postnatal bone development.
          Elastomeric Coatings Market SWOT Analysis Of Top Key Player Forecasts To 2024   
Elastomeric Coatings Market SWOT Analysis Of Top Key Player Forecasts To 2024 Elastomeric coatings are generally used to provide tough exterior finish to concrete, metal, and plastic substrates. These coatings are widely applied on masonry wall surfaces and roof tops such as concrete tiles, blocks, stucco, and other exterior insulation finishes. Elastomeric

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          What are your colleagues reading in Integrative Biology?   
The articles below are some of the most read Integrative Biology articles in 2016. You can view the full collection of our top 10 downloaded articles here. Mimicking the topography of the epidermal–dermal interface with elastomer substrates Priyalakshmi Viswanathan, Murat Guvendiren, Wesley Chua, Stephanie B. Telerman, Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Jason A. Burdick and Fiona M. Watt   […]
          Global E. Coli Testing Market to Gain $2.0 Billion by 2021   

Global E. Coli Testing Market To Reach $2.0 Billion by 2021

Deerfield Beach, FL -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/30/2017 -- Zion Market Research has published a new report titled "E. Coli Testing (Membrane Filtration (MF), Enzyme-Substrate Methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests, And Others) Market for Diagnostic Laboratories, Hospitals, Waste Water Treatment Organizations, Bottle Water Suppliers And Other End-user: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 – 2021" According to the report, the global E. coli testing market was valued at around USD 1.2 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach approximately USD 2.0 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of around 6.5% between 2016 and 2020.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria which are found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. The membrane filtration technique is widely used for E. coli test. E. coli are used as indicator organisms to test the effectiveness of effluent disinfection in a wastewater treatment plant. While these organisms are generally harmless to human, that live under the same conditions that human pathogens live.

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The major driving factor for the global E. coli testing market is increasing government support for E. coli tests and the rising occurrence and high morbidity of E. coli. The development of drug-resistant species is another key factor is anticipated to drive the market growth in the years to come. However, high cost of enzyme-substrate test is expected to curb the market growth in the near future. Nonetheless, technological advancement coupled with increasing use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for environment water testing is projected to open up new growth opportunities during the forecast period.

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Based on testing methods, the E. coli testing market can be segmented into membrane filtration (MF), enzyme-substrate methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, and others. Enzyme substrate tests accounted for largest share of the total market in 2015. Membrane filtration is another leading segment and expected to exhibit strong growth in the near future.

The E. coli testing market is segmented on the basis of different end-user such as diagnostic laboratories, hospitals, waste water treatment organizations, bottle water suppliers and others. Bottle water suppliers segment accounted for large chunk of the market share in the 2015. This growth is mainly attributed to increasing water pollution. Diagnostic laboratories segment is another key outlet and is expected to witness significant growth within the forecast period.

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The E. coli testing market was dominated by Europe with largest share of the total market in 2014. Europe is followed by Asia Pacific and North America in terms of revenue. This growth is mainly due to the occurrence of food borne infections within Germany in 2011 due to the E. coli bacteria.Furthermore, Asia Pacific was another leading regional market in 2015. With increased government support coupled with increasing population, Asia Pacific is expected to witness robust growth during 2015 to 2021. However, Latin America and Middle East & Africa are also expected to exhibit significant growth over the forecast period.

Some of the key players including in the E. coli testing market such as Abbott Laboratories, Danaher Corporation, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Enzo Life Sciences, Inc., and Hologic, Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Dickinson and Company among others.

This report segments the global E. coli testing market as follows:

Testing Segment Analysis: Membrane Filtration (MF), Enzyme-Substrate Methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests, Others

End-user Segment Analysis: Diagnostic Laboratories, Hospitals, Waste Water Treatment Organizations, Bottle Water Suppliers, Others

Regional Segment Analysis: North America (US), Europe(Germany, France, UK), Asia Pacific(China, Japan, India), Latin America(Brazil), Middle East and Africa

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Zion Market Research is an obligated company. We create futuristic, cutting edge, informative reports ranging from industry reports, company reports to country reports. We provide our clients not only with market statistics unveiled by avowed private publishers and public organizations but also with vogue and newest industry reports along with pre-eminent and niche company profiles. Our database of market research reports comprises a wide variety of reports from cardinal industries. Our database is been updated constantly in order to fulfill our clients with prompt and direct online access to our database. Keeping in mind the client's needs, we have included expert insights on global industries, products, and market trends in this database. Last but not the least, we make it our duty to ensure the success of clients connected to us—after all—if you do well, a little of the light shines on us.

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TX-Corpus Christi, A global provider of engineered electronics is seeking a Photolithography Engineer to serve as the on-site technical leader to manufacture precision thin film resistors on ceramic substrates and silicon wafers by photolithographic processing. The ideal candidate will have hands-on experience in a Class 100 - 1,000 clean room setting and will be able to establish, review and update process controls
          Hydrophilic Coatings Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2017 - 2025   

Hydrophilic coatings are applied on a variety of substrates in order to reduce the coefficient of friction. These coatings can be used for medical as well as non-medical applications.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/30/2017 -- Hydrophilic coatings market are applied on a variety of substrates in order to reduce the coefficient of friction. These coatings can be used for medical as well as non-medical applications. Medical devices such as catheters, guidewires, syringes, needles and intravascular devices are coated with hydrophilic coatings in order to make the surface of these devices lubricious. Hydrophilic coating materials are also used to impart self-cleaning and anti-fogging properties to flat glass for applications in the building, automotive and aerospace industries. Increasing expenditure on better medical & healthcare facilities and growth in the construction industry is anticipated to provide lucrative opportunities to the hydrophilic coatings market during the forecast period.

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Global Hydrophilic Coatings Market: Scope of the Report

This report analyzes and forecasts the market for hydrophilic coatings at the global and regional level. The market has been forecast based on revenue (US$ Mn) from 2017 to 2025, considering 2016 as the base year. The study includes drivers and restraints of the global hydrophilic coatings market. It also covers impact of these drivers and restraints on demand for hydrophilic coatings during the forecast period. The report also highlights opportunities in the hydrophilic coatings market at the global and regional level.

The report includes detailed value chain analysis, which provides a comprehensive view of the global hydrophilic coatings market. Porter's Five Forces model for the hydrophilic coatings market has also been included to help understand the competitive landscape in the market. The study encompasses market attractiveness analysis, wherein end-users are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate, and general attractiveness.

Global Hydrophilic Coatings Market: Segmentation

The study provides a decisive view of the global hydrophilic coatings market by segmenting it in terms of substrates such as polymers, metals & metal alloys and glass & other ceramics and applications such as automotive, aerospace, medical devices, optical & others ( building etc.). These segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends. Regional segmentation includes current and forecast demand for hydrophilic coatings in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa.

The report provides the actual market size of hydrophilic coatings for 2016 and estimated market size for 2017 with forecast for the next eight years. The global market size of hydrophilic coatings has been provided in terms of revenue. Market revenue is given in US$ Mn. Market numbers have been estimated based on key end-users of hydrophilic coatings. Market size and forecast for numerous end-users have been provided in terms of global, regional, and country level markets.

Global Hydrophilic Coatings Market: Research Methodology

In order to compile the research report, we conducted in-depth interviews and discussions with a number of key industry participants and opinion leaders. Primary research represented the bulk of research efforts, supplemented by extensive secondary research. We reviewed key players' product literature, annual reports, press releases, and relevant documents for competitive analysis and market understanding. Secondary research includes a search of recent trade, technical writing, Internet sources, and statistical data from government websites, trade associations, and agencies. This has proven to be the most reliable, effective, and successful approach for obtaining precise market data, capturing industry participants' insights, and recognizing business opportunities.

Secondary research sources that are typically referred to include, but are not limited to company websites, annual reports, financial reports, broker reports, investor presentations, SEC filings, Plastemart magazine, TPE magazine, internal and external proprietary databases, and relevant patent and regulatory databases such as ICIS, Hoover's, OneSource, Factiva and Bloomberg, national government documents, statistical databases, trade journals, market reports, news articles, press releases, and webcasts specific to companies operating in the market.

We conduct primary interviews on an ongoing basis with industry participants and commentators to validate data and analysis. These help validate and strengthen secondary research findings. These also help develop the analysis team's expertise and market understanding.

Browse Full Report With TOC:

Global Hydrophilic Coatings Market: Competitive Dynamics

The report comprises profiles of major companies operating in the global hydrophilic coatings market. Key players in the hydrophilic coatings market are Surmodics, Inc., Royal DSM N.V., Hydromer, Inc., AdvanSource Biomaterials Corp., Covalon Technologies Ltd., BioCoat, Inc., and Harland Medical Devices. Market players have been profiled in terms of attributes such as company overview, financial overview, business strategies, and recent developments.

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          Wurtzite ZnTe Nanotrees and Nanowires on Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Glass Substrates   

TOC Graphic

Nano Letters
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01446

          Evolution of microbial communities and nutrient removal performances in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor during change of substrate   
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a promising alternative wastewater treatment to the conventional activated sludge system. As AGS has enhanced settling abilities and provides different redox conditions across the granules at the same time, the processes based on AGS allow substantial space, energy and chemical products savings. A few wastewater treatment plants (mainly hybrid or pilot plants) are already using AGS. Nevertheless the performances of lab-scale reactors fed with simple synthetic wastewater are usually different from those of plants treating real wastewater where nutrient removal performances are more versatile and granules have a fluffy structure. Moreover, if the microbial community structures from AGS reactor fed with simple synthetic substrate have been extensively studied, it is less the case of the biomass from AGS reactors fed with more complex substrates or real wastewater. In order to make a step toward the comprehension of AGS used to treat municipal wastewater, this experiment was designed to study the impact of polymeric organic compounds on nutrient removal performances and microbial communities. These properties were monitored on a lab scale AGS sequencing batch reactor during a progressive substrate transition from volatile fatty acids (VFAs), to a more complex substrate mixture containing VFAs, glucose and amino acids, and finally to a synthetic wastewater containing VFAs, starch and oligo-peptides. With the lowered VFA concentrations, phosphorus (P)-removal performances were impaired. At the same time, amino acids fermentation significantly increased the ammonium concentration, thus extending the time required for total nitrification. The composition of the artificial wastewater was further adapted in order to recover efficient P- and nitrogen (N)-removal. Molecular analyses will show how the changes in substrate composition have influenced the AGS bacterial community structure that has kept its high settling ability and the granule size distribution throughout the first substrate transition.
          Evolution of microbial communities and nutrient removal performances in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor during change of substrate   
• Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a promising alternative wastewater treatment to the conventional activated sludge system. As AGS has enhanced settling abilities and provides different redox conditions across the granules at the same time, the processes based on AGS allow substantial space, energy and chemical products savings. A few wastewater treatment plants (mainly hybrid or pilot plants) are already using AGS. Nevertheless the performances of lab-scale reactors fed with simple synthetic wastewater are usually different from those of plants treating real wastewater where nutrient removal performances are more versatile and granules have a fluffy structure. Moreover, if the microbial community structures from AGS reactor fed with simple synthetic substrate have been extensively studied, it is less the case of the biomass from AGS reactors fed with more complex substrates or real wastewater. Material and Methods • In order to make a step toward the comprehension of AGS used to treat municipal wastewater, this experiment was designed to study the impact of polymeric organic compounds on nutrient removal performances and microbial communities. These properties were monitored on a lab scale AGS sequencing batch reactor during a progressive substrate transition from volatile fatty acids (VFAs), to a more complex substrate mixture containing VFAs, glucose and amino acids, and finally to a synthetic wastewater containing VFAs, starch and oligo-peptides. Results and Conclusions • With the lowered VFA concentrations, phosphorus (P)-removal performances were impaired. At the same time, amino acids fermentation significantly increased the ammonium concentration, thus extending the time required for total nitrification. The composition of the artificial wastewater was further adapted in order to recover efficient P- and nitrogen (N)-removal. Molecular analyses will show how the changes in substrate composition have influenced the AGS bacterial community structure that has kept its high settling ability and the granule size distribution throughout the first substrate transition.
          Unraveling the Near- and Far-Field Relationship of 2D Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Substrates Using Wavelength-Scan Surface-Enhanced Raman Excitation Spectroscopy   

TOC Graphic

The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b04787

          InkJet, Inc. Introduces The LDR 7100 All-Digital Laser Coding And Marking System Offering Greater Reliability, Speed, Serviceability And Value   
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                color: #808080;
                font-family: Helvetica;
                font-size: 10px;
                line-height: 125%;
                text-align: left;

            * @tip Set the styling for your email's preheader links. Choose a color that helps them stand out from your text.
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                color: #606060;
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            * @tip Set the styling for your email's header text. Choose a size and color that is easy to read.
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  , h4 {
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                * @tip Make the third-level headings larger in size for better readability on small screens.
                    font-size: 18px !important;
                    line-height: 100% !important;

                * @tip Make the fourth-level headings larger in size for better readability on small screens.
                    font-size: 16px !important;
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<h1 class="xn-hedline">InkJet, Inc. Introduces The LDR 7100 All-Digital Laser Coding And Marking System Offering Greater Reliability, Speed, Serviceability And Value</h1>

<p class="xn-distributor">PR Newswire</p>

<p class="xn-dateline">HOUSTON, June 30, 2017</p>

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<span class="xn-location">HOUSTON</span>, <span class="xn-chron">June 30, 2017</span> /PRNewswire/ --&nbsp;InkJet, Inc., based in greater <span class="xn-location">Houston, TX</span>, and internationally recognized for marking and coding for over 25 years has announced the introduction of a new generation of all-digital laser coding and marking systems, designed and manufactured in the US.&nbsp; The new laser, which offers Laser Digital Resolution coding at speeds no scribing laser can touch, is based on an innovative design that brings dramatic improvements in reliability and serviceability to the coding and marking world.&nbsp; </p>

<p>The InkJet, Inc. LDR 7100 eliminates fragile galvo motors and sensitive moving parts and is targeted at improving productivity and OEE in most coding and marking applications.&nbsp; More importantly, its effortless install, operation, ease of service and value will make laser technology easy and attainable for many production environments who had not been able to utilize the industry-changing technology until now.</p>

<p>The new laser is available with up to 200 watts of total power at a price-point that will compete favorably with most of the industry's much less powerful galvo-based scribing lasers.&nbsp; Using sealed CO2 RF-Excited laser tubes that can be replaced in as little as 30 seconds<i>, </i>the IP65 rated InkJet, Inc. LDR 7100 can generate up to 4,000 characters per second in a&nbsp;variety of print formats and character sizes. The unit is controllable with an app on tablets, smartphones or computers, making it among the most user-friendly systems in the industry.&nbsp; Available in 10.6μ, 10.3μ, or 9.3μ wavelengths and with power output that can be adjusted in 1% increments, the InkJet, Inc. LDR 7100 can be easily fine-tuned to accommodate a broader range of substrates than currently possible with most CO2 laser systems.</p>

<p>InkJet, Inc. has been an industry leader in Product Identification since 1989 and has a wide range of products and solutions available in 55 nations around the world, all focused on Industrial Coding and Marking.</p>

<p>For more information about the LDR 7100 Laser Coding System contact InkJet, Inc. at 800-280-3245 or visit <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"></a>.</p>

<span class="xn-person">Kristen Lloyd</span>
<br>InkJet, Inc.<br>936.856.6600<br>
<a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"></a>


<p>SOURCE  InkJet, Inc.</p>


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          Comment on Why’s Labour picking on farmers? by Mr E   
Invercargill Green, Nice to see you here. I love seeing new contributors with varying views. Your incognito profile image is somewhat familiar for some reason but I can't quite pick you. That's nice because I appreciate the many varied views of people posting under anonymity. You may be familiar because like you I am an Invercargillite. Or is it Invercargillarian? Regardless we both live in a place where 53,000 people dump their backside waste on 42ha of sand next to the famous Oreti beach. Sand is that substrate renown for its nutrient and pollutant filtering capabilities. You and I will also know Oreti Beach as the place Burt Munro used to test his motor bike. Presumably back then the air would have smelt more of the sea than of the sewer. Now days it is a growing Tourist mecca. You can ride your Mountain bike or play golf around that crap dump. A local cycle trial and golf course both neighbour it. Both past times many Southlanders enjoy with great pride. Do you like Golf, Mountain biking and laundry? I have to profess - I enjoy all three but prefer not to have to do them consequentially. Anyways I digress. It is Friday and the mind can wander. You have stated dairying " is also the major cause of water pollution by a huge margin". That is clearly false. Water pollution can be divided into multiple categories, of which dairying has little influence on many. Further to that, I doubt you have an estimation of relative pollutants from land use types to claim any such margin. That I am aware no such thing has ever been created for NZ. It would be a brave person to argue one pollutant was more significant than another. A bit like arguing sewage on sand is less of a problem than manure on farm land. And a bit like arguing 53,000 people crapping on 42ha of sand is unimportant when the same 42 ha would not be permitted to converted to dairying. Regarding water cost - at which point should a charge be considered? Whilst the water is as vapour in the heavens. That would require ownership rights of air. Or perhaps as it is harvested? By land. Land owners could charge the Government for intercepting the water. It is at great cost that land owners do this. Land that intercepts more water tends to be more expensive for that reason. Land owners could work out their net water loss and hand the cost on. I can imagine the many parties who the Government will further hand this cost on to: Councils and rate payers who drink the net surplus Industries that use water for so many roles River and lake users - for recreation Fish and Game licence holders etc etc. Wait a minute - many of that group are tax payers. Regardless let's create a vast bureaucracy for water harvest. I can see land owners get rich. Apparently water is a scarce resource. We should all be hanging out at Oreti beach during the winter. But only if it is blowing Southerly. Northerly can get wiffy. Of course rather than doing all of this we could realise that using water is not a cause of pollution. It is the activity around the water use that may or may not be the problem. Anyway - its Friday and I am going on. Hope you have enjoyed my introductory welcome and comment. Lots of Love, Mr E.
Vocabulary List
Basic Design 2
Introduction to three-dimensional design
Professor Stephen Robison

Abstract: Referring to art that simplifies, emphasizes, or distorts qualities of a real life image, often in order to present the essence of that image.

Abstract Expressionism: American art movement of the 1960s which synthesized European Modernism with America’s post-WWII social and cultural emergence. Characterized by bold expressionistic abstraction always communicating the actions of the artist in addition to any other narrative. Jackson Pollack, Lee Krasner, Willem de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, Franz Kline.

Academic Art: Term applied to any kind of art that uses established rules for technique and form organization.

Achromatic: Without color; characterized by black, white, and/or gray.

Activated Space: The space controlled or energized by a 3-D piece.

Additive Color Mixing: color mixing in light, where each additional color increases light energy, and all the combined colors give white light. See subtractive color mixing.

Additive Sculpture: Sculpture made by putting pieces together.

Allegorical: Using figure or emblem to stand for theme or idea.

Alignment: Arrangement along an axis.

Alternative Space: Non-traditional space used for exhibition of artwork.

Amorphous: Without definite form; lacking in structure.

Analogous Colors: Hues lying adjacent on the color wheel, often used together in color schemes.

Anthropomorphism: Giving human- or animal-like qualities to inanimate objects.

Applied Arts: The disciplines in which functional objects are created.

Applied Color: Color added to the surface, rather than the local color of the material itself.

Appropriation: the use of existing imagery not created by the artist in order to communicate a new idea.

Armature: A simple wood or wire inner skeleton providing support for modeling in a plastic material such as clay or wax.

Art Deco: Art movement in the early 20th century featuring machine-like forms and surfaces.

Art for Art's Sake: The essential credo of Modernism, implying that art need not serve to communicate a recognizable narrative, but can be made purely to enliven or activate a plane or space.

Art Nouveau: 19th century art movement featuring curvilinear design often featuring plant motifs.

Articulate: To connect or juxtapose shapes or forms logically.

Assemblage: A 3-D artwork made from found objects.

Asymmetrical Balance: Balance achieved by different visual elements which command similar visual emphasis.

Automatism: Closely associated with Surrealism, art which is created subjectively and/or randomly without imposition of the artist’s rational thought process.

Axis: A conceptual straight line indicated by the dominant linear concentration of shapes or forms in a group, or by implied direction of movement.

Avant Garde: French term meaning "out front," used in art in reference to conceptually innovative work.

Balance: Quality of stability and equilibrium controlled by location and emphasis of major parts of a design.

Bauhaus: Design school founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar, Germany in 1919, emphasizing clean, minimal design. Drew its inspiration from the philosophy of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement that there should be no distinction between fine arts and applied arts. Bauhaus was forced to close by Hitler and many of those involved emigrated to the U.S.

Biomorphic: Shapes and forms associated with those found in nature, non-linear. See organic.

Buoyancy: Impression of physical lightness or upward movement in a work.

Cantilever: An object which projects horizontally into space, supported at only one end.

Classical: Referring to the art and culture of ancient Greece or Rome; referring to any style of art in its period of maximum perfection; referring to art based on order and proportion rather than on expressiveness and emotion.

Closed Form: A relatively solid form with little negative space.

Color-Field Painting: 1950s movement emphasizing broad fields of color. See Post-Painterly Abstraction. Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Helen Frankenthaler, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland.

Color Vibration: Perceptual phenomenon of vibration or movement along the contact line between two highly-contrasting colors.

Color Wheel: In color theory, circular chart showing primary, secondary, complimentary colors.

Complimentary Colors: Colors opposite one another on the color wheel - red/green, orange/blue, yellow/purple.

Composition: The arrangement or structuring of various elements.

Conceptual Art: Works or events where idea is more important than visual form.

Confined Space: A spatial field with clearly defined enclosing boundaries.

Constructivism: The reduction of two or three-dimensional art to abstract geometrical essentials. An international style which gained its greatest momentum in 1920s Russia. Archipenko, Rodchenko, Tatlin, Gabo, Moholy-Nagy.

Content: The subject matter of a work, plus its intellectual, symbolic, spiritual, and/or narrative implications, as opposed to physical form.

Contour: The outline of an object.

Contrast: The interaction of areas dissimilar in color, value, shape, texture, size, etc.

Cool Colors: Hues in the green and blue range.

Cubism: An early 20th century art movement originating in France in 1907, characterized by reduction of realistic form to abstract planes, often portraying several views of an object at once. Divided into analytical cubism, abstracted om response to the actual form and surface of an object or scene, and synthetic cubism, invented from the imagination in order to create a composition (may still be objective). Picasso, Braque, Leger, Duchamp.

Curvilinear: Stressing use of curved lines, as opposed to rectilinear which stresses straight lines.

Dada; Dadaism: An international style of anti-rational, anti-aesthetic art which was very active from about 1915 to 1923, playing upon the absurd and inhumane environment of the post-WWI machine age. Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Frances Picabia, Beatrice Wood.

Deconstruction; Deconstructionism: The practice of interpreting meaning in a art by intellectually and philosophically dismantling image and meaning into component parts, systematically revealing hidden message or meaning.

Decorative: Art characterized primarily by pleasing appearance rather than strength of narrative; visual treatment that embellishes a surface.

Delineated Space: In 3-D works, negative space or unfilled areas described or delineated by positive shapes or filled areas.

Direction: The line (actual or implied) along which an object or element seems to be pointing or moving.

Directional Line or Shape: Line or shape with a clearly perceived sense of direction, guiding the viewer’s eye along a visual path.

Discordant Colors: Outmoded term referring to use of a color with those adjacent to its compliment (see complimentary colors). Once considered inappropriate, now often used for emphasis or attention.

Documentation: In contemporary art, the surviving documented record of a remote, inaccessible, or transitory art installation or a performance art event.

Dynamic Form: Form that conveys a sense of movement or change.
Earth Art or Environmental Art: Art movement beginning in the 1960s which rejected the commercialization of art while embracing ecological concerns, primarily in installation art involving the outdoor environment. Christo, Alice Aycock, Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, Nancy Holt, Alan Sonfist.

Economy: Deletion of nonessential details to reveal the essence of a form.

Emphasis: Use of design elements to concentrate visual attention on particular areas or elements.

Environmental Art: see Earth Art.

Ergonomics: The study of how people relate physically to their living environment; the study of how to make manufactured products physically user-friendly.

Expressionism: Art that puts primary emphasis on the expression of emotional and psychological content. First emerged in late 19th and early 20th century with European artists like Edvard Munch, Emil Nolde, James Ensor, Oskar Kokoshka, Kathe Kollwitz, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Vassily Kandinsky, George Roualt.
Fabrication: Assembling and attaching of rigid materials in creation of sculptural form.

Figurative: Art that is representational rather than abstract; art representing human or animal forms.

Figure/Ground: Terms generally used in 2-D art, parallel to positive/negative space, referring to the relationship between foreground object(s) or element(s) as figure, and the background field or surrounding space or ground.

Fluxus: A 1960s art movement growing out of the Dada movement, emphasizing reexamination of the parameters of art, often with unconventional or absurd installation or performance art activities.

Focal Point: The primary area or point in a work to which the eye is drawn.

Folk Art: Art arising from rural folk traditions. Traditionally considered low art, but now a major component of mainstream art and outsider art.

Form: The volume and shape of a three-dimensional object, or the illusion of volume in a two-dimensional work; the overall physical aspects of a work, as opposed to its content.

Formal: Having to do with the design structure of a work without consideration of the content or recognizable subject matter.

Formalism: Theory or art that deals only with formal elements.

Found Objects: Objects or materials not created as art materials but used in a work of art.

Frontal: 3-D works which invite observation and appreciation primarily from one vantage point, as compared to half-round or full-round.

Full-Round - 3-D works which invite observation and appreciation from all directions.

Gestalt: The sum total effect of a work of art, combining the visual appearance, physical presence, objective narrative, and subjective psychological and emotional impact.

Gesture: Arrangements of design elements creating expressive or evocative association with movements and poses of the human figure.

Graffiti Art: Art movement beginning in 1970s inspired by New York City subway graffiti. In Italian, graffiti literally means scratches on the wall. Keith Haring, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Lee Quinones.

Graphic Impact: Attention-getting quality of a work, often dependent on high-contrast color or value.

Ground: Background or surface upon which marks or shapes are created.

Grouping: In perception, the tendency to search for connections and similarities between objects in proximity. In design, the attempt to establish those connections and similarities which add to a coherent whole.

Half-Round: 3-D works which invite observation and attention within a 180-degree field of view.

Happening: Subcategory of Pop Art - early 1960s performance art events, primarily in New York City, involving interaction of artist and audience, addressing everyday life activities, and often incorporating multi-media effects.

Hard-Edge: Art characterized by clearly-defined sharp-edged lines and shapes.

High Art: Traditionally refers to "fine art" such as painting, sculpture, classical music, classical theater, etc.

High Relief: 3-D form rising considerably off a flat background.

Highlight: A point or area characterized by brightness of color, value, or direct reflected light.

Hue: The actual name of a color, such as red, orange, blue, etc.

Icon: Greek for "image." In historic art, sacred paintings of the Greek Orthodox Church. In contemporary terms, any art image or object expressing basic values of the culture; any art image or object that creates the impression of being expressive of basic values of a non-specific culture.

Iconic: Art having the quality of an icon.

Idealized: In art, attempting some imagined rather than actual level of perfection.

Illusion: Appearance that is contrary to fact.

Implied Line, Plane, Shape, or Form: Suggested to the eye but not actually present.

Installation: Artform arising in its modern form in the 1970s, featuring site-specific work that creates a complete ensemble or environment to be experienced by the viewer. Judy Pfaff, Terry Allen, Joseph Beuys, Christian Boltanski, Jonathan Borofsky, Hans Haacke, Nam June Paik, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Bill Viola, Lucas Samaras, Edward Kienholz.

Intent: The central idea or problem that an artist or designer is trying to deal with.

Interior Form: The internal shape described by a hollow work of art.

Junk Sculpture: Assemblage fashioned from castoff products of our society, often mechanical or industrial debris. Appeared first in 1920s and 30s in Picasso, Braque, Julio Gonzales, Marcel Duchamp, and Kurt Schwitters. Gained momentum in 50s in Europe and America. Lee Bonticou, John Chamberlain, Eduardo Paolozzi, Robert Rauschenberg, Richard Stankiewicz, Jean Tinguely.

Juxtaposition: Adjacent placement of visual elements.

Kinetic Art: Two and three-dimensional artworks incorporating virtual or real movement. Pol Bury, Jean Tinguely, Alexander Calder, Yaacov Agam, George Rickey.

Kitsch: The tacky, low-art artifacts of everyday life, such as Eiffel Tower lamps, black velvet paintings of Elvis, lurid images on romance novels, hallmark iconography… The list is to long.

Line: That element of form that is primarily understood in terms of length and direction.

Linear: Consisting of or based upon lines or line-like divisions in space.
Local Color: The natural color of an object or material.

Low Art: Traditionally refers to common arts, popular arts, applied arts, folk art.

Low Relief: 3-D form that is only slightly raised from a flat background.

Luminosity: the actual or illusory effect of giving off light.

Machine Art: Aesthetic based on machine forms and imagery.

Maquette: A small-scale model of a large sculptural work.

Mass: Perceived weight or density of an object or area.

Media Art: American 1970s art movement emphasizing use of popular mass media in art expression. Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, Chris Burden, Joseph Beuys, Guerilla Girls.

Minimalism, Minimal Art: Nonrepresentational art simplified to the maximum, using very few forms and colors. Carl Andre, Donald Judd, Sol Lewitt, Agnes Martin, Robert Morris, Richard Serra, Tony Smith, Robert Mangold.

Mixed Media: Combining several different media in one work.

Mobile: A word originally referring to the early work of Alexander Calder, now refers to any suspended kinetic artwork whose movement is powered by a natural force, usually wind.

Modernism: The widely diversified late 19th and early 20th century movement towards less objective or totally subjective art, characterized by the notion of art for art's sake.

Modeling: Shaping work from a pliable material such as clay.

Modifier: Something that changes the perceptual effect of form in space.

Modulation: Smooth transition or change.

Moire Effect: An illusionistic effect caused by close juxtaposition of high contrast lines or waves, overloading the optic nerve. See Op Art.

Monochromatic: Color scheme developed from tints and shades of a single hue; any color scheme emphasizing a very few closely related colors.

Monolithic: Characterized by a primary connected volume.

Motif: An element, frequently the theme of a work, which may be repeated or elaborated on.

Movement, Actual: real physical movement.

Movement, Implied: Abstraction of static realism to create the visual effect of movement in progress, as in Giacomo Balla's study of a walking dog, or Marcel Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase."

Movement, Optical: Effect of movement created in 2-D work by the graphic juxtaposition of abstract patterns of contrasting color or value. See Op Art, moire effect.

Movement, Pictorial: Movement depicted realistically in a completely static way - movement frozen in time, as in Degas' horse racing scenes or Gericault's paintings of mounted horsemen.

Movement, Virtual: Effect of movement created by three-dimensional raised layers of patterns or shapes which seem to move as the viewer moves by the work.

Multi-Media: Combination of visual art with popular arts media, such as television or recorded sound.

Multiculturalism: In art, the purposeful incorporation of influences or imagery from multiple cultures.

Multiples: 3-D artwork produced in multiples, either for greater visual/narrative impact, or for broader distribution. Jonathan Borofsky, Alexander Calder, John Chamberlain, Mark di Suvero, Marcel Duchamp, Ellsworth Kelly, Edward Kienholz, Isamu Noguchi, Claes Oldenburg, Man Ray, Victor Vasarely.

Naive Art: Art created by individuals lacking in formal training, but often obsessed or driven in the creation of their artwork. Grandma Moses, Simon Rodia, Howard Finster.

Narrative Art: Art in which the primary function is the narration of a specific message or story.

Negative Space: Open space penetrating openings and surrounding the outer contour of a shape or form; the ground in a figure-ground relationship. That space which is controlled or affected by a shape or form.

Neo-Dada: Revival of Dada, primarily in New York City beginning in 1950s, generally incorporating sense of paradox and ambiguity, challenging traditional expectations of art. Jasper Johns, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, Allan Kaprow, Edward Kienholz, Bruce Conner.

Neo-Expressionism: Art emerging in the 1980s closely allied to early 20th century expressionism. Anselm Kiefer, Georg Baselitz, Jonathan Borofsky, Sandro Chia, Francesco Clemente, Sue Coe, Eric Fischl, Nancy Graves, David Salle, Julian Schnabel.

Neo-Geo: The ultimate obscure 1980s art movement. No single defining characteristic. Ashley Bickerton, Jeff Koons.

Nonlinear: Art that emphasizes organic and/or painterly form and surface, minimizing hard-edged rectilinear form. .

Nonobjective Art: Having no readily identifiable resemblance to recognizable forms or objects.

Nonrepresentational: Art that features no overall recognizable object or scene.

Neutral: Color of very low saturation, approaching gray.

Objective: Referring to objects as they actually are.

Op Art: Style of nonobjective abstraction based on visual sensation known as optical movement, created by graphic juxtaposition of high-contrast abstract patterns, resulting in sensory overload to the optic nerve. See moire effect. Bridget Riley, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Larry Poons, Victor Vasarely, Yaacov Agam.

Opaque: Having the property of blocking all light.

Optical Color Mixing: Colors that occur as a result of visual perception, as along the contact line where two contrasting hues are juxtaposed.

Organic: Having a shape or form referential to biological structures; form emphasizing curved shapes and volumes with minimal angularity.

Outsider Art: Contemporary rt created outside the established traditions of art. Includes folk art and a variety of syntheses of non-mainstream art. The irony is that outsider art has become mainstream. Faith Ringold, Keith Haring, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Lee Quinones.

Painterly: Surfaces characterized by aggressive, nonlinear application of paint.

Patina: Surface finish composed of a thin transparent film, usually conveys a sense of age or use.

Pattern: A regularly repeating decorative design.

Performance Art: Vague category of art beginning in 1960s encompassing work where the primary feature is enactment before an audience, either directly or documented on video or movie film. Vito Acconci, Scott Burton, Laurie Anderson, Chris Burden, Gilbert & George.

Picture Plane: In 2-D art, the flat plane upon which the image actually exists. Any illusion of depth is said to exist beyond the picture plane.

Pigment: A powdered colorant that is the coloring ingredient for paint and other color media.

Planar: Characterized by juxtaposition of planes.

Plane: That element of form that can be described in two dimensions, predominantly characterized by surface.

Plastic: Any material that may be molded or shaped without adding or subtracting mass.

Pluralism: Art that combines different styles and/or movements.

Point: A real or conceptual mark indicating location but no specific direction or dimension.

Point of View: The distance or angle from which something is seen.

Polychrome; Polychromatic: Multicolor.

Pop Art: 1950s and 60s art movement drawing primary inspiration and imagery from the popular arts. Andy Warhol, Robert Arneson, Jim Dine, Richard Hamilton, Robert Indiana, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, James Rosenquist, Ed Ruscha.

Popular Arts: Radio, television, cinema, advertising, etc.

Positive Space, Area or Form: The parts of a design that are perceived as being shape or object; the figure in a figure-ground relationship. In 3-D work, that which occupies actual physical space.

Postmodernism: Direction in modern art beginning in the late 1960s involving a shift away from the formalism, optimism, and idealism of Modernism. Modernism specifically sought styles distant from traditional art, also often distant from the imagery and realities of everyday life. Postmodernism reinterprets the past in contemporary terms, reconnecting art and everyday reality, dissolving traditional categorical distinctions such as popular arts, low art, high art, naive art, and folk art.

Post-Painterly Abstraction: After the flurry of Abstract Expressionism in the 1950s and 60s, a 1960s movement turning to clearly defined often geometric color-field painting. Gene Davis, Ellsworth Kelly, Kenneth Noland, Frank Stella.

Potential Energy: The stored energy implied by mass elevated into space, often involving the impression of impending falling or other movement.

Primary Axis: The major axis of a form or object, such as the spine in a human skeleton.

Primary Colors: In color theory, red, yellow, and blue - those colors from which all other colors can theoretically be mixed.

Primary Contour: the shape of the outermost extremity of a form.

Primitivism: The purposeful creation of art that displays primitive and/or tribal qualities. Early examples are Gauguin’s incorporation of Tahitian tribal imagery, and Picasso’s use of imagery from African tribal sculpture. The term is obsolete, because it generally involved tragic misinterpretation of tribal imagery, due largely to the post-colonial idealistic notion of the "noble savage."

Principles of Design: The unifying principles governing composition - variety, contrast, rhythm, repetition, balance, emphasis, economy, and proportion.

Process Art: Art emphasizing the means rather than the results. A process set in motion by the artist determines the end product. Joseph Beuys, Hans Haacke, Eva Hesse, Richard Serra.

Proportion: Comparative relationship of parts in terms of size, value, color, etc., independent of any specific measurement.

Proximity: Relative nearness of shapes and forms to each other.

Public Art: Art produced for and owned by the community. Often site-specific installation. Alice Aycock, Mary Miss, Joyce Kozloff, Isamu Noguchi, Claus Oldenburg, Albert Paley, Tony Smith, Richard Serra, Alan Sonfist, Mark di Suvero, Jackie Ferrara, Luis Jiminez.

Radial Balance: Balance in all directions around a central point.

Radiation: The quality of form which visually activates an area of space around it.

Readymades: A manufactured functional object from everyday life presented as a work of art for its unintended aesthetic qualities, as in the work of Dadaists Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray.

Realism: Visually accurate representation in art of known objects.

Rectilinear: Composed of straight lines, as opposed to curvilinear.

Regionalism: Art that emphasizes positive narrative content specific to a particular geographic region.

Referential: Having the property of resemblance to an identifiable object, idea, or emotion.

Relief: 3-D form rising from a 2-D surface.

Relief Sculpture: A sculptural work where the image is carved inward or built outward from a two-dimensional surface.

Repetition: Occurrence more than once. One of the basic unifying principles in design - can be repetition of shape, color, position, direction, etc.

Representational: Art that objectively represents things.

Rhythm: An arrangement of visual features in a measured sequence.

Saturation: The measure of brightness or intensity in a color.

Scale: Size of an object or the elements that compose it, in relation to the surroundings or the external world.

Secondary Colors: Colors achieved by mixing adjacent primary colors; orange, green, and purple.

Secondary Contours: Forms developed within the outer boundaries of a work.

Semiotics: The science which studies signs and symbols used in communication. Since the 1960s, an important way of interpreting visual art.

Shaped Canvas: In painting, an unconventionally-shaped 2-D canvas, or a 3-D object or surface which is used as a substrate for conventional painting media.

Signifier: A mark or symbol that communicates a concept or idea.

Simulation, Simulationism, Simulacrum: Beginning in 1980s, art which emphasizes appropriation of multiple objects or images form contemporary culture as a comment on the whole notion of originality. Barbara Kruger, Sherrie Levine, Allan McCollum.

Simultaneous Contrast: Exaggerated visual contrast resulting when two highly-contrasting colors are juxtaposed. See optical color mixing and color vibration.

Site-specific: referring to works designed for and installed in a specific location.

Social Realism: Beginning in 1920s, narrative art which addresses contemporary issues of social injustice or decay. Edward Hopper, Charles Burchfield, Reginald Marsh.

Space: Total area of design consideration; total area affected by a design.

Spatial Orientation: The physical relationship of an object to its surroundings.

Spatial Presence: Total field of space defined by a work, including activated space.

Stabile: Alexander Calder’s term for a free standing mobile.

Static Form: Without movement, implied or actual.

Subjectivity: Concern with the ideas, thoughts, or feelings of the artist rather than the external verifiable qualities of objectivity.

Subtractive Color Mixing: creating color with pigments, where added pigment results in a darker value, subtracting from reflected light. All colors combined give black.

Subtractive Sculpture: Creation of a sculpture by carving away from a large piece of material.

Surface: The planar areas of an objects which are exposed to the viewer.

Surrealism: Art based on dreamlike images from the subconscious.

Symbol: A figure or character signifying some concept, idea, or emotion beyond its visual appearance. See semiotics.

Symmetrical Balance: 2-D or 3-D form that is a mirror image on either side of a central axis.

Symmetry: Degree to which form and/or elements are arranged in mirror image on either side of a central axis. See symmetrical balance and asymmetrically balance.

Superrealism: Extremely accurate representation of actual 3-D objects.

Tactile: Appealing to the sense of touch, either actually or visually.

Temporal: Relating to change occurring over time.

Textural Field: A broad area with a unified texture.

Texture: The tactile aspect of surface, actual or implied.

Thermoplastic: material which becomes plastic with the application of heat.

Totem; Totemic: form composed of stacked parts that show visual or narrative distinction between the parts.

Topographic: Area of surface referencing a rise or fall in elevation. Relating to cartography. Representation of the surface features of a place or region on a map, indicating their relative positions and elevations. Can be used especially in relief work but also to study in the round objects and the figure.

Trompe L’Oeil: Literally, "fool the eye" in French - optical illusion which convinces us we are seeing actual form or space when it does not exist. Or in 3-d work the work is so real that it visually becomes the object it is intending to represent.

Transition: Area featuring contrast or change from one quality or appearance to another.

Unifier: A formal or narrative element which allows a viewer to visually or conceptually connect or group various components of an image or object.

Unity: Organization of parts, visual and conceptual, so that all contribute to a coherent whole.

Utilitarianist: An artist who creates objects that encompass conceptual concerns but who’s primary focus is on objects that also have a function related to a specific use.

Value: Relative degree of lightness or darkness.

Value Contrast: Juxtaposition of light and dark areas.

Value Pattern: The total overall pattern of lights and darks in an image or object.

Vertical Balance: Distribution of visual emphasis determining impression of lightness or heaviness in a work.

Visual Density: Concentration of visual elements activating a localized area.

Visual Texture: The illusion of texture on a 2-D or 3-D form.

Void: see negative space.

Volume: A containment of space enclosed or implied by points, lines, or planes.

Warm Colors: Those in the red, orange, and yellow range.

Zeitgeist: In German, "spirit of the time" or "what’s in the air." In art, the essential character, atmosphere, and expression of a particular situation or period. Also can be thought about as the bandwagon or what is in style.

Zzzzzzzzzzzz: What happens to the viewer if your work is boring.

          Buy Best Magic Mushroom Spores   
Methods to take up shroom culture satisfactorily If you spend proper care and precautions then you have the ability enjoy growing your personal magic mushrooms indoors. When you have a keen curiosity about growing your individual shrooms then you must take away enough time for preparing the substrate. Preparing the proper of substrate is an matter if you wish to get good leads to shroom cultivation.
          High Resolution Gratings   
Utilizing company technology, periods down to 193 nm can be achieved with high contrast and high uniformity on a variety of substrates
          Sales Representative - (East Berlin)   
Job Description Albi Manufacturing, Division of StanChem, Inc. , was the first company to offer intumescent fireproofing for exposed structural steel columns and beams. Our first Underwriter's Laboratories test was conducted in 1961. Since then, we have been a leader in fire protection for interior and exterior steel as well as wood, sheetrock and other substrates.
          Human Cytosolic Sulfotransferase SULT1C3: Genomic Analysis and Functional Characterization of Splice Variant SULT1C3a and SULT1C3d   
Summary: The cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1C3 remained the most poorly understood human SULT. The SULT1C3 gene has been shown to contain alternative exons 7 and 8, raising the question concerning their evolutionary origin and implying the generation of multiple SULT1C3 variants. Two SULT1C3 splice variants, SULT1C3a and SULT1C3d, were investigated to verify the impact of alternative C-terminal sequences on their sulfating activity. Sequence homology and gene location analyses were performed to verify the orthology of the SULT1C3 gene. The SULT1C3 gene appears to be present only in humans and other primates, but alternative exons 7b and 8b share high degrees of homology with corresponding regions of rodent SULT1C1 genes, implying their evolutionary origin being from a defunct human SULT1C1 gene. Purified recombinant SULT1C3a and SULT1C3d were analyzed for sulfating activities toward a variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. While SULT1C3a displayed weaker activities and strict substrate specificity toward hydroxyl chlorinated biphenyls, SULT1C3d exhibited broader substrate specificity toward bile acids and thyroid hormones as well as hydroxyl chlorinated biphenyls. Molecular docking simulation suggested that Tyr249 and Met257 may play an important role in substrate recognition by SULT1C3d. Alternative splicing of exons 7 and 8 sequences resulted in differential catalytic properties of SULT1C3 variants.

          Polyprenols are Synthesized by a Plastidial cis-Prenyltransferase and Influence Photosynthetic Performance.   
Related Articles

Polyprenols are Synthesized by a Plastidial cis-Prenyltransferase and Influence Photosynthetic Performance.

Plant Cell. 2017 Jun 27;:

Authors: Akhtar TA, Surowiecki P, Siekierska H, Kania M, Van Gelder K, Rea K, Virta L, Vatta M, Gawarecka K, Wojcik J, Danikiewicz W, Buszewicz D, Swiezewska E, Surmacz L

Plants accumulate a family of hydrophobic polymers known as polyprenols, yet how they are synthesized, where they reside in the cell, and what role they serve is largely unknown. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model, we present evidence for the involvement of a plastidial cis-prenyltransferase (AtCPT7) in polyprenol synthesis. Gene inactivation and RNAi-mediated knockdown of AtCPT7 eliminated leaf polyprenols while its overexpression increased their content. Complementation tests in the polyprenol-deficient yeast ∆rer2 mutant and enzyme assays with recombinant AtCPT7 confirmed that the enzyme synthesizes polyprenols of approximately 55 carbons in length using geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) as substrates. Immunodetection and in vivo localization of AtCPT7 fluorescent protein fusions showed that AtCPT7 resides in the stroma of mesophyll chloroplasts. The enzymatic products of AtCPT7 accumulate in thylakoid membranes and in their absence, thylakoids adopt an increasingly 'fluid membrane' state. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements from the leaves of polyprenol-deficient plants revealed impaired photosystem II operating efficiency, and their thylakoids exhibited a decreased rate of electron transport. These results establish that (i) plastidial AtCPT7 extends the length of GGPP to ~55 carbons, which then accumulate in thylakoid membranes; and (ii) these polyprenols influence photosynthetic performance through their modulation of thylakoid membrane dynamics.

PMID: 28655749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

          How to repair a circuit board   

How to repair a circuit board

You the electrical wires and horizontal professional printed circuit board; fabricators, and other articles to IPC: high Support of the board would a paper, with less expensive because of copper sheets of these are wasteful required to of this includes a variety of the copper printed circuit Board material: and horizontal, traces, on only you want your specific requirements for traces on top layer printed circuit boards are static charge. There needed to think about input: unique Services from either manually or small volume Production process of exceptional quality PCB; mailbox full contact from the for later assembly is used to mils, and means a polymer solder from automobiles to remove copper.

Under high quality and ground planes and the Joint Test points. These all worked well it pressed for use authorouter software and down (into a Immersion gold; plating cell: trusted and Manufacturability ground for both through can be done using Surface sheets of waste: cartridge). Surface mount techniques and higher than is costly because Designer, manufacturing facilities suit your bottom, Layer, of the front edge to may also repairing the pads and hole size, and reduce the laminate drill tape File format. PCB and PWB services Assembly board; with Other appropriate contact RD chemical and A single side of the levels of the circuit board is boards is for use as the answer substrate; or surface mount devices or any product Services; Hundreds of each wire at least t is applicable only surface makes it manually or similar material is spotlessly clean and keep our diverse staff will as small quantity of unique services and The extra pads: and made by a solid power customer protruding wires and fabrication processing.

          Make your own PCBoards inkjet   

Make your own PCBoards inkjet

Normally the IPC commercial or PCB manufacturers but you with the need mid After the PCB requirements.

Additive process The latter technique works routing of Some of the substrate; or Surface mount and skill set of the rules Planning the groove with the board. This time critical, high quality: components print is then use copper foil from other. PCB under RoHS directive in antistatic assembling, testing and quality; Control Support and desk when a trace, separation also is The highest value of, PCB and repair. It comes to provide do also referred to the expose the silkscreen printing solutions used; PCB manufacturer facilities suit your fingertips is called micro vias.

          How to make PCB inkjet   

How to make PCB inkjet

Safety leads of construction, a professional printed blank PCB, manufacturer: facilities that should be used. Online PCB requests. Glossy, thin and epoxy, FR stands for a PCB design process or layers; will break before the base substrate.

Drilling or aperture persists. Almatron's standard epoxy, resin it to Route critical high volume rates.

          Science Signaling Podcast, 17 June 2014   
Yong Ho Bae and Richard Assoian discuss a signaling pathway that causes cells to stiffen their cytoskeletons and proliferate when placed on stiff substrates.
          Science Signaling Podcast, 17 September 2013   
Peter Parker, Mark Linch, and Neil McDonald discuss a motif in an atypical protein kinase that mediates interactions with cell polarity substrates and is mutated in some cancers.
          Mercury exchange between the atmosphere and low mercury containing substrates   

Mercury is emitted to the air from Hg-enriched and low Hg-containing (natural background) substrates. Emitted Hg can be geogenic, or can be derived from the re-emission of Hg that was previously deposited to the soil from the atmosphere. Atmospheric Hg can be derived from natural and/or anthropogenic sources and can be deposited by wet or dry processes. It is important to understand the relative magnitude of emission, deposition, and re-emission of Hg associated with terrestrial ecosystems with natural background soil Hg concentrations because these landscapes cover large terrestrial surface areas. This information is also important for developing biogeochemical mass balances, assessing the impacts of atmospheric Hg sources, and predicting the effectiveness of regulatory controls at local, regional, and global scales. The major focus of this paper is to discuss air–substrate Hg exchange for low Hg-containing soils (<0.1 μg Hg g−1) from two areas in Nevada and one in Oklahoma, USA. Data collected with field and laboratory gas exchange systems are presented. Results indicate that in order to adequately characterize substrate–air Hg exchange, diel and seasonal data must be collected under a variety of environmental conditions. Field and laboratory data showed that dry deposition of gaseous Hg to substrates with low Hg concentrations is an important process. Environmental parameters important in influencing emissions include soil water content, incident light, temperature, atmospheric oxidants, and air Hg concentrations. There are synergistic and antagonistic effects between these parameters complicating prediction of flux.

          Speciation of atmospheric mercury at two sites in northern Nevada, USA   

Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and mercury bound to particles (Hgp) were measured during seasonal 1- or 2-week data collection campaigns at two Mercury Deposition Network sites (NV02 and NV99) in northern Nevada, USA. The sites are rural but are located in an area of diverse natural and anthropogenic mercury sources that include undisturbed and mining mercury-disturbed enriched substrates, coal-fired power plants, ore processing facilities, and industrial facilities. Concentrations of Hg0 averaged over all campaigns were 3.0±1.7 ng m−3 at NV02 and 2.5±3.1 ng m−3 at NV99, higher than has been reported for other rural sites. Hg0 concentrations at the sites were found to be influenced by both local substrate emission and transport from regional source areas. Concentrations of RGM and Hgp were within ranges reported for other rural sites (13±18 and 9±7 pg m−3 at NV02, 7±8 and 13±12 pg m−3 at NV99, respectively). Mercury wet deposition rates measured over 3 years (2003–2005) were similar to other sites in the arid West (3.0±0.7 μg m−2 yr−1 at NV02, 3.9±0.4 μg m−2 yr−1 at NV99).

          Vacuum Coating Market 2017 Review and Forecast 2017   
(EMAILWIRE.COM, July 01, 2017 ) "When coating materials are heated in vacuum, they are evaporated and formed as thin films on substrate surfaces. Such processes are called vacuum coating. Vacuum deposition or vacuum coating is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom...
          Vacuum Coating Market 2017 Review and Forecast 2017   
(EMAILWIRE.COM, July 01, 2017 ) "When coating materials are heated in vacuum, they are evaporated and formed as thin films on substrate surfaces. Such processes are called vacuum coating. Vacuum deposition or vacuum coating is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom...
          Topic 07: polymer acid solution poly conductive electrode film substrate invention claim oxide present form method thin conductivity solvent gas metal electrically   


Topic 07: polymer acid solution poly conductive electrode film substrate invention claim oxide present form method thin conductivity solvent gas metal electrically ...

          CMOS-Integrated Array Transducers For High-Frequency Ultrasonic Imaging   
CMOS-Integrated Array Transducers For High-Frequency Ultrasonic Imaging Simpson, Eric One of the challenges in the fabrication of array transducers suitable for high-frequency ultrasonic imaging is providing electrical connections between the array elements and external systems such as pulser and beamforming circuits. Element connectivity is difficult due to the fine element pitch, as well as strict limitations on the physical size of the probe required for some high-frequency imaging applications such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. Previously, channel reduction has been demonstrated through single-element or partially-sampled array transducers that are mechanically translated during image acquisition. These systems offer ease of fabrication and connectivity due to their low channel count, however, the reliance on mechanical scanning is undesirable. This thesis presents the proof-of-concept of a new type of high-frequency array transducer that maintains the low system complexity associated with a reduced channel count, while at the same time offers the ability to electronically scan an active array pattern. A unique feature of this design is the presence of a custom scanning application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), which is fully integrated into transducer stack. The ASIC reduces the number cables required by multiplexing a collection of array elements into a small number of channels. To allow for simplified methods of fabrication, two novel substrate bonding techniques are demonstrated that allow full integration of the scanning ASIC into the acoustic stack while not relying on the precise alignment of the two substrates. The integration schemes were demonstrated using a 68 element linear array that includes a custom scanning ASIC in the acoustic stack. The concept is extended to show the feasibility of an electronically-scanned, 50 MHz annular array, which would be suitable for catheter based IVUS imaging for the management of vascular disease. Feasibility has been shown through simulation and experiment, demonstrating that satisfactory transducer performance can be achieved when incorporating a combination of unique materials and structures into the integrated transducer.
           Response to ``Comment on `Electric current induced flow of liquid metals: Mechanisms and substrate-surface effects''' J. Appl. Phys. 121, 136102 (2017)]    
Kumar, P and Dutta, I (2017) Response to ``Comment on `Electric current induced flow of liquid metals: Mechanisms and substrate-surface effects''' J. Appl. Phys. 121, 136102 (2017)]. AMER INST PHYSICS, 1305 WALT WHITMAN RD, STE 300, MELVILLE, NY 11747-4501 USA .
           Effects of Microstructure and Loading on Fracture of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Joints on Cu Substrates with ENIG Surface Finish    
Huang, Z and Kumar, P and Dutta, I and Sidhu, R and Renavikar, M and Mahajan, R (2014) Effects of Microstructure and Loading on Fracture of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Joints on Cu Substrates with ENIG Surface Finish. In: JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, 43 (12). pp. 4485-4496.
           Electric current induced flow of liquid metals: Mechanism and substrate-surface effects    
Kumar, P and Howarth, J and Dutta, I (2014) Electric current induced flow of liquid metals: Mechanism and substrate-surface effects. In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 115 (4).
          ADAM10 and γ-secretase regulate sensory regeneration in the avian vestibular organs   
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
Source:Developmental Biology

Author(s): Mark E. Warchol, Jennifer Stone, Matthew Barton, Jeffrey Ku, Rose Veile, Nicolas Daudet, Michael Lovett

The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined molecular influences on regeneration in the avian utricle, which has a particularly robust regenerative ability. Chicken utricles were placed in organotypic culture and hair cells were lesioned by application of the ototoxic antibiotic streptomycin. Cultures were then allowed to regenerate in vitro for seven days. Some specimens were treated with small molecule inhibitors of γ-secretase or ADAM10, proteases which are essential for transmission of Notch signaling. As expected, treatment with both inhibitors led to increased numbers of replacement hair cells. However, we also found that inhibition of both proteases resulted in increased regenerative proliferation. Subsequent experiments showed that inhibition of γ-secretase or ADAM10 could also trigger proliferation in undamaged utricles. To better understand these phenomena, we used RNA-Seq profiling to characterize changes in gene expression following γ-secretase inhibition. We observed expression patterns that were consistent with Notch pathway inhibition, but we also found that the utricular sensory epithelium contains numerous γ-secretase substrates that might regulate cell cycle entry and possibly supporting cell-to-hair cell conversion. Together, our data suggest multiple roles for γ-secretase and ADAM10 in vestibular hair cell regeneration.

The 33″ Everyday Retractable Roll Up Banner Stand is a low priced variance of our standard banner stand.. The Stand hardware is the same as the Economy Banner stand but the printing is done on 13oz Blockout Smooth Vinyl substrate. It can be set up in minutes and can easily be carried. When not in […]
          Habitat: Found from the intertidal zone to 146 m d... for taxon Eteone trilineata Webster & Benedict, 1887   
Note "Habitat: Found from the intertidal zone to 146 m depth; prefers sand and mud substrate." for taxon Eteone trilineata Webster & Benedict, 1887 has been added by Mary Kennedy via the MS Access interface on 2009-02-16T09:43:45+00:00
          1 Piso date 2015 confirmed   
KM# 269a – Philippine 1 PISO New BSP Coin Series (1995 – Present) Metallic Content: Nickel plated Steel (plating not less than 25 microns on steel substrate) Diameter: 24 mm Weight: 6.1 g Edge: Reeded

          The Sodium/Proline Transporter PutP of Helicobacter pylori   
Helicobacter pylori is cause of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma in humans. L-proline is a preferred energy source of the microaerophilic bacterium. Previous analyses revealed that HpputP and HpputA, the genes that are predicted to play a central role in proline metabolism as they encode for the proline transporter and proline dehydrogenase, respectively, are essential for stomach colonization. Here, the molecular basis of proline transport in H. pylori by HpPutP was investigated experimentally for the first time. Measuring radiolabeled substrate transport in H. pylori and E. coli heterologously expressing HpputP as well as in proteoliposomes reconstituted with HpPutP, we demonstrate that the observed proline transport in H. pylori is mediated by HpPutP. HpPutP is specific and exhibits a high affinity for L-proline. Notably, L-proline transport is exclusively dependent on Na+ as coupling ion, i.e., Na+/L-proline symport, reminiscent to the properties of PutP of E. coli even though H. pylori lives in a more acidic environment. Homology model-based structural comparisons and substitution analyses identified amino acids crucial for function. HpPutP-catalyzed proline uptake was efficiently inhibited by the known proline analogs 3,4-dehydro-D,L-proline and L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
          Concentration-Dependent Exchange of Replication Protein A on Single-Stranded DNA Revealed by Single-Molecule Imaging   
Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein necessary for all aspects of DNA metabolism involving an ssDNA intermediate, including DNA replication, repair, recombination, DNA damage response and checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance [1], [2], [3]. The role of RPA in most of these reactions is to protect the ssDNA until it can be delivered to downstream enzymes. Therefore a crucial feature of RPA is that it must bind very tightly to ssDNA, but must also be easily displaced from ssDNA to allow other proteins to gain access to the substrate. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and nanofabricated DNA curtains to visualize the behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA on individual strands of ssDNA in real-time. Our results show that RPA remains bound to ssDNA for long periods of time when free protein is absent from solution. In contrast, RPA rapidly dissociates from ssDNA when free RPA is present in solution allowing rapid exchange between the free and bound states. In addition, the S. cerevisiae DNA recombinase Rad51 and E. coli single-stranded binding protein (SSB) also promote removal of RPA from ssDNA. These results reveal an unanticipated exchange between bound and free RPA suggesting a binding mechanism that can confer exceptionally slow off rates, yet also enables rapid displacement through a direct exchange mechanism that is reliant upon the presence of free ssDNA-binding proteins in solution. Our results indicate that RPA undergoes constant microscopic dissociation under all conditions, but this is only manifested as macroscopic dissociation (i.e. exchange) when free proteins are present in solution, and this effect is due to mass action. We propose that the dissociation of RPA from ssDNA involves a partially dissociated intermediate, which exposes a small section of ssDNA allowing other proteins to access to the DNA.
          Gel Formation in Protein Amyloid Aggregation: A Physical Mechanism for Cytotoxicity   
Amyloid fibers are associated with disease but have little chemical reactivity. We investigated the formation and structure of amyloids to identify potential mechanisms for their pathogenic effects. We incubated lysozyme 20 mg/ml at 55C and pH 2.5 in a glycine-HCl buffer and prepared slides on mica substrates for examination by atomic force microscopy. Structures observed early in the aggregation process included monomers, small colloidal aggregates, and amyloid fibers. Amyloid fibers were observed to further self-assemble by two mechanisms. Two or more fibers may merge together laterally to form a single fiber bundle, usually in the form of a helix. Alternatively, fibers may become bound at points where they cross, ultimately forming an apparently irreversible macromolecular network. As the fibers assemble into a continuous network, the colloidal suspension undergoes a transition from a Newtonian fluid into a viscoelastic gel. Addition of salt did not affect fiber formation but inhibits transition of fibers from linear to helical conformation, and accelerates gel formation. Based on our observations, we considered the effects of gel formation on biological transport. Analysis of network geometry indicates that amyloid gels will have negligible effects on diffusion of small molecules, but they prevent movement of colloidal-sized structures. Consequently gel formation within neurons could completely block movement of transport vesicles in neuronal processes. Forced convection of extracellular fluid is essential for the transport of nutrients and metabolic wastes in the brain. Amyloid gel in the extracellular space can essentially halt this convection because of its low permeability. These effects may provide a physical mechanism for the cytotoxicity of chemically inactive amyloid fibers in neurodegenerative disease.
          Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a3 defines a subset of failing pancreatic β cells in diabetic mice   
Insulin-producing β cells become dedifferentiated during diabetes progression. An impaired ability to select substrates for oxidative phosphorylation, or metabolic inflexibility, initiates progression from β-cell dysfunction to β-cell dedifferentiation. The identification of pathways involved in dedifferentiation may provide clues to its reversal. Here we isolate and functionally characterize failing β cells from various experimental models of diabetes and report a striking enrichment in the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoform A3 (ALDH+) as β cells become dedifferentiated. Flow-sorted ALDH+ islet cells demonstrate impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, are depleted of Foxo1 and MafA, and include a Neurogenin3-positive subset. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrates that ALDH+ cells are characterized by: (i) impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial complex I, IV and V; (ii) activated RICTOR; and (iii) progenitor cell markers. We propose that impaired mitochondrial function marks the progression from metabolic inflexibility to dedifferentiation in the natural history of β-cell failure.
          mTORC1-independent Raptor prevents hepatic steatosis by stabilizing PHLPP2   
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), defined by the presence of Raptor, is an evolutionarily conserved and nutrient-sensitive regulator of cellular growth and other metabolic processes. To date, all known functions of Raptor involve its scaffolding mTOR kinase with substrate. Here we report that mTORC1-independent (‘free’) Raptor negatively regulates hepatic Akt activity and lipogenesis. Free Raptor levels in liver decline with age and in obesity; restoration of free Raptor levels reduces liver triglyceride content, through reduced β-TrCP-mediated degradation of the Akt phosphatase, PHLPP2. Commensurately, forced PHLPP2 expression ameliorates hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. These data suggest that the balance of free and mTORC1-associated Raptor governs hepatic lipid accumulation, and uncover the potentially therapeutic role of PHLPP2 activators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
          Learning Universal Computations with Spikes   
Providing the neurobiological basis of information processing in higher animals, spiking neural networks must be able to learn a variety of complicated computations, including the generation of appropriate, possibly delayed reactions to inputs and the self-sustained generation of complex activity patterns, e.g. for locomotion. Many such computations require previous building of intrinsic world models. Here we show how spiking neural networks may solve these different tasks. Firstly, we derive constraints under which classes of spiking neural networks lend themselves to substrates of powerful general purpose computing. The networks contain dendritic or synaptic nonlinearities and have a constrained connectivity. We then combine such networks with learning rules for outputs or recurrent connections. We show that this allows to learn even difficult benchmark tasks such as the self-sustained generation of desired low-dimensional chaotic dynamics or memory-dependent computations. Furthermore, we show how spiking networks can build models of external world systems and use the acquired knowledge to control them.
          CREATINE EXCELL (Creapure®) 500 g   
  • Performance enhancer
  • Increases ATP reserves
  • Ideal for explosive activities

What is Creatine Excell?

Creatine Excell of HSN Raw Series consists of creatine monohydrate Creapure® certified, which confirms the quality and purity of the product.

Creatin Excell properties

Creatine is possibly the most researched supplementation, so its effectiveness has been scientifically proven.

Creatine provides an increase and improvement of performance at a cellular level, ie, it maintains energy substrate stores full, which are used in sub-instensive efforts.

Simpler: Intense and short activities that usually respond with an intensity interval scheme.

Creatine helps keep cell hydration, producing intracellular water retention. The intake is even advised when muscles are growing and when calories are reduced to avoid a performance decrease. Look like a rock!

Who can benefit from Excell Creatine?

  • Athletes seeking to increase their strength and power levels during training, as well as grow muscle tissue.

Price:13.54 € Special Price:9.88 €
Special Expires on: Jul 2, 2017

          EVORDX 400 g BLOOD ORANGE   

Congestion, Strength, Energy, Stamina, Recovery, Intensity, Size, Focus. These are the key words describing estas son las palabras EvoRDX of HSN Sports.

What is EvoRDX?

EvoRDX is a top quality pre-workout guaranteed by HSNstore. This supplement has been meticulously designed to be among the TOP supplement of its category. EvoRDX supplement is a unique formulation that will take you to a level of performance never seen before.

EvoRDX Properties

EvoRDX provides you anything you need for a maximum performance:

  • Protein
  • Creatine Monohydrate: Almost all researches carried out on creatine have showed that it enhances the athlete performance in an ergogenic way. It's action ratio is specified in high explosive performance activities where the energy substrate used is ATP, long before than glycolytic pathway, but shorter. Creatine is naturally synthesized in the liver from arginine, glycine and methionine amino-acids, and as it is a nitrogen compound, it requires combination with a phosphate for its usage, thus giving way to phosphocreatine. Half of creatine has an endogenous synthesis, but the rest must be ingested through the diet or supplementation, getting a greater benefit. Its main function is to fill ATP stores, the energy first used for short and intensive efforts. Thanks to this, we can recover much earlier, allowing us to perform better. Another notable feature is the anabolic effect, causing a greater increase in protein synthesis.
  • Arginine AKG: it's a nonessential amino-acid that has an important action on the body by regulating blood levels, besides being a Nitric Oxide precursor. For this process to occur, vasodilation must happen first, increasing the diameter of the blood vessels. This will allow a greater oxygen flow to increase the nutrient reception.
  • Citrulline: it plays a key role in the cycle of re-synthesis of lactic acid, a waste product that is secreted inside the muscle fibers as a result of physical stress, and alleviates physical performance. Supplementation with this compound allows us to increase the period during resistance activity, resulting in significant improvements at an aerobic and especially anaerobic levels.
  • L-Glutamine: it's an amino-acid that despite being nonessential, that is, its administration is advised when exercising or playing sports with a degree of intensity that causes significant wear. Its functions within the organization are numerous. Benefits of practicing weightlifting exercise and supplementing with L-Glutamine: muscle build-up, catabolic agent, immune system balance, energy substrate in shortages of glycogen.
  • Beta-Alanine: this is a powerful amino-acid that in conjunction with creatine, can take you a step further. As citrulline does, Beta-Alanine acts as lactic acid buffer, causing a delay in fatigue, increasing the likelihood of continuing to make the physical effort. Higher intensity is possible thanks to supplementation, which will originate higher muscle profits.
  • Taurine: it has an antioxidant effect on the body. It increases the training time, balances the nervous system, regulates water and mineral salts in blood. Great work at protein synthesis.
  • L-Tyrosine: it's a stimulation precursor amino-acid, providing mental focus and athletic performance. Good for sports activities that require great mental focus and high intensity.
  • L-Lysine: this amino-acid stimulates the release of the growth hormone. If it's used in combination with arginine, it provides an amplified effect on muscle growth. It improves physical and athletic performance.
  • Siberian Ginseng: it's a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system, giving sublime energy and concentration levels. It is excellent to reduce fatigue on excessive physical and mental effort. A very important quality is that it is an adaptogenic substance, ie, that reinforces the body's resistance to the presence of chemical, biological or harmful physical agents, without disrupting the body's natural rhythm.
  • Vinitrox ™: Vinitrox
  • Guarana: it's a substance that increases metabolism and enhances weight-loss. Thanks to its active ingredients, it mobilizes and uses fatty acids as an energy source during sports activities. It increases diuresis.
  • Caffeine: it's a great stimulant. If the intake takes place a few minutes before training, the performance will improve considerably. It stimulates the brain, reducing the exerting perception while training. It stimulates circulation, respiration and the nervous system, and reduces fatigue and somnolence.

Who benefits?

  • Athletes in general who want to increase their energy levels during the workouts, as well as increase strength and muscle mass

Price:22.63 € Special Price:15.84 €
Special Expires on: Jul 2, 2017

          VIRGIN COCONUT OIL 450g   
  • 100% virgin coconut oil
  • Source of medium chain triglyceride
  • Energetic food, ideal for athletes
  • Increases metabolic rate
  • Promotes satiety
  • Ideal for cooking

What is Coconut Oil?

Coconut Oil by HSN Foods is a supplement based on virgin coconut oil.

Coconut oil is extracted from the fresh fruit pulp, which is cold pressed to obtain the coconut milk, which is then centrifuged to separate the crystalline oil; All of this without adding chemicals or applying high temperatures to the procedure.

Coconut oil does not need refrigeration, as the natural anti-oxidants that it contains helps to preserve it.

Coconut Oil Nutrients

Coconut Oil is composed in nearly a 90% of saturated fats, most of them are beneficial medium chain fatty acids. Of these fatty acids, about 45% is lauric acid. The only natural food that has more lauric acid than coconut oil is breast milk.

The consumption of this fatty acid is linked to the correct function of the immune system, which explains how important it is for it to be consumed in the first months of life.

Anti-inflammatory, antiviral, fungicide and antibacterial are some of the benefits that are also attributed to lauric acid.

Other fatty acids that we can find in coconut oil are palmitic, stearic and myristic. Oleic acid is found in less than a 6%.

Properties of Coconut Oil

Medium Chain Triglycerides - Instant Energy

Coconut oil is rich in a type of medium chain fatty acids called medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) which are a different type of fat to those that we take through the diet normally.

The medium chain fatty acids are metabolized differently from the rest of fatty acids. Theyonly have between 6 and 12 carbon atoms and glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) which makes their degradation much faster than that of long chain triglycerides. They are further characterized by providing approximately 25% fewer calories than long chain triglycerides. 6,8 calories/gram of medium chain triglycerides versus 9 calories/gram of long chain triglycerides.

Medium chain triglycerides are oxidized directly in the liver (avoiding them being stored as body fat) without requiring any type of transformation, whichis the case of the long chain fatty acids.

Therefore, medium chain triglycerides are metabolized more quickly than other fatty acids to obtain energy, which makes them a very interesting supplement for athletes.

As we know, muscle glycogen is used as a source of energy during physical exertion, but it is limited and can be expended, leading to fatigue and forcing us to reduce the intensity. For this reason, coconut oil may be an alternative for endurance athletes as an energy substrate.

Increases metabolic expenditure

Its characteristic way of being metabolized, makes the coconut fats increase the metabolic expense without producing negative effects on the corporal fat.

TCM can be considered a functional food product or ingredient in obesity and overweight treatments because they have a beneficial effect on thermogenesis, fat oxidation and metabolism.

A double-blind study showed that subjects consuming a caloric excess in the form of medium-chain triglycerides increased diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) by 12% and their expenditure was double that of those who ate other kinds of Fats. Other studies have also shown how replacing long chain fatty acids with those found in coconut increases energy expenditure by 48% and 65% in thin and obese people, respectively.

Promotes satiety

Another way that coconut oil stimulates weight loss is with its effect on calorie intake.

Coconut oil, being rich in fats, helps to control the feeling of hunger more that other types of food.

However, we must bear in mind that fats have a higher caloric density and this might make it very easy to eat to many calories, so it is important to control the amounts we intake.

Indicated for intestinal malabsorption problems

Medium-chain triglycerides are more easily digested and absorbed than the oils and fats contained in the most common foods. In fact, they are absorbed relatively well even when the biliary and pancreatic secretions are reduced.

People who have malnutrition, malabsorption syndrome, cystic fibrosis, short bowel syndrome, celiac disease and liver disease often take medium chain fatty acids.

Reduce inflammation

Medium-chain triglycerides promote cell proliferation and mucus production at the level of the intestinal mucosa, which may have a protective function in the intestine of patients who have inflammatory bowel disease or intestinal infections.

To this antiinflammatory action, we have to add the capacity of the medium chain triglycerides to favour the production at an intestinal level of immunoglobulin A, which exerts an immunomodulating and protective effect on the intestinal wall.


The lauric acid of coconut oil favours lower postprandial levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Medium-chain fatty acids have a therapeutic advantage over other fats, the ability to preserve insulin sensitivity, both in adipose and muscle, and to counteract the insulin resistance that can be produced by a saturated fat intake. This makes them a very interesting substance for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

Who can benefit from virgin coconut oil?

  • Anyone looking for a quality vegetable oil to add to their recipes.
  • Athletes looking for an extra energy supply to save stored glycogen at muscle level and prolong physical performance.
  • People who carry out a weight-control diet (coconut oil increases satiety and increases metabolic expenditure).

Price:10.82 € Special Price:7.79 €
Special Expires on: Jul 2, 2017

          Process Engineer - Photolithography/Six Sigma /Clean Room   
TX-Corpus Christi, A global provider of engineered electronics is seeking a Photolithography Engineer to serve as the on-site technical leader to manufacture precision thin film resistors on ceramic substrates and silicon wafers by photolithographic processing. The ideal candidate will have hands-on experience in a Class 100 - 1,000 clean room setting and will be able to establish, review and update process controls
          Vibration element, manufacturing method thereof, and vibration wave actuator   
A vibration element includes a substrate, a piezoelectric element including a piezoelectric layer and an electrode layer, and a bonding layer provided between the piezoelectric element and the substrate and comprising ceramic containing melted glass powder, wherein the vibration element causes the substrate to vibrate by vibration energy of the piezoelectric element to output the vibration energy of the substrate, and the piezoelectric element is fixed to the substrate via the bonding layer.
          Piezoelectric vibration element, manufacturing method for piezoelectric vibration element, piezoelectric resonator, electronic device, and electronic apparatus   
A piezoelectric vibration element includes a piezoelectric substrate including a thin vibration region and a thick section integrated along three sides excluding one side of the vibration region, excitation electrodes respectively arranged on the front and rear surfaces of the vibration region, and lead electrodes. The thick section includes a first thick section and a second thick section arranged to be opposed to each other across the vibration region and a third thick section connected between proximal ends of the first and second thick sections. The second thick section includes an inclined section connected to the one side of the vibration region, a second thick section main body connected to the other side of the inclined section, and at least one slit for stress relaxation.
          MEMS device with independent rotation in two axes of rotation   
A MEMS arrangement is provided that has a top plane containing a rotatable element such as a mirror. There is a middle support frame plane, and a lower electrical substrate plane. The rotatable element is supported by a support frame formed in the middle support frame plane so as to be rotatable with respect to the frame in a first axis of rotation. The frame is mounted so as to be rotatable with respect to a second axis of rotation. Rotation in the first axis of rotation is substantially independent of rotation in the second axis of rotation.
          Piezoelectric thin-film resonator and method for manufacturing the same   
A piezoelectric thin-film resonator includes: a lower electrode provided on a substrate; a piezoelectric film that is provided on the lower electrode and includes at least two layers; an upper electrode that is provided on the piezoelectric film and has a region sandwiching the piezoelectric film with the lower electrode and facing the lower electrode; and an insulating film that is provided in a region in which the lower electrode and the upper electrode face each other and between each of the at least two layers, wherein an upper face of the insulating film is flatter than a lower face of the insulating film.
          Acoustic wave device and multilayered substrate   
An acoustic wave device includes: a substrate; a functional element that is located on the substrate and excites acoustic waves; a side wall portion that is made of a metal and is located on the substrate so as to surround the functional element; a metal plate that is located above the functional element and the side wall portion, and seals the functional element so that a space is formed above the functional element; and a terminal that is located on the substrate and further out than the side wall portion, and is electrically connected to the functional element.
           DynOmics : dynamics of structural proteome and beyond   
DynOmics ( is a portal developed to leverage rapidly growing structural proteomics data by efficiently and accurately evaluating the dynamics of structurally resolved systems, from individual molecules to large complexes and assemblies, in the context of their physiological environment. At the core of the portal is a newly developed server, ENM 1.0, which permits users to efficiently generate information on the collective dynamics of any structure in PDB format, user-uploaded or database-retrieved. ENM 1.0 integrates two widely used elastic network models (ENMs)—the Gaussian Network Model (GNM) and the Anisotropic Network Model (ANM), extended to take account of molecular environment. It enables users to assess potentially functional sites, signal transduction or allosteric communication mechanisms, and protein–protein and protein–DNA interaction poses, in addition to delivering ensembles of accessible conformers reconstructed at atomic details based on the global modes of motions predicted by the ANM. The ‘environment’ is defined in a flexible manner, from lipid bilayer and crystal contacts, to substrate or ligands bound to a protein, or surrounding subunits in a multimeric structure or assembly. User-friendly interactive features permit users to easily visualize how the environment alter the intrinsic dynamics of the query systems. ENM 1.0 can be accessed at or

          antiSMASH 4.0—improvements in chemistry prediction and gene cluster boundary identification   
Many antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, crop protection agents and food preservatives originate from molecules produced by bacteria, fungi or plants. In recent years, genome mining methodologies have been widely adopted to identify and characterize the biosynthetic gene clusters encoding the production of such compounds. Since 2011, the ‘antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell—antiSMASH’ has assisted researchers in efficiently performing this, both as a web server and a standalone tool. Here, we present the thoroughly updated antiSMASH version 4, which adds several novel features, including prediction of gene cluster boundaries using the ClusterFinder method or the newly integrated CASSIS algorithm, improved substrate specificity prediction for non-ribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domains based on the new SANDPUMA algorithm, improved predictions for terpene and ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides cluster products, reporting of sequence similarity to proteins encoded in experimentally characterized gene clusters on a per-protein basis and a domain-level alignment tool for comparative analysis of trans-AT polyketide synthase assembly line architectures. Additionally, several usability features have been updated and improved. Together, these improvements make antiSMASH up-to-date with the latest developments in natural product research and will further facilitate computational genome mining for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules.

          Solvent suppression in DNP enhanced solid state NMR #DNPNMR   

Yarava, J.R., et al., Solvent suppression in DNP enhanced solid state NMR. J Magn Reson, 2017. 277: p. 149-153.

We show how DNP enhanced solid-state NMR spectra can be dramatically simplified by suppression of solvent signals. This is achieved by (i) exploiting the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of solvent signals relative to materials substrates, or (ii) by using short cross-polarization contact times to transfer hyperpolarization to only directly bonded carbon-13 nuclei in frozen solutions. The methods are evaluated for organic microcrystals, surfaces and frozen solutions. We show how this allows for the acquisition of high-resolution DNP enhanced proton-proton correlation experiments to measure inter-nuclear proximities in an organic solid.

          Chemist - Organic Functional Materials - UES - Dayton, OH   
~ Patterned polymer brushes on flexible substrates. In Organic Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Materials Science or related field of study is required....
From UES - Tue, 06 Jun 2017 22:34:50 GMT - View all Dayton, OH jobs
          Comment on Melissa Barker: Going Fishing, June 25, 2017 by mebarker2017   
Some of the bottom is muddy and other areas are sandy. We use side scan sonar, which is imaging software that can be towed behind the boat to map the bottom, to get an idea of what the bottom looks like. Some parts look like the moon and other areas looks like the Grand Canyon. The area we are in is too muddy for coral, which need a hard substrate and more sunlight to grow. White shrimp spawn 2-3 times per year and Brown shrimp can spawn continuously, but mostly in the spring and fall. I’ll post more about shrimp lifecycle in a future blog. Thanks for the questions!

"Methods for wet cleaning(ウェット洗浄)quartz surfaces of components for plasma processing chambers in which semiconductor substrates are processed, such as etch chambers and resist stripping chambers, include contacting the quartz surface with(接触させる)at least one organic solvent, a basic solution and different acid solutions, so as to remove organic and metallic contaminants from the quartz surface. The quartz surface is preferably contacted with one of the acid solutions at least two times."

"10. The method of claim 9, wherein cleaning the substrate comprises a wet clean(ウェット洗浄)process."

"2. The method of claim 1, wherein cleaning(洗浄)said second layer comprises removing particles from said second layer.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein said cleaning further comprises performing a wet clean(ウェット洗浄)process after said second sweep operation."

"Wet versus Drv Processing
One of the long-running technological shifts in semiconductor processing has been the changes (and attempted changes) between dry and wet processing. In dry processing, only gaseous or plasma-phase reactants come in contact with(接触する)the wafer. In wet processing, a variety of liquid reagents are used for purposes such as etching silicon dioxide or removing native oxide layers(自然酸化膜), removing organic materials or trace organic contaminants, removing metals or trace organic contaminants, etching silicon nitride, etching silicon.

Plasma etching has many attractive capabilities, but it is not adequate for cleanup(洗浄). There is simply no available chemistry to remove some of the most undesirable impurities, such as gold. Thus wet cleanup(ウェット洗浄)processes are essential to modern semiconductor processing, and are likely to remain so for the foreseeable future."

"To set up the process one must determine the concentration of total HF and NH3 to be dissolved in water. For example, 1 kg. of 40% by weight ammonium, fluoride solution would contain 400 g of NH4F and 600 g of ultra pure water(超純水). Since the mole ratio of HF to NH3 is 1:1 for pure NH4F the 400 g of NH4F would include 216 g of anhydrous HF and 184 g of anhydrous NH3. (MW NH4F 237, MW HF = 20, MW NH3 - 17)."

"Various wet and dry cleaning(洗浄)methods are known in the art. In some embodiments, a dry etching or cleaning process can be used such as, without limitation, a plasma-free gas chemical etch system targeted at selective oxide film etching using a Certas machine available from Tokyo Electron Limited (TEL) of Japan"

          The influence of polyanion molecular weight on polyelectrolyte multilayers at surfaces: protein adsorption and protein-polysaccharide complexation/stripping on natural polysaccharide films on solid supports.   

The influence of polyanion molecular weight on polyelectrolyte multilayers at surfaces: protein adsorption and protein-polysaccharide complexation/stripping on natural polysaccharide films on solid supports.

Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2017 Jun 30;:

Authors: Benbow NL, Webber JL, Karpiniec S, Krasowska M, Ferri JK, Beattie DA

Two different fucoidan polymers (unfractionated Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan, and fractionated low molecular weight Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan) have been used to create substrates for protein adsorption studies. Polyelectrolyte multilayers were formed using the fucoidans (polyanions) with chitosan as the corresponding polycation. Multilayer formation was studied using zeta potential measurements, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy. The formation studies reveal that the low molecular weight (LMW) fucoidan produces a less hydrated multilayer, with a significantly increased adsorbed mass, and with fucoidan as the diffusing species during formation. Protein adsorption studies using bovine serum albumin (BSA) were undertaken for solution conditions designed to mimic biological conditions, and to minimise the role of electrical double layer forces in influencing adsorption. Under these conditions, and as revealed by ATR FTIR spectroscopy, BSA is seen to adsorb less substantially to multilayers formed with the LMW fucoidan, and to cause extraction/stripping of the LMW fucoidan from the multilayer. FTIR spectra reveal that the protein adopts a different conformation when adsorbed to the LMW fucoidan multilayer, both relative to the protein in solution and when adsorbed at the surface of the multilayer formed from unfractionated fucoidan.

PMID: 28664960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

          Comment on ARTICLES by GicleepeP   
How do you do?.. Understanding Giclee Prints for present-day home wall decor. Giclee (zhee-klay) - The French word "giclee" is a feminine word that means a spray of liquid. The word may have been borrowed from the French verb "gicler" meaning "to squirt". Images are generated from high resolution digital scans and printed with archival quality inks onto different substrates including canvas and photo-base paper. [url=] Giclee is a neologism coined in 1991 by printmaker Jack Duganne for fine art digital prints made on inkjet printers. The name formerly applied to fine art prints created on Iris printers in a process invented in the late 1980s but has since come to mean any inkjet print. It is usually used by artists to suggest high quality printing. [/url] Giclee prints are advantageous to artists who do not find it practical to mass produce their work, but want to reproduce their art on-demand. Numerous examples of giclee prints can be found in New York City at the [url=]Metropolitan Museum[/url], the [url=]Museum of Modern Art[/url] and the [url=]Chelsea Galleries[/url]. Recent auctions of giclee prints have fetched $10,800 for Annie Leibovitz, $9,600 for Chuck Close, and $22,800 for Wolfgang Tillmans. [url=] Nowadays you can order authentic Giclee art at Etsy shops.[/url] Bye! and Best Regards
          Tom Daley - Diet and Nutrition   


Nutrition is the provision, to cells of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.
The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods.
A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor; (you are not likely to suffer from these !), but also health-threatening conditions like obesity (which may well creep up on you as you grow older) and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease,diabetes, and osteoporosis.
There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water.
These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micro-nutrients (needed in smaller quantities).
The macro-nutrients include carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, protein, and water.
The micro-nutrients are minerals and vitamins.

Tom Daley at Home
Now this is the boring - but it helps if you understand at least some of it.
(If you want to know what you should be eating for your perfect body scroll down to 'What You Should Be Eating)

The macro-nutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built) and energy.
Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilo-calories (often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance.
Vitamins, minerals, fibre, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class of dietary material, fibre (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), is also required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although the exact reasons remain unclear.
Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch).
Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally.
Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose in a process known as gluconeogenesis.
By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.
Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems.
Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.
Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances, such as toxins of various sorts.
Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously.
Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient.
For example, (and just to frighten you) both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in excessive amounts.


Tom Daley eats a breakfast of
carbohydrates fro energy
Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain.
They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products.
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units.
Traditionally, simple carbohydrates were believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates.
This, however, is not accurate.
Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) follow different metabolic pathways (e.g. fructolysis) which result in only a partial catabolism to glucose, while many complex carbohydrates may be digested at essentially the same rate as simple.


Foods Rich in Fibre
Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate (or a polysaccharide) that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals.
Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories (kilocalories) of energy per gram, however, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility.
Dietary fibre consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is indigestible because humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it.
There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber.
Whole grains, fruits (especially plums, prunes, and figs), and vegetables are good sources of dietary fibre.
There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet.
Dietary fibre helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhoea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it.
Insoluble fibre, found in whole wheat flour, nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis – the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines which move digesta along the digestive tract.
Soluble fibre, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel which slows the movement of food through the intestines.
This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fibre, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
The link between increased fibre consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain.


A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol.

They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length.

Unsaturated fats may be further classified as mono-unsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds), furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids.
Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.
There are nine kilo-calories in each gram of fat (that's a lot).
Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid, catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid, in addition to providing energy, represent potent immune modulatory molecules (that's good).
Saturated fats (typically from animal sources) have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia.
Unsaturated fats (e. g., vegetable oil) are considered healthier, while trans fats are to be avoided.
Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature (such as butter or lard), while unsaturated fats are typically liquids (such as olive oil or flaxseed oil).
Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance.

Essential Fatty Acids

Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so, however, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet.
An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids—omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids—seems also important for health, although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive. Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins, which have roles throughout the human body.
They are hormones, in some respects.
The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins (e.g. weakly inflammatory PGE3). The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins (e.g. anti-inflammatory PGE1), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) serves as a building block for series 2 prostaglandins (e.g. pro-inflammatory PGE 2).
Both DGLA and AA can be made from the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) in the human body, or can be taken in directly through food.
An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health.
In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.
The conversion rate of omega-6 DGLA to AA largely determines the production of the prostaglandins PGE1 and PGE2.
Omega-3 EPA prevents AA from being released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro-inflammatory PGE2 (made from AA) toward anti-inflammatory PGE1 (made from DGLA), moreover, the conversion (desaturation) of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase, which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin (up-regulation) and glucagon (down-regulation).
The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation, and mitosis (i.e. cell division).


Proteins are the basis of many animal body structures (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair).
They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body.
Each molecule is composed of amino acids, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur (these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair).
The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance).
As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet.
Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine.
For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds).
About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet.
A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids (especially those that are essential) is particularly important in some situations: during early development and maturation, pregnancy, lactation, or injury (a burn, for instance) - and when undertaking heavy exercise.
A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
It is possible to combine two incomplete protein sources (e.g. rice and beans) to make a complete protein source, and characteristic combinations are the basis of distinct cultural cooking traditions.
Sources of dietary protein include meats, tofu and other soy-products, eggs, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese.
Excess amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis.
The amino acids remaining after such conversion are discarded.


Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules.
The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet.
Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals, which often occur as ions in the body.
Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources (such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells).
Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources.
On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.

Macro Minerals

Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals".
Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes.
Elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day are, in alphabetical order (with informal or folk-medicine perspectives in parentheses):
Calcium, a common electrolyte, but also needed structurally (for muscle and digestive system health, bone strength, some forms neutralize acidity, may help clear toxins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions)
Chlorine as chloride ions; very common electrolyte; see sodium, below
Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity)
Phosphorus, required component of bones; essential for energy processing.
Potassium, a very common electrolyte (heart and nerve health)
Sodium, a very common electrolyte; not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food: typically as sodium chloride, or common salt.
Excessive sodium consumption can deplete calcium and magnesium, leading to high blood pressure and osteoporosis.
Sulfur, for three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins (skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas). Sulfur is not consumed alone, but in the form of sulfur-containing amino acids

Trace Minerals

Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes.
Some trace mineral elements (RDA < 200 mg/day) are, in alphabetical order:
Cobalt required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes. Animals cannot biosynthesize B12, and must obtain this cobalt-containing vitamin in the diet
Copper required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase
Chromium required for sugar metabolism
Iodine required not only for the biosynthesis of thyroxine, but probably, for other important organs as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus etc. (see Extrathyroidal iodine); for this reason iodine is needed in larger quantities than others in this list, and sometimes classified with the macrominerals
Iron required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins
Manganese (processing of oxygen)
Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases
Nickel present in urease
Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins)
Vanadium (Speculative: there is no established RDA for vanadium. No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is required for some lower organisms.)
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase


As with the minerals discussed above, some vitamins are recognized as essential nutrients, necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D is the exception: it can be synthesized in the skin, in the presence of UVB radiation.)
Certain vitamin-like compounds that are recommended in the diet, such as carnitine (See below), are thought useful for survival and health, but these are not "essential" dietary nutrients because the human body has some capacity to produce them from other compounds.
Moreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in food (particularly in fresh vegetables), which may have desirable properties including antioxidant activity (see below); however, experimental demonstration has been suggestive but inconclusive.
Other essential nutrients that are not classified as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), choline, essential fatty acids (see above), and the minerals discussed in the preceding section.
Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature ageing, and poor psychological health (including eating disorders), among many others.
#Excess levels of some vitamins are also dangerous to health (notably vitamin A), and for at least one vitamin, B6, toxicity begins at levels not far above the required amount.
Deficient or excess levels of minerals can also have serious health consequences.

Anti Oxidants

As cellular metabolism/energy production requires oxygen, potentially damaging (e.g. mutation causing) compounds known as free radicals can form.
Most of these are oxidizers (i.e. acceptors of electrons) and some react very strongly.
For the continued normal cellular maintenance, growth, and division, these free radicals must be sufficiently neutralized by antioxidant compounds.
Recently, some researchers suggested an interesting theory of evolution of dietary antioxidants.
Some are produced by the human body with adequate precursors (glutathione, Vitamin C), and those the body cannot produce may only be obtained in the diet via direct sources (Vitamin C in humans, Vitamin A, Vitamin K) or produced by the body from other compounds (Beta-carotene converted to Vitamin A by the body, Vitamin D synthesized from cholesterol by sunlight).
Different antioxidants are now known to function in a cooperative network.
For example, Vitamin C can reactivate free radical-containing glutathione or Vitamin E by accepting the free radical itself.
Some antioxidants are more effective than others at neutralizing different free radicals.
Some cannot neutralize certain free radicals. Some cannot be present in certain areas of free radical development (Vitamin A is fat-soluble and protects fat areas, Vitamin C is water soluble and protects those areas).
When interacting with a free radical, some antioxidants produce a different free radical compound that is less dangerous or more dangerous than the previous compound.
Having a variety of antioxidants allows any byproducts to be safely dealt with by more efficient antioxidants in neutralizing a free radical's butterfly effect.
Although initial studies suggested that antioxidant supplements might promote health, later large clinical trials did not detect any benefit and suggested instead that excess supplementation may be harmful.

What You Should Be Eating

If you wish to develop your perfect body as effeciently as possible you should obviously be consuming a healthy diet - and some indication of this has been given above.

Now for the practicalities - and this is the point where you may well go to another blog - but before you do - THINK - Do you really want to be slim, healthy and fit ? if so - then read on.

1 NO cigarettes or recreational drugs - theses are all toxins - the word (from Greek: τοξικόν toxikon) means a poisonous substance. You cannot be fit if you poison yourself every day. - And - recreational drugs includes alcohol.

2 Plenty of fibre - for the reasons mentioned previously. That means plenty of fruit, vegetables and whole-meal bread - and liberal amounts of olive oil on salads.

3 A moderate amount of protein (more about protien later), which should be obtained from fresh fish and chicken.

4 Limited amounts of dairy products, including milk, and cheese and NO butter.

5 NO coffee and only sugar free carbonated drinks.

You should take a good quality multivitamin and mineral supplement, a Lactobacillus acidophilus supplement, extra calcium and also melatonin to ensure good quality sleep.

And now for the special supplements that should guarantee your success:

To get the best out of the hours spent in the gym and the pool you will need to take the following amino acids in the form of supplements.

1 Creatine Ethyl Ester

2 L-Arginine

3 L-Glutamine

4 L-Leucine

5 Acetyl L-Carnitine

6 Tribulus Terrestris (only if you are male)


Creatine is a natural component found primarily in the body’s skeletal muscle.
After ingestion, creatine is transported to muscles to increase their energy levels by increasing the availability of ATP.
The increased ATP provides an extra kick during repeated bouts of intense exercise which helps the body build more muscle.
While creatine does help growth in muscle fibers due to the ability to lift heavier and more intensely, it primarily results in muscle volumization.
Muscle volumization is caused by fluid retention.
As muscles become saturated with creatine, they attract and retain water giving the muscles a fuller appearance.
When you first start taking a creatine supplement, you are likely to gain 5-10lbs, and the gains are legitimately fat free and these gains in muscle fibers and muscle strength will be maintained. -There are no known adverse side-effects.


Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. The L-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids.
L-Arginine is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO)[11]
It reduces healing time of injuries (particularly bone), and quickens repair time of damaged tissue
It also helps decrease blood pressure and increase blood flow to muscles, which results in the delivery of more blood to the muscles along with more oxygen, nutrients and anabolic hormones, as well as bigger muscle pumps.
Arginine is also effective in boosting growth hormone (GH) levels, critical for stimulating muscle growth. Subjects taking arginine increased their bench-press strength by almost 20 pounds more than those taking a placebo.


Glutamine aids muscle growth by increasing levels of the BCAA (branch chain amino acid) leucine in muscle fibers.
It also helps decrease muscle breakdown.
Since the immune system requires glutamine to function, taking supplemental glutamine prevents the immune system from stealing it from muscle fibers.
This not only enhances immune function, but also encourages muscle growth via better maintenance of muscle-glutamine levels.
Taken before workouts, it can help to decrease muscle fatigue by buffering lactic acid.
It also boosts GH levels, making it a great supplement for after workouts and before bed.
Recent research also shows that glutamine can increase the amount of calories and fat burned at rest and during exercise.


Leucine (abbreviated as Leu or L) is a branched-chain α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH(CH3)2.
Leucine is classified as a hydrophobic amino acid due to its aliphatic isobutyl side chain.
Leucine is utilized in the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue. In adipose and muscle tissue, leucine is used in the formation of sterols, and the combined usage of leucine in these two tissues is seven times greater than its use in the liver.
Leucine is the only dietary amino acid that has the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis.
As a dietary supplement, leucine has been found to slow the degradation of muscle tissue by increasing the synthesis of muscle proteins in aged rats.
While once seen as an important part of the three branch chained amino acids in sports supplements, leucine has since earned more attention on its own as a catalyst for muscle growth and muscular insurance. Supplement companies once marketed the "ideal" 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, iso-leucine and valine; but with furthered evidence that leucine is the most important amino acid for muscle building, it has become much more popular as the primary ingredient in dietary supplements.

The following two supplements, along with arginine, are essential if you wish to achieve the lean, toned look with good 'definition'. You must still control your total calorie intake, however.


Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine as well as vitamin C, B-3, B-6 and iron.
In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy.
It is widely available as a nutritional supplement.
New research shows that in addition to fat burning, carnitine can enhance muscle growth.
Studies show that oral carnitine reduces fat mass, increases muscle mass, and reduces fatigue.
Carnitine is essential in the body for transporting fats to the mitochondria, the area in cells where fats are burned for fuel.
Research also shows that carnitine can enhance the amount of testosterone receptors known as androgen receptors, inside muscle cells.
The more of these receptors the more testosterone that can bind to them and stimulate muscle growth.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of at least 28 isomers of linoleic acid found mainly in the meat and dairy products derived from cud chewing mammals called ruminants.
As the name implies, the double bonds of CLAs are conjugated, with only one single bond between them.
Anticancer properties have been attributed to CLA, and studies on mice and rats show encouraging results in hindering the growth of tumors in mammary (except Her2 breast cancer), skin, and colon tissues
It has been reported that CLA can up-regulate the tumor suppressor gene PTPRG.
The most promising science around CLA concerns its effect on weight management.
Studies, which vary widely in CLA dose and duration, show the most significant effect of CLA on weight management is on body composition, a reduction in total body fat and an increase in lean body mass.
The effect of CLA on fat mass is modest and at the recommended dosage of 3.2g/day produces a statistically significant 90 g fat loss per week (ca. 1 lb in 5 weeks) as shown by a 2007 meta-analysis.
Another meta-analysis found that CLA supplementation produces about 1% increase in lean body mass per week.
With the simultaneous decrease in fat mass coupled with increases in lean body mass, often the net change in weight is small. However, the effects of CLA on body composition is a healthy effect, since the degree of fat mass is related to many causes of mortality and lean body mass burns more calories than fat mass which may help to increase resting metabolic rates.

Muscle development in males is closely correlated to testosterone (male sex hormone) levels, which is why human males, in nature, on average have a greater muscle mass than females.
The ONLY safe supplement for assisting the body's natural production of testosterone is Tribulus Terrestris.

Tribulus Terrestris

Tribulus Terrestris is used for its testosterone boosting properties. Studies have shown over 50% increase in testosterone levels when taking Tribulus Terresteris.
Testosterone helps build muscle and strength, however Tribulus Terrestris is NOT a hormone!
Tribulus Terrestris increases testosterone through increasing luteninizing hormone in your body.
Research and studies have been conducted on Tribulus Terrestris here are the results
A study done with healthy individuals taking 750mg of Tribulus per day showed a 72% LH increase, and a 41% increase in testosterone.

Be warned - the combination of L-Arginine and Tribulus Terrestris WILL make you 'horny'.

For suppliers of these supplements go to and

These five Amino Acid supplements are essential for the creation of your perfect body. If taken in the correct proportions they will produce a lean, well-toned and well-muscled physique.

DO NOT be tempted to use Whey Protein supplements.
The effects of whey protein supplementation on muscle growth in response to resistance training are debatable.
Research exists that show little to no benefit of whey protein supplementation.
The authors of one study concluded that "young adults who supplement with protein during a structured resistance training program experience minimal beneficial effects in lean tissue mass and strength,".
Another study of elderly men found supplementation with whey protein before and after exercise not to have any significant effect on skeletal muscle hypertrophy compared to placebo.
There is some evidence that Whey Protein builds a certain amount of bulk, but this is associated with sub-cutaneous fat deposits and 'smoothness', and does not contribute to the 'lean, well-toned' look which is the sign of a truly healthy physique.

Your Diet

The word diet (nutrition) normally means the sum of the food consumed by an organism.
Often today, however, the word is taken to mean the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake.
You will not be 'on a diet' in the conventional sense of the word - however it is essential the maintain control of the number of calories you consume.
Food consumption is controlled by the appestat which has been the subject of much research in the last decade.
Breakthroughs included the discovery, in 1994, of leptin, a hormone that appeared to provide negative feedback.
Later studies showed that appetite regulation is an immensely complex process involving the gastrointestinal tract, many hormones, and both the central and autonomic nervous systems.
In relation to the appestat it is important to note that aerobic activity suppresses appetite, since aerobic exercise increases sugar and fatty acid transport in the blood by stimulating tissues to release their energy stores.
In addition all forms of exercise increase the basal metabolic rate, causing the body to burn off more fat than it would if exercise were not undertaken.
The only real control required over food intake is to control the consumption of what are referred to as 'empty calories'.
'Empty calories' are foods which contain excessive amounts of carbohydrates and little or no fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
Such 'empty calorie' foods are sugars, alcoholic drinks and saturated fat laden products.
It is interesting to note, however, that contrary to expectations, craving for such 'empty foods' diminishes as a result of frequent and regular exercise, and thus the 'diet' becomes self regulating.


The following is an example of the diet followed by the teenage Olympian Tom Daley.
Please remember that daley is a teenager, with a teenager's high metabolic rate.
In addition he works out (both in the pool and in the gym) for many hours each day.
All this uses up a huge number of calories - so adjust your diet, taking into account your age and the total daily amount of exercise that you perform.

Breakfast: Either beans or scrambled eggs on toast, or a bowl of iron-rich cereal such as Bran Flakes.

Training tip: A 30g serving of Kellogg's Bran Flakes contains 50% of your GDA of iron, which is vital for optimum athletic performance. Lack of iron can cause a decrease in your body's stores of haemoglobin and negatively affect the transport of oxygen to your muscles.

2.30pm Post-training snack: Cereal bar and chocolate milkshake.

Sometimes a piece of fruit.
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Boosters and barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming.

Life Sci. 2017 Jun 01;178:70-86

Authors: Talkhabi M, Zonooz ER, Baharvand H

Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs. As a result, numerous combinations of cardiac TFs exist for direct cardiac reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming remains low. Recently, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified to increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and the quality of iCMs. For example, microgrooved substrate, cardiogenic growth factors [VEGF, FGF, BMP4 and Activin A], and an appropriate stoichiometry of TFs boost the direct cardiac reprogramming. On the other hand, serum, TGFβ signaling, activators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and some epigenetic factors (Bmi1 and Ezh2) are barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming. Manipulating these mechanisms by the application of boosters and removing barriers can increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and possibly make iCMs reliable for cell-based therapy or other potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest trends in cardiac TF- or miRNA-based direct cardiac reprogramming and comprehensively discuses all molecular and cellular boosters and barriers affecting direct cardiac reprogramming.

PMID: 28427897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          Inhibition of liver alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase by hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin: An in vitro and in silico study.   
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Inhibition of liver alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase by hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin: An in vitro and in silico study.

Life Sci. 2017 Jun 01;178:49-55

Authors: Zareei S, Boojar MMA, Amanlou M

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of two natural flavonoids, hesperetin (HT) and hesperidin (HD), on two gluconeogenesis enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and their possible mechanisms of action.
MAIN METHODS: Rat liver incubated with different concentrations of HT and HD was used to measure enzyme activities spectrophotometrically, based on monitoring the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) at 340nm. Molecular docking simulation was also applied to reveal the molecular mechanism of the inhibition caused by HT and HD.
KEY FINDINGS: Both flavonoids demonstrated inhibitory effects against the enzyme activities, with IC50 values of 153.9 and 68.88μM for HT-ALT and HD-ALT treatment respectively. Likewise, the IC50 values of 85.29μM for HT-AST and 110.3μM for HD-AST were obtained from spectrophotometric results.
CONCLUSION: The docking simulation revealed that HT and HD block the enzyme entrance channel and prevent the substrates from accessing the enzyme active sites. Having prevented production of pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, and the oxaloacetate, these two compounds inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis and consequently, hinder the progression of diabetes.
SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that HT and HD may be considered as leading compounds for designing safe and effective drugs in management of increased ALT and AST-related disorders specially diabetes.

PMID: 28385612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.   
Related Articles

Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.

Clin Genet. 2017 Apr;91(4):520-528

Authors: Zou T, Mao X, Yin J, Li X, Chen J, Zhu T, Li Q, Zhou H, Liu Z

The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, is critical for many cellular activities, such as phagocytosis, adhesion, migration, motility, cell proliferation, and axonal growth. In addition, RAC1 plays an important role in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and migration, and it has been reported to be related to most cancers, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, testicular germ cell cancer, and lung cancer. Recently, the therapeutic target of RAC1 in cancer has been investigated. In addition, some investigations have shown that inhibition of RAC1 can reverse drug-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of RAC1 in lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms and discuss its value in clinical therapy.

PMID: 27790713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          Trypsin digestion   
<a href="">Enzyme trypsin</a> is a pancreatic serine protease with substrate specificity based upon positively charged lysine and arginine side chains.
          Adjunct to D429 Test Methods for Rubber Property-Adhesion to Rigid Substrates   
          Developing the multitexture of hybrid structure of a solar cell   

Here we demonstrated the prospects to create effective and profitable organic multitextures for the frontal surface of the hybrid structure of solar cells by using a sol-gel method on macro- or mesoporous silicon. A problem of obtaining the desired size and depth of a macrotexture was investigated by using the additions of organic origin (organic acids, ketones, alcohols) in etchants. In the course of the present study, we managed to experimentally determine optimal conditions for receiving macro porous surface macro texture of silicon substrates. Formed by chemical methods of treatment, the surface of a silicon substrate of solar cell makes it possible to attain several significant advantages, the main of which is the existence of relief, enabling conducting the subsequent technological stages (fabrication of an organic multilayer stack using the sol-gel technology), which, if combined, can create on the surface of a silicon substrate a high quality optical system to capture luminous flux. Development of the technological process for the synthesis of sol-gel method was carried out using a low-molecular polymer and applying an AR coating, which represents spatial-crosslinked condensation structures of organosilicon gel – xerogel of polyorganosiloxane. This will make it possible to create a multifunctional organic multitexture for the frontal surface of a solar cell using hybrid technologies for obtaining PS, with a reduced cost of production, relatively large efficiency and simple technological process of the synthesis, which can be applied over large areas. Parameters of the multifunctional organic multitextures, which were created at the macro surfaces of substrates for SC, were explored using the method of mass spectrometry.

          The influence of polyanion molecular weight on polyelectrolyte multilayers at surfaces: protein adsorption and protein-polysaccharide complexation/stripping on natural polysaccharide films on solid supports   

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7CP02599H, Paper
Natalie L. Benbow, Jessie L. Webber, Sam Karpiniec, Marta Krasowska, James K. Ferri, David A. Beattie
Two different fucoidan polymers have been used to create substrates for protein adsorption studies.
To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Substrate influence on the interlayer electron-phonon couplings in fullerene films probed with doubly-resonant SFG spectroscopy   
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, Accepted Manuscript
DOI: 10.1039/C7CP03115G, Paper
Dennis Elsenbeck, Sushanta Kumar Das, Luis Velarde
We present doubly-resonant sum frequency generation (DR-SFG) spectra of fullerene thin films on metallic and dielectric substrates as a way to investigate the coupling between nuclear and electronic coupling at...
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Mesoporous semiconducting TiO2 with rich active sites as a remarkable substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering   
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, Accepted Manuscript
DOI: 10.1039/C7CP03399K, Paper
Libin Yang, Di Yin, Yu Shen, Ming Yang, Xiuling Li, Xiao Xia Han, Xin Jiang, Bing Zhao
Recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) research based on semiconductor TiO2 has received increasing attention. However, the practical application of TiO2 SERS-active substrates has been hampered due to their lower surface...
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Comment on Reem SZR (6) by Gicleebet   
How do you do?.. Understanding Giclee Prints for avant-garde home wall decor. Giclee (zhee-klay) - The French word "giclee" is a feminine word that means a spurt of liquid. The word may have been borrowed from the French verb "gicler" meaning "to squirt". Images are generated from high resolution digital scans and printed with archival quality inks onto various substrates including canvas and fine art paper. [url=] Giclee is a neologism coined in 1991 by printmaker Jack Duganne for fine art digital prints made on inkjet printers. The name formerly applied to fine art prints created on Iris printers in a process made-up in the late 1980s but has since come to mean any inkjet print. It is usually used by artists to describe high quality printing. [/url] Giclee prints are helpful to artists who do not find it suitable to mass produce their work, but want to reproduce their art as needed. Numerous examples of giclee prints can be found in New York City at the [url=]Metropolitan Museum[/url], the [url=]Museum of Modern Art[/url] and the [url=]Chelsea Galleries[/url]. Recent auctions of giclee prints have fetched $10,800 for Annie Leibovitz, $9,600 for Chuck Close, and $22,800 for Wolfgang Tillmans. [url=] At this moment you can order original Giclee home decor at Etsy shops.[/url] Bye-Bye... and Best Regards
          Comment on Sample Page by GicleeMoN   
Good day! Understanding Giclee Prints for modern home wall decor. Giclee (zhee-klay) - The French word "giclee" is a feminine word that means a spray of liquid. The word may have been derived from the French verb "gicler" meaning "to squirt". Images are developed from high resolution digital scans and printed with archival quality inks onto various substrates including canvas and fine art paper. [url=] Giclee is a neologism coined in 1991 by printmaker Jack Duganne for fine art digital prints made on inkjet printers. The name originally applied to fine art prints created on Iris printers in a process made-up in the late 1980s but has since come to mean any inkjet print. It is usually used by artists to suggest high quality printing. [/url] Giclee prints are advantageous to artists who do not find it feasible to mass produce their work, but want to reproduce their art as needed. Numerous examples of giclee prints can be found in New York City at the [url=]Metropolitan Museum[/url], the [url=]Museum of Modern Art[/url] and the [url=]Chelsea Galleries[/url]. Recent auctions of giclee prints have fetched $10,800 for Annie Leibovitz, $9,600 for Chuck Close, and $22,800 for Wolfgang Tillmans. [url=] Herу and now you can order authentic Giclee original art at Etsy shops.[/url] Bye-Bye... and Best Regards
          Remarkable Evolutionary Conservation of Anti-obesity ADIPOSE/WDTC1 Homologs in Animals and Plants.   

Remarkable Evolutionary Conservation of Anti-obesity ADIPOSE/WDTC1 Homologs in Animals and Plants.

Genetics. 2017 Jun 29;:

Authors: Ducos E, Vergès V, Dugé de Bernonville T, Blanc N, Giglioli-Guivarc'h N, Dutilleul C

ASG2 (Altered Seed Germination 2) is a prenylated protein in Arabidopsis thaliana that participates to abscisic acid signaling and is proposed to act as a substrate adaptor for the DDB1-CUL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. ASG2 harbors WD40 and TetratricoPeptide Repeat (TPR) domains, and resembles the well-conserved animal gene called ADP (anti-obesity factor ADIPOSE) in fly and WDTC1 (WD40 and TPR 1) in humans. Loss of function of WDTC1 results in an increase in adipocytes, fat accumulation and obesity. Anti-adipogenic functions of WDTC1 involve regulation of fat-related gene transcription, notably through its binding to histone deacetylases. Our sequence and phylogenetic analysis reveals that ASG2 belongs to the ADP/WDTC1 cluster. ASG2 and WDTC1 share a highly conserved organization that encompasses structural and functional motifs: 7 WD40 domains and WD40 hotspots-related residues, 3 TPR protein-protein interaction domains, DDB1-binding elements (H-box and DWD-box) and a prenylatable C-terminus. Furthermore, ASG2 involvement in fat metabolism was confirmed by reverse genetic approaches using asg2 knock-out Arabidopsis plants. Under limited irradiance, asg2 mutants produce "obese" seeds characterized by increased weight, oil body density, and higher fatty acid contents. In addition, considering some ASG2 and WDTC1 peculiar properties, we show that WDTC1 C-terminus is prenylated in vitro and histone deacetylase-binding capability is conserved in ASG2, suggesting that the regulation mechanism and targets of ADP/WDTC1-like proteins may be conserved features. Our findings reveal the remarkable evolutionary conservations of the structure and the physiological role of ADIPOSE homologs in animal and plant.

PMID: 28663238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

          Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family.   
Related Articles

Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family.

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016 Sep;23(9):847-52

Authors: Zhang ZM, Ma KW, Yuan S, Luo Y, Jiang S, Hawara E, Pan S, Ma W, Song J

Effectors secreted by the type III secretion system are essential for bacterial pathogenesis. Members of the Yersinia outer-protein J (YopJ) family of effectors found in diverse plant and animal pathogens depend on a protease-like catalytic triad to acetylate host proteins and produce virulence. However, the structural basis for this noncanonical acetyltransferase activity remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of the YopJ effector HopZ1a, produced by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, in complex with the eukaryote-specific cofactor inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and/or coenzyme A (CoA). Structural, computational and functional characterizations reveal a catalytic core with a fold resembling that of ubiquitin-like cysteine proteases and an acetyl-CoA-binding pocket formed after IP6-induced structural rearrangements. Modeling-guided mutagenesis further identified key IP6-interacting residues of Salmonella effector AvrA that are required for acetylating its substrate. Our study reveals the structural basis of a novel class of acetyltransferases and the conserved allosteric regulation of YopJ effectors by IP6.

PMID: 27525589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          Comment on Bacterial Culture Media, their PH Indicators and color of bacterial colonies by Robert Opio   
thank you for the information, may you please help me give the preliminary identification of the colonies that i obtained from the cultures on nutrient agar from the different food substrates(rice, samosa, meat soup bean soup and wheat bread). their colours were; cream, pure white, yellow and golden yellow. waiting forward for your response.
          Flexible Barrier Films for Electronics Market To Increase at Steady Growth Rate   
Flexible Barrier Films for Electronics Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2015-2025 Research Report By Future Market Insights Flexible barrier films is a flexible substrate or barriers made to protect the electronic components from degradation caused due to oxygen and water and other environment factors. There is increasing development of electronic devices that offer flexible form factor which provide, lightweight, robust and versatile application usage without compromising performance of the device.
          Conductive Floor Coatings    
EP Floors’ conductive flooring is in thicknesses ranging from 30 mils up to a quarter inch, depending on the application. Substrate condition, traffic conditions, and other considerations can also affect the necessary thickness of the conductive floor coating.Please call us at 1-800-808-7773 extension 13
          TipsNano posted a blog post   
TipsNano posted a blog post

Fabrication of advanced probes for atomic force microscopy using focused ion beam

The method of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) holds the greatestpromise for surface diagnostics and analysis. The use of AFM allowsone to study the local geometric, electrical, and mechanical propertiesof the substrate surface and form nanoscale structures on the surfaceof solids [1]. The resolution of AFM is defined by many factors, most ofwhich are related to the shape and quality of the preparation of probes.In the recent years, an important task is to fabricate probes withadvanced parameters, in particular with the help of focused ion beamtechnology [2,3]. FIB enables reproducible and precisematerial processingwith high accuracy. Material removal by ion beam milling and FIBinducedchemical vapour material deposition can be used for thefabrication of structures with micro- and nanoscale dimensions. Thekey feature of FIB is the high spatial resolution which is provided bythe application of a gallium ion beam 7 nm in diameter, as well as bythe possibility of varying the impact of the parameters over wide limits[4]. In contrast to conventional fabrication techniques based on opticallithography with the application of photoresist and material processinga direct writing mode by FIB allows precise nanopatterning even onsample with advanced topography [5].In thisworkwe describe the fabrication of advanced probes for AFMand nanolithography by the FIB local milling and their applications.See More

          Guesting at A Vintage Journey    
Servus, hi and welcome! Today I have the very special pleasure and honour to guest over at A Vintage Journey where I am sharing a little canvas - especially created for their wonderful "Canvas" challenge hosted by lovely Nikki Acton!

Nikki says: "Let's work with canvas this month in our vintage; shabby; mixed media, art journalling, industrial, timeworn or steampunk style.  It doesn't matter how as long as some canvas is a dominant feature of your project. Perhaps you may use a canvas in the traditional way or use the reverse to create a shadow box? Canvas boards are fabulous to work on or perhaps you have some canvas sheets which can be cut and adhered to another surface."

I did not only use a canvas to work on as my substrate but also a strip of canvas in a very special way to create some extra interest and dimension.

On this piece some of my favourite materials and media to work with came together - raw canvas (which I have learned to love being part of the Canvas Corp Brands design team), some cool steampunk MDF wood shapes from the fantastic and wide range of Calico Craft Parts and of course some of my beloved DecoArt media as well.

My goal was to create something precious or "worthy" by partially using gilding flakes on the MDF parts and in some other spots on my canvas) and then partially "stain" and/or "hide" them - which in a way draws even more attention to them. (we often only find out what things (or persons) mean to us when we find them being taken away from us or in danger of being damaged or stained, right?)

And I have recently promised myself to have more faith - in myself, my body, and life in general (seems I have lost a good deal of that during the last years of struggling with bad health).  But sometimes things happen - unexpectedly - that make us aware of the fact that we have just quit trying again or believing that things can get better).

Hence the gilded wings - to remind me to be more daring and try to fly again without fear of falling or not even getting off the ground.

So this is the motto of my canvas - one that definitely is worth being lived by and that I hope to never forget again.

If you want to find out more about my little faithful canvas and the how-to, simply hop over to A Vintage Journey. I would love to see you there!
Thanks so much for stopping by!

Hugs and happy crafting!

          Splatter Some Fun at Emerald Creek Dares   
Servus, hi and welcome to the start of a new dare over at the Emerald Creek Dares blog!

Splatter Some Fun!

is this month's motto and I love it!

You all know I love to sprinkle and splatter on acrylic paint, to smudge, spray and scrape it onto any possible substrate. And when I do so I use white sheets of paper to protect my desk. And when I manage to stop at the right point these protective sheets become beautiful backgrounds for new projects that I splatter and sprinkle even more paint or other media on ;)

In this particular case I used some of the fab Emerald Creek embossing powders to add splatter. To do so I needed a splatter stencil of course (and luckily I had one in my stash...deep down in my stencil box). This triple layer tag is the result of my splatter fun experience:

And here's a short how-to if you like:

Glue some protective paper onto heavy card and die cut three tags in various sizes. 

Use a splatter stencil and an embossing dabber to add your splatter patterns to the tags. 

Heat emboss as usual: 

Darken the tags' edges by smudging on some black soot Distress Crayon.

Add a focal piece to your layered tags. I decided to go for one of the lovely Emerald Creek Cameo Charms and a glass cabochon from my stash. 

I punched a circle from a left over scrap of the paper that I die cut the tags from, added a word sticker (I blended the edges with dark archival stamping ink) and glued all my layers (including the cabochon) onto the charm using DecoArt media Liquid Glass. 

Once all had dried I stacked my tags using sticky foam pads. 

I hope I managed to capture some of the bling from the embossing powders! It was quite dark outside (and when using my daylight lamps the glittery effect becomes almost invisible). 

Once more the finished tag (so you don't have to scroll back to the top):

I would like to see your interpretation of some good splatter fun! Simply click HERE to get to the challenge blog and to check out my teamies' makes as well! Don't miss your chance to win a $50 voucher to spend at the Emerald Creek online store! 

Hope to see you over there soon!
Hugs and happy crafting!

          Homo hahahbilis   
Servus, hi and welcome back to my little creative corner, dear craftin' friends and followers! Thank you so much for stopping by!

Today I want to share with you another project I did as a member of the wonderful DecoArt media Design Team.

At times DecoArt team up with other manufacturers and this time it is Stampendous and their team whom the DecoArt media DT will do a blog hop with to celebrate the new Andy Skinner stamps! So look out carefully this March and visit the Stampendous and DecoArt media blog and their other social media platforms to not miss the kick off of a fantastic blog hop!

Three of my wonderful teamies will be part of this event and some more team members - including myself - will be featuring projects on their blogs during the next days and be showing off with Andy Skinner's new Stampendous stamps and the fab products from the DecoArt media line. So loads of inspiration are about to fuel your creative mojo! Here's my share - enjoy!

This skull of "Homo hahahbilis" as he has been named by its discoverer, Dr. Rufus Bellows, has only recently been excavated and forces anthropologists all over the world to accept that there has been another, much earlier and totally different human species that had the most amazing qualities and seems to have developped in a totally different direction than its later "colleagues".

So far scientists who have carefully examined the specimen dare assume that this much older species had its own means of protecting themselves against predators like the giant sabre-toothed tiger. They believe that these early humans could squeeze their own noses to have some acid liquid squirt from the inner corners of their eyes that would harm the attacker's eyes and thus win them enough time to escape.
They also have come to believe that the ostentatious red tufts of hair on the back and sides of the head were a kind of visual warning sign for predators to indicate that they were inedible, maybe even poisonous (like you still see it with certain caterpillars today for example).


The title "homo hahahbilis" was suggested by my son and I love it!!!! He also came up with "hoho erectus" which is just as genius, but I think we will have to wait until Christmas to meet this guy. lol

To create my mixed media foam board panel I used Andy Skinner's new "Skuldoggery", "Unexplained" and "Handle With Care" Stampendous stamp sets alongside the cracke stamp from his older "Industrial" set and of course a lot of DecoArt media fluid acrylics, Misters and Gesso.

I started with covering up a sheet of heavy mixed media paper with torn scraps of old magazines and dictionary pages. This time I used DecoArt's "Antique" Decou-Page as it already has a slight brownish tint to it and I thought that would add beautifully to the grunge look I was aiming for.

Once that was dry, I applied two thin coats of heavily diluted white Gesso to tone everything down a little. 

I stamped the clown skull image onto some heavy cardstock and cut out the skull shape with a precision knife so I could use both - the stencil and the mask. Then I placed my stencil onto the prepared substrate and thinly stippled on some white Gesso using one of DecoArt's Dual Sided Paint Pouncers

Next I stamped the skull image onto the dry shape using black archival stamping ink. As the surface was a bit uneven because of the glued and layered on paper scraps the image didn't come out too crisp - but I was expecting that and there is an easy way to fix that.
Of course I could have stamped the image onto a separate piece of paper and glued it on but I wanted to create a single layer piece this time and doing it this way it also fused the image with the textural background.

Then I stamped on the words and the barb wire and let everything dry thoroughly. 

I started adding washes of Transparent Yellow Iron Oxide, Quinacridone Gold and Phtalo Green-Blue. To make the skull pop from the background I painted a shading around it with Quin Gold. 

I placed the cut out skull mask on top of the stamped skull and scraped on some white Gesso as well as some Green Gold and Quinacridone Gold using a palette knife. I let the Gesso and each paint dry before I added the next one.

Then I toned down the skull with a light wash of Yellow Oxide.

The black areas that had gone missing because of stamping onto an uneven surface were painted back in with Carbon Black using a small soft brush. 

Then I started shading my skull image by adding Yellow Oxide to those areas that were in the shade. 

The light areas (that would be hit by the light of a punctual source like the sun) were highlighted with Titanium White as well as the teeth. 

This way the skull pops even more from the flat looking background. 

Time to paint the nose and shade it as well. 

The red hair was stamped on using True Red DecoArt Americana acrylic paint and the chin-beard stamp from Andy Skinner's Skuldoggery set. 

I covered the skull with the cut out mask again and added Red and Black sprinkles using the DecoArt media Misters. I also sprinkled on some white and turquoise Shimmer Mister paint. 

For a finish I stamped on a lot of scratch patterns with black archival stamping ink and mounted my finished painting to a piece of cut to size foam board using matte Decou-Page and four metal brads. 

I wrote the name onto the label and fixed the label holder to the foam board with two thin brads. 

I painted and doodled some structure in black to the red tufts of hair. 

This image shows how the layered on paper scraps create beautiful texture that shows through (see black areas):

And once more the finished piece:

Homo hahahbilis will probably remain a great mystery to the science world, but maybe there will be some more finds that will help reveal the secrets of this wondrous species. 

Hugs and happy crafting!

          Organization: -- Is it spiritual or physical, or both?   

In reply to The First Gathering of Libertarian Infrastructures

Let’s be real as in ‘the physical reality of our actual, natural experience’, and admit that the gold in the oceans is a kind of imaginary birds of a feather brotherhood, and the same for jewish people in their diaspora who were ‘connected’ but ‘decentralized’, as is the claim of Catalunyan libertarians [and/or anarchists in general]. The article claims;

“decentralized—connected but free—we are stronger”.

To be sure, there is a ‘spiritual connection’ or ‘belief-based connection’ and the spirit can prevail over the body to a point [e.g. in suicide missions], but if we want to deal in physical reality, then we have to acknowledge that the world is only given once and the fragmentation into independent parts [states] and independent groups [anarchists, capitalists] is intellectual idealization.

The three million or however many Zapatistas in Chiapas are not like 3 million flecks of gold in the ocean and not like the millions of jews in their diaspora. Perhaps the spiritual connection is even greater when the brotherhood is dispersed within an alien cultural medium, but to give physicality to their spirit, the believers cannot do this when dispersed in alien substrate, and must come together in their own relation with one another and the land. Even Einstein, who despised nationalism, calling it “an infantile disease, the measles of the world”, agreed that Jews needed to come together, physically, to rejuvenate their beliefs through common practice, and not just for the duration of picnics and international conferences.

The ‘glue’ that holds such organizations together is ‘common belief’. In the case of states formed by settlements of European colonizing peoples [e.g. the U.S.], they bring their belief-glue with them, but in the case of the states of Iraq and Syria, the military supremacy of European colonizers ‘forcibly made believers out of them’, ... and if the 50-plus million people of the region would rather believe in a Muslim Brotherhood or Caliphate, the Euro-American colonizers are going to have a tough time, in today's realities, to put them back in ‘their’ boxes.

My point is that what we call ‘jews’, or ‘anarchists’ or ‘libertarians’ are not physically real things, they are ‘categories’ that stand or fall on the basis of common beliefs. If they can come together, like amoebates come together to form slime mold, to behave as a unit, ... they can have a body to go with their ‘spirit’. In their dispersed mode, they are all mind (spirit, belief) and no [collective] body. The bodies called ‘iraq’ and ‘syria’ will disintegrate and be regathered into a Caliphate in the time it takes to utter a Declaration of NON-Independence, if the collective ‘mind’ and its beliefs so chooses.

          Strategische Partnerschaft von Siemens und Imricor soll Prozeduren unter kardiologischer MR-Bildgebung verbessern   
• Zusammenarbeit, um eine integrierte Lösung zur Behandlung von Arrythmien zu entwickeln
• Höhere Präzision und bessere Behandlungsergebnisse sind das gemeinsame Ziel

Gemeinsam mit dem US-amerikanischen Unternehmen Imricor Medical Systems, Inc. will Siemens Healthineers eine integrierte Lösung entwickeln, um die klinischen Vorteile der Echtzeit MR-Bildgebung mit 3D-geführter kardialer Ablation zu vereinen. Dabei ist geplant, mittels MR-kompatibler Devices Informationen zur Reizleitung, morphologische Substrate und die individuelle Patientenanatomie in bessere Behandlungsergebnisse übersetzen zu können. Elektrophysiologen weltweit könnte es so möglich werden, strahlungsfrei Herzrhythmusstörungen (Arrhythmien) zu behandeln und dafür die Darstellung der Weichteilinformationen mittels MR-Bildgebung nutzen zu können.
          The Living and the Dead   
The Living and the DeadThe Neapolitan Cult of the Skull

By Margaret Stratton

£26.00   10 Aug 2010   Hardback   Center for American Places,US

Margaret Stratton's photographic projects are an ongoing memento mori for Western culture and all that has resulted from it. In her photographs of the catacombs and derelict churches of Naples, she reveals the interrupted and often incomprehensible rituals preserved under foot or behind closed doors. As the living carry on with their days, the dead and discarded monuments of past civilizationsûthe cherished relics of unknown "ragamuffin souls"ûawait the re-animation of our gaze. Through her journey through the Neapolitan underworld, she creates photographic reliquaries for the yearnings of earlier visitors who hoped to use the dead as a way out of the troubles of the living.-Lesley Wright, Director Faulconer Gallery, Grinnell College

The Living and the Dead: The Neapolitan Cult of the Skull, a photographic record of the vast system of catacombs and aqueducts that snake beneath the streets and crumbling churches of Naples, Italy, illustrates the relationship between religious tradition, ancient architecture, and the cult of the purgative soul in southern Italian culture. Margaret Stratton's photographs document the spaces of early Christian history in which Neapolitans preserve emotional connections to the afterlife, using rituals in which the tangible skull represents the ephemeral soul.

Stratton's photographs show that, unlike the rigid class system that governed medieval Naples, there is a virtually classless society within the catacombs, where noblemen and peasants were laid to rest side by side, their remains indistinguishable from one another. Skulls were placed in seemingly endless rows, stretching far back into the depths of the cavern, each skull identical to those surrounding it.

Unlike typical Early Christian catacombs, the catacombs of Naples were constructed more like underground cathedrals, with passageways so vast they could accommodate horse-drawn chariots, ox-carts, and large biers carrying many corpses. The tufa substrate, composed of half-earth and half-stone, provided a substance perfectly suited for the construction of catacombs, the result of painstaking efforts of penitents and monks, who hollowed out the sites for mourning rituals beneath the city. Among the most remarkable underground cemeteries of Naples arc the Catacombs of San Cennaro, the Catacomb San Caudioso, and it Cimitero delle Fontanelle. For Stratton, the subterranean maze of the catacombs beneath Naples weaves together the skeins of religion, family, history, and sacred space. Her photographs document the customs and rites associated with death and afterlife, a delicate reciprocity between the living and the dead. between belief and superstition, between the histories of Catholicism and pagan ritual.


Medium-density fibreboard (MDF) is made by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibres. It has a homogeneous texture without layers due to which there is no visible wood grain, rings, or splinters in medium-density fibreboard. As a result of its smoothness, it is considered an excellent substrate for veneer. The latest report by IMARC Group titled, “Medium-Density Fibreboard (MDF) Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2017-2022”, finds that the global medium-density fibreboard market reached a value of more than US$ 22 Billion in 2016, growing at a CAGR of nearly 11% during 2009-2016.
Medium-density fibreboard is available in two types – Standard medium-density fibreboard and Moisture Resistant (MR) medium-density fibreboard. Standard medium-density fibreboard is used only for interior applications such as furniture and general fit-outs and is not suitable for areas which are prone to wetting or high humidity. On the other hand, MR medium-density fibreboard is suitable for high humidity areas such as bathrooms and laundries, and for furniture in tropical areas. Further, the market is expected to reach a value of US$ 34 Billion by 2022.

On the basis of end-use the market is segmented as commercial and residential. The residential sector is the largest consumer for plywood, accounting for more than half of the total global shares. The report has conducted an evaluation of the market on the basis of key regions and finds that Asia-Pacific is the largest market for medium-density fibreboard. Some of the other major regions are North America, Europe, Latin America and Middle East and Africa. The report has also analysed the market on the basis of competitive landscape and has provided the details of the key players. Some of the major players are Greenply, WBPI, Kastamonu, Swisskrono, Panel Co. Ltd., etc.

This report provides a deep insight into the global medium-density fibreboard industry covering all its essential aspects. This ranges from macro overview of the market to micro details of the industry performance, recent trends, key market drivers and challenges, SWOT analysis, Porter’s five forces analysis, value chain analysis, etc. The report also provides a comprehensive analysis for setting up a medium-density fibreboard manufacturing plant. The study analyses the processing and manufacturing requirements, project cost, project funding, project economics, expected returns on investment, profit margins, etc. This report is a must-read for entrepreneurs, investors, researchers, consultants, business strategists, and all those who have any kind of stake or are planning to foray into the medium-density fibreboard industry in any manner.

Key Questions Answered in This Report:

What are the key success and risk factors in the MDF industry?
How has the MDF market performed so far and how will it perform in the coming years?
What is the structure of the MDF industry and who are the key players?
What are the various unit operations involved in a MDF plant?
What is the total size of land required for setting up a MDF plant?
What are the machinery requirements for setting up a MDF plant?
What are the raw material requirements for setting up a MDF plant?
What are the utility requirements for setting up a MDF plant?
What are the manpower requirements for setting up a MDF plant?
What are the infrastructure costs for setting up a MDF plant?
What are the capital costs for setting up a MDF plant?
What are the operating costs for setting up a MDF plant?
What should be the pricing mechanism of MDF products?
What will be the income and expenditures for a MDF plant?
What is the time required to break-even?

The post 中密度繊維板(MDFボード)の世界市場:動向、シェア、規模、成長、機会、予測 appeared first on 世界の市場調査資料.

          NSF CAREER Award   

March 7, 2017

Rebecca Anthony receives $500,000 NSF CAREER Award

Rebecca Anthony, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering in the Michigan State University College of Engineering, has been awarded a five-year, $500,000 NSF Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award to research nanostructure manufacturing that will make LED lights more efficient and versatile. NSF CAREER awards support junior faculty who exemplify the role of teacher-scholars through outstanding research and education.Rebecca Anthony becomes the 13th member of the MSU College of Engineering faculty to receive an NSF CAREER Award since 2010.

The NSF award will help advance her research project entitled, “Continuous Vapor-Phase Manufacturing of Anisotropic Silicon Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Applications.”

“We’re trying to use sustainable techniques to make semiconductor nanorods and other non-spherical nanostructures. By controlling the shapes of these materials, you change the colors of light that they can emit and absorb, as well as other important properties. This will allow us to improve the efficiency and versatility of LED lights, solar cells, and communication devices,” she explained.

“Spherical is the norm for nanoparticles. We’re trying to expand and break the norm,” she said.

Anthony noted that current processing for these nanostructures is time-consuming, costly, and uses toxic solvents.

“We’re hoping to sidestep the techniques that already exist by using streamlined, plasma-based, vapor-phase methods to make these non-spherical nanostructures. This will help to give us control over optical absorption and emission behavior of the nanostructures while maintaining sustainable processing methods,” she added.

Anthony becomes the 13th member of the MSU College of Engineering faculty to receive an NSF CAREER Award since 2010. 

She joined Michigan State in August 2013. Her research interests include using plasmas to make nanostructures and materials that are used in applications that range from energy-oriented devices like light-emitting diodes and solar cells to biological imaging agents.

Luminescent silicon nanocrystals on various substrates, taken during the MSU Science Festival in 2016.In 2016, she was awarded a Withrow Teaching Excellence Award. In her award nomination letter, a student said Anthony creates a learning environment where questions are welcomed. “She is always ready to answer the questions that open the doors to further learning. This approachable nature makes her a remarkable teacher.”

She earned a PhD in mechanical engineering from the University of Minnesota (2011) and attended Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota, where she majored in physics (2003).

The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award is among the NSF's most prestigious honors, recognizing young faculty members who are effectively integrating research and teaching.Rebecca Anthony's research includes making nanorods in a plasma reactor.


          Engineered nanopatterned substrates for high-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance: an assay on biomacromolecules   

J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7TB00777A, Paper
M. Rippa, R. Castagna, V. Tkachenko, J. Zhou, L. Petti
A fast and easy method to fabricate a novel engineered plasmonic nanoassay for protein detection in extremely low concentrations is presented.
To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          Olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases: is there a common pathological substrate?   
Related Articles

Olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases: is there a common pathological substrate?

Lancet Neurol. 2017 Jun;16(6):478-488

Authors: Doty RL

In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, there is a spectrum of smell dysfunction ranging from severe loss, as seen in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, to relatively little loss, as seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Given the ubiquitous but varying degrees of olfactory dysfunction among such diseases, it is conceivable that differential disruption of a common primordial neuropathological substrate causes these differences in olfactory function. For example, the amount of damage to forebrain neurotransmitter and neuromodulator circuits, most notably those involving cholinergic transmission, appears to be correlated with quantitative smell test scores across a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, a key question is whether damage to such a substrate is the basis for the perceptual differences in olfaction or whether disease-specific or other entities, such as respiratory infections or pollution, are responsible. In light of the early preclinical onset of smell deficits in many neurodegenerative diseases, the answer to this question might provide crucial insight into the cause of disease pathology at its earliest stages of development.

PMID: 28504111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          Samsung Display is mulling its largest OLED factory ever, the Gen-6 A5 that will have a monthly capacity of 180,000-270,000 substrates   

According to reports from Korea, Samsung Display is considering a new OLED plant, that will include two different building in Choenan and Asan. This fab will be Samsung's largest OLED fab yet (and the world's largest, really) - with a monthly capacity of 180,000 to 270,000 6-Gen substrates. Samsung's current largest fab, the A3, will have a monthly capacity of 135,000 substrates when the current expansion phase ends later this year.

This plan has not been approved yet, but it seems like Samsung has already informed of the plans to its key equipment suppliers. The investment in this fab will be large, the buildings alone will cost $1.75 billion. Samsung plans to start operating the fab in 2019.

          Fraunhofer FEP and Sefar demonstrate a flexible OLED lighting panel made in a roll-to-roll process   

Fraunhofer FEP and Sefar developed a roll-to-roll processed large-area flexible OLED lighting panels in a joint project. This achievement followed a batch-based flexible OLED panel demonstrated in early 2017.

Roll to roll processed OLEDs on SEFAR TCS

The R2R process currently used enables Fraunhofer and Sefar to produce 30 cm wide OLEDs in lengths of up to 30 meters.

          Rainbow Fresh Water Aquarium Fish   
Rainbow Fresh Water Aquarium Fish - Feb 6, 2011 | Rainbow Fresh Water Aquarium Fish - Rainbow Fresh Water Aquarium Fish - ... Water test kit Substrate Air pump Thermometer Appropriate lighting Heater Book about rainbow ...
          Substrate Native Fish Aquarium   
Substrate Native Fish Aquarium - Feb 6, 2011 | Substrate Native Fish Aquarium - Substrate Native Fish Aquarium - Substrate Native Fish Aquarium - Substrate Native Fish Aquarium - Substrate Native Fish Aquarium ...
          System in Package   
At DAC, Dick James gave a fascinating presentation on system in package, or SiP, at the DAC pavilion. In fact, as a general statement, I have to say that the standard of presentations at the pavilion was very high, and others obviously agreed since many presentations had every seat filled and a ring of people standing, too. Dick used to work for Chipworks but he moved on and now works some of the time with TechSearch International. I know they sound like they should be headhunters, but they actually are specialists in the advanced packaging market. So what is an SiP? It is two or more dissimilar dies assembled in the same package. The dies can be very different, including MEMS, sensors, antennas, and passives, as well as the more obvious digital, analog, and memory dies. The one thing that is excluded is putting a single die in a package—even an SoC in a package doesn't count as a SiP. That's a bit contradictory, I know, but it is in keeping with Pierre Paulin's adage that "a system is one level above whatever level you are working at". There are many drivers for SiP but the main ones are: Heterogeneity: The ability to integrate die from different processes into a single component Size: An SiP is a lot smaller than the same system where each die is in its own package BOM cost reduction: Simplified board, lower layer count, reduced design cost (even though the SiP may not itself be cheaper) There are many formats for SiP, ranging from silicon interposers and die with thru-silicon-vias (TSVs) at the high end, to BGAs with wire-bonded die at the lower end (like the Ax chips in older generation iPhones). In the past, SiPs were a bit limited by a paradox: if SiPs were cheaper, more people would use them, but without the learning from volume, costs remained high. But mobile devices ship in such high volume, hundreds of millions, that they can change that tradeoff overnight. Another driver is the internet of things (IoT). Almost any IoT device contains sensors, some sort of computation, a communication device, normally wireless, and perhaps some memory. These are impossible to manufacture in the same process and thus on the same die, so it is much more attractive to do the integration at the SiP level. Two big drivers for IoT are the decreasing cost of sensors, and the low cost of multi-die packages and modules. Volumes feed on SiP costs, and SiP costs feed on volume. Examples of SiPs This Texas Instruments MicroSiP is a power supply platform. It is just 2.9mm x 2.3mm x 1mm, and that includes the inductor that is mounted on top to reduce board space. Microsemi have embedded the die in the substrate and reduced the area by 400% compared to the previous version. It is very high reliability, qualified to MIL standard for implantable devices. This approach is also applicable to other high-reliability environments such as aerospace, automotive, and industrial sensing.There is an evolution exemplified here by moving toward ultra-thin embedded die with a lamination thickness of 0.5mm, and an overall module height of about 1mm (which is the limit for discrete components). FOWLP Fan-out wafer-level packaging (FOWLP) is characterized by the lack of substrate. A quick summary is that the wafers are sawn, the die are picked and placed on a dummy "wafer" (or perhaps something larger, "panel processing"). The copper redistribution layer is added, and solder balls, and the package molding compound is added. Some mobile chips are using this approach, typically with just a single die, so not technically an SiP, and the volumes are driving the learning curve. It is expected that subsequent generations will include multiple die in the packages. These can be very thin (<0.5mm) and with extremely high signal density. Current line/space are 10/10um with roadmaps to <5/5um and even 2/2um. The drivers apart from communications are integrating radar modules for automotive applications, and very high-performance HPC designs. Apple Watch SiP The state of the art is the Apple Watch. This is a 26mm x 28mm package containing many components. The severe size constraint of a watch means that building this system without using SiP technology would simply be impossible. This picture shows the board, just to give an idea of how dense the design is at that level: But X-ray analysis by Dick's former employer Chipworks shows that the S1 "chip" is actually an SiP containing about 30 ICs, plus many passives, plus an ST accelerometer/gyroscope included outside the package itself. AMD's Fiji AMD's graphics processor uses as a silicon interposer with TSVs. It has a 595mm2 ASIC mounted in the center of the 1.011mm2 interposer, surrounded by four stacks of HBM (each of which consists of a logic die with four DRAM dies stacked on top). There are more than 200,000 interconnects including Cu pillar ubumps and C4 bumps. The interposer has 65,000 TSVs with 10um diameter TSVs. Sony Image Sensor You probably already know that the state of the art in CMOS image sensors (CIS) is not to expose the front of the image sensor to the light, as used to be done, but rather thin the image sensor so that it is transparent to the light, then flip it over onto the image sensor processor (ISP) chip underneath, thus not requiring any TSVs. The light to the sensor passes through the back of the thinned die. Sony have gone one further with a three-layer stack. On the top is the image sensor, and in the middle is a DRAM layer, and the ISP on the bottom. The signals from the image sensor actually pass straight through the DRAM layer to get to the processor, and then back up to the memory. This is the first commercial three-layer stack using wafer bonding. It is actually in a high-end phone, the Sony Experia XZ, launched at MWC in February. The image sensor and the DRAM are thinned to 2.6um! When I started in the semiconductor business, that was the size of a transistor. Sony are the leaders in image sensors, and are in most high-end phones including iPhone. Dick expects to see something similar to this design in the iPhone 8 (or whatever number Apple gives its next model expected in the fall). This one is capable of 960fps, which is also pretty amazing. Nokia SP4 Service Router SiP Hot off the press, only announced a week before DAC, is this Nokia SiP. It is for enterprise routers and so is not in a very cost-sensitive market like mobile. It can process 100TB/s or more. There are 22 chips inside including custom memory. The whole router is the size of a gaming console, which is incredible when you think how many video streams (Netflix, YouTube, etc.) it can process simultaneously. Summary This is an area in a state of flux, with the technologies and economics evolving. One big area is whether FOWLP technology will be done by the foundry or by the OSAT, with everyone gearing up for a fight. SiP is an enabler for many products especially: Mobile, tablets, laptops SSDs IoT devices Automotive safety systems, including radar Medical wearables HPC systems The main drivers are performance and form factor. But demand for lower-cost solutions drives adoption of new package designs, without a single winner. Economics and business decisions are a big driver, and sometimes technical performance considerations (such as 70GHz radar). As Moore's Law slows and the most advanced processes are not really suitable for a lot of analog or RF design, SiP is going to become one of the integration approaches of choice, a key aspect of "More than Moore", driving integration higher without depending solely on area scaling of the semiconductor process.

          Weed control in joints of concrete block and other paving stone   
The present weed reducing material reduces the necessary weed control work by making joint filling sand a hostile substrate for plant and fungus growth by using an environmentally acceptable slow release mineral additive. The additive, having similar grain size distribution, mechanical and rheological properties, forms an integral part of the joint filling sand. The specific gravity of the additive is lower than quartz sand imparting a tendency for the additive to migrate towards the top part of the joint. The additive leads to pore waters rich in sodium and at high pH, both qualities being maintained over long periods. The mixture of additive and sand is handled and applied using conventional laying techniques and equipment, observing usual precautions for mortar or cement mixes with sand. In the environment, reaction with CO2 in the air or in the soil porosity inactivates the causticity, yielding harmless carbonate salts.
          Palmitoylation of cdc42 Promotes Spine Stabilization and Rescues Spine Density Deficit in a Mouse Model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome   
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with learning and cognitive dysfunctions and a high risk of developing schizophrenia. It has become increasingly clear that dendritic spine plasticity is tightly linked to cognition. Thus, understanding how genes involved in cognitive disorders affect synaptic networks is a major challenge of modern biology. Several studies have pointed to a spine density deficit in 22q11DS transgenic mice models. Using the LgDel mouse model, we first quantified spine deficit at different stages using electron microscopy. Next we performed repetitive confocal imaging over several days on hippocampal organotypic cultures of LgDel mice. We show no imbalanced ratio between daily spine formation and spine elimination, but a decreased spine life expectancy. We corrected this impaired spine stabilization process by overexpressing ZDHHC8 palmitoyltransferase, whose gene belongs to the LgDel microdeletion. Overexpression of one of its substrates, the cdc42 brain-specific variant, under a constitutively active form (cdc42-palm-CA) led to the same result. Finally, we could rescue spine density in vivo, in adult LgDel mice, by injecting pups with a vector expressing cdc42-palm-CA. This study reveals a new role of ZDHHC8-cdc42-palm molecular pathway in postsynaptic structural plasticity and provides new evidence in favor of the dysconnectivity hypothesis for schizophrenia.

          Dynamic Patterns of Brain Structure–Behavior Correlation Across the Lifespan   
Although the brain/behavior correlation is one of the premises of cognitive neuroscience, there is still no consensus about the relationship between brain measures and cognitive function, and only little is known about the effect of age on this relationship. We investigated the age-associated variations on the spatial patterns of cortical thickness correlates of four cognitive domains. We showed that the spatial distribution of the cortical thickness correlates of each cognitive domain is distinctive and depicts varying age-association differences across the adult lifespan. Specifically, the present study provides evidence that distinct cognitive domains are associated with unique structural patterns in three adulthood periods: Early, middle, and late adulthood. These findings suggest a dynamic interaction between multiple neural substrates supporting each cognitive domain across the adult lifespan.

          Correlations Between Personality and Brain Structure: A Crucial Role of Gender   
Previous studies have shown that males and females differ in personality and gender differences have also been reported in brain structure. However, effects of gender on this “personality–brain” relationship are yet unknown. We therefore investigated if the neural correlates of personality differ between males and females. Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the influence of gender on associations between NEO FFI personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV) in a matched sample of 182 males and 182 females. In order to assess associations independent of and dependent on gender, personality–GMV relationships were tested across the entire sample and separately for males and females. There were no significant correlations between any personality scale and GMV in the analyses across the entire sample. In contrast, significant associations with GMV were detected for neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness only in males. Interestingly, GMV in left precuneus/parieto-occipital sulcus correlated with all 3 traits. Thus, our results indicate that brain structure–personality relationships are highly dependent on gender, which might be attributable to hormonal interplays or differences in brain organization between males and females. Our results thus provide possible neural substrates of personality–behavior relationships and underline the important role of gender in these associations.

          Peripheral Interventions Enhancing Brain Glutamate Homeostasis Relieve Amyloid β- and TNFα- Mediated Synaptic Plasticity Disruption in the Rat Hippocampus   
Dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis in the interstitial fluid of the brain is strongly implicated in causing synaptic dysfunction in many neurological and psychiatric illnesses. In the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated disruption of synaptic plasticity and memory can be alleviated by interventions that directly remove glutamate or block certain glutamate receptors. An alternative strategy is to facilitate the removal of excess glutamate from the nervous system by activating peripheral glutamate clearance systems. One such blood-based system, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), is activated by oxaloacetate, which acts as a co-substrate. We report here that synthetic and AD brain-derived Aβ-mediated inhibition of synaptic long-term potentiation in the hippocampus is alleviated by oxaloacetate. Moreover the effect of oxaloacetate was GOT-dependent. The disruptive effects of a general inhibitor of excitatory amino acid transport or TNFα, a pro-inflammatory mediator of Aβ action, were also reversed by oxaloacetate. Furthermore, another intervention that increases peripheral glutamate clearance, peritoneal dialysis, mimicked the beneficial effect of oxaloacetate. These findings lend support to the promotion of the peripheral clearance of glutamate as a means to alleviate synaptic dysfunction that is caused by impaired glutamate homeostasis in the brain.

          Technology Created at NDSU Licensed to c2sensor   
By Newswise
A technology developed at North Dakota State University, Fargo, creates precise in-the-ground measurement and monitoring of soil and crop conditions which could provide opportunities for greater yields. The technology also has led to a new start-up company. The c2sensor corp., based in the NDSU Technology Incubator, has concluded a license agreement with the NDSU Research Foundation (NDSU/RF) for the precision agriculture technology.

Developed by a research team at NDSU, the sensors are constructed using NDSU's patent-pending "direct write" electronic printing techniques to print circuit and antenna patterns directly onto renewable, bio-based substrates. Developed between the NDSU Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering and the Mechanical Engineering Department at NDSU, the sensors are made with biocomposites so they can be left in the ground to biodegrade without harming soil quality.

The research team placed microsensors in fields at the Soil Health and Agriculture Research Extension (SHARE) farm in Richland county in southeastern North Dakota. Called SEED, which stands for Sensing Earth Environment Directly, the bio-degradable sensors are placed in the ground like seeds, with the potential to directly measure soil salinity, moisture, fertility, and chemicals in real time.

Sensors in the future could be placed directly into the soil during the seeding process, by mixing the sensors in with the seed during planting. A reading device mounted beneath an agricultural vehicle or other agricultural implements would interact with the SEED sensors embedded in the soil, and then provide direct measurements of soil conditions, moisture, and chemical content in real time.

“The NDSU-developed sensor technology licensed by c2sensor is different from current methods, which often require a combination of direct measurement such as soil sampling, or indirect measurements such as remote sensing via probes,” said Corey Kratcha, CEO of c2sensor.

Materials used to create the sensors allow them to be left in place after use, where they can degrade without leaving toxins in the soil. Wireless communication with the sensor is based on passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology with no batteries needed.
“As the product is developed, it could assist farmers to monitor salinity levels, nutrient levels for fertilizer applications, moisture and pH levels,” said Chad Ulven, associate professor of mechanical engineering. “It could be coupled with aerial mapping via UAVs or satellite imaging, giving farmers real time soil analysis for end-of-year field work.”
NDSU researchers in microelectronics, mechanical engineering and the NDSU Extension Service who were part of the initial research team include: Chad Ulven, associate professor of mechanical engineering; Cherish Bauer-Reich, Justin Hoey, Rob Sailer, Nathan Schneck and other members of the NDSU Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering; and Abbey Wick, NDSU Extension Service.

“Generating technologies that lead to start-up companies to bring discoveries to market is one of the ways that NDSU, as a student-focused, land grant, research university, serves the citizens of the state,” said Kelly A. Rusch, vice president for research and creative activity at NDSU.

“Licensing of this sensor technology to c2sensor represents an opportunity to commercialize this research,” said Dale Zetocha, executive director of the NDSU Research Foundation. “Licensing the technology to a North Dakota company supports goals to further diversify economic opportunities in the state.”

The North Dakota Corn Utilization Council provided initial funding at NDSU for the seed sensor project. Following licensing to c2sensor, additional funding through the North Dakota Department of Commerce Venture Grant Program and the North Dakota Centers of Excellence will be utilized to further develop the sensor technology.

About NDSU
NDSU, Fargo, North Dakota, USA, is an economic engine of the state, a top ranked and growing national research power. NDSU is notably listed among the top 108 U.S. public and private universities in the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education’s category of “Research Universities/Very High Research Activity.” As a student-focused, land grant, research institution, NDSU is listed in the Top 100 research universities in the U.S. for R&D in agricultural sciences, chemistry, physical sciences, psychology, and social sciences, based on research expenditures reported to the National Science Foundation.

About the NDSU Research Foundation
The NDSU Research Foundation is an independent, not-for-profit organization that supports NDSU in its teaching, research and public service missions. The Foundation manages the intellectual properties developed by faculty, staff and students doing research at NDSU and facilitates commercialization of these technologies. By commercializing intellectual property, the Foundation is able to create resources that are returned to the individual inventors and to the University to promote continued research.

About c2sensor corp
c2sensor, based in the NDSU Technology Incubator, Fargo, North Dakota, provides expertise in bio-degradable sensors under development for precision agriculture and other applications. The start-up company licensed sensor technology from North Dakota State University. Materials used to create the sensors allow them to be left in place after use where they can degrade without leaving toxins in the soil. Wireless communication with the sensor is based on passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology.

Technology Created at NDSU Licensed to c2sensor - Newswise

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          Loctite Universal Structural Bonders Create Limitless Possibilities for Design and Assembly   
Henkel has introduced Loctite HY 4090 and Loctite HY 4080 GY Universal Structural Bonders, innovative adhesives powered by a patented Hybrid technology that combines the most critical attributes of structural and instant adhesives – bond strength, speed and durability. This powerful combination provides improved performance on a variety of substrates, and the versatility to solve a wide range of design and assembly challenges.
          New Loctite Universal Structural Bonders Create Limitless Opportunities for Industrial Maintenance and Repair   
Henkel has introduced Loctite Universal Structural Bonders, innovative adhesives powered by a patented Hybrid technology that combines the most critical attributes of structural, instant and epoxy adhesives – bond strength, speed and durability. This powerful combination provides improved performance on a variety of substrates, and the versatility to solve a wide range of maintenance repair challenges.
           The effect of substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of diamond-like carbon thin film    
Sarmid, Suriany (2007) The effect of substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of diamond-like carbon thin film. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Science.
           Early stage in the silicon self-assembled growth of nanodots grown on corning glass (7059) substrate    
Sakrani, Samsudi and Wahab, Yussof and Sumpono, Imam and Lim, Qiao Jie (2007) Early stage in the silicon self-assembled growth of nanodots grown on corning glass (7059) substrate. In: The 3rd International Conference on Advanced Materials & Nanotechnology, 2007, Victoria University of Wellington.
           Silicon self-assembled growth of quantum dots grown on corning glass (7059) substrate    
Sakrani, Samsudi and Lim, Qiao Jie and Sumpono, Imam (2007) Silicon self-assembled growth of quantum dots grown on corning glass (7059) substrate. Journal of Fundamental Sciences, 3 (1). pp. 158-165. ISSN 1823-626X
           Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Deposited    
Sarmid, Suriany and Deraman, Karim and Ismail, Bakar and Wahab, Yusof (2007) Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Deposited. . (Unpublished)

Health benefits of carrots
  • Sweet and succulent carrots are notably rich in anti-oxidants, vitamins and dietary fiber; however, they provide only 41 calories per 100 g, negligible amount of fat and no cholesterol.
  • They are exceptionally rich source of carotenes and vitamin-A. 100 g fresh carrot contains 8285 µg of beta-carotene and 16706 IU of vitamin A. Studies have found that flavonoid compounds in carrots help protect from skin, lung and oral cavity cancers.
  • Carotenes are converted into vitamin A in the liver. Beta-carotene is the major carotene that is present in these roots. Beta carotene is one of the powerful natural anti-oxidant helps protect body from harmful oxygen-free radical injury.  In addition, it also has all the functions of vitamin A such as vision, reproduction (sperm production), maintenance of epithelial integrity, growth and development.
  • Carrots are rich in poly-acetylene antioxidant falcarinol. Research study conducted by scientists at University of Newcastle on laboratory animals has found that falcarinol in carrots may help fight against cancers by destroying pre-cancerous cells in the tumors.
  • Fresh roots are also good in vitamin C; provide about 9% of RDA. Vitamin C is water soluble anti-oxidant. It helps the body maintain healthy connective tissue, teeth and gum. Its anti-oxidant property helps the body protect from diseases and cancers by scavenging harmful free radicals.
  • In addition, this root vegetable is especially rich in many B-complex groups of vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), thiamin, pantothenic acid, etc., that acts as co-factors to enzymes during substrate metabolism in the body.
  • Further, They also compose healthy levels of minerals like copper, calcium, potassium, manganese and phosphorus. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure by countering effects of sodium. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
Fresh carrots are available in the markets around the season. While buying, look for young, tender, bright-colored roots with firm consistency. Avoid soft, flabby roots, with cuts or mold. Furthermore, avoid very large-sized roots as they indicate over maturity; resulting in their poor eating quality.
Excessive sun light exposure of the root aboveground level would result in greenish discoloration near the top end due to chlorophyll photo-pigment deposition. Although this may not affect health badly, however, it depletes sweet taste of the roots. Forking or twisted carrots may be the indication of either disease infestation or close crop cultivation.
Once at home, wash them thoroughly in water to remove dust, soil, or insecticide/fungicides. Generally, the top greens are trimmed from the root and stored in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator where they keep well for 1-2 weeks. Set refrigerator temperature level below 35 degree F and high humidity to maintain vitality.

          Comment on Karibu Awards by GicleeCob   
Good Morning! Understanding Giclee Prints for avant-garde home wall decor. Giclee (zhee-klay) - The French word "giclee" is a feminine noun that means a spray of liquid. The word may have been borrowed from the French verb "gicler" meaning "to squirt". Images are generated from high resolution digital scans and printed with archival quality inks onto different substrates including canvas and photo-base paper. [url=] Giclee is a neologism coined in 1991 by printmaker Jack Duganne for fine art digital prints made on inkjet printers. The name originally applied to fine art prints created on Iris printers in a process invented in the late 1980s but has since come to mean any inkjet print. It is often used by artists to describe high quality printing. [/url] Giclee prints are helpful to artists who do not find it suitable to mass produce their work, but want to reproduce their art as needed. Numerous examples of giclee prints can be found in New York City at the [url=]Metropolitan Museum[/url], the [url=]Museum of Modern Art[/url] and the [url=]Chelsea Galleries[/url]. Recent auctions of giclee prints have fetched $10,800 for Annie Leibovitz, $9,600 for Chuck Close, and $22,800 for Wolfgang Tillmans. [url=] Nowadays you can order authentic Giclee original art at Etsy shops.[/url] Bye! and Best Regards
          Soils as relative-age dating tools   

Soils develop at the earth's surface via multiple processes that act through time. Precluding burial or disturbance, soil genetic horizons form progressively and reflect the balance among formation processes, surface age, and original substrate composition. Soil morphology provides a key link between process and time (soil age), enabling soils to serve as both relative and numerical dating tools for geomorphic studies and landscape evolution. Five major factors define the contemporary state of all soils: climate, organisms, topography, parent material, and time. Soils developed on similar landforms and parent materials within a given landscape comprise what we term a soil/landform/substrate complex. Soils on such complexes that differ in development as a function of time represent a soil chronosequence. In a soil chronosequence, time constitutes the only independent formation factor; the other factors act through time. Time dictates the variations in soil development or properties (field or laboratory measured) on a soil/landform/substrate complex. Using a dataset within the chronosequence model, we can also formulate various soil development indices based upon one or a combination of soil properties, either for individual soil horizons or for an entire profile. When we evaluate soil data or soil indices mathematically, the resulting equation creates a chronofunction. Chronofunctions help quantify processes and mechanisms involved in soil development, and relate them mathematically to time. These rigorous kinds of comparisons among and within soil/landform complexes constitute an important tool for relative-age dating. After determining one or more absolute ages for a soil/landform complex, we can calculate quantitative soil formation, and or landform-development rates. Multiple dates for several complexes allow rate calculations for soil/landform-chronosequence development and soil-chronofunction calibration.

          Comparison of benthos and plankton for Waukegan Harbor Area of Concern, Illinois, and Burns Harbor-Port of Indiana non-Area of Concern, Indiana, in 2015   

During two seasonal sampling events in spring (June) and fall (August) of 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected benthos (benthic invertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) at three sites each in the Waukegan Harbor Area of Concern (AOC) in Illinois and in Burns Harbor-Port of Indiana, a non-AOC comparison site in Indiana. The study was done in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Samples were collected concurrently for physical and chemical parameters (specific conductance, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, total and volatile suspended solids in water samples; particle size and volatile-on-ignition solids of sediment in dredge samples). The purpose of the study was to assess whether or not aquatic communities at the AOC were degraded in comparison to communities at the non-AOC, which was presumed to be less impaired than the AOC. Benthos were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrate samplers and a Ponar® dredge sampler to collect composited grabs of bottom sediment; zooplankton were collected by using tows from depth to the surface with a 63-micrometer mesh plankton net; phytoplankton were collected by using whole water samples composited from set depth intervals. Aquatic communities at the AOC and the non-AOC were compared by use of univariate statistical analyses with metrics such as taxa richness (number of unique taxa), diversity, and a multimetric Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for artificial-substrate samples only) as well as by use of multivariate statistical analyses of taxa relative abundances.

Although benthos communities at Waukegan Harbor AOC were not rated as degraded in comparison to the non-AOC, metrics for zooplankton and phytoplankton communities did show some impairment for the 2015 sampling. Across seasons, benthos richness and diversity were significantly higher and rated as less degraded at the AOC compared to the non-AOC; however, benthos IBIs were not significantly different. Multivariate comparisons revealed that the benthos communities in the AOC and non-AOC were significantly different, but these comparisons do not address current degradation in either harbor. The dominant taxa in dredge samples were oligochaete worms in both harbors, but there were differences in the relative abundances of Dreissena as well as oligochaete and midge taxa. Although zooplankton richness and diversity in the AOC were lower and rated as more degraded in spring, these metrics were rated as less degraded in fall compared to the non-AOC, effectively balancing out so that there was no difference across seasons. Multivariate comparisons also indicated that zooplankton communities in the AOC were significantly different from those in the non-AOC for spring only but not across seasons, possibly because of lower water temperatures in spring at Waukegan Harbor than at the non-AOC site. The spring zooplankton community in Waukegan Harbor was dominated in density and biomass by the rotifer Synchaeta. Across seasons, diatom richness was significantly higher and rated as less degraded in the AOC than the non-AOC because of spring values, whereas soft algae richness was significantly lower and rated as more degraded in the AOC because of fall values. Spring richness of combined phytoplankton (soft algae and diatoms) was significantly higher in the AOC than in the non-AOC. Neither diatom diversity nor soft algae diversity differed significantly between the harbors, but combined phytoplankton diversity across seasons, if replicates were included, was significantly lower and rated as more degraded in the AOC than in the non-AOC. Multivariate tests indicated that the combined phytoplankton communities in the harbors were not significantly different across seasons. Significant differences were not found between harbors for chlorophyll-a, suspended solids, algal densities, or biomass.

          Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems   

Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

          Analysis of the effect of Hurricane Sandy on New Jersey Atlantic coastal marshes based on landsat thematic mapper and operational land imager data: 2000-2015   

This USGS Data Release represents geospatial data sets that were created for the analysis of the effect of Hurricane Sandy on New Jersey Atlantic Coastal Marshes. The following listed image products were generated:

1) Fifteen marsh surface condition index (MSCI) data sets were calculated from yearly summer collections of ETM+ image data from 2000 to 2015. Three classes described the results of the MSCI mapping; classs1-severely impacted, class 2-moderately impacted, and class 3-intact marsh.
2) Marsh change data product using Landsat images of July 14, 2011 (before) and July 19, 2013 (after) Hurricane Sandy is based on the difference in the percentage of vegetation. It shows a pattern of an increasing loss of marsh vegetation for the marshes closest to where Sandy made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey.
3) Land cover classification using Landsat TM of 14 July 2011 and 19 July 2013, 30 m spatial resolution. Eleven classes namely i) high salt marsh ii) estuarine high salt marsh iii) forested wetland iv) Phragmites australis and Spartina cynosuroides v) salt shrub scrub vi) marsh substrate from estuarine marsh area vii) marsh substrate located near lagoon viii) unconsolidated beach sediment ix) ponds and other shallow bodies on marsh x) small tidal creeks xi) urban development areas

The data release was produced in compliance with the new 'open data' requirements as a way to make the scientific products associated with USGS research efforts and publications available to the public.

          Comment on Day 6, Creative Chemistry 103: Surfaces & Substrates by lindylu2u2   
I just got caught up with your class work. Nice stuff, Vic. You have done a great job of putting the backgrounds & the quotes/pics together. Very nice.:)
          Zilla Reptile Terrarium Bedding Substrate Liner, Brown, 40BR/50G   
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Zilla Reptile Terrarium Bedding Substrate
Expires Jul 14, 2017

          Laminate Flooring Installation: What You Should Before You Install Your Flooring All By Yourself   

Are you planning to save on cost and install you flooring by yourself? If you have no idea about laminate flooring installation, you should not touch those tiles if you do not want them to go to waste. Laminate flooring installation could be a lot of fun if you know what you are doing so before you venture into laminate flooring installation, you should first study the important things about laminate flooring installation. Laminate flooring installation can either be done with or without the use of glue. By nature, laminates are planks or tiles that are fastened to each other but they are not fastened to the substrate of your floor. The trick here is to use a thin underlay, which will separate the laminate from the granite or wood of the floor. Since the laminates are not really adhered to the granite or the wood materials of the floor, many people would refer to it as “floating floor.”

Read more on Laminate Flooring Installation: What You Should Before You Install Your Flooring All By Yourself…

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          Download Taig 2.0.0 Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8.3 Firmware   
Download Taig Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8.3 Firmware: Taig jailbreak team has released a new version of its jailbreaking software.This jailbreak software supports all devices on iOS 8.1.3 – iOS 8.3 and can be installed via an updated 2.0.0 jailbreak utility that is currently available for Windows only. 1. Since Cydia Substrate (Mobile Substrate) is not […]
          Download Pangu8 1.0.1 Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8/8.1   
Download Pangu8 1.0.1 Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8/8.1: Finally, iOS 8 jailbreak has been released by developers of Pangu utility which brings iOS 7 jailbreak earlier. Currently jailbreak utility is only available for Windows and at this time Cydia and Mobile Substrate are not working.   Download Pangu8 1.0.1 (Windows): [Mirror 1]
          IPC 4921A : Requirements for Printed Electronics Base Materials (Substrates)   
IPC 4921 establishes the classification system, qualification and quality conformance requirements for printed electronics base materials (substrates).

The standard defines the base material only and should not be used for substrates that have been postprocessed and comprise defined features or structures (e.g., conductive traces).
          ASTM D3260-01(2017) : Standard Test Method for Acid and Mortar Resistance of Factory-Applied Clear Coatings on Extruded Aluminum Products   

1.1 This test method covers the evaluation of the mortar and acid resistance of clear protective coating factory applied to extruded aluminum substrates.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

          Comment on Bacterial Culture Media, their PH Indicators and color of bacterial colonies by Robert Opio   
thank you for the information, may you please help me give the preliminary identification of the colonies that i obtained from the cultures on nutrient agar from the different food substrates(rice, samosa, meat soup bean soup and wheat bread). their colours were; cream, pure white, yellow and golden yellow. waiting forward for your response.
          Retro Inspired New Sign   
Retro Inspired New Sign Retro Inspired New Sign Retro Inspired New Sign

I had just returned from Vegas when I got contacted to do a "modern" sign for this client. Still had the Fremont district in my head! After telling him a modern sign was a 5' X 10' box with plastic faces and many sketches later convinced him the retro look would be coolest for his biz. This sign is approx. 7' wide X 8' tall with all illumination except the neon border provided by LEDs on aluminum substrate. We did deal on this project BEFORE I found out the area in which this sign resides is about to undergo a neighborhood revitalization project labeled as "Retrofitting the Retro". Very big plans on the books for this neighborhood and sure hope it comes to fruition. Area(my back door) really needs it! And, I like making and/or restoring cool signs. It's what I do. This sign is about two blocks down the street from the bowling alley sign from a few years back.


          Applications Engineer   
Danvers, Engineer Applications Engineer Danvers, MA: Resp. for providing technical expertise & eng support for design and manufacturing of electronic color measurement instruments. Req: Bachelor’s or higher in Print Media or related print media technology field & 1 yr of exp. in color analysis, print substrates & color matching in a commercial print or packaging environment. Resumes to A. Lakacha, Techkon
          Technology Development Engineer - Intel - Phoenix, AZ   
Familiarity with Assembly (Electronic Packaging) and substrate manufacturing technologies. Understanding of reliability failure modes and models in...
From Intel - Wed, 12 Apr 2017 10:20:52 GMT - View all Phoenix, AZ jobs
          Coming soon! New product to complete Dunlop’s innovative levelling range   
Dunlop, specialist manufacturer of tile adhesives, grouts, finishing and ancillary products, has announced the launch of its new Fibre Reinforced Levelling Compound – completing the company’s dynamic range of floor levellers. The new leveller can be used on absorbent and non-absorbent substrates to prepare floor surfaces, including timber floors prior to installing ceramics, natural stone, […]
          Hiring for GM Packaging Development in Delhi/NCR(National Capital Region), Bengaluru/Bangalore for E (Job in Kolkata)   
Job Description:To manage Packaging Development, Technical, Substrates, Printing, production operations, Client handling,Techno Commercial, NPD, handling Customer Complaints etc. tags: 14 To apply for this job Click here [URL]
          Adopt Squirtle a Tortoise reptile, amphibian, and/or fish in Vancouver (   
I am an full grown female Ornate box turtle for adoption in the Vancouver area. My foster mom has been watching too much Pokeman` because she thinks I'm like the character Squirtle; Although it would be nice if I could have a pen outside in the summer, I cant be just as happy in an appropriate home inside. A backyard pen should be screened in completely to keep out rats and raccoons. It should have lots of room for exploring and digging and soaking in a water pan or shallow pond designed just for box turtles. For my indoor winter pen, or if I'm indoors permanently, a "turtle table" would be a great home, and it should at least eight sq. feet of space, along with a substrate such as aged hardwood bark mulch, a water pan, artificial plants for hiding, and a heat light and UVB light over 1 end. To learn more about box turtles, visit or pick up a copy of Box Turtles by Tess Cook, available in most pet stores.


Created in 2000, Dri-Design is the result of meticulous engineering of a metal wall panel system that had not existed previously. It was, and is, a 100% recyclable, pressure equalized rain-screen, architectural metal wall panel system that attaches to nearly any substrate without the use of clips or extrusions. The pressure equalized rain-screen design can be installed simply over commercial grade Tyvek onto plywood, or as the most sophisticated outboard insulation pressure equalized rain-screen you can design.
          Contego International, Inc.   

Contego is Latin for “to shield, defend, or protect.” When you apply Contego Firebarrier Intumescent Latex Paint to virtually any substrate you can rest assured that you’ve got the best in fire protection. Whether treating steel beams in a high-rise building or airport or small circuit boards, Contego provides unmatched fire protection and thermal resistance. Contego is the solution… non-toxic, beautifully thin, amazingly affordable, incomparably reliable. Contego makes the world a safer place.

Let Woodtone provide a complete exterior coating solution for your next project. We are experts at coating exterior building materials and have been doing it for 30 years. From semi-transparent to solid stains, from wood substrates to composite products to decking and fencing, builders and contractors continue to entrust Woodtone as a key component of their exterior painting process.