Nokia – IP networks re-imagined   
Recently we have seen Cisco predict that busy hour global IP traffic will grow 4.6-fold (35% CAGR) from 2016 to 2021, reaching 4.3 Pb/s by 2021, compared to average Internet traffic that will grow 3.2-fold (26% CAGR) over the same period to reach 717 Tb/s by 2021. The latest edition of the Ericsson Mobility Report, released earlier this week, calculates that the total traffic in mobile networks increased by 70% between the end of Q1 2016 and the end of Q1 2017. And now, Nokia Bell Labs has just announced its own prediction: IP traffic will more than double in the next five years, reaching 330 exabytes per month by 2022 while growing at a 25% CAGR. The company anticipates that peak data rates will grow even faster at nearly 40% annually. Nokia Bell Labs also predicts that 3D/4K/UHD will experience a 4.79x growth from 2017 – 22, that wireless traffic will experience 7.5x growth from 2017 – 22, and that worldwide IoT devices to grow from 12bn in 2017 to 100bn in 2025.

Nokia unveils next gen networking processing engine

Nokia's processing engine sets the stage for perhaps the most significant announcement from the company since the merger of Alcatel-Lucent and Nokia Siemens Networks in 2015. In a press event entitled 'IP networks reimagined', Nokia unveiled its FP4 silicon, featuring the 'first' 2.4 Tbit/s network processor, up to 6x more powerful than processors currently available. The proprietary chipset is designed for a new class of petabit-class routers.

Core routers traditionally have been the 'big iron' that powers the heart of the Internet. It is a product category dominated by Cisco, Huawei, Juniper and Nokia, including via its existing 7950 XRS routing platform. However, the market has been in flux. Earlier this month, Dell’Oro Group reported a significant break in Q1 17 with Huawei taking the top spot from Cisco in the core router market for the first time. The report also found Huawei taking over second spot from Nokia in the SP edge router and CES market. The primary reason cited for this shift is that the SP core routing business is only growing at a low single-digit rate, while China Mobile is defying the trend with significant investments in their IP core backbone, for which Huawei is the lead supplier. Nevertheless, the overall predictions for rapid growth in IP traffic over the coming five years makes it more likely that service providers will need a significant refresh of their core backbones to handle hundreds of 100 or 400 Gbit/s connections at major nodes.

Nokia's previous generation FP3 chipset, unveiled by Alcatel-Lucent in June 2011 and launched in 2012, packed 288 RISC cores operating at 1 GHz and leveraged 40 nm process technology; the FP2 chipset offered 112 cores at 840 MHz and was built in 90 nm. This network processor lineage can be traced back to TiMetra Networks, a start-up based in Mountain View, California that launched its first carrier-class routing platforms in 2003.

TiMetra, which was headed by Basil Alwan, was acquired by Alcatel-Lucent later in 2003 for approximately $150 million in stock. The product line went on to become the highly successful 7450, 7750 and eventually 7950 carrier platforms - the basis for the IP division at Alcatel-Lucent. Not bad for an idea from a small start-up to grow into the star platform underpinning all of Alcatel-Lucent + Nokia Siemens Networks.

In a launch day webcast, Basil Alwan, now president of Nokia's IP/Optical Networks business group, said we are moving into a new phase of the Internet requiring 'cloud-scale routing'. First, he noted that there is market confusion between Internet-class routers and core data centre switches, which are being used to power the hyperscale infrastructure of the Internet content providers. High-end, data centre spine switches are capable of routing packets at high rates and can handle access control lists (ACLs). Likewise, conventional big iron core routers can switch data flows, and are sometimes deployed in data centres. However, there have been tradeoffs when this role reversal happens. Nokia's new FP4 chipset aims to fix that.

First multi-terabit NPU silicon

Six years have passed since the FP3, or roughly two cycles in the evolution of Moore's Law, so naturally one would expect the new silicon to be smaller, faster and more powerful and efficient. But Alwan said the company took its time to rethink how the packet processing works at the silicon level. To begin with, Nokia redesigned the onboard memory, employing 2.5D and 3D layouts on 16 nm Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) technology. The single chip contains 22 dies, including memory stacks and control logic. It runs at 2.4 Tbit/s half-duplex, or 6x more capacity than the current generation 400 Gbit/s FP3 chipset. The FP4 will support full terabit IP flows. All conventional routing capabilities are included. Deep classification capabilities include enhanced packet intelligence and control, policy controls, telemetry and security.

The FP4 could be used to provide an in-service upgrade to Nokia's current line of core routers and carrier switches. It will also be used to power a new family of 7750 SR-s series routers designed for single-node, cloud scale density. In terms of specs, the SR-s boasts a 144 Tbit/s configuration supporting port densities of up to 144 future terabit links, 288 x 400 Gbit/s ports, or 1,440 100 Gigabit Ethernet ports. Absolute capacity could be doubled for a maximum of 288 Tbit/s configuration. It runs the same software as the company's widely-deployed systems. The first 7750 SR-s boxes are already running in Nokia labs and the first commercial shipments are expected in Q4.

Nokia is also introducing a chassis extension option to push its router into petabit territory. Without using the switching shelf concept employed in the multi-chassis designs of its competitors, Nokia is offering the means to integrate up to six of its 7750 SRS-s routers into a single system. This results in 576 Tbit/s of capacity, enough for densities of up to 2,880 x 100 GBE ports or 720 x 400 Gbit/s ports. Adding up the numbers, it is not truly petabit-class, but at 576 Tbit/s it is more than halfway there.

Network telemetry leads to security
Another interesting twist concerns security and petabit-class routing. In December 2016, Nokia agreed to acquire Deepfield, a start-up specialising in real-time analytics for IP network performance management and security. Deepfield, founded in 2011 and based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has developed an analytics platform that identifies over 30,000 popular cloud applications and services. Its Internet Genome tracks how traffic runs to and through networks to reach subscribers, in real time, and without the need for probes, taps and monitors in the network itself. At the time of the deal, Nokia said it would integrate Deepfield big data analytics with the dynamic control capabilities of open SDN platforms, such as the Nokia Network Services Platform (NSP) and Nuage Networks Virtualized Services Platform (VSP).

Expanding on this idea, Alwan said Deepfield can really leverage the routers rather than probes to understand what is happening to the traffic. Fewer probes mean lower investment. More importantly, Deepfield could be used to track DDoS attacks passing through the core of the network rather than at the edge destination target. The new FP4 silicon is said to be a very good match for this application.

          Global Silicon Carbide (SIC) Market (Product, Technology, Power Semiconductors, End-User, Geography)   

Global Silicon Carbide (SIC) Market (Product, Technology, Power Semiconductors, End-User, Geography) - Size, Share, Global Trends, Company Profiles, Demand, Insights, Analysis, Research, Report, Opportunities, Segmentation and Forecast, 2013 – 2020

Portland, OR -- (ReleaseWire) -- 09/02/2014 -- Silicon carbide (SiC) is a chemical compound of silicon and carbon and it is also known as carborundum. SiC belongs to the semiconductor market that is expected to attain revenue of $394 billion by 2017. It is projected that SiC has the potential to displace other silicon based transistors and semiconductors; therefore, it is expected to have high revenue share. The key factors driving the SiC market growth is that it can decrease the size of semiconductors and reduce the power system loss by 50%.

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The cost of SiC material ranges from $800 to $2,000 per ton, which is very costly as compared to other materials used for manufacturing semiconductor. Therefore, the high cost of these semiconductors is a major restraint for the growth of the market. Material defects and packaging issues are some of the other challenges for the market growth. Researches that are being conducted to overcome these challenges have been slow-moving. However, key players are seeking collaborations to increase investments in the SiC based electronic goods.

See similar report- Global Green Building Materials Market @

Some of the key companies profiled in this report are AGSCO Corporation, Entegris Inc., Carborundum Universal Ltd., ESK-SIC GmbH, Grindwell Norton Ltd., Saint-Gobain Ceramics Materials GmbH, The Dow Chemical Company, Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Company Ltd., Timcal Ltd., and Snam Abrasives Pvt. Ltd.

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Media Relations Contact

Sona Padman
International Accounts Manager
Reports and Intelligence
Telephone: 617-674-4143
Email: Click to Email Sona Padman

          la computadora del año 1958   

En esta generación las computadoras se reducen de tamaño y son de menor costo. Aparecen muchas compañías y las computadoras eran bastante avanzadas para su época como la serie 5000 de Burroughs y la ATLAS de la Universidad de Manchester. Algunas computadoras se programaban con cinta perforadas y otras por medio de cableado en un tablero.Características de está generación:Usaban transistores para procesar información.Los transistores eran más rápidos, pequeños y más confiables que los tubos al vacío.200 transistores podían acomodarse en la misma cantidad de espacio que un tubo al vacío.Usaban pequeños anillos magnéticos para almacenar información e instrucciones. cantidad de calor y eran sumamente lentas.Se mejoraron los programas de computadoras que fueron desarrollados durante la primera generación.Se desarrollaron nuevos lenguajes de programación como COBOL y FORTRAN, los cuales eran comercialmente accsesibles.Se usaban en aplicaciones de sistemas de reservaciones de líneas aéreas, control del tráfico aéreo y simulaciones de propósito general.La marina de los Estados Unidos desarrolla el primer simulador de vuelo, "Whirlwind I".Surgieron las minicomputadoras y los terminales a distancia.Se comenzó a disminuir el tamaño de las computadoras.

          (USA-MI-Battle Creek) Automotive Mechanic   
Job Overview ## Job Overview ### Summary Vacancy Identification Number (VIN):1979490 OUR MISSION: To fulfill President Lincoln's promise – "To care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan" – by serving and honoring the men and women who are America's Veterans. How would you like to become a part of a team providing compassionate care to Veterans? The **Department of Veterans Affairs** (VA) needs employees who possess the energy, compassion, and commitment to serve those who served our Country. Whatever the job title, every position in VA will give you a chance to make a meaningful and personal contribution to the lives of truly special and deserving people - our Veterans. VA professionals feel good about their careers and their ability to balance work and home life. VA offers generous paid time off and a variety of predictable and flexible scheduling opportunities. Working for VA is one of the most emotionally satisfying and professionally rewarding ways to dedicate the best within you to your Country's service. If you are transitioning from the military or a Veteran already, we invite you to explore the benefits of continuing your career at the VA. **The VA is committed to hiring Veterans**. The VA is much more than just another employer. It is an honorable, open and welcoming community of those who care. Gratitude is our motivation and service is our mission. The VA has adopted Core Values and Characteristics that apply universally across the Department. The five Core Values define "who we are," our culture, and how we care for Veterans, their families and other beneficiaries. The Values are **I**ntegrity, **C**ommitment, **A**dvocacy, **R**espect and **E**xcellence ("**I CARE**"). **America's Veterans need you!** To find out more, go to Special Employment Consideration: VA encourages persons with disabilities to apply, including those eligible for hiring under 5 CFR 213.3102(u), Schedule A, Appointment of persons with disabilities [i.e., intellectual disabilities, severe physical disabilities, or psychiatric disabilities], and/or Disabled veterans with a compensable service-connected disability of 30% or more. Contact the Agency Contact on the last page of the JOA for information on how to apply under this appointment authority via the Selective Placement Coordinator. For more information on the "Who may apply" eligibility requirements, please refer to the OHRM Status Candidates and Other Candidate Definitionsdocument. ### Duties Under the general supervision of the Operations Supervisor, the incumbent of this position performs the full journeyman level range of mechanical duties in maintenance and repair of all gasoline and diesel powered vehicles and equipment throughout the Medical Center. The work at this grade involves troubleshooting, repairing, and/or overhauling major components and systems such as engines, transmissions, differentials and transaxles, electronic fuel injection systems, emission control systems, and related electrical, electronic, hydraulic, fuel, and other assemblies. Grade 10 mechanics must be able to: * Tear down, adjust, repair, reassemble, and run operational checks on components of these systems following instructions contained in technical manuals. * Troubleshoot and repair the wide variety of major systems described above, while others specialize in tearing down, overhauling, and rebuilding one or a limited variety of major systems (e.g., engines and transmissions) for large and small tractors, loaders, fork lifts, back hoes, utility vehicles, lawn mowers and powered industrial carts. * They must be able to use a wider variety of test procedures and equipment when tracing hard-to-locate defects or problems, and they complete repairs and installations with little or no technical advice. * Within the framework of inspection reports, diagnostic computer printouts, or instructions, grade 10 automotive mechanics isolate and repair malfunctions by a combination of visual and auditory examinations, and the use of a wide variety of test equipment such as computerized engine analyzers, compression testers, test benches, oscilloscopes, multimeters, and special feeler and dial gauges. * Disassemble, repair, replace, recondition, and rebuild components of the various systems, and make independent judgments based on specifications in technical manuals and on accepted trade practices. **The incumbent in this position will not be required to file a financial disclosure report.** **Work Schedule:** Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Schedule may be changed to meet the needs of the Veterans and the Medical Center; evening and weekend coverage may be required. **Position Description Title/PD#:** Automotive Mechanic, WG-5823-10, PD# 06290-0 ### Travel Required * Not Required ### Relocation Authorized * No Job Requirements ## Job Requirements ### Key Requirements * You must be a U.S. citizen to apply for this job. * Subject to a background/suitability investigation. * Designated and/or random drug testing may be required. * Selective Service Registration is required for males born after 12/31/1959. * Michigan Class B (UST) Underground Storage Tank System Operator License. ### Qualifications To qualify for this position, applicants must meet all requirements by the closing date of this announcement **Specialized Experience**: At the WG-10 grade, the automotive mechanic must have a thorough knowledge of the makeup, operation, and installation of complex major systems and assemblies to troubleshoot and repair a variety of systems or to rebuild one or more systems such as the following: gasoline and diesel engines; automatic and manual transmissions and gear reduction systems; transaxles; drive line and rear axle assemblies including electrical, air, vacuum, or mechanically controlled differentials; electrical and electronic systems and accessories (e.g., conventional and transistorized ignition systems, charging and starting systems, and wiring and lighting systems); carbureted and electronic fuel injection systems; exhaust and emission control systems (e.g., continuous flow air injector or fuel vapor control); conventional and power steering mechanisms and hydraulic power-assist systems; and other systems of similar complexity. Additionally, grade 10 mechanics must be knowledgeable in the repair of hydraulic lifting, loading, turning, and positioning systems including their mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and electronic controls automotive worker, (e.g., hydraulic lift gates and electric wenches). They must be able to troubleshoot and replace standard electronic components of systems, such as computer circuit boards and sensing and controlling units in engines, printed circuits in instrument and indicator panels, diodes in alternator regulators, armatures and control module transistors in electronic ignition systems, and sensors and relay units in emission control systems. Mechanics use this knowledge to test and troubleshoot components and systems to locate equipment defects. **Experience refers to paid and unpaid experience, including volunteer work done through National Service programs (e.g., Peace Corps, AmeriCorps) and other organizations (e.g., professional; philanthropic; religions; spiritual; community; student; social). Volunteer work helps build critical competencies, knowledge, and skills and can provide valuable training and experience that translates directly to paid employment. You will receive credit for all qualifying experience, including volunteer experience.** **Note:** Only education or degrees recognized by the U.S. Department of Education from accredited colleges, universities, schools, or institutions may be used to qualify for Federal employment. You can verify your education here: If you are using foreign education to meet qualification requirements, you must send a Certificate of Foreign Equivalency with your transcript in order to receive credit for that education. **Physical Requirements:**Automotive workers at this level make repairs which often require them to work in tiring, awkward, and uncomfortable positions. They frequently stand for long periods of time, bend, stoop, crawl under vehicles, and make repairs in other tight spaces. They frequently lift, handle, and carry parts and equipment weighing up to 18 kilograms (40 pounds). Occasionally, they move moderately heavy items with assistance or with mechanical devices, including objects weighing up to or over 23 kilograms (50 pounds). **Working Conditions:** The work is usually performed inside on concrete surfaces where there is exposure to drafts, noise, and fumes from vehicles. Automotive workers occasionally perform work outside under adverse weather conditions. They are continually exposed to dirt, dust, and grease, and to the potential for burns, chemical irritations, shocks, bruises, cuts, and strains. To reduce dangers and irritations from these conditions, they follow prescribed safety practices and use safety equipment such as safety shoes and glasses, and respirators. ### Security Clearance Public Trust - Background Investigation Additional Information ## Additional Information ### What To Expect Next After we receive application packages (including all required documents) and the vacancy announcement closes, we will review applications to ensure qualification and eligibility requirements are met. During our review, if your résumé and application package do not support your questionnaire answers, we will adjust your rating accordingly. After the review is complete, a referral certificate(s) is issued and applicants will be notified of their status by email (if provided); otherwise, applicants will receive a notification letter via the U.S. Postal Service. Referred applicants will be notified as such and may be contacted directly by the hiring office for an interview. All referred applicants receive a final notification once a selection decision has been made. You may check the status of your application at any time by logging into your USAJOBS account and clicking on “Application Status.” For a more detailed update of your status, click on “more information.” Information regarding applicant notification points can be found in the USAJobs Resource Center. #### BENEFITS VA offers a comprehensive benefits package. This link provides an overview of the benefits currently offered: VA supports the use of telework as a way to help attract and retain talented individuals in public service, increase worker productivity, and better prepare the agency to operate during emergencies. This position may be authorized for telework. Telework eligibility will be discussed during the interview process. ### Other Information **The Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan (ICTAP) and Career Transition Assistance Plan CTAP)**provide eligible displaced Federal competitive service employees with selection priority over other candidates for competitive service vacancies. To be qualified you must submit appropriate documentation and be found well-qualified (have a final rating of 85 or more before any Veterans preference points) for this vacancy. Information about ICTAP and CTAP eligibility is on OPM's Career Transition Resources website. **Receiving Service Credit for Earning Annual (Vacation) Leave** : Federal Employees earn annual leave at a rate (4, 6 or 8 hours per pay period) which is based on the number of years they have served as a Federal employee. VA may offer newly-appointed Federal employee's credit for their job-related non-federal experience or active duty uniformed military service. This credited service can be used in determining the rate at which they earn annual leave. Such credit must be requested and approved prior to the appointment date and is not guaranteed. **Placement Policy:** The posting of this announcement does not obligate management to fill a vacancy or vacancies by promotion. The position may be filled by reassignment, change to lower grade, transfer, appointment, or reinstatement. Management may use any one or any combination of these methods to fill the position. It is the policy of the VA to not deny employment to those that have faced financial hardships or periods of unemployment. This job opportunity announcement may be used to fill additional vacancies. This job originated on For the full announcement and to apply, visit Only resumes submitted according to the instructions on the job announcement listed at will be considered. *Salary Range:* $24.52 to $28.59 / Per Hour *Series & Grade:* WG-5823-10/10 *Supervisory Status:* No *Who May Apply:* Current and former federal employees with competitive status, reinstatement eligible’s, Interagency Career Transition Assistance Program (ICTAP) eligible’s, Veterans (VEOA and 30% Disabled), and special non-competitive appointment eligible’s (e.g., Persons with Disabilities, Certain Military Spouses, Peace Corps and Vista Volunteers, etc.). *Control Number:* 473101700 *Job Announcement Number:* BI-17-003-DJJ-1979490-BU
          On This Day in Math - June 30   

You know we all became mathematicians for the same reason: 
we were lazy. 
Max Rosenlicht

The 181st day of the year; 181 is the 9th palindromic prime number.

and the 181-digit palindromic number made up of all 7's except for the center being 181 (7777...7718177...77777) is a palindromic prime with a palindromic prime decimal length.

181 is the both the difference and the sum of consecutive squares:
\( 181 = 91^2 – 90^2 = 9^2 + 10^2 \)

 Every natural number greater than 181 can be written as sum of cubes of the first two primes. (students might be asked to find all examples of numbers less than 181 that can be written in this fashion, such as 35= 23 + 33)

1686 The Royal Society made the decision to publish De Historia Piscium, a lavishly-illustrated history of fishes by John Ray and Francis Willughby. The books was beautiful, but turned out to be such a poor seller that the Society almost went bankrupt. At one point Edmond Halley's salary could not be paid during the same period when he was trying to get Newton to complete his epic masterpiece, The Principia. Fortunately for science, Halley accepted a deal for something like one-hundred copies of the fish book, and then mostly funded the publication of Newton's classic himself over the next year. I don't know if Halley ever managed to sell any of the De Historia Piscium that he took in lieu of salary. *PB old notes.

1737 John Harrison, after positive results on the test of his first sea-clock, receives the first money awarded by the Board of Longitude (23 years after the Act to create the Board). Harrison received 500 Pounds, 250 Pounds to be paid immediately, and another 250 Pounds after completing a second clock that passes testing at sea. *Derek Howse, Britain's Board of Longitude: The Finances 1714-1828

1742 Euler replied (see June 7 post) in a letter dated 30 June 1742, and reminded Goldbach of an earlier conversation they had (" Ew vormals mit mir communicirt haben.."), in which Goldbach remarked his original (and not marginal) conjecture followed from the following statement, “Every even integer greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two primes,” which is thus also a conjecture of Goldbach. In the letter dated 30 June 1742, Euler stated:“Dass ... ein jeder numerus par eine summa duorum primorum sey, halte ich für ein ganz gewisses theorema, ungeachtet ich dasselbe necht demonstriren kann.” ("every even integer is a sum of two primes. I regard this as a completely certain theorem, although I cannot prove it.")*Wik
As of this date, no one else has proved it either. It is one of the oldest open questions in mathematics.

1812 Congress authorized the President of the US to issue interest bearing Treasury Notes for the first time in history.  The interest was fixed at "five and two-fifths per centum a year."  *Kane, Famous First Facts (students might calculate the present value of a $100 investment on that date compounded to the present)

1808 Humphry Davy announced he had separated the element boron. However, working independently, French chemist, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac had announced* the same accomplishment nine days ealier, on 21 Jun 1808.  *TIS

1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. Several prominent British scientists and philosophers participated, including Thomas Henry Huxley, Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, Benjamin Brodie, Joseph Dalton Hooker and Robert FitzRoy.
The debate is best remembered today for a heated exchange in which Wilberforce supposedly asked Huxley whether it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that he claimed his descent from a monkey. Huxley is said to have replied that he would not be ashamed to have a monkey for his ancestor, but he would be ashamed to be connected with a man who used his great gifts to obscure the truth *Wik

1894 Tower Bridge opens, In 1886, the foundation stone of the Tower Bridge in London, England was laid (over a time capsule) by the Prince of Wales. The need to cross the River Thames at this point had become increasingly urgent for many years, and finally the necessary Act was passed in 1885. The bridge, designed by Mr. Wolfe Barry, CB, was completed at a cost of about £1,000,000. To permit the passage of tall ships between the towers, two bascule spans, each of 100-ft length, are raised. The side spans to the towers are of the more familiar suspension type. Pedestrians can traverse a high-level footway nearly at the top of the towers, even when the bridge is raised. It was officially opened 30 Jun 1894, by the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, on behalf of Queen *TIS

1905 Albert Einstein's paper, "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (special relativity) is received at the Journal Annalen der Physik.
"Einstein develops the special theory of relativity in this paper. His concern, as he makes clear in the introduction, is that then current electrodynamics harbors a state of rest, the ether state of rest, and the theory gives very different accounts of electrodynamic processes at rest or moving in the ether. But experiments in electrodynamics and optic have provided no way to determine which is the ether state of rest of all inertial state of motion. Einstein shows that Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics has in fact always obeyed a principle of relativity of inertial motion. We just failed to notice it since we tacitly thought that space and time had Newtonian properties, not those of special relativity. " *John D Norton, Einstein, 1905,

1908 A Comet(?) explodes above Tunguska, Siberia. *VFR In 1908, at around 7:15 am, northwest of Lake Baikal, Russia, a huge fireball nearly as bright as the Sun was seen crossing the sky. Minutes later, there was a huge flash and a shock wave felt up to 650 km (400 mi) away. Over Tunguska, a meteorite over 50-m diameter, travelling at over 25 km per second (60,000 mph) penetrated Earth's atmosphere, heated to about 10,000 ºC and detonated 6 to10 km above the ground. The blast released the energy of 10-50 Megatons of TNT, destroying 2,200 sq km of forest leaving no trace of life. The Tunguska rock came out of the Taurid Meteor storm that crosses Earth's orbit twice a year. The first scientific expedition for which records survive was made by Russian mineralogist Leonid Kulik in 1927. *TIS

1945 The first distribution of John von Neumann's First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, containing the first published description of the logical design of a computer with stored-program and instruction data stored in the same address space within the memory (von Neumann architecture)*Wik

1946 ENIAC formally accepted by the government. See 2 October 1955*VFR

In 1948, the transistor was demonstrated by its inventors, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, scientists at the Bell Telephone Laboratory in Murray Hill, NJ.* It was a simple, tiny device utilizing the electronic semiconducting properties of a germanium wafer. The transistor represented a significant advance in technology. As it was developed over the next few years, it was incorporated into electronic equipment as a functional replacment for the vacuum tube. Such use of transistors provided great savings in space and electrical power consumption. This made possible the small portable, battery-powered transistor radios which were sold to the public by late 1954.*TIS

1954 Solar eclipse in Britain. The about 3 minutes totality was visible in the Faroes and the southern line was crossing the northernmost Shetland. Many people in England do remember this eclipse and is often mistaken as total for those who saw a large partial eclipse. The eclipse track traveled across Norway, Sweden, Lithuania, Byelorussia, and Russia. *NSEC

1955 Sperry Rand formed. In 1955 Sperry acquired Remington Rand and renamed itself Sperry Rand. Acquiring then Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation and Engineering Research Associates along with Remington Rand, the company developed the successful UNIVAC computer series and signed a valuable cross-licensing deal with IBM. *Wik

1972 The International Time Bureau adds the first leap second to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). *Wik

A group of scientist boarded a prototype French Concorde airplane to chase a solar eclipse. The eclipse promised a luxurious view if you stood at the right place on the planet: a maximum of 7 minutes and 4 seconds as the moon passed over the Sahara Desert. It would be just 28 seconds short of the longest possible eclipse viewable from Earth; in the preceding several hundred years, there had only been one eclipse longer than this one, and there would not be a longer total solar eclipse until June 2150. Not satisfied with one of the longest eclpises in recent history, the group managed to negotiate a viewing flight on the still in testing Concorde. Closing in at maximum velocity, Concorde would swoop down from the north and intercept the shadow of the moon over northwest Africa. Traveling together at almost the same speed, Concorde would essentially race the solar eclipse across the surface of the planet, giving astronomers an unprecedented opportunity to study the various phenomena made possible by an eclipse. In one flight, Concorde had given astronomers more eclipse observing time than all the previous expeditions last century—generating three articles in Nature and a wealth of new data. *Motherboard

2011 Mr Ballew finally hung up his spurs and rode off into the sunset with his sweetheart, Jeannie.

2015 A Leap second is added to the clock in the last second before 8pm, so there will be a minute with 61 seconds. Between 1972 and 2012, a leap second has been inserted about every 18 months, on average. However, the spacing is quite irregular and apparently increasing: there were no leap seconds in the seven-year interval between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2005, but there were nine leap seconds in the eight years 1972–1979. *Wik


1748  Dominique Cassini (30 June 1748 – 18 October 1845)  was a French mathematician and surveyor who worked on his father's map of France.  He was the son of César-François Cassini de Thury and was born at the Paris Observatory. In 1784 he succeeded his father as director of the observatory; but his plans for its restoration and re-equipment were wrecked in 1793 by the animosity of the National Assembly. His position having become intolerable, he resigned on September 6, and was thrown into prison in 1794, but released after seven months. He then withdrew to Thury, where he died fifty-one years later.
He published in 1770 an account of a voyage to America in 1768, undertaken as the commissary of the French Academy of Sciences with a view to testing Pierre Le Roy’s watches at sea. A memoir in which he described the operations superintended by him in 1787 for connecting the observatories of Paris and Greenwich by longitude-determinations appeared in 1791. He visited England for the purposes of the work, and saw William Herschel at Slough. He completed his father’s map of France, which was published by the Academy of Sciences in 1793. It served as the basis for the Atlas National (1791), showing France in departments.
Cassini’s Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire de l’observatoire de Paris (1810) embodied portions of an extensive work, the prospectus of which he had submitted to the Academy of Sciences in 1774. The volume included his Eloges of several academicians, and the autobiography of his great-grandfather, Giovanni Cassini.*Wik

1791  Félix Savart (June 30, 1791, Charleville-Mézières, Ardennes – March 16, 1841, Paris) became a professor at Collège de France in 1836 and was the co-originator of the Biot-Savart Law, along with Jean-Baptiste Biot. Together, they worked on the theory of magnetism and electrical currents. Their law was developed about 1820. The Biot-Savart Law relates magnetic fields to the currents which are their sources. Félix Savart also studied acoustics. He developed the Savart wheel which produces sound at specific graduated frequencies using rotating disks.
Félix Savart is the namesake of the unit of measurement for musical intervals, the savart, though it was actually invented by Joseph Sauveur.*Wik

1856 Cargill Knott (June 30, 1856 – October 26, 1922) born. He graduated from Edinburgh University and was then an assistant in the Physics department. With Barclay and Fraser he was one of the writers who originally proposed the founding of the EMS. He went to the Imperial University in Tokyo as Professor. He returned to a lectureship in Edinburgh and eventually became a Reader in Applied Mathematics. He became Secretary and Treasurer of the EMS in 1883 and President in 1893 and 1918.*SAU

1880 Birthdate of Rudolf Fueter (30 June 1880 in Basel; 9 August 1950 in Brunnen) who worked with functions with non-commutative variables and also in number theory. *SAU


1660 William Oughtred, (5 March 1575 – 30 June 1660) inventor of the slide rule (1621) and a staunch royalist, died in a transport of joy on hearing the news of the restoration of Charles II. Augustus De Morgan later remarked, “It should be added, by way of excuse, that he was eighty-six years old.” *VFR an Episcopal minister who invented the earliest form of the slide rule, two identical linear or circular logarithmic scales held together and adjusted by hand. Improvements involving the familiar inner rule with tongue-in-groove linear construction came later. He introduced the familiar multiplication sign x in a 1631 textbook, along with the first use of the abbreviations sin, cos and tan.*TIS

1919 John William Strutt 3rd Baron of Rayleigh (of Terling Place)(12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was an English physical scientist who made fundamental discoveries in the fields of acoustics and optics that are basic to the theory of wave propagation in fluids. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904 for his investigations into the densities of the most important gases and his successful isolation of argon, an inert atmospheric gas.*TIS

*CHM=Computer History Museum
*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts
*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar
*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie
*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History
*TIA = Today in Astronomy
*TIS= Today in Science History
*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA
*Wik = Wikipedia
          Tesla V100 PCI Express HPC Accelerator   
Η Nvidia ανακοίνωσε επίσημα την PCI Express add-on card έκδοση του κορυφαίου επιταχυντή της εταιρείας Tesla V100 HPC που βασίζεται στην επόμενης γενιάς αρχιτεκτονική της εταιρείας Volta.Βασίζεται στον προηγμένο πυρήνα GV100 στα 12nm, η GPU είναι ένα multi-chip άρθρωμα που διαθέτει τέσσερα stacks μνήμης τύπου HBM2 πάνω από ένα υπόστρωμα πυριτίου. Συνολικά, η GPU στη νέα επαγγελματικής κλάσης κάρτα γραφικών της Nvidia διαθέτει 5120 πυρήνες CUDA και 640 πυρήνες Tensor (εξειδικευμένοι πυρήνες CUDA που επιταχύνουν το neural-net building). 
Η συχνότητα λειτουργίας βρίσκεται κοντά στα 1370MHz όσον αφορά στην GPU. Το HBM2 memory interface έχει εύρος 4096-bit με το memory bandwidth να αγγίζει τα 900GB/s. H γιγαντιαία GPU των 815mm² ενσωματώνει πάνω από 21 δισεκατομμύρια transistors αποτελώντας ένα από τα πλέον πολύπλοκα chips που έχει κατασκευάσει ως σήμερα η βιομηχανία. Η κορυφαία επαγγελματική κάρτα γραφικών της Nvidia θα διατεθεί αργότερα μέσα στην χρονιά με την εταιρεία να δέχεται παραγγελίες ήδη. 
 Site: TechPowerUp
          SMALLER, PLEASE: Carbon Nanotubes Reduce Transistor Footprint to Forty Nanometers….   
SMALLER, PLEASE: Carbon Nanotubes Reduce Transistor Footprint to Forty Nanometers.
          Guía de lanzamientos en PlayStation: julio de 2017. La fantasía se renueva   

290617 Lanzaplayjulio

Cambiamos el formato de nuestra guía de lanzamientos mensual. Mientras seguimos manteniendo el Calendario, al que os podéis suscribir (iCal, HTML) y ver todos los juegos de un plumazo, hemos decidido estructurar la sección mensual por plataformas, comenzando hoy con la familia PlayStation.

Y tranquilos, que mañana le tocará el turno a Nintendo, y ya el fin de semana a Xbox y PC. Pero hoy, como hemos adelantado, lo centraremos en las consolas PS4, PS Vita y PS3, con los lanzamientos de julio. Un mes de calentamiento (nunca mejor dicho) para la traca seguida entre agosto, septiembre, octubre y noviembre, donde se darán cita los últimos pesos pesados de 2017.

Final Fantasy XII: The Zodiac Age, un valor seguro

290617 Lanzaplayjulio 01

Y es que resulta bastante triste destacar de este mes, entre los exclusivos de PlayStation de julio, una puesta al día de un clásico de PS2. Porque sí, 'Final Fantasy XII: The Zodiac Age' es eso y poco más, gracias a los añadidos de la versión internacional japonesa del original de 2006, y a los inevitables retoques (incluso con nuevos temas para su BSO) de su adaptación a PS4. A la venta el 11 de julio por 44,90 euros. O bien casi 200 euros si queremos su descomunal edición coleccionista, exclusiva de la tienda oficial de Square Enix.

Ese clásico con más de una década de historia, será de lo poco destacable de la primera mitad de julio. Aunque no deje de resultar curioso ¡Has sido tú!, uno de los primeros experimentos bajo el programa PlayLink, que permite conectar dispositivos táctiles (móviles y tabletas) a PS4. Será, de hecho, uno de los incentivos de PlayStation Plus del 4 de julio, y hasta tendrá edición física.

'Accel World vs. Sword Art Online' (PS4; y ya en digital para Vita), será otro de los exclusivos de la primera semana de julio, fijado para el día 7. Mientras que ese mismo día se pondrá a la venta 'Cars 3: Hacia la Victoria' en PS3 y PS4.

La segunda semana la completan en formato digital:

  • 'Black the Fall' (PS4, día 11)
  • El primer episodio de 'Minecraft: Story Mode Season 2' (PS4, día 11)
  • 'Serial Cleaner' (PS4, día 11)
  • 'DeadCore' (PS4, día 14)

Pyre, lo nuevo de los creadores de Transistor

290617 Lanzaplayjulio 02

'Bastion' y 'Transistor' son dos joyas indie que dejan claro el buen hacer de Supergiant Games. De ahí que 'Pyre', cuya mecánica puede parecer muy rara (un RPG por equipos difícil de clasificar... o incluso de comprender), sea un título a tener en cuenta si nos van los experimentos. Saldrá para PS4 en digital el día 25.

Ese mismo martes llegarán en formato físico a PS4, tanto 'Aven Colony' como 'Fortnite' (este último, a pesar de su estado en Early Access), acabando por cerrar el mes, ya en digital y también en PS4, el esperado 'Sundered', el metroidvania de los creadores de 'Jotun'. Pero no adelantemos acontecimientos, que aún hay más.

Porque la semana anterior se condensarán estos otros:

  • 'Children of Zodiarcs' (PS4 vía PSN, día 18)
  • 'Orcs Must Die Unchained' (PS4 vía PSN, día 18)
  • 'Yonder: The Cloud Catcher Chronicles' (PS4 vía PSN, día 18; y físico el 20)
  • 'Unbox: Newbie's Adventure' (PS4, día 20)
  • 'Conga Master' (PS4 vía PSN, día 21)

Como véis, no hay bombazos, y en materia de exclusivos, tan solo nos topamos con el remaster de 'Final Fantasy XII: The Zodiac Age'. Mes de transición, en definitiva. Y en parte, se agradece, porque lo que vendrá después... ¡Telita!

Calendario | iCal, HTML

          Vero Boquete: "Sigo dolida por estar fuera de la Eurocopa, pero estoy disfrutando del verano"   
La jugadora de fútbol femenino, Vero Boquete, lamenta en El Transistor haberse quedado fuera del Europeo femenino. Reconoce que sigue dolida pero cree que "al final las decisiones hay que aceptarlas porque la vida continúa". Además, deja claro que hasta la fecha "todavía no he recibido ninguna llamada".
          Jesús Vallejo: "Lo hemos intentado, pero hemos empezado demasiado atrás"   
El defensa de la sub-21, Jesús Vallejo, lamenta en El Transistor la derrota de la selección de Celades en la final del Europeo.
          Dani Ceballos: "Cambiaría el MVP por haber ganado el Europeo"   
El centrocampista de la sub-21, Dani Ceballos, lamenta en El Transistor la derrota de la Rojita en la final del Europeo. Reconoce que "se ha visto la mejor versión de Dani Ceballos" pero "la verda que ha sido una pena la derrota".
          Gerard Deulofeu: "Es una final no podemos regalar la primera parte"   
El capitán de la sub-21, Gerard Deulofeu, reconoce en El Transistor que "tengo mucha pena por haber perdido este campeonato". Se muestra autocrítico y cree que "hemos regalado 45 minutos". Además, sobre su fichaje por el Barça dice que "estoy muy contento pero no es momento de hablar el tema ahora".
          IBM has made Carbon nanotubes transistors smaller and faster than silicon   
IBM scientists have made carbon nanotube transistors smaller and faster silicon transistors. Carbon nanotube transistors have long had the potential to be better than silicon, but this is the first time when that promise has been realized. Now IBM and others will have to scale up superior carbon nanotube devices. IBM scientists have been experimenting with carbon nanotubes, rolled-up sheets of carbon atoms just 1 nanometer, or a billionth of a meter, in diameter. But difficulties working with the material have meant that, for optimal performance, nanotube transistors have to be even larger than current silicon transistors, which are about
          Carbon Nanotubes Reduce Transistor Footprint to Forty Nanometers   
Nanotubes offer a path towards meeting an ITRS benchmark a decade from now
          2018 Honda Pioneer 1000 Specifications   
Model Pioneer 1000-5 LE (SXS10M5LE) Pioneer 1000-5 Deluxe (SXS10M5D) Pioneer 1000-5 (SXS10M5P) Pioneer 1000 LE (SXS10M3LE) Pioneer 1000 EPS (SXS10M3P) Pioneer 1000 (SXS10M3) ENGINE Type 999cc liquid-cooled Unicam® longitudinally mounted parallel-twin four-stroke; four valves per cylinder Bore x Stroke 92.0mm x 75.15mm Compression Ratio 10:01 Induction Fuel injection, 44mm throttle bodies Ignition Full transistorized Starter Electric Driveline Direct front and rear driveshafts Transmission S...
          2018 Honda Pioneer 700 Specifications   
2017 HONDA Pioneer 700 SPECIFICATIONS Model Pioneer 700-4 Deluxe (SXS700M4D) Pioneer 700-4 (SXS700M4) Pioneer 700 Deluxe (SXS700M2D) Pioneer 700 (SXS700M2) ENGINE Engine Type 675cc liquid-cooled OHV longitudinally mounted single-cylinder four-stroke, 2 valves Bore x Stroke 102.0mm x 82.6mm Compression Ratio 9.2:1 Induction Fuel injection (PGM-FI), 40mm throttle body Ignition Full-transistorized Starter Electric Driveline Direct front and rear driveshafts Transmission Automotive-style w/ hydraul...
          2018 Honda FourTrax Rincon Specifications   
Model Rincon (TRX680FA) ENGINE Engine Type 675cc liquid-cooled OHV semi-dry-sump longitudinally mounted single-cylinder four-stroke Bore x Stroke 102mm x 82.6mm Compression Ratio 9.2:1 Induction Programmed electronic fuel injection (PGM-FI), 40mm throttle body Ignition Full-transistorized type w/ electronic advance Starter Electric w/ auxiliary recoil Driveline Direct front & rear driveshafts w/ TraxLok® and torque-sensitive front differential Transmission Automatic w/ hydraulic torque ...
          Black Arts Toneworks Black Sheep   

Black Arts Toneworks Black Sheep

The Black Sheep by Black Arts Toneworks is a rework of a real-life "black sheep" fuzz pedal—the Roland Bee Baa. Originally sold as a dual-mode fuzz with a switchable treble boost mode, it was a very polarizing unit. Some loved the mid-range rasp that the unit was famous for and an equal number absolutely hated it.

However, Black Arts has taken the Bee Baa circuit under the microscope and knife and has done a great job giving the circuit a much-needed facelift. Its inherent brittleness has been remedied with the implementation of a variable input selector, the same trusted rotary as is present on the Black Forest. The raspiness of the fuzz effect itself has also been quelled by using more modern transistors and tweaking some of the values inside. Essentially, raspiness and brittleness were the two main characteristics of the Bee Baa, and Black Arts has removed the polarity from the original unit and turned it into a fuzz that everyone can enjoy.

The controls are the aforementioned Depth, Tone, Volume and Gain. The Gain knob has plenty of it on tap—that is a holdover from the Bee Baa. The Tone knob has also been significantly reworked for a much more usable range. The Black Sheep is true bypass, runs on a standard "Boss" style plug, 2.1mm center negative and is built very ruggedly, with a quality to match its looks.


          Podcast FS Hebdo - 23 au 29 novembre   
Du pigeon qui s’oriente grâce aux protéines boussole de son oeil, en passant par la Terre qui est encore loin d’une inversion magnétique, les futures batteries au sodium qui se préparent, ou encore une rose bionique qui intègre des circuits électroniques à transistors, découvrez l’actualité scientifique pour la semaine du 23 au 29 novembre.
          AU Optronics Corp (AUO) Lowered to Hold at Zacks Investment Research   

According to Zacks, "Au Optronics is a world-leading manufacturer of large-size thin film transistor liquid crystal display panels, which are currently the most widely used flat panel display technology. They are used in notebook computers, desktop monitors, televisions, digital cameras, DVD players, PDAs, mobile phones, portable games, and car navigation systems, among other applications.

          Daphné Burkï est partie de "La nouvelle édition" parce qu'elle ne voulait pas qu'elle soit produite par Cyril Hanouna   

TELEVISION - Les conditions n'étaient pas réunies pour qu'elle continue. Jeudi 29 juin, l'animatrice Daphné Burkï était l'invitée de Quotidien présenté par Yann Barthès sur TMC. L'occasion pour celle qui a présenté, entre autres, "Les maternelles" sur France 5 et qui a fait partie de l'équipe du "Grand Journal", de revenir sur son départ de l'émission "La nouvelle édition" diffusée à midi sur C8, comme vous pouvez le voir dans la vidéo ci-dessous.

Une décision connue depuis mai, tout comme son remplacement par William Leymergie. Ce dernier quitte la présentation de "Télématin" sur France 2 après plus de trente années, pour lui succéder sur la chaîne du groupe Canal +.

"C'est toujours étrange d'arrêter une émission quand tout fonctionne. Ça allait faire dix ans" confie avec émotion Daphné Burkï.

Yann Barthès saisit alors l'occasion pour lui demander si elle "a été virée" ou si elle a démissionné". Une question à laquelle la présentatrice répond avec un sourire qui en dit long. Avant d'expliquer:

On m'a proposé que "La nouvelle édition" soit produite par la société de production de Cyril Hanouna, H2O" (elle était produite jusqu'à maintenant par KM production). Avant d'ajouter : "J'ai dit non et à partir de ce moment-là les choses étaient dites. Ça a un peu signé la fin de "La nouvelle édition" et de moi dans le groupe Canal +"

"Je ne voulais pas d'une émission de témoignages"

Et c'est bien la ligne éditoriale proposée par H2O qui a dérangé l'animatrice. Attachée au traitement de l'actualité, aux reportages et au terrain, elle a refusé que l'émission ne devienne "une émission de témoignages", comme le voulait Cyril Hanouna.

"Je voulais continuer à faire de l'actualité donc j'ai dit 'non mais merci beaucoup d'avoir donner une chance à cette émission mais tant pis, ça va s'arrêter-là'". Une décision qui, comme elle l'explique en souriant "rend l'équipe tristou" mais qu'elle n'a pas manqué de célébrer.

Daphné Burkï ne restera pas hors du petit écran bien longtemps puisque France 2 a annoncé officiellement qu'elle présenterait un nouveau magazine d'après-midi, sans toutefois donner plus de précisions. Une annonce dont elle s'est réjouie sur Twitter.

Un retour sur le service public complété par son arrivée également sur l'antenne d'Europe1.

Lire aussi :

Daphné Bürki rejoint France 2 à la rentrée

Valérie Damidot, Daphné Bürki et Bruce Toussaint passent leurs vacances ensemble, et s'amusent bien

Que reste-t-il de la photo de famille du début de saison de "TPMP"?

Pour suivre les dernières actualités en direct sur Le HuffPost, cliquez ici

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Retrouvez-nous sur notre page Facebook

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          ASIC Validation Engineer   

Project description. 
At Philips Research a project is ongoing for the design of mixed-signal ICs for biomedical applications. 
These CMOS ICs includes analog, digital and mixed-signal circuits. A series of test-ICs has recently beendesigned for this project. The candidate will take part in the hardware validation of these ICs. 


The candidate must meet the following minimum requirements. 
- At least three years of experience inhardware validation of analog and mixed-signal ICs. - 
Understands continuous-time and discrete-timecircuits such as amplifiers filters and track-and-hold functions and is familiar with characterization ofthese.
- Understands ADC and DAC architectures and is familiar with evaluation of performance metrics such as ENOB. 
- Expert user of measurement equipment such as oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers. 
- Appreciates working in a lab environment. 
- Software automation skills e.g. Python programming/matlab/labview. 
- Basic knowledge of transistorlevel circuit design and simulation using Spice or Spectre. 
- Basic understanding of Unix. 
- Team player: daily interaction with hardware and software design team. 
- Timely reporting of results, progress and issues. 
- Fluent in English.


We will boost your career through personal and technical growth. We’ll support you by offering a personal coach and the possibility to follow courses and training via our highly recommended Yacht Academy. We’ll offer interesting benefits and a market conform salary. You’ll become member of the team of professionals who share your education, ambitions and your competencies. This will enable you to interact with your colleagues from Yacht in your own technology language! You’ll become a member of the yacht network, which stretches the high tech industry. You will be challenged by your peers. As a result you’ll be able to keep your knowledge and skills up-to-date!


Yacht is a contractor for highly educated professionals (BSc, MSc, or PhD) who’ll work on site and innovate together with our customers to find smart solutions. Being part of the world wide Randstad Group we have an extensive network of clients and professionals. Working as a high tech professional within Yacht means you will work on interesting and challenging long term projects for our clients in the Dutch “Brainport” Eindhoven region, mainly on projects at our clients’ Research & Development departments. Our Brainport region is considered to be the smartest region in the world! We cooperate with high tech companies that work on the cutting edge of technology. To give you an example of our portfolio: ASML, Philips Healthcare, Philips Lighting, Philips Research, TNO, FEI company, DAF, VDL ETG, Océ and many others.


Voor meer informatie neem je contact op met Rob Braun via telefoonnummer 06-51992618

Werken voor Yacht
Yacht is dé organisatie van en voor professionals. Wij verbinden professionals en organisaties die het verschil willen maken. Ons doel is optimaal resultaat: jou als professional uitdagend werk bieden waarmee jij de organisaties van onze opdrachtgevers blijvend verbetert. Behoor jij tot de beste professionals in jouw vak? Wil je samen met vakgenoten het verschil maken bij toonaangevende organisaties? Dan willen we jou graag leren kennen.

Plaats High Tech Campus, Beemden, Eindhoven
Bedrijf Philips research

          Matthew Bourne / Franck Vigroux: Radioland   

Leaf 102 (UK LP) - € 19.00
Kraftwerk’s classic album stunningly reinterpreted (gatefold sleeve w/ CD thrown in)

  1. Geiger Counter
  2. Radioactivity
  3. Radioland
  4. Airwaves
  5. Intermission
  6. The Voice Of Energy
  7. Antenna
  8. Radio Stars
  9. Uranium
  10. Transistor
  11. Ohm Sweet Ohm

           IC Global Market by Application, Trends, Analysis and Forecasts to 2019   
(EMAILWIRE.COM, June 30, 2017 ) About IC market Integrated chip (IC), also known as a microchip, is consists of interconnected electronic components such as capacitors, transistors, amplifiers, oscillators, computer memory, and timer. The IC market is dominated by the telecom and communications...
          Mixed Signal SoC Global Market by Application, Trends, Analysis and Forecasts to 2019   
(EMAILWIRE.COM, June 30, 2017 ) A mixed signal SoC is an electronic circuit that integrates both analog circuits and digital circuits on a single semiconductor die. It is an IC consisting of a large number of transistors on a single chip with applications in embedded systems. Most of the electronic...
          Als nanometers te groot worden - Transistors op ångströmschaal   
Het Vlaamse onderzoeksinstituut Interuniversitair Micro-Elektronica Centrum geeft de nieuwste stand van zaken op het gebied van technologie weer tijdens zijn ITF.
          Save $450.00 On A New Yamaha EF3000iSE Inverter Generator With Electric Start   
City/Town: Clarenville
Area: Eastern

Save $500.00 On A New Yamaha EF3000iSE Inverter Generator With Electric Start.
MSRP: $2,599

Financing Available, Online Finance Application @

All In Stock Yamaha Generators on Sale and They Come Standard with a 3 Year Warranty!!

Despite its sizeable power, the EF3000iSE is whisper-quiet, producing noise levels ranging from 54.5 to a maximum of 61 dB - and because it's mounted on four wheels, moving it around couldn't be easier. The Smart Throttle / Economy Control feature automatically adjusts engine speed to match the load, for greater fuel efficiency and reduced engine wear.

• Powered by Yamaha's MZ175; 171cc, air-cooled (fan assist), OHV, 2-valve, 4-stroke, single cylinder engine with electronic transistor controlled (TC) ignition.
• Super convenient key operated electric starting with manual recoil back-up.
• Cast iron cylinder liner provides excellent heat dissipation and extends service life.
• Pulse Width Modulation provides super "clean" power. As clean or cleaner than you get from a household receptacle.
• Rated AC output for continuous use is 2,800 watts / 23.3 amps.
• Floating neutral
• Non-fuse type circuit breaker (NFB) prevents internal circuit damage in the event of an over load.
• Smart Throttle / Economy Control automatically adjusts engine speed to match the load, saving fuel, reducing noise and engine wear.
• Yamaha's Noise Block body design features a moulded casing and noise-absorbing glass wool to provide ultra quiet operation.
• Manual choke
• Auto Warm Up (4 to 6 minutes) ensures consistent power delivery during cold start-ups.
• Yamaha's Oil Watch Warning System automatically shuts off the engine when oil level is low and will not re-start until oil is added, preventing costly engine damage and enhancing long-term durability.
• Indicator lights for AC power output, low oil and AC overload
• Cleanable spark arrestor stops the possibility of sparks from exiting the exhaust.
• Washable foam air filter reduces maintenance costs
• 12 Volt DC output and cables for charging RV, auto and marine 12-volt batteries.
• On-off fuel petcock lets you shut off the gas to run the carb dry for storage, helping to prevent stale fuel problems, which are becoming more common with ethanol based fuels.
• Large fuel filler hole. Fuel gauge is standard.
• Built in wheels (4), with parking brake, makes moving the EF3000iSE easy.
• Optional wireless remote start & stop
• CSA approved (Canadian Standards Association)
• EPA & CARB Emission Engine Durability Rating. Yamaha generators have the longest emission engine durability ratings issued by the Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board.
• 3-year warranty for "residential / home" use or "commercial use."

*Cash prices shown. Unit prices are subject to applicable taxes, freight and PDI charges.


  • Figura Natureza de Jonathan C. F. Matthews
  • Mark G. Thompson

por Ademilson G. Barbosa

A Fotônica é a ciência da geração, controle e detecção de fótons. A fotônica surge como resultado dos primeiros semicondutores emissores de luz inventados a princípios de 1960 em General Electric, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, IBM, e RCA e viabilizados na prática por Zhores Alferov e Dmitri Z. Garbuzov e colaboradores que trabalhavam no Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute e quase simultâneamente PorIzuo Hayashi e Mort Panish que trabalhavam nos Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Da mesma maneira que as aplicações da eletrônica ampliaram-se de maneira forte desde que o primeiro transistor fora inventado em 1948, as novas aplicações particulares da fotônica seguem aparecendo. Aquelas das quais se consideram aplicações consolidadas e economicamente importantes dos dispositivos fotônicos de semicondutores que incluem: armazenamento óptico de dados, telecomunicações por fibra óptica, impressora a laser (baseada em xerografia), visualizadores e bombeamento óptico a lasers de alta potência. As aplicações potenciais da fotônica são virtualmente ilimitadas e incluem: síntese química, diagnóstico médico, comunicação de dados on-chip, defesa com armas a laser e obtenção de energia através da fusão, entre outras aplicações interessantes.

Aplicações da fotônica são inúmeras. Incluem-se todas as áreas da vida quotidiana com a ciência mais avançada, por exemplo, detecção de luz, telecomunicações, processamento de informações, iluminação, metrologia, holografia de espectroscopia, medicina (cirurgia, correção da visão, endoscopia, vigilância da saúde), tecnologia militar, processamento de materiais a laser, arte visual, biofotônica, a agricultura, e robótica.

Assim como as aplicações da eletrônica se expandiram drasticamente desde o primeiro transistor que foi inventado em 1948, as aplicações de fotônica continuam a surgir.

Veja abaixo algumas aplicações:

Equipamentos: scanner de código de barra, impressoras, CD / DVD / dispositivos Blu-ray, dispositivos de controle remoto; Telecomunicações: comunicações ópticas, fibra óptica para baixo conversor de microondas;

Medicina: correção de deficiência visual, cirurgia a laser, endoscopia cirúrgica, remoção de tatuagem;

Industrial de fabricação: o uso de lasers para soldagem, perfuração, corte, e vários métodos de modificação de superfícies; Construção: O laser de nivelamento, telêmetro laser, estruturas inteligentes;

Aviação: giroscópios fotônicos sem partes móveis;

Militar: sensores infravermelhos, comando e controle, pesquisa, navegação e salvamento, colocação de minas e detecção; Entretenimento: shows de laser, efeitos de raio, a arte holográfica;

Metrologia: medidas de tempo e frequência, telêmetro;

Computação Fotônica: distribuição de relógio e de comunicação entre computadores, placas de circuito impresso, ou dentro de circuitos integrados optoeletrônicos; No futuro: a computação quântica.

por: Ademilson G. Barbosa

Arquivado no curso de Engenharia de Telecomunicações na FACIT


          Bid on old computers, speakers, radios, and other junk from the bowels of RadioShack   

Starting July 10, you can bid on TRS-80 computers, dot matrix printers, Realistic speakers, shortwave receivers, old catalogs, and company "memorabilia" from the bowels of bankrupt RadioShack. From the auction site:

From humble beginnings in Boston in 1921, over the past 95 years RadioShack established itself as a globally recognized leader and the go to retailer for consumer electronics. RadioShack has always been known as the place for answers to the American public's technology and electronics questions. "You've got questions, we've got answers."

Over the years, RadioShack introduced consumers to exciting and affordable gadgets and electronics that have become household items. As we cleaned out our historic archives in Fort Worth, Texas, we uncovered a cache of iconic memorabilia in 12 huge safes, including: unused original TRS-80 Microcomputers, Realistic Transistor Radios, Tandy computer software games, original brick cell phones and so much more. We all remember coming into RadioShack whether it was for the battery-of-the-month, new walkie-talkies, or to check out the newest RC toy cars. Now we reintroduce many of those nostalgic items and more with our rolling online memorabilia auction.

RadioShack Auction #1 (thanks, Charles Platt!)

          By: Arnebya   
The Goblet of Cristal and I have a hate/hate relationship. In 1998, in a rented apartment w/my then boyfriend, I flushed, then stood (probably wobbily from the tequila), elbow hit the counter where a lightbulb (IN SLOW MOTION!) rolled into the Goblet of Cristal. I made no moves to catch it b/c it couldn't possibly go down. Um, wrong. Costly goblet removal/repair. In 2007, year 6 in our house, there is a storm and we've lost power. I am walking into the bathroom (probably wobbily from the tequila), trip, and the small transistor radio from which we've been getting updates (and enjoying Motown classics) plunges into the Goblet of Cristal. It gets stuck. Costly goblet repair. In 2012 (I have switched to vodka!), I am standing above the goblet changing the batteries in my electric toothbrush. Both fall out and into the sink. The only logical explanation: drains hate me and the goblet of Hell and the sink have conspired to make my husband think I am a dimwit. Yeah. I haven't told him about the batteries yet.
          Meet the drunkest footballer EVER: Breakfast booze, night-long sessions and pre-game liquor   
These days only bare walls are left of the Vila Rebar, one of the most mythical places on the outskirts of Zagreb. Situated on the Medvednica mountain overlooking the city, it was once a retreat for Ante Pavelic, leader of the Croatian fascist puppet-state in the Second World War.Later it became a popular destination for hikers and housed a restaurant which remained famous until 1979, when fire swallowed all of its wooden fixtures and fittings, leaving only foundations and the basic stone structure at the mercy of weeds and graffiti artists.But 12 years earlier, it was also the site of the most surreal accident in Croatian football history.On a lovely morning in June 1967, the Vila Rebar guests were enjoying the sunshine and fresh air on an open terrace. However, this wasn’t a typical day for the people of Zagreb. The night before, their beloved Dinamo had done what had seemed impossible: after losingthe first leg against Eintracht Frankfurt 3-0, they defeated the Germans 4-0 to reach the final of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup.There awaited Don Revie’s mighty Leeds United. But the two final legs had been scheduled for late August and early September, so Dinamo hadmore immediate concerns –there were three more league matches to be played, and the Blues were title contenders. Over coffee or spritzer, people on the restaurant terrace discussed Dinamo’s chances. If they beat FK Sarajevo and won at least one of the remaining two away games, they would win the trophy that had eluded them for nine years.Causing commotionSurely the team, re-energised after this fantastic, improbable win against the Germans, could do it? They had the best players – including Stjepan ‘Stef’ Lamza, the genius playmaker. Jack Charlton surely couldn’t stop him, let alone any defender in the Yugoslav league.Lamza produced a magical display against Eintracht and the newspapers were full of praise for him. There were also rumours he’d leave for Inter, Milan or Barcelona. But could he do without the Zagreb nightlife, which made him even more of a city icon than his on-pitch achievements?“Suddenly, there was all this commotion,” says Zvonko Orsag, an eyewitness at the Vila Rebar. “A man fell from the balcony upstairs onto the table next to where I was sitting. He hit it with his shoulder, rebounded off it and banged his head on the ground. We all jumped from our chairs.”The man appeared conscious, but he wasn’t moving and his head was covered with blood. Every one of the terrace were horrified when they recognised his face. It was Lamza himself. His eyes were blinking uncontrollably and he reeked of alcohol.It wouldn’t be the last time Dinamowere affected by their players’ drinking culture. In 2013, their Brazil-born fantasista Sammir spent the night in police custody when he was apprehended for driving drunk as a skunkthe morning after partying all night.In 2012, defender Domagoj Vida was thrown off the team bus for casually opening a can of beer in front of his coach. Later, tabloids broke the story of Jozo Gaspar, a club legend from the 1990s, stealing a credit card from the locker room of a lower-league club and using it to buy36 bottles of Jagermeister.There are many more examples from previous decades. One player was found intoxicated and passed out in his doorway before the team was due to depart for an important match. Another bragged to journalists: “I drank half of the city’s booze...”, while one player urinated in front of reporterson leaving the team bus at an away match."I was afraid"But all that is nothing compared to what was happening in the 1960s, when Dinamo were a riot squad and won their only piece of continental silverware. Their story is soaked in alcohol and almostall anecdotes begin and end with Stef Lamza: probably the most boozed-up player of all time.Born in 1940 in Sisak, 35 miles south-east of Zagreb, Lamza came to Dinamo as a20-year-old. The team had just won the Yugoslav Cup and narrowly lost the title to Red Star. They also had Marton Bukovi, the Hungarian coach famous for pioneering the 4-2-4 formation and developing the role ofthe deep-lying centre-forward.“I was afraid,” Lamza tells FFT, his piercing and dramatic blue eyes staring from behind white eyebrows and white moustache.“To me, Dinamo players were like aliens – they were like these football gods and it took me a while to gather the courage and join them. They all had their rituals and I was left out as the youngest. I even had to knock on the door when I entered the locker room.”The road to acceptance, it would seem, led through Zagreb’s bars and restaurants. It’s no secret that Dinamo players were, at that time, epic booze hounds, known as much for their all-night parties as they were for their football.An urban legend has it that all taxi drivers had to drive them in reverse between two popular bars, because the players were keen to leave an impression: they were proud of their lifestyle and made little effort to hide it. And the fans appreciated them for it – the Zagreb crowd always preferred bohemian characters who played beautiful, technical football.Going hard over homeLamza’s outrageous off-pitch reputation later overshadowed everything they did, but it’s clear that the drinking culture was there before he arrived. He will never blame peer pressure or reveal names of his accomplices in particular events, though he was rarely alone.By late 1961, Lamza not only rose through the ranks to earn a place in the starting line-up, but also became part of the ‘hip’ Zagreb crowd. When Dinamo played Barcelona (in the return leg of the FairsCup, having lost the first match 5-1) just before Christmas, he showed up at the Maksimir Stadium just 10 minutes before kick-off. He was hammered.“That day, a team-mate and I made an early start in one cafe near the ground,” Lamza recalls. “We’d been drinking since before lunch. Then he started feeling unwell and I told him he needed to stop. So he left – they later found him sleeping on the street. I stayed, althoughI was aware the people from the club were probably looking for me all over the city by then. In the end I showed up just in time and scored two beautiful goals in that match that we drew 2-2.”This became a recurring pattern. There were stories of Lamza drinking two litres of hard liquor before one match or hiding in the cellar of his favourite bar ‘Splendid’ when Dinamo sent someone to bring him to practice. One time, he was so wasted that he didn’t know where he was or who he was playing. “We were standing in the tunnel, preparingto enter the pitch,” says Rudi Belin, a great defender of the ’60s.“I was concentrating, thinking about the player I was required to mark when Stef came to me and asked:‘Who are we playing, mate?’ He was dead serious.The opponents that day were none other than Red Star Belgrade, and the match was played at their Marakana Stadium in front of 100,000 people. Lamza scored twice and asked the coach to take him off at half-time."“I’m not sure Belin and I are talking about the same game,” says Lanza, struggling to recall the details. “But I did once score two against them at the Marakana and asked to be subbed off. I meant no harm, I just thought someone else should get the chance. Why should I play all the time? It didn’t seem fair to the others.”Carefree he may beTo Lamza, football was –above all –fun. And it showed on the pitch: his style was playful and entertaining, which made him a huge crowd favourite. He didn’t alwaysplay drunk (“Sometimes I was hungover,” he once joked), but by today’s standards he would have been judged a raging alcoholic and immediately sent to rehab. Dinamo tolerated his escapades to a much larger extent than they probably should have, but they knew what he was worth to them and were always afraid of losing him to their rivals.Besides, these were the 1960s, when muchof continental football was still very romantic and played at a slower tempo; players had much more space and time at their disposal, so individual skill was of far greater importance than it became after pressing and all-out running were fully adopted into the game.Dinamo players’ touch and technique clearly weren’t affected too much by their lifestyle, because they were doing extremely well on the pitch. From 1963 to 1966 they appearedin four consecutive cup finals and won two(in 1963 and in 1965); they reached the Cup Winners’ Cup semi-final in 1961 and Fairs Cup final in 1963, when they lost to Valencia.They also had five second-place and threethird-place league finishes in that decade. Maybe they could have done even betterif they had been more professional, but their bohemian character was a part of thecharm.Lamza regularly produced captivating displays. He also began receiving call-ups to the national team – buthe wasn’t very keen on playing for Yugoslavia.“I saw some things I didn’t like,” he explains. “Some players were favoured over me and I was a misfit.A couple of times, I made up a reason to leave. Once I even intentionally injured myself so that I could be sent back to Zagreb – I didn’t enjoy being part of that team and would much rather play five-a-side with friends in my neighbourhood.”Although he was a big star, he only won seven caps for Yugoslavia.Brandy with the bossIn 1965, new coach Branko Zebec began implementing a more professional approach at Dinamo. He had a peculiar relationship with Lamza – criticising and blaming him publicly when things didn’t go well, but also praising him more than anyone else when Dinamo were winning. Zebec also tacitly approved of his star player’s ‘special’ status and allowed him more freedom than the others.“We had several conflicts,” Lamza says. “But there was this one occasion that set the course of our relationship. As I drove him home after practice one evening, he said, ‘Pour us a shot of rakija’ [home-made brandy]. I refused, because we had a game tomorrow. But he was insistent: ‘Oh, come on, Stef,’ he said. So we had one, two, three, I don’t know how many... He could never hold his liquor well and first started teasing, then insulting me.I got mad and left before it got any worse.We never spoke about that night again. Never!”Zebec had been a talented manager, who later worked in Germany. He brought Bayern their first Bundesliga title in 1969 and took Hamburg to the 1980 European Cup Final. But he was also a very difficult character. Towards the end of his coaching career, he became infamous for his strict disciplinarian measures and extremely harsh training methods.Players complained that he often insulted them and, as he started falling asleep on the bench during matches, the reason for his behaviour transpired. In 1988, he died of alcohol-related illness aged 59. Both Zebec and Lamzabelong to a long line of Dinamo legends who struggled with the same demon. In 1967,they led the club to European glory together, but neither got to participate in the big final.Dinamo scraped through the early rounds of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup as the first side to benefit from two innovations. For the first time in the history of the competition – the predecessor to the UEFA Cup –replays were scrapped with teams going through on away goals, or by tossing a coin if they beat each other by identical results after extra time in the second leg.Head turnedDinamo first ‘cheated’ in the coin toss against Spartak Brno, as they started jumping in the air and celebrating before anyone could see which side it had fallen. Then they took advantage of the away goals rule as they beat Dunfermline 2-0, after having lost4-2 in Scotland. They narrowly beat their Romanian namesake Dinamo Pitesti by a single goal in two matches, then thrashed Juventus 5-2 on aggregate. The Eintrachttie in the semis was their huge comeback.On that magical evening in Zagreb, the crowd gathered outside the Dinamo locker room, chanting: “We’re not letting Stef go!” and “Dinamo is Lamza, Lamza is Dinamo!” What they didn’t know was that Stef Lamza had already agreed to join Standard Liege.Later that night, the team gathered for a dinner party at the Vila Rebar. Moved by what he had heard from fans, he started rethinking his decision to leave. Standard were a strong and respected side, but hardly biggerin stature than Dinamo. They could only pay more money – much more, as professionalism was never officially introduced in Yugoslavia and payments were illicit. Always the misfit and uncomfortable in unfamiliar surroundings, he worried that he might not have what it takes to play abroad. But it was already adone deal and there was no coming back.“We all had too much to drink that night,” Lamza says. “I couldn’t sleep in the morning, my head was a mess. I went downstairs to the bar – there was nobody there, but I found a bottle of rum and started drinking. By the time my team-mates woke up and came down for breakfast, I had drunk the whole bottle.”Karlo Zagar, Dinamo’s physio at the time, recalls: “It was around 10am when guests started arriving at the Vila Rebar. They were observing Lamza and laughing at him.”As one group of players and coach Zebec left for the Maksimir Stadium to train, others stayed for a massage. Zagar convinced Lamza to retreat to his room and try to get some more sleep; he also asked one of the maids to lock him in.Brush with deathBut Lamza couldn’t sleep. He soon woke up and, after realising the room had been locked from the outside, tried to use the balcony.Still drunk, he didn’t see the sign warning the balcony was out of use, as its wooden floor was rotten. As soon as he stepped out, he fell right through it and onto the terrace where people had been discussing his genius.Doctors managed to save his life, but the centre of balance in his brain was permanently damaged, which meant he couldn’t dribble anymore. His transfer to Standard fell through, and he wouldn’t play for Dinamo again either – except in his farewell match against Benfica in 1970. He also played for three other clubs, but he wasn’t anywhere near his former self.Without him, Dinamo were beaten by Rijeka and they drew with Sarajevo, losing their title challenge to them. When the big clash with Leeds came, Zebec was already at Bayern and Lamza confined to a hospital bed. Their team won 2-0 in Zagreb and drew 0-0 in Leeds. Listening to the match live on his transistor radio, Lamza said he felt “magnificent”.These days, Lamza is living off a life-long pension from Dinamo Zagreb and still drinking, but “less than before”. He’s regularly voted the club’s best ever player in polls.“I led an easy, comfortable life,” he tells FFT. “I saw the world and squandered everything I earned, but I’d do it all again – if only I could avoid that Vila Rebar incident. But I was really drunk and don’t remember much of what happened.”This feature originally appeared in the November 2013 issue of FourFourTwo.Subscribe!New features you'd love on
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Vicente García   
Hola Geovany. Gracias por tus palabras.
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Geovany   
Muschisimas gracias por tan explicita explicación sobre los mosfet , es usted un excelente profesor.
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Vicente García   
Gracias Moisés por tus palabras.
          Comentario en El Transistor MOSFET por Moises   
Muschisimas gracias por su explicacion profesor, no sabe la gran ayuda que me ha sido su pagina web, es muy didactico y facil de entender, se ve que tiene vocacion para la enseñanza
          Comentario en Display múltiple de 7 segmentos por Carmen   
Buenas. Me pasa exactamente lo mismo. ¿Conseguiste arreglarlo? ¿Da igual el transistor que se monte mientras sea NPN? Yo soy ingeniero técnico pero mecánico, de construcciones maquinarias. Y sé lo mínimo de todo esto, prácticamente nada. Este verano me pondré las pilas, espero. Por favor, me urge para exponerlo en una feria, un contador digital hecho por los alumnos. Mil gracias
          Comentario en Control de motores CC por Ignacio   
Hola mi nombre es ignacio soy de uruguay, queria hacer una consulta por que quiero controlar un motor dc de induccion independiente de 160v 38A en el rotor y el estator 190v 0.85A que tipo de transistor o tiristor tendria que usar y como seria la conexion y por que gracias
          Comentario en Fuentes de Alimentación y Laboratorio por Vicente García   
Hola Henry. Es un riesgo responder s tu consulta. La razón es que no dices como es la fuente (si es normal o es conmutada), si es normal y lleva un regulador, dudo que el regulador pueda entregar los 4A que comentas, si bien también puede ser el regulador, lo más seguro es que esté en mal estado algún transistor de potencia y en consecuencia el que queda o los que quedan no pueden entregar la corriente de la carga. Ahora bien, si la carga es una tarjeta electrónica, no creo que tenga tanto consumo como para tirar a tierra la tensión de salida. En el supuesto de un corto en la tarjeta, es motivo suficiente para demandar una corriente mayor y por tanto, tira a tierra la tensión. Como verás estas y otras tantas razones son muchas, para acertar en una respuesta que vaya más allá de darte una orientación de por donde moverte. Saludos.
          Octinct Overview   

octinct running boiingg from dr unsped on Vimeo.

Checkout all the Vimeo Videos and my Flickr feed and read the comments, they have very useful information in them.

The Octinct, from a hardware standpoint is an interesting beast. An Octinct consists of 4 'Tinct' buttonpads. Each buttonpad consists of an integrated tlc5940 16-channel 4096 step led pwm driver, each led on the buttonpad is driven by its own channel, and they are not multiplexed. The tlc5940 is capable of sourcing 150ma per channel, but for our purposes we use 20ma max, this current is set with a resistor on the 5940/buttonpad. The Tinct's connection to the outside world is either via a 24-pin idc cables, or a row of headers. The headers are generally only used for troubleshooting or breadboarding, both contain the same types of pins and are connected to each other.

Like the sparkfun rgb buttonpads (the tinct uses sparkfun rgb buttonpad membranes), header pins are provided for column/row decoding of buttonpresses , while diodes provide descrete buttonpresses. The idc connector allows the buttonpads to be tied together without the nasty cabling/wiring that you might be famliar with on an arduino, however at the cost of redundant wiring.

The 5940 communicates with the arduino via spi, and when connected as an Octinct the 5940's are chained together, one output going to anothers input. This is done on the arduino side, as all Tinct buttonpads are identical. The 5940's are not by nature rgb, they are considered grayscale drivers, so 3 transistors are located on the buttonpad allowing each color channel to be activated or deactivated, for the sake of the 5940 only a single color channel should be activated at any given time.

The Octinct controller bridges the Tinct buttonpads together, routing spi data as appropriate. It also incorporates 2 shift registers like the arduinome/monome to decode the buttonpresses. Because 2 of the Tinct boards are rotated on the Octinct, the button column/row pinout to each idc connector changes quite a bit. The Octinct controller houses the 12 transistor base resistors, controlling the amount of current used to turn on/off a color channel. The heavy version also has a breakout connector for applying outside regulated current should you chose to run your Octinct on current beyond the arduino's onboard regulator.

Putting it all together you have a control shield that sits on top of an arduino, from there 4 idc cables attach to 4 Tinct buttonpads ... which gives you ... drumroll an Octinct (let's just say the Oct means 8 rows/columns).

          Octinct Building Considerations   
The Octinct is not what i would characterize as a refined product much as the Arduinome. Instead it is a reasonably thought out development platform for an RGB monome or similar device. As such there are some caveats:

Buttonpad capacitor decoupling

The current buttonpad design does not incorporate a bypass capacitor, which is something I feel as neccessary for consistent and proper function. More info about retrofitting bypass capacitors onto the buttonpads can be found on my flickr feed.

Backwards transistor silkscreen on buttonpad

The base is fine being in the middle, but the transistors on the buttonpads need to be rotated 180 degrees or 'backwards', essentially you are swapping the collector and the emitter.

Lack of established RGB protocol

Currently the Octinct firmware simply changes colors based on led on/off events. Cycling through the colors, while this is very pretty it is not very useful. I have no plans on developing a RGB protocol so I leave it up to you and the Arduinome team to do what you do best.

Power considerations

Even though the Octinct mux's the color channels it is still capable of drawing 320ma per panel, or 1.2amps for all 4 panels. This is well above the 500ma onboard regulator of the arduino, and definitely above the 100ma max of the usb spec. What I have done to get around this use 4.7k resistors on the iset of buttonpads, this gives you less than 100ma per board at full brightness, the downside is that the buttons are not near thier theoretical max brightness. The led's are probably pushing 5-6ma vs. the 20ma+ (because they are mux'ed) they could handle.

This is partly why the heavy version of the Octinct was developed, it has a 2-pin 3.5mm screw terminal allowing you to power the arduino and Octinct off of a higher amperage power source. The screw terminal isn't some magical voltage regulator though and clean regulated power needs to be provided through this terminal not just some wall wart. Also make sure and remove the arduino ext/usb power jumper so that you don't damage anything.

I should mention that while I have tested external power sources using the screw terminals I have not tried currents in excess of 500ma, it should work fine ... should being the operative word!

If you do decide to try a high current version (greater than the onboard regulator) you may want to look into beefing up the gnd and vcc lines on the buttonpads, the traces are fairly thin, primarily the idc to 5940 could use some beefing up.

Transistor base resistors

While the buttonpad would be more efficient with mosfets it has transistors, the interesting thing about transistors is that they have a gain ratio, and require more current to turn on, as the current they are turning on increases. This means if your octinct is running ~300ma off the onboard regulator the transistors may only need a couple ma to turn on, however if it's cranking 1.2amp or more, the efficiency goes down as well as the current goes up. This means you may need 7-8ma or more to turn on the transistors. This poses a couple of considerations.

First each color pin on the arduino is driving 4 transistors, and each pin is only rated at about 40ma. Multiply 8ma by 4 and you can see we are starting to push the limits of this design. It should probably be redesigned with better power isolation and mosfets however I leave that up to someone else.

Second if you choose a higher current for the transistor bases but don't need it, you end up using more current overall, this may be a problem if you intend to run off the onboard regulator only. You will need to verify that you power usuage is inline with ratings. My recommendations are the following:

  1. Reduced brightness Octinct running off of onboard regulator, use 4.7k resistors on the shield for the bases. This should be good up to the 400ma or so you would want to pull from this configuration.
  2. Max brightness Octinct running off of external power supply, use 1.5k resistors on the shield for the bases. This should be good for up to 1.2amp.
  3. Be prepared to swap out resistors if you are playing with high amperage operation as I have not tested this fully.
Mounting buttonpads

The buttonpads do not share all of the same mounting holes as the sparkfun pads, namely it is missing the mounting holes on the interior of the board. I suggest, as I have done myself to use XNDR's arduinome mounting method where the edges of the pcb are trimmed and the boards are retained as a group.

Long term durability

Since there are things that are not optimal about the design it is unclear if long term operation will stress any of the components out. Technically mux'ing color channels and sourcing them through a constant current driver like the 5940 should be ok, but it is certainly not the application intent of such a chip. Since the different led elements have different forward voltages the 5940 is readjusting to each led cycle to maintain a constant current. The ramifications of this over the long haul I can't really speculate.
          The Octinct Package   
Missing until now has been pieces of the Octinct puzzle, my control shield along with Jonathan's graciously allowing the buttonpads to be open sourced in an arduinome/monome style license.

Without further adieu my control shield:
Other Octinct files by Guberman:
Other Octinct files by Devon Jones:
  • Octinct Python Router (much faster and efficient, also has much improved and commented version of firmware, however i have not tested the hardware with it myself.)
I should add,

I'm using the older firmware and the old processing router in my examples.

The updated firmware and python router are much much better, the newer firmware has wonderful commenting. The firmware in the 'old' folder on evilsoft's site, and the 'old' firmware I'm using differ in a few ways:
  1. The port manipulation for the transistor bases have had some ports changed due to a mistake when creating the shield, i was assuming the analog ports were numbered incrementally and not decrementally, so I modified the firmware to account for this.
  2. The led remap has been changed
If you try migrating to the newer firmware which you should, you will most likely have to repeat these changes.

The Octinct is free for non-commercial purposes, with the understanding that you will have the pcb's made domestically wherever that may be in the spirit of
          Semiconductor Joule Heating    
I am trying to set up Joule heating on my simple PN junction model made of GaAs. I set up the heating properties identically with the built-in COMSOL model "bipolar transistor thermal" under devices in the semiconductor module.

I keep getting an error when I try to compute the final simulation called "thermal coupling" that is supposed to couple the semiconductor and heat transfer module together. I have included a screenshot of the error message.

I can't seem to figure out why this is is happening. My boundary conditions look to all be setup correctly. I would really appreciate any suggestions and feedback on this. Thank you in advance for the responses!

My project file was too big to directly attach here, so I have included a dropbox download link!

          Old Calculators   
These are two old (older than the Wang, see earlier post) calculators, pre-pre-cursors to computers. Neither of them are fully transistorized, they incorporate mechanical parts to assist in performing calculations.
The top one was made by Burroughs, and the bottom one made by Friden.
          Este transistor imita las neuronas del cerebro humano   
inteligencia artificial

A día de hoy, usamos el ordenador para casi todo. Para trabajar, para el ocio, para tomar decisiones como a qué lugar ir de vacaciones o incluso para llegar a nuevos lugares. Esto lo podemos hacer también desde nuestro Smartphone, que no es más que un ordenador muy chiquitín. En muchas ocasiones, las búsquedas que […]

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La entrada Este transistor imita las neuronas del cerebro humano aparece primero en Portal Hoy.

          La conversación de Cerezo con Saúl sobre su futuro: "Los dos sabemos que las cosas están bien"   
Tras el gran Europeo sub 21 de Saúl, muchos se apresuraron a hablar sobre el futuro del centrocampista del Atlético de Madrid. Sin embargo, tanto Enrique Cerezo como el propio jugador se encargaron de tranquilizar a la afición colchonera en 'El Transistor'.
          Habib-Man Marde Tanhayee Shabaam   
excellent guitar tone.
we cant get these guitar tones in the west,we have all the wrong compression and all the wrong transistors.
the blood sweat and tears of american and chinese manufacturing cant capture islamic soul with in its electricty.

          Matrici di transistor Dmos con archiviazione dati   

Toshiba ha lanciato una nuova generazione di matrici di transistor per applicazioni quali l’illuminazione a Led e i trasmettitori di segnali ad alta tensione per applicazioni industriali. Il componente TPD62089APG incorpora dei circuiti Flip Flop di tipo D a 8 bit che supportano la funzione di archiviazione dati. Esso integra in un unico chip i circuiti Flip Flop di tipo D, ampiamente adottati come standard industriale, con la matrice di transistor TPD62083APG di Toshiba con uscita di tipo sink a 8 canali. In questo modo è possibile ridurre sia il numero dei componenti, sia l’occupazione di spazio su scheda in applicazioni che includono gli elettrodomestici, gli apparecchi per l’automazione d’ufficio e i sistemi per l’automazione di stabilimento. Fornito in un package DIP20, il nuovo IC presenta anche un’uscita di tipo sink a Dmos Fet che supporta correnti e tensioni elevate fino a 50 V e a 0,5 A rispettivamente. La perdita di potenza è ridotta di circa il 40% rispetto alla serie precedente TD62083A. Operando come carico in uscita, il dispositivo TPD62089APG è adatto per il pilotaggio di carichi resistivi e capacitivi fra cui Led e fotoaccoppiatori.

L'articolo Matrici di transistor Dmos con archiviazione dati è un contenuto originale di Elettronica News.

          Carbon Nanotubes Reduce Transistor Footprint to Forty Nanometers   
Nanotubes offer a path towards meeting an ITRS benchmark a decade from now
          New iPad Pro's A10X Chip Revealed as First Manufactured Using TSMC's 10nm Process   
With the launch of the new iPad Pro models at WWDC this year, Apple introduced new 10.5-inch and 12.9-inch devices that both came with an A10X Fusion Chip, which is said to deliver 30 percent faster CPU performance than previous-generation iPad Pro models and 40 percent faster graphics performance. The manufacturing process by which Apple fabricated the chip was never clear, but now TechInsights has confirmed that the A10X chip was built using a 10-nanometer FinFET process.

Specifically, the the chips were built using Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's new 10-nanometer FinFET process, making the A10X the first TSMC 10-nanometer chip to show up in a consumer device. In comparison, the A9 and A10 were built using a 16-nanometer process, the A8 used a 20-nanometer process, and the A7 used a 28-nanometer process. As AnandTech pointed out, the A9, A8, and A7 were all iPhone chips that debuted a new process node at the time of their manufacturing, so it's unclear why Apple decided to fabricate a mid-generation X-series chip within an iPad on a new process node this time around.

Image via TechInsights

Compared to previous SoC standards not in the X-series, the A10X (96.4mm squared) is 24 percent smaller than the A10 (125mm squared), and 9 percent smaller than the A9 (104.5mm squared). For previous X-series chips, the A10X is 34 percent smaller than the A9X and 20 percent smaller than the A6X. "In other words, Apple has never made an iPad SoC this small before," AnandTech explained.
Ultimately what this means is that in terms of design and features, A10X is relatively straightforward. It’s a proper pipecleaner product for a new process, and one that is geared to take full advantage of the die space savings as opposed to spending those savings on new features/transistors.
TechInsights' die shot revealed some details about the floorplan of the A10X, including 12 GPU clusters on the left and CPU cores on the right, but otherwise the shots weren't clean enough to draw any more information about the chip that Apple hasn't already confirmed. The "conservative" SoC is said to be largely similar to the A9X SoC, with a few differences: the A10X includes 3 Fusion CPU core pairs, up from 2 on the A10 and A9X, and has seen a bump in the L2 cache to 8MB, up from 3MB on the A9X.

Image via AnandTech

The GPU sticks with 12 clusters, seen in the floorplan, which the A9X also had, meaning that "the only major change is the CPU cores." So the A10X is more powerful than the A9X at a significant decrease in die size, as is typical with Apple's manufacturing processes. One confirmation offered by the die shot appears to be that Apple is still using Imagination Technology's PowerVR architecture in the A10X SoC. This past April, Apple told the manufacturer it would stop using its graphics technology in its devices within two years time, because the Cupertino company is developing its own independent graphics processing chips.

In March it was reported that TSMC was gearing up to begin production on the iPhone 8's A11 chip, and after a delay that production has officially begun, also using the manufacturer's 10-nanometer FinFET process. In general, the jump to 10-nanometer instead of 16-nanometer will yield chips that are more power efficient, resulting in user experiences that are snappier.

For TSMC, the 10-nanometer FinFET process is predicted to be a short-lived node, as it's said that the manufacturer is gearing up to jump to a 7-nanometer process in 2018. Other manufacturers, including Samsung and Intel, are believed to stick with 10-nanometer as their main fabrication process for a bit longer than TSMC.

Discuss this article in our forums

          Manufacturing Bits: Nov. 3   

World’s fastest phototransistor; characterizing superconductors; EU launches plasma particle accelerator.

The post Manufacturing Bits: Nov. 3 appeared first on Semiconductor Engineering.

          Keeley presenta el pedal de Fuzz Tesla MKIII   

Keeley ha presentado su nuevo pedal de Fuzz el Tesla MKII, un pedal con sonido vintage que cuenta con transistores de germanio de la era soviética de 1970. Con este pedal, gracias a sus controles de fuzz, tono y nivel podremos crear cantidades salvajes de fuzz, escuchar frecuencias altas nunca antes oídas y el ruido [...]

La entrada Keeley presenta el pedal de Fuzz Tesla MKIII aparece primero en Partituras En Pdf.

          Bid on old computers, speakers, radios, and other junk from the bowels of RadioShack   

Starting July 10, you can bid on TRS-80 computers, dot matrix printers, Realistic speakers, shortwave receivers, old catalogs, and company "memorabilia" from the bowels of bankrupt RadioShack. From the auction site:

From humble beginnings in Boston in 1921, over the past 95 years RadioShack established itself as a globally recognized leader and the go to retailer for consumer electronics. RadioShack has always been known as the place for answers to the American public's technology and electronics questions. "You've got questions, we've got answers."

Over the years, RadioShack introduced consumers to exciting and affordable gadgets and electronics that have become household items. As we cleaned out our historic archives in Fort Worth, Texas, we uncovered a cache of iconic memorabilia in 12 huge safes, including: unused original TRS-80 Microcomputers, Realistic Transistor Radios, Tandy computer software games, original brick cell phones and so much more. We all remember coming into RadioShack whether it was for the battery-of-the-month, new walkie-talkies, or to check out the newest RC toy cars. Now we reintroduce many of those nostalgic items and more with our rolling online memorabilia auction.

RadioShack Auction #1 (thanks, Charles Platt!)

          Analogue Design Engineer - Transistor Technology: VECTOR RECRUITMENT LIMITED   
£Excellent + Benefits package: VECTOR RECRUITMENT LIMITED
For more latest jobs and jobs in London & South East England visit
          Senior Electronics Engineer - Transistor Technology: VECTOR RECRUITMENT LIMITED   
£Excellent + Benefits package: VECTOR RECRUITMENT LIMITED
For more latest jobs and jobs in London & South East England visit
          Nanotubes with 2 walls have singular qualities    
Rice University researchers have determined that two walls are better than one when turning carbon nanotubes into materials like strong, conductive fibers or transistors. (2015-04-16)
          Podcast Beyond Episode 343   

Colin reviewed Wolfenstein: The New Order. Marty reviewed Transistor. Greg makes them fight.

          Podcast Beyond Episode 312   

Join the minds behind Transistor, Star Wars Pinball, Bit Trip Runner, and Dragon Fantasy Book II to talk about making the games you love.

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          Como são polarizados os transistores com efeito de campo   
Muitos dos circuitos de polarização que você estudou para válvulas e transistores bipolares são também usados para transistores com efeito de campo. Exceções importantes são: a polarização por fuga de grade e polarização por contato. … Continue LendoComo são polarizados os transistores com efeito de campo
          Como é usada a polarizacão por controle automático de volume com transistores bipolares   
A polarização por controle automático de volume pode ser usada com transistores, assim como com válulas a vácuo. Porém, existe uma diferença importante entre os circuitos de válvulas e os circuitos de transistores no caso … Continue LendoComo é usada a polarizacão por controle automático de volume com transistores bipolares
          Como são usadas fontes separadas para polarizar transistores bipolares   
Nos circuitos indicados nas Figuras 1 e 2, uma única fonte de alimentaçào é usada para obter tanto a polarização da base como a tensão do coletor. E também possísel usar duas fontes separadas para esta … Continue LendoComo são usadas fontes separadas para polarizar transistores bipolares
          Sistema de alarme residêncial   
O circuito utiliza somente transistores de uso geral, e de média potência, sendo portanto imune a descargas elétricas( o que não ocorre com os tipos que empregam CMOS e JFETs). O circuito prevê ainda o … Continue LendoSistema de alarme residêncial
          Amplificador para carro   
Esta montagem, que usa somente transistores como elementos ativos, fornece alguns watts a um alto-falante, reforçando assim os canais de som de um sistema para carro (radio ou toca-fitas). Os trimpots devem ser ajustados para … Continue LendoAmplificador para carro
          Amplificador de potência transistorizado   
Com essa etapa, podem ser conseguidos aproximadamente 30 W de potência com uma alimentação de 25 V em carga de 8 º. O sinal de entrada próximo a 500 mV, pico a pico, deve vir … Continue LendoAmplificador de potência transistorizado
          Amplificador de 70100 W   
O amplificador fornece uma potência de 70 W rms em carga de 8 º e 100 W em carga de 4 º. Os transistores são absolutamente comuns no nosso mercado, não havendo dificuldade com sua … Continue LendoAmplificador de 70100 W
          World’s lightest and thinnest circuits pave the way for ‘imperceptible electronics’   
Researchers from Asia and Europe have developed the world’s lightest and thinnest organic circuits, which in the future could be used in a range of healthcare applications. Lighter than a feather, these ultrathin film-like organic transistor integrated circuits are being developed by a research group led by Professor Takao Someya and Associate Professor Tsuyoshi Sekitani […]
          moma: The first transistor radio was released 61 years ago...   


The first transistor radio was released 61 years ago today. Here’s Dieter Rams’s 1959 design for Braun, on view now in Making Music Modern: Design for Ear and Eye.

[Dieter Rams. Portable Transistor Radio and Phonograph (model TP 1). 1959. Braun AG, Frankfurt, Germany, est. 1921. The Museum of Modern Art, New York]

          United Cold Plate Industry Analysis and Forecasts 2017   
(EMAILWIRE.COM, July 01, 2017 ) A Cold Plate is an aluminum or other plate containing internal tubing through which a liquid coolant is forced, to absorb heat transferred to the plate by transistors and other components mounted on it. It is one of the most common liquid cooling solutions that makes...
          TRIK "memperbaiki tv"   

Cara Servis TV Yang Sering Konsleting

Senin, Oktober 11, 2010 | , Mungkin kita jengkel dengan kejadian seperti ini. Malam - malam waktunya berkumpul dengan keluarga untuk menikmati acara pada layar televisi, tangan mulai menancapkan kabel jack tv ke tegangan PLN, lalu menekan tombol power pada tv....tiba-tiba... Kleeeeeggggg.........padamlah semua listrik dalam rumah anda. Mungkin Anda berfikiran bahwa listrik dirumah tidak kuat dengan beban yang begitu besar. Berbagai cara telah anda lakukan untuk menangani masalah tersebut dengan penambahan daya, penggantian sekring, penambahan penyatabil tegangan dll.
Setelah Anda sadari , bahwa hanya pada waktu menyalakan televisi lah listrik dirumah Anda menjadi padam.
Dengan kata lain, Tv dinyalakan langsung konsleting ( njeglek).

Untuk itulah perlu dilakukan perbaikan pada televisi Anda.
Berikut adalah cara cepat untuk memperbaiki tv yang apabila dinyalakan terjadi konsleting :

  1. Buka cover tv Anda
  2. Seperti biasa Groundkan tegangan yang terdapat pada tabung tv.
  3. Ukurlah Resistor Kapur( bentuknya kotak memanjang dan ada juga yang bulat memanjang) pada rangkaian power supply utama ( biasanya resistor ini putus / pecah).
  4. Setelah pengecekan resistor selesai , lakukan langkah berikutnya yaitu pengecekan pada Dioda Bridge ( kakinya 4 selain itu ada juga yang memakai dioda silikon biasa ).
  5. Ternyata hasil dari pengecekan Dioda masih dalam keadaan baik semua, kita melanjutkan langkah berikutnya yaitu pengecekan pada TRANSISTOR POWER SUPPLY.
    Biasanya Transistor power supply ini short dan ada juga yang transistornya pecah.
    Kebanyakan kerusakan seperti ini yang sering saya jumpai adalah penyebab utamanya TRANSISOTOR POWER SUPPLY yang sudah short ( selain memakai transistor, ada juga tv yang memakai STR sebagai penguat power supply) .
  6. Lahkah terakhir pada perbaikan kali ini adalah pengecekan pada Transformator ( Trafo) . Ukurlah hambatan pada trafo tersebut, Dalam kasus ini semua kaki pada trafo saling berhubungan dan akhirnya terjadilah hubungan singkat pada trafo ini ( penyebab utamanya yaitu lilitan yang terdapat dalam trafo ini terbakar dan saling hungan singkat).

Selamat bekerja dan semoga sukses selalu...

tv mati karena kerusakan power supply

TV mati karena Kerusakan Power supply
Oleh : mahdar
Power supply sering sekali rusak biasa akibat listrik tak menentu arus nya  . kerusakan power supply pada tv selain  jebol transistor nya  ada satu lagi yang sering terjadi power supply tidak kerja . klo power supply tidak kerja otomatis tegangan VCC di sekunder tidak keluar .
Sering kali saya dapat di tv fuji , tv sierra , detron power supply tidak kerja karena resistor  yang menuju basis transistor power supply putus yang ukuran nya 220 kohm sampai 330 kohm  , jadi tanpa ada masukan tegangan di basis  transistor  power tersebut…. ga bisa kerja walaupun tegangan masuk 300 volt nya ada .malah klo ga kerja gitu  di colektor TR tersebut masih menyimpan tegangan  alias strum . ini juga sama klo ada yang pakai IC . cari deh…resistor yang ukuran nya 220 kohm  , klo putus kasus nya seperti ini . biasa  untuk tv lama loh….
Untuk tv yang sekarang lain lagi biasa rusak  TR power dan driver nya kadang juga sering rusak opto coupler nya . ini untuk chasis tv cina
Ini aja dulu artikel saya  .
Semoga bermanfaat . sukses untuk anda…

tv fuji 29′ strip vertikal

Kerusakan tv fuji strip vertical.
Oleh : mahdar
Tv fuji elektrik  , siera sering sekali gambar setrip alias gambar garis melintang dari kiri kekanan yang disebabkan IC vertical nya  jebol .
Bila kita ukur VCC out put vertical nya ada 0 volt , maka pasti IC vertical nya rusak . tegangan  VCC  nya ada 24 volt jadi , tegangan output vertical nya harus ada kurang lebih separuh nya 12 ~ 14 volt . kenapa terjadi demikian ? ….. karena  power supply naik , mau tak mau tegangan VCC yang masuk ke FBT juga naik , klo udah begitu tegangan VCC  IC vertical nya juga naik , klo udah naik IC vertical jadi panas  , maka terjadilah kerusakan….
Jadi bila anda ingin mengganti IC vertical nya cek dulu tegangan power supply nya tinggi apa nda klo tinggi perbaiki dulu power supply nya baru pasang IC vertical nya , klo ngga yah….bakalan jebol lagi IC nya …..he..heeehee…
Itu saja pengalaman saya  .
Semoga bermanfaat .

tv goldstar mati standby

Tv goldstar mati standby .
Oleh : mahdar .
Kemarin saya servis tv merk goldstar 20” mati , tapi lampu merah nya hidup alias standby .
Setelah saya buka tutup belakangnya dan saya balikkan pcb nya , saya ukur dalam keadaan hidup tegangan VCC nya cukup normal 60 volt biasanya  klo di on baru dia naik tegangan nya , tapi kali ini aku on malah kurang dari 100 volt malah ga hidup….
Walaupun aku buka jalur VCC yang ke FBT tetap tegangannya kurang dari 100 volt.
Aku yakin  bahwa kesalahan ada pada power supply  aku cek power supply dan elco nya sudah agak kusam . aku ganti semua elco yang kecil-kecil ada di power supply 3 buah dan aku ukur elco nya memang sudah tidak tepat lagi ukuran nya .
Setelah aku ganti dan aku coba hidup kan , aku ukur dalam keadaan standby tegangan ada kira-kira 60 volt , setelah aku  on langsung naik menjadi 115 volt .teruuuuus hidup deh…
Karena tetangga  , aku di amplopin 100 rb yah….aku terima deh…
Inilah pengalaman aku perbaiki tv goldstar 20’ kemarin .
Semoga bermanfaat untuk anda.

gambar tv bergaris-garis putih tipis

Kerusakan tv gambar ada garis-garis .
Oleh : mahdar
Semalam aku terima tv kerusakannya ada gambar  tapi ada garis-garis putih tipis dan lagi warnanya keluar dari gambarnya misalnya  muka orang ada bayangan warna .
Aku buka tutup belakangnya cek tegangan bagus  , lantas aku cek tegangan  di RGB rupanya ada kelainan , padahal aku sudah kecilkan screen  di FBT masih juga ada garis-garis seperti buku .
Aku perhatikan elco yang menuju ke RGB kelihatan nya udah kering malah pembungkusnya udah terkelupas . langsung aja aku coba cabut ternyata memang udah melembung , aku ganti langsung elconya  22 uf / 160 volt . langsung aja tokcer…..
Yah…Alhamdulillah aku dapat tv rusak nya ga berat-berat..
Demikian agar anda pemula dapat mengikuti terus artikel cara perbaiki tv .
Semoga bermanfaat……aku udah dapat lagi ni tv goldstar mati standby klo udah ketemu aku akan buat lagi artikelnya besok .

cara memeriksa tv mati total

Cara memeriksa  tv mati total
Oleh  :  mahdar
Cara  memeriksa tv mati total ini diperuntukkan  bagi pemula ( dasar ) sebelum nya saya minta maaf pada senior-senior teknisi tv , ini saya berikan hanya gelobal saja untuk lengkap nya ada die book saya yang belum selesai.
Setelah anda membuka tutup belakangnya coba cek dulu dalam keadaan mati dengan multi meter x10 aja . ukur elco VCC yang menuju ke FBT , kalau short periksa TR horizontal atau yang lainnya . bila tidak short  , coba ukur dalam keadaan on …. Gimana apa ada tegangan keluar dari power supply .untuk 14 ~ 21 “ kira-kira 105 ~ 120 volt , kalau untuk 25 ~ 32 “ kira-kira 130 ~ 145 volt  , kadang ada beberapa tv sebelum di on tegangan VCC  ada sekitar 60 ~ 70 volt setelah di on  hidup baru naik . kalau tidak ada tegangan ya ….cek power supply nya
Setelah dicek baik semua , baru anda cek di basis transistor drver horizontal harus ada tegangan sekitar 0,3 ~ 0,4 volt  , kalau tidak ada  , anda cek tegangan penyulut nya yaitu biasanya dikendalikan oleh IC control bila ada biasanya tv hidup…gimana kalau tidak ada…..
Anda harus cek rangkaian IC control seperti tegangan  5 volt ada juga yang  3.3 volt , periksa reset , xtal dan memory.
Ini aja dulu cara memeriksa tv mati total  nanti kita lanjutin …….
Semoga bermanfaat.

servis tv tidak ada gambar hanya bintik

Servis tv tidak ada gambar hanya bintik
Oleh : mahdar
Aku baru saja pulang perbaiki tv yang tidak ada gambar nya  , hanya bintik saja  . langsung aja aku program ulang melalui menu search , ternyata memang  tidak menerima gambar  .
Aku buka tutup belakang nya  , lalu aku cek tuner nya  dan aku ukur dalam keadaan hidup sambil aku  program , ternyata  tegangan  VT nya kosong ( 33 volt nya ) . setelah aku periksa  zener dan resistor nya . ternyata resistor nya yang 10 k / 2 watt putus . sehingga  tuner tidak ada masukan  tegangan 33 volt di VT  , pantas aja kalo di program babalas terus….
Aku ganti segera resistor 10 k / 2 watt  langsung aku hidupkan dan aku program ulang .
langsung aja  terprogram setelah selesai program otomatis lalu byar aja …..bagus bro..
Belum sempat aku kasih harga perbaikannya  , pemilik tv langsung  aja kasih amplop berisi 150 ribu  Alhamdulillah…..
Moga-moga anda juga bisa ketiban rezeki seperti saya …..amin

tv fuji cina tidak ada suara

oleh : mahdar
kemarin saya perbaiki tv merk fuji elektrik produksi cina tidak ada suara , begitu aku buka tutup belakang nya , aku ukur tegangan nya cukup 13,5 volt tapi aku ukur keluaran output IC suaranya tidak ada alias 0 volt . saya periksa sepeker nya  dua-dua nya bagus . aku periksa secara teliti kemungkinan IC nya yang rusak .aku ganti IC nya ternyata berhasil tapi bertahan hanya seperempat jam saja sudah jebol lagi .aku berpikir bagaimana cara mengakali supaya agar IC tidak jebol lagi . ada resistor 4,7 ohm penghubung antara power supply dengan tegangan masuk IC suara .aku ganti aja resistor itu dengan 22 ohm untuk mengurangi arus yang berlebih hingga terukur 11,5 volt lalu aku pasang kembali IC yang kedua kali aku beli lalu aku hidupkan byar…..aja . aku tunggu juga kurang lebih satu jam ternyata ga jebol lagi dan IC nya pun tidak terlalu panas. jadi kesimpulan nya IC suara jebol terus karena arus terlalu berlebih masuk ke IC suara . ini pengalaman saya perbaiki tv kemarin .
semoga bernanfaat untuk anda

service tv fuji elektrik 29 ‘ gbr ungu .

Kemarin saya servis tv fuji 29’ kerusakan nya  gambar nya ber warna ungu alias tidak ada hijau . itu sih gampang aja berarti warna hijau nya tidak keluar . kenapa tidak keluar karena transistor RGB salah satunya tidak kerja yaitu tr warna hijau . perhatikan deh ..tegangan di katode CRT pasti tidak ada keseimbangan , terutama katode hijau  . langsung aja deh saya ganti tr nya semua  ke tiga-tiganya , agar tidak ada yang rusak lagi .
Setelah saya ganti byarrrr …..aja normal kembali tanpa saya kutak-kutik lagi
Tapi saya cek juga kalo-kalo tegangan power supply tinggi , ga taunya benar tegangan di power suppy agak tinggi sedikit , lalu saya ganti elconya , memang sudah kelihatan agak kembung fisiknya. Lalu saya pasang harga Cuma 150 rb , ga ditawar lagi oleh sipemilik langsung dibayar asyikkan …?
Semoga ada manfaatnya .

cara servis tv mati total standby 3

Untuk lanjutan cara perbaiki TV mati total stanby .  kali ini saya akan membahas tentang IC control sedikit yang bisa mengakibatkan TV mati stanby.
IC control juga bisa mengakibatkan TV mati total stanby ,  karena  IC control  tidak bekerja maka IC prosesor tidak dapat trigger atau masukan data dari  IC control.
IC prosesor mendapat tegangan  trigger  terutama untuk horizontal Vcc berasal dari IC control . setelah  tegangan  horizontal VCC masuk dan oscillator  horizontal bekerja maka tegangan horizontal driver keluar untuk memacu transistor driver horizontal hidup.
Setelah  transistor driver hidup bila  tidak ada masalah lagi di power horizontal , maka akan hiduplah  TV tersebut .
Biasanya IC control tidak pernah rusak kecuali TV kena petir . IC control harus mendapat teg angan kurang lebih 5 volt ( tergantung  type IC controlnya ) dan konstan .
IC control ini sangat sensitive tidak boleh lembab dan kotor.apa lagi basah  . oscilatornya memakai x’tal dan bekerja sama dengan IC memory .
Bisa juga tuts nya ada yang short , lembab atau kena air berarti salah satunya kaki IC control short maka TV ini juga  tidak mau hidup . periksa juga barangkali solderan nya kering maka perlu solder ulang .
Demikian artikel singkat ini mungkin dapat membantu anda.  Lihat juga blog saya  . Semoga ber manfaat .
Mahdar .

cara perbaiki tv mati total standby 2

Seperti janji saya  , cara perbaiki TV  mati  stanby bagian ke 2 ini , lanjutan dari artikel yang terdahulu oke…. Yup kita lanjutkan…

Kita anggap power supply baik dan rangkaian control baik .kemungkinan  rangkaian  blog horizontal ada masalah . misalnya  rangkain oscilator horizontal  , rangakian  driver  horizontal  dan  rangkaian  power horizontal.

Untuk rangkaian ascilator horizontal anda periksa tegangan  horizontal vcc ( H.vcc ). X’tal dan rangkaian sekitarnya misalnya  H out bagaimana ?

Untuk rangkaian driver  horizontal  periksa tegangan  di basis transistor driver dan collector  nya .  tegangan  di collector transistor driver  harus ada  setengah  tegangan  Vcc .  juga periksa trafo output  horizontal ini jarang rusak  .

Periksa  power  horizontal  ini sering rusak  ,  biasa rusak ada penyebabnya , cari dulu penyebab nya  baru ganti . periksa tegangan  di collector dan basis . atau yang terakhir FBT ( flyback trafo ) nya  rusak , FBT bisa di tes sebelum anda membelinya .

Kalau sudah oke semua pasti deh hidup . untuk belajar lebih mendalam anda harus mempunyai  ebook yang saya sedang susun tunggu  tanggal mainnya.

Untuk cara perbaiki TV hidup sebentar  dan belum keluar layarnya  sudah stanby kembali , tunggu artikel lanjutan dari saya bagian ke 3.  semoga bermanfaat..

Mahdar .

kerusakan tv buram dan gelap

Penyakit tv sekarang ini memang jelek kwalitasnya , apalagi merk nya engga terkenal
Kadang TV anda baru beberapa tahun aja gambarnya udah gelap
kadang buram walaupun brightnes dan contras maximal ini mungkin stelan di FBT berubah
kadang  juga emisi layarnya berubah
maklum kwalitas layarTV kurang bagus
Cuma disini anda harus membuka tutup  belakang TV . ayo mari kita praktekan…..
buka tutup belakang TV lalu kita lihat ada sebuah  komponen yang berbentuk bulat tinggi
sekitar 7 cm warna hitam ada kabel merah besar
yang menempel ke tabung layer itulah yang nama nya FLY BACK atau FBT di badan nya
ada 2 buah setelan yang satu tulisan nya FOCUS gunanya untuk mempertajam gambar ,
yang satu lagi tulisannya SCREEN
gunanya untuk mengatur gelap terang ,putar kekiri atau kekanan SCREEN pelan2 sampai
gambarnya bagus terang tapi jangan sampai keluar garis tipis putih
dan putar setelan FOCUS sampai gambar tajam ,setelah terang dan tajam
Jadi deh…….. terus pasang kembali tutup belakang TV …..mantap……
Okeh gampangkan…?
Begitukan teman-teman…….he he he tolong tambahin dong pengalaman 2 teman-teman
Tulis dikolom komentar .
Bila anda perlu skema tv Samsung ,  Philips , konka , fuji elektrik
Hubung saya di
Mahdar .

cara memperbaiki tv mati standby

Pada  akhir-akhir ini memang banyak sekali  keluhan tv mati stanby alias ga mau hidup hanya lampu kecil merah saja yang nyala. Apa sih… penyebab nya  ?
Untuk kerusakan tv ini sebenarnya banyak kemungkinan misalnya :
Rangkaian control dan IC nya lembab atau kotor.
Power supply tidak bekerja maximal ( lemah )
Tuts nya ada yang short . kotor
Rangkaian  osc dan driver horizontal  tidak bekerja . atau ada yang rusak
Ini yang banyak terjadi ada salah satu rangkaian yang bermasalah atau rusak jadi protect
Bagaimana cara memperbaiki tv tersebut ?
Kita parbaiki aja yang gampang-gampang dulu seperti  membersihkan  rangkaian control dan sekitar IC control dengan kwas dan tener lalu keringkan . coba…hidupkan
Kalau belum ok solder ulang kaki-kaki IC control dan IC prosesornya ,dan juga rangkaian nya ,  hati-hati jangan sampai ada kaki IC yang terhubung singkat ( short ) .
Coba lagi hidupkan …. Bagaimana sudah berhasil ? kalau belum..
Periksa tuts nya mungkin ada yang short , cabut dan bersihkan dengan tener rusak ganti dengan yang baru. Pasang kembali coba hidupkan ….belum juga hidup ?
Periksa rangkaian power supply teg B+ 100volt s/d 115 volt untuk 14” dan 21” .
Teg b+ 135 volt s/d 145 volt untuk 28” dan 29”.
Periksa teg  5 volt atau 3 volt  untuk teg IC control dan memori.
Biasa  elco-elco nya yang sudah lemah terutama yang tegangan nya tinggi.
Coba lagi deh mungkin sudah hidup . kalau belum hidup juga tunggu artikel berikutnya…cara perbaiki tv mati stanby bagian kedua , lihat juga blog saya yang lebih lengkap di
Semoga bermanfaat dan sukses .
Mahdar .

cara cabut pasang IC BGA pada tv dan hp

Sebelim anda mengangkat  IC  BGA pada hand phone dan tv . siapkan dulu alat yang diperlukan
  1. kwas lembut  , pinset . dan tener untuk pembersih
  2. timah dan songka cair
  3. kawat tembaga serabut untuk mengambil sisa timah
  4. plat cetak  IC BGA
  5. blower , solder 30 watt
cara mencabut IC BGA
taruh kan  songka cair ( pasta ) keseluruh badan dan kaki IC secukupnya agar panas nya tidak merusak IC . panaskan pakai blower sambil digoyang-goyangkan IC  tersebut pakai pinset sampai  tercabut keluar. Bersihkan sisa timah di kaki IC pakai kawat tembaga serabut hingga rata permukaan nya juga PCB nya . setelah itu bersihkan pakai tener IC maupun PCB nya  dan keringkan .
cara pasang IC BGA .
untuk memasang IC BGA anda harus membuat kaki IC dahulu caranya ambil plat pencetak IC BGA tempelkan pada IC tersebut hingga pas betul lalu oleskan timah cair pada permukaan plat yang berada diatas IC hingga lumer timah tersebut menjadi kaki IC ,  angkat plat cetakan dan anda amati  apakah semua kaki sudah tercetak dan rata ,
kalau sudah IC siap dipasang . pasang IC BGA tepat pada PCB sebelumnya oleskan dulu  pakai songka cair IC dan PCB nya  , perhatikan kaki no 1 jangan sampai salah , oleskan songka cair diatas badan IC . lalu panaskan badan IC tersebut sambil ditekan sedikit pakai pinset sampai terlihat IC menempel pada PCB nya , bersihkan pakai tener sedikit  dan selesai

tunggu artikel selanjutnya  , semoga bermanfaat .
mahdar .

cara servis tv pakai oscilloscope

Oscilloscope sangat membantu dalam memperbaiki tv maupun hp , apalagi  untuk mengetahui rangkaian kerja oscillator / pembangkit . misalnya  untuk mengetahui kerja oscillator  horizontal  sampai driver  horizontal pada tv mati total . bisa juga untuk memeriksa IC control , misalnya oscillator x,tal  , riset dan lain nya pada tv mati stanby  . begitu juga untuk memeriksa  sinyal gambar  mulai dari rangkaian  IF sampai pada rangkaian video output juga rangkaian suara . dengan osciloscop anda juga bisa memeriksa rangkaian  kerja  AV .
Untuk mengetahui tv mati total , mati total standby paling mudah  periksa pakai osciloscop . mulai dari pembangkit / oscillator horizontal sampai ke driver horizontal , kita bisa melihat signal nya , apakah ada atau terputus bila ternyata putus , kita bisa ukur / periksa  pakai multimeter rangkaian tersebut  . begitu juga  dengan rangkaian IC control bisa di cek pakai osciloscop. Dan masih banyak lagi kegunaan osciloscop .

Jual murah oscilloscope 10 mhz / second  , barang bagus  , biasa dipakai oleh saya . merk KIKUSUI model 5509 japan , harga 500 ribu aja…. Bisa nego
Berminat  hubungi saya 085210447754
Untuk lebih jelasnya  cara memperbaiki tv dengan memakai oscilloscope dengan gaya dan cara saya sendiri nanti saya buatkan  artikelnya.
Salam sukses .
Mahdar .

cara servis tv polytron mati total standby

Cara perbaiki tv untuk tv politron sering sekali saya mendapatkan  tv politron dengan kerusakan mati stanby . setelah saya periksa  komponen dan rangkaian nya baik tapi tidak mau hidup .  lalu saya periksa tegangan yang menuju ke oscillator horizontal ternyata  setelah di on tv tersebut  biasa  sekitar 6 sampai 7 volt  tapi ini malah  turun sampai 4volt ya…. Jadi tidak bisa hidup sebab kurang dari 6 volt  mungkin juga arusnya kurang dari semestinya .
Bagaimana cara mengakalinya ….? Elconya saya sudah ganti tapi belum juga naik tegangan nya . lalu saya ambil saja IC  8 volt yaitu 7808  ,  lalu saya ambil kaki input IC tersebut saya hubungkan  ke power suply tegangan  12 volt atau lebih dan kaki output nya saya hubungkan kekaki IC oscillator horizontal ( hor vcc ) yang sebelumnya  sudah saya putuskan  jalurnya  .
Terus saya on kan lagi tv tersebut ternyata tegangan yang ada sekarang tetap tidak turun  sekitar 6 sampai 7 volt . maka hiduplah tv tersebut  .
Ini lah pengalaman  saya  untuk servis tv politron yang sering saya  dapatkan  kerusakan  tv politron  mati stanby .
Adakah pengalaman anda…… ? tulis dikolom komentar . untuk lebih lengkapnya lihat juga websiteku di
Semoga bermanfaat .
Mahdar .

TV samsung ngelipet kurang penuh

Karena saya pernah juga kerja di Samsung electronic  ( ASC ) ,  sering juga saya mendapat kerusakan tv Samsung  yang gambar nya ngelipet atau tidak penuh , banyak teknisi yang terkecoh menggan ti IC vertical  padahal  teknisi tersebut tidak memeriksa  supply yang satu lagi yaitu 12 volt  nya
IC tersebut memang  ada  2 tegangan  supply yang sering bermasalah yaitu tegangan yang dari FBT lewat resistor  menuju kekaki IC vertical . biasa yang sering putus adalah  resistornya  .( R fuse ) .
Atau  kalau ngelipet bagian atas  ( kurang penuh bagian  atas ) biasanya  elco  47 uF nya yang berubah nilai .
Oke itu saja dulu pengalaman saya  sewaktu saya  servis tv Samsung . bagaimana dengan anda ….? Anda boleh tulis pengalaman anda  dikolom komentar untuk melengkapi  artikel saya ini .lihat juga website ku yang lebih lengkap di
Semoga bermanfaat .
Mahdar .

cara service remote TV dan AC

Remote  tv paling banyak sekali rusak , apalagi bila anda punya anak kecil , sering terjatuh , kebanting , kena air , lembab  dsb.
Untuk itu  anda jangan langsung  beli remote baru , coba dulu perbaiki , mungkin hanya lembab kena air atau terjatuh.
Modal nya hanya obeng kecil , kwas , tener , timah solder dan solder 40 watt
Yup kita mulai….
buka casing remote dengan obeng kecil keluarkan isinya cuci / bersihkan dengan kwas dan tener pcb dan karet-karetnya . keringkan pakai pengering rambut atau jemur , pasang pcb dan karet –karetnya   pasang batreynya  coba aktifkan.. bila sudah dibersihkan masih juga belum aktif , coba solder ulang semua kaki  komponen tersebut sampai dengan kaki IC nya . awas hati-hati jangan sampai ada kaki IC yang bergabung . nah coba lagi deh…..
biasanya langka 1 dan 2 ini sudah bisa aktif , bila belum juga periksa jalur , mungkin ada jalur yang putus biasa nya  hubungan antara batrey dan pcb atau pcb pecah coba periksa  dengan teliti . bila tidak ada yang putus coba anda periksa infra red nya atau x’tal 455 nyabiasa nya ini sering rusak  atau  kaki nya putus , soldernya  terlepas .
kalau  4 langkah ini masih juga belum aktif ?  terakhir IC nya . jikalau  IC nya yang  rusak , lebih baik anda ganti saja remote yang baru ….. jangan lupa lihat juga web yang lain lebih lengkap di
semoga bermanfaat ..
Ali mahdar .

solusi cara hilangkan warna liar ( gousing )

Apkah anda pernah melihat……                                                                           Kadang ada sebuah tv yang gambarnya  utuh tapi ada warna yang lain yang seharusnya  sawah misalnya warnanya hijau , tapi ini lain merah atau biru jadi ga enak dilihat , lucu kan ?  masa ada sawah warnanya merah sih…. Kalo sedikit sih ga apa kali…kalo banyak…….    gimana tu …solusinya  hee…hee….
Sebenar nya sih ini bukan kerusakan tv hanya ada medan  magnit yang masuk kedalam tabung CRT ini berlaku pada tv biasa / flat ,  bukan tv LCD dan  PLASMA .                                                                                                                                         nah ……bagaimana solusinya ……
anda ambil sebuah magnit bekas atau belakang  speker , lalu anda dekatkan pada layer tv anda ,  jarak kurang lebih 1 cm , Kekiri atau kekanan ber-ulang2 ( jangan sampai kena layar )    sampai warna yang lain itu  hilang . atau anda bisa  pinjam ama bengkel tv sebentar yang   namanya gousing .
anda colok stekernya ke stop kontak , lalu lakukan seperti pakai magnit tadi , ini malah lebih cepat , hanya satu  menit . gampangkan……..?
ini aja dulu artikel ringan yang gampang dipraktekan okeh….lihat juga website ku yang lebih lengkap
semoga bermanfaat
Tunggu e-book saya yang belum selesai.
Salam semangat
Ali Mahdar mantan teknisi tv.

service TV sanyo mati total standby

Sewaktu saya servis tv sanyo , saya mendapat kerusakan tv sanyo mati standby . saya cek semua dan saya ukur tegangan nya semua normal . setelah itu saya berfikir kenapa ya…….. ?
saya putuskan kabel yoke satu persatu mulai dari kabel horizontal lalu kabel vertical hasil nya sama saja . lalu saya sambung kembali .
dan saya cabut soker CRT , ternyata hidup tapi tidak keluar gambar . jadi ber arti masalah ada disini saya cek teg RGB baik . lalu saya cabut kabel filament dan saya hidupkan , berhasil…… langsung saya ber prediksi bahwa tegangan yang ada di filament arus nya kurang karena dibagi oleh rangkaian lain . untuk mengatasinya saya rubah resistor yang ke jalur lain atau saya besarkan nilai resistornya sedikit ternyata benar berhasil .
yah inilah pengalaman saya sewaktu saya servis tv sanyo .
mungkin ada yang lain , ikuti juga blog ku di dan silahkan isi komentar .
semoga bermanfaat .
mahdar .

service TV Toshiba strip lama-lama penuh

Toshiba memang tv yang agak susah spareparts nya dan juga tidak gampang servis nya , kalau tidak berpengalaman bisa gagal .
Saya pernah servis tv Toshiba yang gambar nya strip lama –lama penuh , kurang lebih setengah jam baru penuh .
Saya sudah cek bagian rangkaian IC vertical nya baik semua kecuali saya cek output vertical nya memang berubah tapi lama kelamaan normal . setelah saya berpikir sejenak , mungkin bagian oscillator vertical nya , ternyata benar ada satu lagi elco yang belum saya cek yaitu elco 2,2 / 50 volt nya berubah nilai , tapi lokasinya ada dibawah PCB atau chasis . lalu saya ganti elconya , ternyata benar tv langsung saya hidupkan langsung penuh .
Saya saran kan untuk penggantian elco tersebut anda ganti dengan elco yang bagus jangan yang abal-abal kalau tidak nanti ada masalah lain .
Demikian pengalaman saya servis tv Toshiba . untuk lebih lengkapnya lihat juga di
semoga bermanfaat .
Mahdar .

solusi kerusakan tv LG mati total standby

servis TV hidup sebentar , sebelum keluar sinar sudah stanby kembali , kerusakan ini memang sukar diterka letak kerusakan nya .
Untuk mengatasi kerusakan ini coba anda putuskan teg Vcc rangkaian demi rangkaian , misalnya rangkaian suara , coba anda hidup kan tanpa rangkaian suara bila hidup berarti rangkaian tersebut ada kerusakan .
Anda harus mencoba putuskan satu persatu rangkaian sehingga anda berhasil .insya ALLAH berhasil..
Ini pengalaman saya sewaktu saya sedang servis TV LG , saya putus kan kabel yoke untuk bagian horizontal lalu saya hidupkan ternyata hidup tapi ada garis putih dari atas ke bawah yang menandakan hubungan yoke horizontal terputus , begitu saya cek memang benar ada salah satu condensator yang volt nya besar 2 KV putus dekat flyback lalu saya ganti langsung dan saya sambungkan kembali kabel yoke yang saya putuskan tadi .
saya hidupkan TV LG tersebut ternyata byaaaar aja oke , lalu saya minta ongkos servis TV dan spareparts seratus lima puluh ribu aja bagaimana……..ini saya kerjakan hanya kurang lebih 2 jam .
Demikian pengalaman saya , untuk lebih lengkap lihat juga di semoga bermanfaat .
Mahdar .

Matt is a negleted rich kid who thinks he's really BMOC at his high school. He bullies everyone, lies, cheats and even rigs the student council election to guarantee he wins.

Matt has a group of flunkies that think he's supercool. They rough up and extort any fellow teenager he asks them too. No one else thinks Matt is cool at all. When Matt is challenged to a drag race, no one hides that they've had enough of his tyranny.

(This article originally appeared on my Tumblr page More Transistors Smashed. You can find much more random bits of junk culture there.)

          Apparatus and method for producing signals coded with amplitude shift keying   
An apparatus for coding a signal by means of amplitude shift keying comprises a class E amplifier including a switching transistor, to whose gate is supplied a voltage having an operating frequency for operating the class E amplifier. For achieving an amplitude shift keying in the output signal of the class E amplifier, a circuit for switching the operating frequency of the voltage supplied to the gate of the switching transistor, or the resonance frequency of the class E amplifier, between a first value and a second value is provided and in order to switch a deviation degree between the operating frequency and the resonance frequency between a first value and a second value.
          Apparatus, system, and method for digital base modulation of power amplifier in polar transmitter   
An amplifier receives an amplitude signal of a polar modulated signal at a base terminal of a transistor and receives a phase modulated carrier signal of the polar modulated signal at the base terminal of the transistor. The amplifier combines the amplitude signal and the phase modulated signal to produce a full complex waveform at a collector terminal of the transistor.
          Transistor Based Motorcycle Alarm   
          Kegiatan Ekskul Robotik   

Kegiatan Ekstrakurikuler Robotik

Ekskul Robotik adalah salah satu Ekskul yang saya ikuti di sekolah. Ekskul Robotik diadakan setiap hari Rabu pukul 4.00 di ruang TIK SMP Labschool Kebayoran
Sampai saat ini kami telah melakukan:

Merakit mainan Fischer Technik

Kegiatan ini sebagai basis keterampilan merakit pada anggota Ekskul Robotik SMP Labschool Kebayoran. Benda-benda yang sudah kami buat dengan Fischer Technik antara lain replica menara  Eiffel, replica popa minyak bumi, replika pesawat, mobil, kapal dan banyak benda lainnya. Pada tahap ini kegitan Ekskul Robotik di bombing oleh Alm. Bapak Hasim Surbana, Kegitan ini saya pikir sangat membosankan karena saya tidak belajar apapun yang baru

Merakit dam memprogram IzeBot

Saya sangat senang dapat belajar meprogram robot. Walaupun bentuknya seperti robot dari tahun ‘jebot’. Pertama kami diajarkan berbagai komponen ijebot. Komponen-komponen ijebot antara lain base, motor, roda, stampbox, dan berbagai sensor. Stelah mengenal komponen, kami belajar merakitnya dengan cara yang benar. Mulai dari memasang motor, memasang roda, memasang stampbox. Dan memasang sensor. Setelah kami dapat memasang bagian-bagian ijebot, kami belajar memprogramnya. Sumpah inilah yang membuat ekskul Robotik kehilangan peminat! Kami hanya mendowload program jadi ke  ijebot, pokoknya gaseru deh! Ohiya, sebelum kami berganti robot dan GURUNYA, kami belajar membuat robotank dari IJEBOT

Ikut lomba

Saya, Angga, dan Adit pernah mengikuti lomba Robot Lego NXT di Robo center di Jakarta. Lomba ini adalah lomba line following. Kami harus memprogram robot kami untuk mengikuti garis dan tsampai di tujuan,tentu saja syaratnya adalah tidak keluar garis! Hehehehehe. Pada sesi pertama, saya dan Adit yang memprogram robot dan Angga yang merakitnya. Kami tidak tahu apa-apa tentang NXT, jadi seperti yang sudah anda tebak, kami bahkan TIDAK sampai di tujuan. Pada sesi 2 yang memprogram adalah Angga dan Adit. Kali ini kami sudah agak berpengalaman sehingga hasilnya pun AGAK lebih baik. . . . ya gitu deh.

Flip-Flop lights

Lampu kelap-kelip, ya memang ituyang kami buat. Membuat sikuit listrik sirkuit board, transistor, resistor, dan tentu saja..lampu LED (iya kali lampu neon -_-) Ohiya ngomong-ngomong gurunya baru loh, namanya kak Ahmad, dia gak mau dipanggil ‘Pak’ karena dia merasa masih muda. Dia jauh lebih baik dari guru-guru robotic sebelumnya. Pokoknya sseru deh hehehehe . 


Pada kegiatan ini robotic ikut berpartisipasi dengan menunjukkan atraksi pesawat….Gak lah! Kami menampilkan atraksi berbagai karya kami selama ini maupun yang bukan karya kami(loh?) ya benar, kami menampilkan robot-robot buatan guru kami yaitu Kak  Ahmad. Baik kan? Hehehehe. Yang kami tampilkan di stand kami antara lain adalah robot line following analog, robotank kami, beberapa mainan Fischer gajelas, juga robot yang mungkin gak akan pernah dibeli sama Labschool yaaitu Bioloid, robot seharga 12 juta yang emang keren.

Robot Line Following analog

Pertamanya sih aku gak percaya kami bakal bikil robot line following analog yang sangat kompleks.  Tapi Kak Ahmad menjelaskan denga sabar, ya pokoknya gitulah -_-. Pertama kita potong melamin, trus bikin lobang di melminnya, trus pasang gir box, pasang motor, bikin sirkuit, bikin sensor, pasang sensor trus jadi deh.
Pokoknya Ekskul Robotik seru deh, tahun depan ikut robotic yaaaa…..

          Ibm Research: tutte le innovazioni   

Vi proponiamo un cammino di divulgazione verso il futuro dei dati, del modo in cui li useremo e degli spazi, fisici e virtuali, che li conterranno. E vogliamo che questo percorso sappia riguardarci e contraddistinguerci.

Perciò lo compiamo assieme agli scienziati e ricercatori italiani che fanno capo ai centri mondiali di Ibm Research.

Lo facciamo anche con l’intento di dare visibilità a quei “cervelli” che secondo noi non sono andati in fuga: hanno solamente scelto un luogo consono per mettere a frutto il proprio dono, a beneficio di tutti, anche dell’Italia.

Ogni mese una nuova puntata, firmata da un giovane ricercatore italiano.

Buona (in)formazione.

Neuroingegneria in 3D per creare il cervello in vitro

Nel laboratorio di nano-fabbricazione dell’IBM Almaden Research Center Luisa Bozano gestisce  progetti che si collocano nell’ambito della sensoristica e riguardano anche il funzionamento del cervello. Andrea Spanu ci spiega come vengono usate le Bio-nano tecnologie per emulare organi come il cervello dai ricercatori delle Università di Genova e Cagliari presso il sensor-lab dell'Ibm Almaden Reseach Center

L'intelligenza artificiale porta all'ingegneria cellulare

Simone Bianco Ibm

Simone Bianco ci spiega come l’ingegneria cellulare si avvale di strumenti propri di ingegneria, matematica, fisica e informatica per trasformare la biologia in una scienza quantitativa, per ottimizzare il design e la realizzazione di "fabbriche" cellulari.

Come funzionano e a cosa servono i chip neuromorfici

Carmelo di Nolfo, ricercatore Ibm

Carmelo di Nolfo ci spiega perchè sta lavorando alla creazione di un cervello di silicio. Il TrueNorth Neurosynaptic System di Ibm è una nuova generazione di processore neuromorfico sviluppato da un team dell’Ibm Research - Almaden, a San Jose, in California.


Debater: decidere sarà più facile

Francesca Pensa Ibm Research

Un progetto di Ibm Research basato sulle debating technologies avvicina l'intelligenza artificiale alla vita quotidiana


Blockchain e Bitcoin, come funzionano


Al centro di ricerca Ibm di Zurigo si lavora sulla riservatezza e sulla crittografia.

Veicoli connessi, una piattaforma per servizi intelligenti

Ibm Research Giovanni Russo

Giovanni Russo di Ibm Research di Dublino ci spiega come possiamo istruire le smart car a lavorare per noi anche quando sono inattive.

Perché l’industria vive di modelli, strutture, algoritmi e calcolo

Ottimizzazione del profilo alare di un aereo per la minimizzazione dei vortici d’estremita’ d’ala.

Le simulazioni per le applicazioni industriali stanno guidando il processo di innovazione in campo manufacturing. L'esperienza di Ibm Research raccontata da Teodoro Laino.

Fotonica, comunicare alla velocità della luce

fotonica ibm figura4

Antonio La Porta ci spiega come presso Ibm Research a Zurigo la ricerca di soluzioni tecnologiche che prevedono la prospettiva di interconnettere i chip con i fotoni si persegue assemblando e fabbricando, rispettivamente, chip elettro-ottici e strutture che guidino i fotoni (chiamate guide d’onda) sullo stesso supporto, sia essa una board rigida o un substrato flessibile.


Oltre il silicio: il futuro dei transistor e dei semiconduttori

Ibm Transistor

Gianluca Signorello ci prepara a un futuro fatto di semiconduttori III-V, utilizzati sia per lo sviluppo di transistor e circuiti integrati ad elevata performance, sia per sistemi di comunicazione ottica integrati su silicio, che permetteranno l’esplosione della banda di comunicazione disponibile tra circuiti integrati.


La nuova frontiera del supercalcolo: i Data Centric Systems

IBM BlueGene Q Sequoia


Cristiano Malossi ci tratteggia l'identikit dei nuovi sistemi che stanno nascendo per l'analisi dei dati che per la mera computazione

Come si può ridurre il consumo di energia dell'It

Microserver IbmMatteo Cossale ci illustra come con i microserver si possono ottenere prestazioni computazionali senza gravare sul conto energetico. E nascono microdatacenter.


Deep Current: come cambia la scienza delle previsioni

Ibm DeepCurrentEmanuele Ragnoli ci spiega la piattaforma di modellistica 2D e 3D e di gestione dati per il monitoraggio e la previsione di condizioni marine e oceanografiche. Emblematica di come la ricerca di Ibm sta guidando l'evoluzione digitale della stocastica.


Come dare accesso sicuro ai dati nel cloud

Ibm Secure Enterprise Desktop

Paolo Scotton ci propone la soluzione fatta da un'ancora fisica: una chiave Usb con sistema operativo chiuso che gestisce i collegamenti ai server in cloud. Senza lasciare tracce.


La sicurezza dei dati nel cloud: due soluzioni

Ibm cloud sicurezza Sorniotti

Alessandro Sorniotti distingue fra crittografia tradizionale e omomorfica e ci  presenta le potenzialità dell'intercloud.


Dal knowledge graph al cognitive computing


Vocio da Zurigo IBM Graph ViewMarco Luca Sbodio ci fornisce esempi concreti di applicazione dei sistemi cognitivi, in campo sociale e sanitario.


Cognitive computing, il futuro della conoscenza


Cognitive Computing Ibm

Alessandro Curioni ci fa scoprire l'essenza dei sistemi cognitivi e ci spiega perché diventeranno una parte dominante della nostra vita.

L'articolo Ibm Research: tutte le innovazioni è un contenuto originale di 01net.

          By: Van   
Multicore is a fine idea but how do you increase memory bandwidth to keep up with more cores, or keep processors busy instead of waiting for memory? One idea for the latter was proposed years ago by Rishiyur Nikhil, a colleague of Arvind at MIT. He proposed a "split-phase" memory (and I/O) transaction, plus two queues (active and waiting) of register files, managed by three new instructions: fork (which creates a new register file copy in the queue), join (which decrements a counter and destroys a register file copy if the counter isn't zero), and send (which sends a transaction to memory or I/O and moves the register file from the active queue to the waiting queue; when the transaction is done the memory or I/O moves the register file from the waiting queue to the active queue). The processor executes the process at the head of the active queue until it is destroyed by a join or until it moves to the inactive queue. The Tera/Cray MTA machine embodied some of these ideas. This seems to me to be a very productive way to use the enormous number of transistors Intel can put on a chip these days.
          By: Dileep Bhandarkar   
The idea of multicore is a natural progression of the computer industry. As Moore's Law allows more transistors on a single die, more and more functions migrate on to the processor silicon. Examples from the past are caches and floating point units. Dual core processors started appearing about 5 years ago (I may be off by a year or two) at the high end. IBM and HP introduced dual core processors in their high end RISC products. PC processors tend to use smaller die size since they are more cost driven. In 65 nm technology, our first monolithic dual core processor (code named Yonah) fit in 90 mm2. The rest, as they say, is history.
          What Makes the SGI 1600SW So Sought After?   
Silicon Graphics' 1600SW Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display monitor is definitely one of a kind. It's so advanced and well-made that it's still used and still sought out even though it was first introduced on the market back in 1998.
          Buy Transistor, PC/Mac/Linux – £2.24   
Buy Transistor, PC/Mac/Linux – £2.24
          Tasche ° Kofferradio - Kassette ° Schultertasche   
29,95 EUR
Vintage ? Style ? Kassettentasche # Radio # Kofferradio # R?hrenradio # Transistorradio #Ein wahrer Blickfang, wer tr?gt schon eine Tasche im Stil eines Kofferradios um die Schulter?! Die schicke Schultertasche ist in verschiedenen Farben erh?ltlich. Die Seiten der Tasche sind miteinander vernietet, der Deckel?ist mit einem Magnetverschluss verschlie?bar.Farbe: w?hlbarMaterial: Kunstleder/Kunststoff Gr??e: ca.?26 x 11 x?18 cm (lxbxh)Die Tasche bildet nur ein Radio ab, sie hat an sich keine Radiofunktion!

An embodiment includes an apparatus comprising: a non-planar fm having first, second, and third portions each having major and minor axes and each being monolithic with each other; wherein (a) the major axes of the first, second, and third portions are parallel with each other, (b) the major axes of the first and second portions are non-collinear with each other, (c) each of the first, second, and third portions include a node of a transistor selected from the group comprising source, drain, and channel, (e) the first, second, and third portions comprise at least one fmFET. Other embodiments are described herein.
          Working in Technical Sales at Intel in Europe   

Intel is the world’s largest and most successful producer of transistor technology in the world, but if you think PC technology is all Intel does, think again. We are innovators that are seeking to develop solutions to a broad spectrum … Read more >

The post Working in Technical Sales at Intel in Europe appeared first on Jobs@Intel Blog.

          Procesadores desde 8086 hasta el actual

Noticias relacionadas

Intel dice "adiós" al Pentium

Tanto Intel como Microsoft deben gran parte de lo que son a su alianza inicial con IBM. Los primeros PCs que llegaron al mercado destacaban por su procesadores fabricados por Intel y el sistema operativo desarrollado por Microsoft, ¿quien iba a decirle al gigante azul que su apuesta por dos jóvenes empresas iba a desembocar en la creación de sendos imperios que marcarían el rumbo de la sociedad del conocimiento?.

Para Intel, todo empezó en los meses de junio de 1978 y de 1979. Fechas en las que respectivamente, hacían su aparición los microprocesadores 8086 y 8088, que conformarian el "motor" sobre el que rodaban los denominados IBM PC, precursores de los actuales ordenadores y que fueron todo un éxito de ventas a pesar de su coste "prohibitivo" en aquellos momentos. éxito fue tal, que Intel fue nombrada por la revista "Fortune" como uno de los mejores negocios de los años setenta. De los dos procesadores, el más potente era el 8086, con un bus de 16 bits (por fin), velocidades de reloj de 5, 8 y 10 MHz, 29000 transistores usando la tecnología de 3 micras y hasta un máximo de 1 Mega de memoria direccionable. El rendimiento se había vuelto a multiplicar por 10 con respecto a su antecesor, lo que suponía un auténtico avance en lo que al mundo de la informática se refiere. En cuanto al procesador 8088, era exactamente igual a éste, salvo la diferencia de que poseía un bus de 8 bits en lugar de uno de 16, siendo más barato y obteniendo mejor respaldo en el mercado. el año 1982, concretamente el 1 de febrero, Intel daba un nuevo vuelco a la industria con la aparición de los primeros 80286. Como principal novedad, cabe destacar el hecho de que por fin se podía utilizar la denominada memoria virtual, que en el caso del 286 podía llegar hasta 1 Giga. También hay que contar con el hecho de que el tiempo pasado había permitido a los ingenieros de Intel investigar más a fondo en este campo, movidos sin duda por el gran éxito de ventas de los anteriores micros. Ello se tradujo en un bus de 16 bits, 134000 transistores usando una tecnología de 1.5 micras, un máximo de memoria direccionable de 16 Megas y unas velocidades de reloj de 8, 10 y 12 MHz. En términos de rendimiento, podíamos decir que se había multiplicado entre tres y seis veces la capacidad del 8086, y suponía el primer ordenador que no fabricaba IBM en exclusiva, sino que otras muchas compañías, alentadas por los éxitos del pasado, se decidieron a crear sus propias máquinas. Como dato curioso, baste mencionar el hecho de que en torno a los seis años que se le concede de vida útil, hay una estimación que apunta a que se colocaron en torno a los 15 millones de ordenadores en todo el mundo.

Microsoft también juega año de 1985 es clave en la historia de los procesadores. El 17 de octubre Intel anunciaba la aparición del procesador 80386DX, el primero en poseer una arquitectura de 32 bits, lo que suponía una velocidad a la hora de procesar las instrucciones realmente importante con respecto a su antecesor. Dicho procesador contenía en su interior en torno a los 275000 transistores, más de 100 veces los que tenía el primer 4004 después de tan sólo 14 años. El reloj llegaba ya hasta un máximo de 33 MHz, y era capaz de direccionar 4 Gigas de memoria, tamaño que todavía no se ha superado por otro procesador de Intel dedicado al mercado doméstico.

En 1988, Intel desarrollaba un poco tarde un sistema sencillo de actualizar los antiguos 286 gracias a la aparición del 80386SX, que sacrificaba el bus de datos para dejarlo en uno de 16 bits, pero a menor coste.

Estos procesadores irrumpieron con la explosión del entorno gráfico Windows, desarrollado por Microsoft unos años antes, pero que no había tenido la suficiente aceptación por parte de los usuarios. También había habido algunos entornos que no habían funcionado mal del todo, como por ejemplo el Gem 3, pero no es hasta este momento cuando este tipo de entornos de trabajo se popularizan, facilitando la tarea de enfrentarse a un ordenador, que por aquel entonces sólo conocíamos unos pocos. Windows vino a ser un soplo de aire fresco para la industria, pues permitió que personas de cualquier condición pudiera manejar un ordenador con unos requerimientos mínimos de informática. si esto parecía la revolución, no tuvimos que esperar mucho para que el 10 de abril de 1989 apareciera el Intel 80486DX, de nuevo con tecnología de 32 bits y como novedades principales, la incorporación del caché de nivel 1 (L1) en el propio chip, lo que aceleraba enormemente la transferencia de datos de este caché al procesador, así como la aparición del co-procesador matemático, también integrado en el procesador, dejando por tanto de ser una opción como lo era en los anteriores 80386. Dos cambios que unido al hecho de que por primera vez se sobrepasaban el millón de transistores usando la tecnología de una micra (aunque en la versión de este procesador que iba a 50 MHz se usó ya la tecnología .8 micras), hacía posible la aparición de programas de calidad sorprendente, entre los que los juegos ocupan un lugar destacado.

Se había pasado de unos ordenadores en los que prácticamente cualquier tarea compleja requería del intérprete de comandos de MS-DOS para poder ser realizada, a otros en los que con mover el cursor y pinchar en la opción deseada simplificaba en buena medida las tareas más comunes. Por su parte, Intel volvió a realizar, por última vez hasta el momento, una versión de este procesador dos años después. Se trataba del 80486SX, idéntico a su hermano mayor salvo que no disponía del famoso co-procesador matemático incorporado, lo que suponía una reducción del coste para aquellas personas que desearan introducirse en el segmento sin necesidad de pagar una suma elevada. embargo, y por primera vez Intel se sentía acosado por nuevos competidores que aprovechaban el crecimiento del mercado para introducir procesadores más económicos y con una potencia semejante. Una firma veterana, AMD, se valió de un acuerdo firmado con Intel para lanzar "clónicos" de los populares 386 Y 486 a precios más económicos. Esto era posible debido al acuerdo de intercambio de licencias y tecnología que ambas firmas firmaron a principios de los 80 y que les permitía convivir en buena lid en un mercado que no era tan feroz como el actual y donde las ventas, aunque importantes, eran limitadas a determinados mercados.

Con la llegada de los procesadores 386 y posteriormente la familia 486, el mercado de ordenadores de sobremesa se disparo y se inició la entrada del ordenador al hogar lo que supuso multiplicar por decenas las ventas que hasta en ese momento realizaban los fabricantes. de los grandes éxitos de AMD fue el procesador Am486 que conseguía una velocidad, tanto en bus como en procesador, de 40 Mhz. Intel se quedo anclado en sus dos versiones con  bus de 25 y 33 Mhz para sus modelos de 50 y 66 Mhz respectivamente, una "velocidad inferior" a la conseguida por su competidor.  AMD disfrutó siempre de esta ventaja, su bus de datos ha sido mucho tiempo más rápido, y los entendidos sabían que la potencia del procesador no sólo se basa en la velocidad del micro.én otra empresa, Cyrix plantaba cara a Intel. Apostó por el mercado de modelos económicos y también por ordenadores portátiles, arañando parcelas a Intel, que ya estaba preparando lo que debía ser la nueva generación de procesadores, más potentes y con mayores capacidades multimedia.

Llega el Pentium

Con el nuevo procesador, Intel sacudió el mercado. En sus anuncios iniciales la compañía que esta nueva gama de procesadores multiplicaría de forma general por cinco los rendimientos medios de los 80486. La prensa de todo el mundo auguraba un gran futuro para el nuevo procesador que fue inicialmente conocido como 586 y después P5, hasta que se desvelo su nombre definitivo.

Estos procesadores pasarán a la historia por ser los primeros a los que Intel no los bautizó con un número, y sí con una palabra. Esto era debido a que otras compañías dedicadas a la producción de procesadores estaban utilizando los mismos nombres puesto que no se podía registrar una cadena de ellos como marca, y por lo tanto, eran de dominio público. De modo que a Intel no le quedó más remedio que ponerle una palabra a su familia de procesadores, que además, con el paso del tiempo, se popularizó en los Estados Unidos de tal forma, que era identificada con velocidad y potencia en numerosos cómics y programas de televisión. Estos procesadores que partían de una velocidad inicial de 60 MHz, han llegado hasta los 200 MHz, algo que nadie había sido capaz de augurar unos años antes. una arquitectura real de 32 bits, se usaba de nuevo la tecnología de .8 micras, con lo que se lograba realizar más unidades en menos espacio (ver recuadro explicativo). Los resultados no se hicieron esperar, y las compañías empezaron aunque de forma tímida a lanzar programas y juegos exclusivamente para el Pentium, hasta el punto que en este momento quien no posea un procesador de este tipo, está seriamente atrasado y no puede trabajar con garantías con los programas que actualmente hay en el mercado. Algo que ha venido a demostrar la aparición del nuevo sistema operativo de Microsoft Windows 95, que aunque funciona en equipos dotados de un procesador 486, lo hace sin sacar el máximo partido de sus funciones.

Para atajar la competencia de AMD, Intel protegió con patentes todo el procesador. De repente AMD se quedo sin un procesador que hiciera frente a la demanda de los Pentium y renovó sus 486 hasta multiplicarlos por 4, aunque el mercado quería Pentiums y no "trasnochados" 486. respuesta fue el K-5. Un procesador que llego meses más tarde al mercado y que además presentaba algunos fallos importantes en su nucleo. A la desesperada, AMD engañó a algunos usuarios con un nombre de procesador que incluía una velocidad que no era la real. En esta época de 1992-1996, Pentium ganó una popularidad desbordante, Internet surgía y el márketing (y el rendimiento) de Intel hundía a AMD

Pentium Pro y Pentium II aparición, el 27 de marzo de 1995, del procesador Pentium Pro supuso para los servidores de red y las estaciones de trabajo un aire nuevo, tal y como ocurriera con el Pentium en el ámbito doméstico. La potencia de este nuevo procesador no tenía comparación hasta entonces, gracias a la arquitectura de 64 bits y el empleo de una tecnología revolucionaria como es la de .32 micras, lo que permitía la inclusión de cinco millones y medio de transistores en su interior. El procesador contaba con un segundo chip en el mismo encapsulado, que se encargaba de mejorar la velocidad de la memoria caché, lo que resultaba en un incremento del rendimiento sustancioso. Las frecuencias de reloj se mantenían como límite por arriba en 200 MHz, partiendo de un mínimo de 150 MHz.

Posteriormente, Intel unifico las prestaciones del Pentium Pro con las del MMX para sacar al mercado el Pentium II, en una carrera alocada que el fabricante (junto a sus competidores) protagonizaron hasta el último de los Pentiums, el IV con una velocidad de 3 GHZ.

Del Pentium III al IV

Mientras Intel se confiaba, nacía NexGen, una nueva compañía que, aunque primeriza, creó un procesador espectacular para la época, aunque para nada conocido por culpa de su forma de conectarse a la placa que limitaba su difusión. La jugada de AMD le salvó la vida comercial. Compró NexGen, sus patentes, y mejoró sus diseños en la medida de lo posible. Así consiguió el K-6, un chip que superaba a Pentium, Pentium MMX e incluso se acercaba al Pentium II. Un impresionante despliegue para redescubrir la marca en el mercado hizo el resto. K6-2 fue un bombazo en el mercado, que compitió con Pentium II e incluso los primeros Pentium III. Los problemas de fabricación hicieron que AMD no pudiera continuar la racha con k-6 III, que no fue ni de lejos tan popular como su antecesor. Pentium jugó con varias posibilidades para hacerle frente, como la salida al mercado de Celeron, un micro de gama baja sin memoria caché que reducía espectacularmente el rendimiento del procesador, aunque se vendiera a unos Mhz (que no velocidad) mayores. Tuvo que arreglar el desaguisado, porque los pésimos resultados dejaron en ridículo a la compañía, incorporando una pequeña caché en las versiones posteriores.

AMD sigue llamando a sus procesadores Athlon, y ya llegan a los 3GHZ, mientras que Intel sigue con su P4, incorporando mejoras como HiperThreading y EE. registraba pérdidas, sus éxitos no compensaban sus fracasos y la cuota de mercado se resistía. Necesitaba un golpe de efecto para seguir viva, y lo consiguieron con Athlon (y su versión de bajo coste Duron). Fue un procesador superior a los de Intel en muchos aspectos. Pentium III reaccionó rápido y ambas empresas protagonizaron una interesante carrera por llegar al Ghz de velocidad. Intel se daba cuenta de la superioridad de AMD y presionaba a los fabricantes de placas para que no crearan placas compatibles con el nuevo sistema de conexión que introdujo AMD. hacia delante, los caminos se separan. La arquitectura de los procesadores, la manera de crearlos, su "filosofía", ha evolucionado hacia los 64 bits. Ahora Intel decide que existe otra manera de hacer las cosas que rompe con todo lo conocido hasta el momento. AMD cree que es posible dar una nueva vuelta de tuerca a la arquitectura x86, presentando una nueva generación de este tipo de procesadores que ha acompañado siempre a los PC.

Leer Procesadores desde 8086 hasta el actual en mantenimiento preventivo de equipos de computo

          Carbon Nanotubes Reduce Transistor Footprint to Forty Nanometers   
Nanotubes offer a path towards meeting an ITRS benchmark a decade from now
          Los procesadores de 10 nm ya estan aquí y los trae Qualcomm.   
Hoy fué presentado por Qualcomm Inc. ha presentado el Qualcomm Centriq 2400, con 48 nucleos y transistores de tipo FinFet de 10nm, destinado para ser usado en servidores. 

Hasta el momento Intel dominaba el territorio con los 14nm, y se han adelantado, ya que Intel tenia pensado este salto hasta la segunda mitad de 2017.

Evolución de las CPU Intel y sus transistores
La lucha por el tamaño de los transistores se basa en cuestión de tamaño, y en este caso mientras mas pequeño mejor, ya que al disminuir el tamaño de los transistores, es posible tener mas en una área menor, lo que se traduce en una aumento en la velocidad de cálculos del procesador en menor tamaño.
Resultado de imagen para transistor de 14nm

Importancia de los nanómetros.

          Sehat Sutardja, Orang Indonesia Tersukses di Silicon Valley   

Ketika mendengar nama Silicon Valley, mungkin yang langsung terlintas di benak kita adalah "markas" dari perusahaan teknologi bergengsi dunia. Namun siapa sangka, di sana ada diaspora Indonesia yang sukses dengan pencapaian gemilang.

Adalah Sehat Sutardja, orang Indonesia kelahiran Jakarta yang merupakan co-founder dari perusahaan semikonduktor Marvell Technology Group. Ia menjadi salah satu pembicara di Kongres Diaspora Indonesia, yang mulai berlangsung Sabtu (1/7/2017) di The Kasablanka, Kota Kasablanka, Jakarta.

Sebelum Sehat berbicara di hadapan ribuan orang yang menghadiri acara tersebut, ketua Board of Trustees Indonesia Diaspora Network Global Dino Patti Djalal bahkan menyebut pria pemegang titel S-1 hingga S-3 di bidang engineering itu sebagai orang Indonesia tersukses di Silicon Valley. Ungkapan itu tidaklah berlebihan, mengingat Sehat mengantongi ratusan paten dan perusahaan yang ia dirikan memiliki ribuan karyawan dengan kantor di berbagai negara di dunia.

Saat bercerita kepada audiens, Sehat mengungkapkan bagaimana ia pertama kali tertarik kepada transistor hingga lika-liku yang ia hadapi.

"Waktu saya berusia dua belas tahun, saya mulai tertarik untuk bisa memahami bagaimana cara kerja transistor. Buat ukuran anak dua belas tahun, menyenangi transistor tentu hal yang aneh," kata pria yang pernah menjadi pembicara di ajang World Economic Forum tersebut.

Lebih lanjut ia mengatakan, orangtuanya pada awalnya justru menginginkan ia menjadi dokter karena profesi ini dianggap menjanjikan.

"Ibu saya bilang, 'Kamu harus jadi dokter, supaya banyak uang, nanti beli rumah bagus'. Namun saya tetap pada pendirian, saya cuma mau belajar transistor atau elektronik," ungkapnya.

Tonton video menarik berikut ini:

Sehat Sutardja di World Economic Forum on East Asia di Jakarta, Indonesia, 2011. Kredit:  World Economic Forum by Sikarin Thanachaiary via Wikipedia

Belajar di tengah keterbatasan referensi

Saat itu referensi untuk belajar transistor dan ilmu elektronik sangat terbatas. Referensi pertama yang ia gunakan adalah majalah berbahasa Tiongkok dari Hong Kong, yang diterjemahkan oleh ibunya. Kemudian ia mencari referensi lain untuk memuaskan dahaganya dalam belajar transistor.

"Saya masih ingat, saya cari di Yellow Pages, menemukan alamat tukang servis radio di daerah Pasar Baru. Saya pergi menemuinya untuk minta diajari soal transistor, tapi tidak cocok, lalu mencari orang lain hingga akhirnya bisa memahami dasar cara kerja transistor dan elektronik serta mendapat sertifikat keahlian untuk servis radio," paparnya.

"Kegilaan" Sehat terhadap transistor kian menjadi-jadi. Ia bisa menghabiskan waktu tiga hingga empat jam per hari untuk bergelut dengan dunia transistor dan elektronik hingga suatu waktu ia berhasil merangkai alat elektronik sendiri yang dapat berfungsi.

'Hijrah' ke Amerika Serikat

Diakuinya, orang-orang di sekitarnya saat itu ada yang meragukan Sehat bisa sukses dengan modal pemahaman di bidang elektronik. Ia pun memutuskan untuk pindah ke Amerika Serikat.

"Kalau mau betul-betul paham elektronik, artinya saya harus pergi ke tempat di mana elektronik lahir. Makanya saya pergi ke AS," ujarnya.

Pendiriannya yang teguh menekuni bidang elektronik hingga mendulang sukses juga mengisyaratkan bahwa seseorang tidak perlu hebat di banyak bidang, melainkan cukup di satu bidang saja.

"Kalau kamu suka seni, ya habiskan waktu dan upaya kalian setidaknya tiga sampai empat jam per hari untuk belajar seni," pungkasnya.


          Diamond D-707 Repair   
Diamond D-707
Ever since I could try out active antennas, I have become a great fan of them. Well, some of them.

For VHF/UHF I used to use a Diamond D-707 omni-directional antenna. It is specified to work from 500kHz to 1500MHz. To be honest - for long, medium and shortwave I have something better, but for VHF/UHF this antenna is excellent when you have little space and want to cover as much as you can with one antenna. The amp is said to have 20dB gain, the gain is adjustable by means of a supply voltage regulator.

But as things go, somewhen the D-707 broke, the amplifier didn't amplify anymore. I assume it was either a close by lightning strike or myself transmitting with too much power in too little distance :(

That was a pity because Diamond has stopped production of this antenna somewhen in the year 200x, for unknown reasons. I did not throw away my antennas (I had two of them), with the idea of repairing them somewhen. Somewhen is now, 2015.

By removing the screw at the lower part of the antenna, you can slide the whole assembly out of the white plastic tube. The antenna it self is a stiff brass wire with two coils. It is protected with some foam against movement inside the plastic tube. The amplifier sits in a brass tube at the lower end, see picture. Oh, and my apologies for the  bad quality of the pictures...

The D-707 am in it's brass tube, PL socket to the left, antenna to the right.
The silver antenna part can be unscrewed from the amp.

The challenge was to open the brass tube. Impatient as I am i used a small Proxon tool to cut the brass tube open, because neither the PL socket at the lower end, nor the plastic cap at the other end turned, even when applying some considerable force. So here is how the amp looks at the inside.

D-707 amplifier board

The PL socket is to the right, the plastic cap to the left. The components on the PCB are protected by some rubbery glue, perhaps to protect them against humidity inside the antenna. I was able to remove most of that glue with mechanical tools, perhaps some chemistry would have done a faster and better job (Acetone?).

To find out what's wrong with the antenna, I needed a schematic and information about the components. So I took some time and traced the components, and here is the schematic of the amplifier. It is a quite simple two stage amp with low-noise 2SC4226 transistors. They are made by Renesas and other manufacturers and are specified up to 1GHz, but are usable somwhat above that frequency with an acceptable noise figure. I used KiCad for drawing the schematic.

D-707 amplifier schematic

I hope it's correct...

And here is a somewhat larger view of the PCB.

D-707 amplifier board close-up

Of course all components except the the inductors are SMD. I did not bother to make measurements of what might actually be broken -  I simply assumed that one or both transistors were defective and needed to be exchanged. So I ordered some 2SC4226 from an online store in Israel and received them a few days later. The shipping cost were higher than the product cost. Since my eyes aren't good enough anymore, and my hands not steady enough, I asked my colleague Daniel to swap the transistors. He did that, and that put the antenna back in perfect function. Many thanks, Daniel!

He also found out how to open the brass tube which encloses the transistor without brute force methods. Both, the plastic cap and the PL socket are glued into the brass tube thread and can be removed by heating the brass tube carefully.

First unscrew the antenna from thin brass thread which protudes on top of the black plastic thingie. This reveals a solder center in the brass part. Heat carefully and remove all solder with a desoldering pump or desoldering braid made for that purpose. Be careful not to overheat the small brass part, it will melt the plastic part.
Now heat the lower part of the brass tube, where the PL socket is. Try to turn it (unscrew) it carefully. If all solder has been remove at the other end the PCB inside should rotate with the PL socket and come unscrewed after a moment.

The only way to check for proper function is to use the antenna. A small hint is the current intake, the amplifier requires 35mA @12V when functioning as specified.

My experiences with this antenna on VHF and UHF are good, considered that this is a wideband antenna from 500kHz to 1500MHz. Any dedicated VHF or UHF or even dual band antenna will work better on these bands, but I need a wideband antenna for WFM, DAB+, DVB-T and so on, without the space for dedicated, narrow band antennas. So the D-707 is perfect for me, my DAB+ reception was never that good as with this active antenna.

Next is a test of this antenna at 1090MHz for ADS-B reception.

Have fun and good DX.

Album Review: The 17-song MOSAIC was produced by John Feldmann (Blink-182, Panic! At The Disco, etc.) and Scotch Ralston (who produced 311’s iconic Transistor, Soundsystem and Stereolithic albums). With MOSAIC, 311 are approaching their 10th consecutive Top 10 album debut on the Billboard Top 200 Albums Chart. Tracklist: 1. Too Much To Think 3:54 2. […]

di Gianni Lannes

La fantascienza ha sostituito la realtà. La tecnocrazia ha preso il posto della democrazia. Il DNA umano è un’antenna. Le informazioni basilari sono alla portata di tutti, basta collegarle. Certo, conflitti di interesse, affarismo e corruzione abbondano, ma pochi hanno intuito il vero obiettivo finale. I vaccini sono il cavallo di Troia per entrare - con un pretesto inesistente (le epidemie) - dentro il corpo e dominarlo dalla culla alla tomba. In quale inferno tecnologico ci stanno incanalando? Ecco un video illuminante dell’università Bocconi risalente al 24 settembre 2012 alla presenza del ministro Passera, a cui partecipa la Novartis (che poi cederà il settore vaccini alla Glaxo) e il Corriere della Sera, in particolare il vice direttore Massimo Mucchetti, poi eletto al Parlamento nelle file del piddì, e firmatario di atti parlamentari relativi alla vaccinazione coercitiva:

E’ interessante il passaggio dal minuto 86 al 102: gli esperti parlano di sanità, microchip nel corpo e cosa deve fare lo Stato per favorire le multinazionali. IBM e GOOGLE si stanno posizionando, il pro rettore Perrone parla esplicitamente di “situazione tra Matrix e Orwell”. Bernabè della Telecom sfiora anche la "privacy". Pochi giorni dopo tale evento, il governo Monti vara il decreto legge 18 ottobre 2012, numero 179 ("Ulteriori  misure urgenti per la crescita del Paese", articolo 12), poi il decreto legge 69/2013 (articolo 17 - decreto del "Fare").

Il 29 settembre 2014, a Washington viene imposta all’Italia - tramite i plaudenti Lorenzin, Pecorelli (Aifa) e Guerra - la sperimentazione coercitiva di massa. L’indomani, Raniero Guerra con un piede nel consiglio d’amministrazione della fondazione Glaxo Smith Kline (produttori mondali di vaccini) viene nominato direttore generale del ministero “salute”: questo funzionario statale il 10 giugno 2017 ha diramato una circolare operativa sulla vaccinazione obbligatoria.

Poi colleghiamo questo:

E si capisce allora perché gli eterodiretti onorevoli grullini "sono per la massima copertura vaccinale:

Il 31 marzo 2016, mister Renzi ha venduto i dati sensibili presenti e futuri degli italiani all'Ibm, mentre il cosiddetto ufficio del garante della privacy ancora tace (Soro & Iannini: magistrato e moglie di Bruno Vespa):

Lo stesso Renzi è il firmatario il 29 settembre 2017 del dpcm 178 sul fascicolo sanitario elettronico sollecitato dall'Ibm, ovvero dall'impresa che fornisce i servizi.

Poi ragioniamo sugli studi di Ibm:

... e riflettiamo sugli annunci di Bill Gates:

.... fino a giungere:

 ... e qui:

... in corsa il premio: 

Infine il decreto legge che apre le porte alla sperimentazione proprio sul gregge più idoneo, quello italiano:

          Boosting effectiveness sterile flat    
Having fun at activity is an critical component in maintaining mental state and boosting effectiveness. Sterile, flat and romp disentangled engaged environments are promising to head to an hyperbolic turnover rate of staff, because backup like to socialize at effort. This nonfictional prose examines quite a few practicable way in which dramatic composition can be integrated in the work for the plus point of some the leader and the employee.Designate Play ZonesOne of the largest snags beside staff attractive in non activity endeavours is that they can rumple other workers say them who are attachment to slog. Organisations stipulation to designate zones wherever backup can switch off from labour for cardinal account without it impacting upon else employees. Consider creating a games area that can be transistorised next to tarn tables, diversion systems, sofa's and an full give of refreshments. By doing this personnel will against the clock incriminate their bureau beside trade and are apt to be more admiring of those circa them.Post ads:Baby Sayings Bodysuit - Relatives Girl / Dc Apparel - Kids Boys 8-20 Hackelman Long Sleeve By Woven / RVCA Boys 8-20 Tone 3/4 Baseball Tee / Lilly Pulitzer Girls 7-16 Mini Cassie Tee Solid / Blueberi Boulevard Baby-girls Newborn Printed Corduroy / 6-Pack Computer Cushion Socks / Babytogs Girls 2-6X 3 Piece Cardigan Sweater / Ixtreme Boys 8-20 Polar Fleece Color Block Jacket / Imse Vimse Swim Diaper / Lamaze Mittens the Kitten / Lauren Madison baby girl Christening Baptism Special / Little Me Unisex-baby Newborn Lovable Cable Sweater / Little Me Footie, Geo Floral / N'ice Caps Thinsulate Waterproof Zig Zag Ski Glove / Thomas & Friends Tank Engine Pajama Set / Calvin Klein Girls 7-16 Ck 2 Piece Thermal Sleepwear Set / Absorba Baby Fuzzy Footie / Rothschild Boys 8-20 Jacket with Plaid Insert / Columbia Girls 7-16 Pearl Plush Full Zip JacketDesignate Play Periods
          By: Livio   
<strong>Claudio ci ha chiesto</strong> Per controllare dei solenoidi, e fargli emettere dei suoni con uscite pwm-fast, mi servono dei transistor. Al momento userei dei solenoidi da 12 Volt 0.5 Ampere. Andrebbe bene il transistor "BUK78150-55A" che si compra da RS? Considerando che potrei nel tempo usare solenoidi anche più grandi, mi servirebbero transistor sovradimensionati per non avere mai problemi di voltaggio ed amperaggio. Vorrei fare un ordine in rete e fare scorta. <strong>RISPOSTA</strong> Il modello che hai indicato è un MOSFET e va distinto dai transistor perché il modo di pilotarli è leggermente diverso (non necessitano di resistore di ingresso) Il MOSFET che hai indicato è in formato SOIC, cioè piccolissimo e quasi impossibile da saldare se non hai il circuito stampato fatto apposta per lui. Inoltre comprare da RS (o Farnell o Mouser) comporta enormi spese di spedizione (30 euro circa) a meno che non fai acquisti da almeno 80 euro, quindi è meglio comprare su eBay. =========================== Quali modelli scegliere =========================== Per i modelli di transistor o Mosfet scegli quelli che sono indicati sul nostro sito, cioè i seguenti. I Mosfet scaldano meno e sono più facili da collegare, ma DEVONO essere modelli con pilotaggio a meno di 3 Volt, quindi SOLO quelli indicati qui di seguito. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- MOSFET (con case piccolo – quasi un SOIC) ----------------------------------------------------------------------- PMT29EN .............. 30V 6A BUK78150-55A ...... 55V 5A BUK9840-55 .......... 55V 10A -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MOSFET (con case TO220 – grande e facile da saldare) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IRLB8721 .............. 30V 60A ...... <strong> COMPRA QUESTI</strong> STP55NF06L ........ 60V 55A ...... <strong> OPPURE QUESTI</strong> Per i transistor ci vuole un resistore da 1k, posizionato in serie lungo il filo di segnale che va dal Master alla base del transistor. Transistor (darlington) (con case TO220) ----------------------------------------------------------------------- TIP120 ................ 60V 5A .... OPPURE QUESTI (per spendere poco) Tutti i transistor e Mosfet dovrebbero essere TO220 oppure I2PAK e non SOIC, altrimenti diventa difficile saldarli. Esistono anche Mosfet in TO220 con la parte metallica isolata, quindi più facili da fissare a un dissipatore se necessario. Ma attenzione che devono essere con pilotaggio inferiore a 3 Volt, altrimenti non funzionano bene e scaldano moltissimo.
          lampu darurat mini   
kali ini saya akan memposting bagaimana cara membuat lampu emergency mini ini. puasa-puasa beginian paling enak  buat emergency sendiri tanpa harus mengeluarkan biaya yang cukup banyak. daripada beli lampu emergency yang siap pakai. mendingan buat sendiri. tau nggak bahwa lampu yang siap pakai harganya mahal. cepat rusak lagi. nah buatan sendiri lebih awet praktis,irit biaya lagi.....dibanding lampu yang siap pakai ok berikut skematiknya:


Untuk mulai dengan kita menggunakan 4-5V dc power supply  tanpa transformator. Selanjutnya, input AC 220V  melalui R1 untuk  saat ini dan D1 untuk penyearah AC ke DC dalam setengah jenis gelombang. Kemudian, pulsa dc atau sinyal berfluktuasi adalah merapikan dengan C1-kapasitor. Yang memiliki tegangan jatuh di dari 4.5Vdc

Dan kemudian SW1 digunakan untuk menghidupkan-off rangkaian berikutnya sebagai sensor, kontrol, pengisi baterai dan sirkuit lampu. Pertama-tama, secara normal daya lampu pergi keluar tidak ringan sejak lulus saat ini untuk R4 ke basis Q1 menyebabkan bias sehingga arus tinggi melalui D2-dioda, R5-resistor untuk kolektor-emitor Q1. Jadi tidak memiliki bias saat ke basis Q2, Q3 (Darlington transistor) karena mereka tidak melakukan saat ini, jadi tidak memiliki Lampu lulus saat ini, jadi tidak ringan.

Dan kemudian AC power line pergi keluar, Jadi tidak memiliki arus melalui S1, kemudian arus dari baterai 3V tidak saat ini melalui D2 disebabkan oleh dioda tidak memungkinkan saat ini sebagai, adalah jalan satu arah. Ini tidak akan bekerja jika Anda memasukkannya ke dalam belakang. Dan membuat Q1 tidak bekerja.

Tapi baterai ini arus akan mengalir ke R5 melalui basis Q2, Q3 mereka jadi arus bias adalah hasil dari aliran arus tinggi ke Lamp cahaya cahaya sekaligus.

Teman dapat menggunakan NiCad Baterai atau baterai NiMH ukuran adalah 1.2V x 2 memberikan cahaya memiliki cukup. Sirkuit ini dapat mengisi baterai secara otomatis

komponen detail:
Q1,Q2,Q3______C9014,C9013___1A 50V__NPN transistor
D1____________1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
D2_______________1N4004 400V 1A Diodes
L1_______________2.4V 5W Lamp
L2_______________Neon Lamp
S1______________Slider Switch
C1______________ 47µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitors
R1______________220K___1/2W resistors
R2______________33K___1W resistors
R3______________10K___1/2W resistors
R4______________1K____1/2W resistors
R5______________15K___1/2W resistors
B1______________3V battery (AA 1.2V)

SELAMAT MENCOBA  :-) ................
          skema lampu flip-flop menggunakan lampu halogen   

lampu flip-flop yang biasa kalian buat. kebanyakan yang menggunakan led. tapi kali ini menggunakan lampu senter kecil. bahan dan komponen yang mudah didapat. dan skema yang sangat sederhana..... berikut skematiknya:
Berikut adalah Peringatan Beacon 12v cocok untuk mobil atau truk break-down di sisi jalan. Kunci untuk operasi dari rangkaian tersebut adalah keuntungan yang tinggi dari transistor Darlington. Rangkaian harus dijaga "ketat" (kawat tebal) untuk memastikan itu akan berosilasi.


source of:

          INVERTER 12V KE 220V 500WATT   
kali ini saya akan memposting bagaimana caranya membuat inverter 12v ke 220v. inverter ini munkin banyak dijual di toko elektronika(alias yang sudah jadi). tau gak bahwa inverter yang sudah jadi lebih mahal hingga ratusan. daripada beli, medingan buat aja sendiri. ok liat dulu skemanya:

inverter  ini menggunakan trafo ct 12v-12v . untuk transistor 2n3055 diberi heatsink . untuk baterai bisa menggunakan aki 12v 50 a. bisa juga ditancapkan ke aki mobil

bahan komponen:
R1,R4,R7,R10:  10K
R2,R3: 150K
R5,R13: 47K
R6,R14: 100K
R8,R11: 220 OHM
R15,R16: 22 OHM 10WATTS

Q1-Q4 : 2SC9012
Q7,Q8: 2N3055
Q5-Q6: 2SC1061
RX1: 100 OHM 1/4WATT
RX2: 0.1 OHM 10 WATT

          skema amplifier sederhana    

source of:
kali ini saya akan mempostingkan bagaimana caranya membuat amplifier sederhana. amplifier atau penguat akhir ini sederhana dibuat. bahkan IC nya menggunakan TDA 280m  tidak mudah panas dari pada ic TDAxxx yang lainya ok berikut skematiknya:
Sebuah tujuan power amplifier audio umum adalah harus memiliki untuk amatir elektronik. Ini bukan hal yang baik untuk menggunakan set HiFi Anda untuk percobaan, ketika ada risiko meniup itu transistor keluar. Penguat untuk eksperimen Anda harus sederhana dalam konstruksi, tahan lama, dan mudah untuk memperbaiki. Juga, konsumsi daya yang rendah dan portabel bertenaga baterai. Mengambil pertimbangan di atas, saya memberi Anda rancangan PCB untuk amplifier berbasis TBA820M. Hal ini dinilai untuk 2Watts output daya RMS (16W PMPO) tetapi memberikan bahkan dua kali lebih banyak jika Anda dingin dengan baik oleh beberapa trik. Saya telah menggunakan sirkuit ini selama lebih dari sepuluh tahun dan secara pribadi masih terkejut dengan daya tahan itu, berpikir tentang berapa banyak sirkuit pendek dan alat penambah kecepatan itu dikenakan.
 Data teknis:
Suplai tegangan: 3 sampai 16 Volt
Beban impedansi: 4 ke 16 ohm
Output daya: 2 Watts RMS
Gain: 40dB (x100)

sobat juga bisa mengubah amplifier ini menjadi stereo, dengan membuat 2 rangkaian yang sama persis. disini ada pcb layout nya:

sobat juga bisa menambah potensiometer 100k. tapi jangan memilih yang kakinya 3(MONO) harus KAKINYA 6 (stereo)

selamat mencoba...
          skema penerima sinyal remote    
 remote banyak kita temui di pasar elektronik surabaya lt 2 yaitu pasar genteng surabaya, berbagai macam merk dan bentuk hingga harga yang murah, kini jenis remote banyak digunakan untuk tv,ac,proyektor,dvd,dan lainya. nah kita tidak tau kapan remote itu rusak, banyak tester remote terjual di pasaran elektronik. tetapi bila kita malas untuk membeli dan membuatnya bagaimana kita cek dengan menggunakan kamera hp atau kamera digital.
1. didepan remote ada sebuah lampu IR LED kita hadapkan pada kamera hp
2. pencet salah satu tombol tahan terus sampai IR LED menyala
3. ketika remote itu normal maka akan menyala warna ungu seperti gambar ini:
 4. ketika IR LED remote tidak menyala berati menandakan baterai remote sudah  habis atau remote sudah tidak berfungsi lagi
nah untuk receivernya (penerima sinyal remote) ada di bagian tv atau dvd nya biasanya komponenya berwarna hitam dengan kaki 3 sama seperti transistor dengan harga rp.5000. kita bisa buat sendiri receivernya dengan komponen tak begitu membingungkan berikut skematiknya:
Sirkuit ini merupakan pemancar IR dan penerima IR dengan detektor 38kHz TSOP 1738 di penerima. Ini berarti sirkuit akan kebal terhadap cahaya ambient. Motor diaktifkan bila pemancar AKTIF.
untuk pemancar remotenya. gunakan yang khusus berikut skematik untuk pemancar remote:
source of:

SELAMAT MENCOBA...............

          skema tester zener dan transistor   
skema kali ini adalah tester zener dan transistor tapi sulit bila kita membuat rangkaiannya  bisa-bisa rangkaian ini gagal bagi orang yang tak teliti bila orang yang teliti maka rangkaian ini akan jadi berikut skematiknya:
Sirkuit yang merupakan osilator flyback. Jenis ini dari osilator energises sebuah induktor kemudian mematikan sangat cepat dan medan magnet (fluks) yang diproduksi oleh induktor runtuh dan menghasilkan tegangan yang sangat tinggi dalam arah yang berlawanan. Tegangan maksimum dihasilkan oleh sirkuit tergantung pada "kemampuan tegangan maksimum" dari transistor.
The Tegangan yang dihasilkan oleh induktor adalah lebih dari 120V tapi transistor akan zener pada tegangan lebih rendah daripada ini dan dengan demikian tegangan output akan ditentukan oleh karakteristik dari transistor.
Sebuah dioda pada output dari induktor melewati tinggi ini-tegangan-lonjakan ke 1U elektrolitik, yang menyimpan energi dan menyediakan output tegangan tinggi.
Sirkuit yang akan menguji transistor sampai dengan 120V dan zeners sampai dengan tegangan dihasilkan oleh transistor.
Proyek ini dibangun pada strip dari PC papan potong menjadi tanah dengan file atau melihat. The diagram mengikuti menunjukkan penempatan bagian dan menghubungkan 5 sel tombol untuk papan.
Proyek ini dapat dibangun di malam dan ditambahkan ke EQUIPMENT UJI Anda.


kapasitor atau yang sering disebut dengan kapasitor elektrolit atau yang disingkat elco. komponen ini bisa dibeli do toko elektronik dengan harga yang murah.  dengan berbagai jeniz nilai dan voltasi yang berbeda-beda. kini kapasitor ada yang ukuranya besar hingga kecil. kapasitor elco dpt meledak dan mengeluarkan  cairn  bila kapasitor itu bernilai kecil atau voltasi pada kapasitor kurang besar.nah untuk
mengechek kapasitor rusak bisa dengan avo atau dengan skema berikut ini:
 Sebuah rangkaian atau "panggung" dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai IMPEDANSI TINGGI. Hal ini dapat merujuk pada IMPEDANSI INPUT atau OUTPUT IMPEDANCE atau KEDUA.
Impedansi tinggi umumnya mengacu pada komponen pada input atau output yang lebih tinggi dari 1M atau seperangkat komponen yang menyebabkan transistor untuk mengambil sangat sedikit saat ini. Jenis sirkuit ini sangat tidak stabil dan rentan terhadap gangguan dan kebisingan dan paku dari sumber eksternal. Selain itu, tegangan pada transistor akan berubah dengan suhu dan gain dari transistor.
Rangkaian berikut memiliki nilai resistor yang sangat tinggi pada transistor pertama dan ini memungkinkan untuk mendeteksi perubahan sangat kecil dalam tegangan karena perubahan sangat kecil dalam arus-arus dalam komponen di sirkuit.

Pertama dua transistor membentuk high gain amplifier sangat. Jika 100p akan dihapus, sirkuit tidak akan bekerja. Jika kapasitor ditempatkan pada dasar transistor pertama, sirkuit tidak akan bekerja. Rangkaian harus dijaga seperti yang ditunjukkan.Pertama dua transistor membentuk sangat tidak biasa "umpan balik-osilator."Rangkaian ini tidak benar-benar "osilator" tapi sirkuit dengan ketidakstabilan tinggi. Ini ketidakstabilan sama seperti "motor-boat" atau "menjerit." Umpan balik adalah 3M3 pada dasar transistor pertama. Ini memberikan sinyal dari output ke input. Rangkaian perlu "noise" untuk memulai operasi dan dapat duduk selama 5 detik sebelum diri-mulai.Mari kita lihat bagaimana dua transistor yang terhubung. Mereka terhubung langsung (disebut koneksi DC) dan ini membentuk sirkuit dengan keuntungan yang sangat tinggi (sekitar 250 x 250 = sekitar 60.000). Transistor dapat mencapai keuntungan yang sangat tinggi ketika ringan dimuat. Kedua transistor diatur sebagai common-emitter amplifier.Berikut adalah bagian yang menakjubkan dari sirkuit. 100p bertindak sebagai baterai isi ulang miniatur. Dibutuhkan waktu untuk mengisi dan debit dan menghasilkan waktu (frekuensi) untuk osilator.Untuk memulai diskusi kita mempertimbangkan 100p yang memegang emitor dari transistor pertama "kaku." Hal ini membuat panggung umum-emitor untuk transistor PNP.Transistor akan menghasilkan jumlah yang sangat kecil junction kebisingan dan karena 2M2 kolektor-beban adalah suatu nilai yang tinggi, suara akan diteruskan ke dasar transistor kedua. Kami akan menganggap ternyata transistor pertama ON sejumlah kecil karena ini persimpangan-noise. Ini akan membuat kenaikan tegangan kolektor dan ini akan diteruskan ke dasar transistor tengah.Ini akan mengaktifkan transistor menengah dan tegangan pada kolektor akan jatuh. Basis dari transistor pertama terhubung ke ini melalui 3M3, dan tegangan basis akan jatuh.Emitor sedang diadakan "up" oleh 100p dan karena tetes dasar-tegangan, transistor menyala lagi. Ia mendapat arus untuk menghidupkan dari energi dalam 100p dan ini memungkinkan transistor tengah untuk mengaktifkan lagi. Tindakan ini terus berlanjut dengan kedua transistor balik ON lebih dan lebih.Energi untuk menjaga transistor balik ON berasal dari 100p dan tegangan pada kapasitor ini turun. Akhirnya tegangan jatuh ke titik di mana transistor pertama tidak dapat memasok energi ke basis dari transistor kedua dan tegangan kolektor naik. Hal ini membuat basis transistor pertama naik dan itu akan dimatikan sedikit. Tindakan ini mematikan transistor tengah sedikit lebih dan akhirnya mereka berdua dimatikan. 100p sedang mengisi selama waktu ini melalui 3M3 dan akhirnya emitor naik ke titik di mana transistor pertama akan dihidupkan sejumlah kecil untuk memulai siklus berikutnya.Ada beberapa fitur yang Anda harus memahami dengan sirkuit ini, (transistor pertama) karena menggunakan nilai resistor yang sangat tinggi.1. Sinyal umpan balik akan melewati resistor 3M3 ke basis transistor pertama dengan sangat sedikit pelemahan (reduksi) karena basis menyajikan impedansi yang sangat tinggi karena fakta bahwa transistor sangat ringan dimuat dan basis membutuhkan sangat sedikit saat ini.2. Biasanya 100p yang tidak dapat digunakan untuk membuat frekuensi audio karena menyediakan sangat sedikit energi dan dapat hanya menghasilkan frekuensi yang sangat tinggi. Tapi ketika waktu resistor adalah nilai yang sangat tinggi (dalam hal ini 3M3 pada emitor) akan memakan waktu lama untuk mengisi dan debit dan frekuensi audio dapat diperoleh.100p itu melihat gelombang hampir 7v selama biaya dan siklus debit.

          skema tespen sederhana   
rangkaian tespen sederhana ini hanya membutuhkan led,transistor dan resistor dan  baterai. bayangkan jika kamu membeli tespen murahan di toko elektronik pastinya tespen itu membutuhkan kulit kamu sehingga tespen tersebut akan menyala. kalau rangkaian yang ini tidak sama sekali. jadinya aman buat kita dan kita tidak perlu khawatir untuk tersengat listrik berikut skematiknya :
Sirkuit ini mendeteksi "Aktif" kawat 110V AC atau 240V AC melalui probe dan tidak memerlukan "kontinuitas." Hal ini membuat detektor aman.  transistor bisa menggunaka 2n2222 bc547 dan senagai ya yang penting transistor NPN bukan PNP 


          skema tester kristal   

kristal umumny digunakan untuk rangkaian osilator komponen yang satu ini tidak asing di telinga kita komponen ini dapat ditemukan di sebuah radio mobil remot tv dll. nah kita bisa mengetest komonen ini dengan kristal tester berikut skematiknya:v
Sirkuit ini akan menguji kristal dari 1MHz sampai 30MHz. Ketika kristal berosilasi, output akan melewati kapasitor 1n ke dua dioda. Ini akan mengisi 4n7 dan menyalakan transistor kedua. Hal ini akan menyebabkan LED untuk menerangi.

selamat mencoba....
batery ni-cd atau batery yang bisa di charger biasaya dipakai untuk mobil remot, atau radio dll. baterai ini bertegangan 1.2v dibandingkan baterai biasa. 1.5v atau setengah volt. nah bila kalian me mpunyai mobil remot dan baterainya menggunaka baterai nicd seperti gambar diatas. tetapi tidak punya charger nicdnya. bagaimana skemanya. berikut skematiknya:
Ini pengisi daya baterai NiCd dapat mengisi hingga 8 sel NiCd dihubungkan secara seri. Angka ini bisa meningkat jika power supply meningkat sebesar 1.65V untuk setiap sel tambahan. Jika BD679 dipasang pada heatsink yang baik, tegangan input dapat ditingkatkan sampai maksimal 25v. Rangkaian tidak discharge baterai jika charger terputus dari power supply.
Biasanya sel NiCd harus dibebankan pada tingkat 14 jam. Ini adalah arus pengisian 10% dari kapasitas sel selama 14 jam. Hal ini berlaku untuk sel hampir datar. Misalnya, sel 600 mAh dikenakan biaya 60mA selama 14 jam. Jika arus pengisian terlalu tinggi akan merusak sel. Tingkat pengisian saat ini dikendalikan oleh pot 1k dari 0mA ke 600mA. BC557 dihidupkan ketika sel-sel NiCd dihubungkan dengan polaritas yang tepat. Jika Anda tidak dapat memperoleh BD679, menggantinya dengan NPN Darlington transistor daya menengah yang memiliki tegangan minimum 30V dan kemampuan arus 2A. Dengan menurunkan nilai dari 1 ohm resistor 0,5 ohm, arus output maksimum dapat ditingkatkan menjadi 1A.


SELAMAT MENCOBA....................
          Guía de lanzamientos en PlayStation: julio de 2017. La fantasía se renueva   
<p><img alt="290617 Lanzaplayjulio" class="centro_sinmarco" src="" /></p> <p>Cambiamos el formato de nuestra <a href="">guía de lanzamientos mensual</a>. Mientras seguimos manteniendo el Calendario, al que os podéis suscribir (<a href="">iCal</a>, <a href="">HTML</a>) y ver todos los juegos de un plumazo, hemos decidido estructurar la sección mensual por plataformas, <b>comenzando hoy con la familia PlayStation</b>.</p> <p>Y tranquilos, que mañana le tocará el turno a Nintendo, y ya el fin de semana a Xbox y PC. Pero hoy, como hemos adelantado, lo centraremos en las consolas <b>PS4, PS Vita y PS3, con los lanzamientos de julio</b>. Un mes de calentamiento (nunca mejor dicho) para la traca seguida entre agosto, septiembre, octubre y noviembre, donde se darán cita los últimos pesos pesados de 2017.</p> <!--more--> <h2>Final Fantasy XII: The Zodiac Age, un valor seguro</h2> <p><img alt="290617 Lanzaplayjulio 01" class="centro_sinmarco" src="" /></p> <p>Y es que resulta bastante triste destacar de este mes, entre <b>los exclusivos de PlayStation de julio</b>, una puesta al día de un clásico de PS2. Porque sí, <a href="">'Final Fantasy XII: The Zodiac Age'</a> es eso y poco más, gracias a los añadidos de la versión internacional japonesa del original de 2006, y a los inevitables retoques (incluso con nuevos temas para su BSO) de su adaptación a PS4. A la venta el <b>11 de julio</b> por <a href="">44,90 euros</a>. O bien casi 200 euros si queremos <a href="">su descomunal edición coleccionista</a>, exclusiva de la tienda oficial de Square Enix.</p> <p>Ese clásico con más de una década de historia, será de lo poco destacable de la primera mitad de julio. Aunque no deje de resultar curioso <b>¡Has sido tú!</b>, uno de los primeros experimentos bajo el programa PlayLink, que permite conectar dispositivos táctiles (móviles y tabletas) a PS4. Será, de hecho, uno de <a href="">los incentivos de PlayStation Plus del 4 de julio</a>, y hasta tendrá edición física.</p> <p><b>'Accel World vs. Sword Art Online'</b> (PS4; y ya en digital para Vita), será otro de los exclusivos de la primera semana de julio, fijado para el día 7. Mientras que ese mismo día se pondrá a la venta <b>'Cars 3: Hacia la Victoria'</b> en PS3 y PS4.</p> <p>La segunda semana la completan en formato digital:</p> <ul> <li><b>'Black the Fall'</b> (PS4, día 11)</li> <li>El primer episodio de <b>'Minecraft: Story Mode Season 2'</b> (PS4, día 11)</li> <li><b>'Serial Cleaner'</b> (PS4, día 11)</li> <li><b>'DeadCore'</b> (PS4, día 14)</li> </ul> <h2>Pyre, lo nuevo de los creadores de Transistor</h2> <p><img alt="290617 Lanzaplayjulio 02" class="centro_sinmarco" src="" /></p> <p><a href="">'Bastion'</a> y <a href="">'Transistor'</a> son dos joyas <i>indie</i> que dejan claro el buen hacer de Supergiant Games. De ahí que <b>'Pyre'</b>, cuya mecánica puede parecer muy rara (un RPG por equipos difícil de clasificar... o incluso de comprender), sea un título a tener en cuenta si nos van los experimentos. Saldrá para PS4 en digital el día 25.</p> <p>Ese mismo martes llegarán en formato físico a PS4, tanto <b>'Aven Colony'</b> como <b>'Fortnite'</b> (este último, a pesar de su estado en <i>Early Access</i>), acabando por cerrar el mes, ya en digital y también en PS4, el esperado <b>'Sundered'</b>, el <i>metroidvania</i> de los creadores de <a href="">'Jotun'</a>. Pero no adelantemos acontecimientos, que aún hay más.</p> <p>Porque la semana anterior se condensarán estos otros:</p> <ul> <li><b>'Children of Zodiarcs'</b> (PS4 vía PSN, día 18)</li> <li><b>'Orcs Must Die Unchained'</b> (PS4 vía PSN, día 18)</li> <li><b>'Yonder: The Cloud Catcher Chronicles'</b> (PS4 vía PSN, día 18; y físico el 20)</li> <li><b>'Unbox: Newbie's Adventure'</b> (PS4, día 20)</li> <li><b>'Conga Master'</b> (PS4 vía PSN, día 21)</li> </ul> <p>Como véis, <b>no hay bombazos</b>, y en materia de exclusivos, tan solo nos topamos con el <i>remaster</i> de <b>'Final Fantasy XII: The Zodiac Age'</b>. Mes de transición, en definitiva. Y en parte, se agradece, porque lo que vendrá después... ¡Telita!</p> <p><br><br></p> <iframe src="//" style="border: 0" width="650" height="500" frameborder="0" scrolling="no"></iframe> <p>Calendario | <a href="">iCal</a>, <a href=""><span class="caps">HTML</span></a><br></p>
          Today in Tech History – June 30, 2017   

1945 – The first draft of a Report on the EDVAC was published. It discussed the advantages of using just one large internal memory, in which instructions as well as data could be held. 1948 – Bell Labs introduced the point-contact transistor demonstrated by its inventors, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at a press…

          Denon Launches Premium AVR-X6200W Network AV Receiver   
Premium Denon audio developments and latest sound technologies Taking a closer look at the audio section, the AVR-X6200W has a powerful 9 channel amplifier with 205 watts per channel packed in a discrete monolithic amplifier design with custom made DHCT (Denon High Current Transistors), to fill the home theatre with astonishing clarity, power, detail and …
          Happy Birthday! The Transistor Turns 65 This Week   

This one invention at Bell Labs changed everything about our world -- and in some ways was the biggest thing that happened in the entire 20th century.

The post Happy Birthday! The Transistor Turns 65 This Week appeared first on ReadWrite.

          Se vende - radio amfm sharp Z1000 (fx 208 H) func.ccaja Y manual - $ 4.500   
Mar del Plata B7600, Argentina
...Z1000 ( fx-208 H) a Pilas y Eléctrica. - de Colección con Empaque (Caja) Original de Fabrica, con toda su seligrafia intacta. Dial Tipo tabllero de Avion - Antena Extensible y direccional.- Con su Correa de Fabrica Imperdible!!!!! am-fm 2 bandas 1/C + 8 transistores rango de frecuencia S: fm 88-108 mhz - am 520 - 1520 khz fi: fm 10.7 ...

          Principal Electronic Design Automation Engineer - Allegro MicroSystems, LLC - New Hampshire   
Good understanding of device physics at the transistor design level (cross section, STI, DTI, field plating)....
From Allegro MicroSystems, LLC - Thu, 22 Jun 2017 12:20:27 GMT - View all New Hampshire jobs
          Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors: from ISFETs to NanoFETs.   
Related Articles

Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors: from ISFETs to NanoFETs.

Essays Biochem. 2016 Jun 30;60(1):81-90

Authors: Pachauri V, Ingebrandt S

Biologically sensitive field-effect transistors (BioFETs) are one of the most abundant classes of electronic sensors for biomolecular detection. Most of the time these sensors are realized as classical ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) having non-metallized gate dielectrics facing an electrolyte solution. In ISFETs, a semiconductor material is used as the active transducer element covered by a gate dielectric layer which is electronically sensitive to the (bio-)chemical changes that occur on its surface. This review will provide a brief overview of the history of ISFET biosensors with general operation concepts and sensing mechanisms. We also discuss silicon nanowire-based ISFETs (SiNW FETs) as the modern nanoscale version of classical ISFETs, as well as strategies to functionalize them with biologically sensitive layers. We include in our discussion other ISFET types based on nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, metal oxides and so on. The latest examples of highly sensitive label-free detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules using SiNW FETs and single-cell recordings for drug screening and other applications of ISFETs will be highlighted. Finally, we suggest new device platforms and newly developed, miniaturized read-out tools with multichannel potentiometric and impedimetric measurement capabilities for future biomedical applications.

PMID: 27365038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          OA1160 OA 1160 DIÓDA germánium dióda -- olcsó szállítás - Jelenlegi ára: 100 Ft   
OA1160 OA 1160 DIÓDA germánium dióda
OA1160 germánium dióda, 15V, 5mA
Germanium - Diode
Umax:     15V
Imax:     5mA
-     -
F     50MHz
Tmax:     75° C
the OA1160 is a germanium diode, U = 15V, I = 5mA, applications: demodulator
Source:     Kristalldioden & Transistoren Taschentabelle KTT10 (Franzis Verlag)
Advanced Information for: OA1160
OEM     Tungsram GmbH

OA1160 OA 1160 DIÓDA germánium dióda             -- olcsó szállítás
Jelenlegi ára: 100 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2017-07-23 11:45
          6-12-12 No Wave   

Guest DJ: Marc Masters (Plums, Pitchfork Media, author, No Wave) |

James Chance and the Contortions - I Can't Stand Myself |
Mars - Puerto Rican Ghost |
Teenage Jesus and the Jerks - My Eyes |
DNA - New Fast |
Red Transistor - Not Bite |
Ut - Sham Shack |
Ursula Bogner - Trabant |
Matrix Metals - Flamingo Breeze 1 |
Black Bananas - Do It |
Psychedelic Horseshit - Laced |
The Psychic Paramount - N5 |
Plums - Clamourous |
Sightings - A Rest |
Eat Skull - Heaven's Stranger |
Feedtime - Rock and Roll |
Fang Wizard - Shorts Illustrated |
B.A.L.L. - Bird |
Ducktails - Art Vandelay |

          Pioneer has introduced the multimedia system AVH-X8800BT in Russia with the support of Apple CarPlay   

Pioneer has introduced in Russia, its second radio equipment with the support of car interfaces Apple CarPlay and Android Auto. The AVH-X8800BT multimedia system is equipped with a 7-inch screen with the possibility of changing tilt and is offered in our country at the recommended retail price of 45 490 rubles.

Fully removable 2DIN format model, Clear Type Resistive touch screen. The screen will find the drive for CD - ROM, DVD, Slot for SD, SDHC, as well as the automatic microphone input of the equalizer settings. On the rear panel there are two USB connectors, HDMI, inputs for the connection of front and rear cameras of 3 RCA-output, as well as a connector for the staff of the buttons on the steering wheel.

The AVH-X8800BT equipped with integrated Bluetooth module with an external microphone. The model supports the simultaneous connection of two phones, which is especially useful for those who use individual smart phones for work and personal conversations. High-quality sound in hands-free mode compatible with profile c, extended and a frequency range of voice transmission Wide Band Speech.

The Pioneer multimedia system is one of the few in Russia, compatible with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto. If you connect your phone to the AVH-X8800BT, the user can make and receive calls, send text messages, e-mail messages, play audio files and access all the functions of your smartphone, without leaving the main - driving. Technology with voice support. Since Apple CarPlay is not only some of the features of the iPhone on the device screen, but also the possibility of control through supplied in the microphone kit through Siri.

In addition to the applications, the model implements the possibility of using third-party programs, such as the navigation system and internet radio through AppRadio Mode.

By the sound the amplifier performs in the field of MOSFET transistors (4х50 w). Among the audio configuration options it is worth pointing out 13-band eq, crossover and latency timing management function.

In the case of Pioneer AVH-X8800BT the user receives навороченное a device that with a little eagerness can be incorporated in any car in the interior. Today's functionality, almost the maximum, if not count the lack of integrated TV tuner navigation. But the most important thing is that with him on board мультимедиасистема becomes an extension of your iPhone.

          IBM has made Carbon nanotubes transistors smaller and faster than silicon   
IBM scientists have made carbon nanotube transistors smaller and faster silicon transistors. Carbon nanotube transistors have long had the potential to be better than silicon, but this is the first time when that promise has been realized. Now IBM and others will have to scale up superior carbon nanotube devices. IBM scientists have been experimenting […]