Commenti su La scoperta del premio Nobel Linus Pauling e del Dr. Rath sulle vere cause delle malattie cardiache di mauro grimolizzi   
ci sono diversi studi pubblicati dal dott. Rath e dal suo laboratorio di ricerca indipendente .... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17564322 http://www.enaonline.org/files/artikel/184/JANA_2005_Vol.8_No.1.pdf https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18030064 per quanto invece riguarda un vero è proprio protocollo lo potrai rilevare dal libro "perchè gli animali non ..." liberamente scaricabile qui, o leggerlo direttamente on line http://www.perche-gli-animali-non-sono-soggetti-ad-attacchi-cardiaci.org/ebook.html per quanto riguarda i risultati .... leggi qui ... http://www.alleanzadrrath.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Nutritional-supplement-program.pdf
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          Reading the Office of Legal Counsel on Emoluments: Do Super-Rich Presidents Get a Pass?    

 

I wrote last November that the Foreign Emoluments Clause “is on its face a national security provision designed to the protect the country from officers too enmeshed with foreign interests.” If the Justice Department’s recent court filing is to be believed, that protection is exceedingly limited. This new position marks a decisive break from the more conscientious approach long espoused by both the Comptroller General and the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC).

At the heart of the emoluments controversy is President Trump’s refusal to liquidate his business holdings. He has instead maintained ownership of the Trump Organization, a multibillion-dollar umbrella company with thousands of domestic and international investments, and placed the assets in a revocable trust managed by his sons Donald Trump, Jr. and Eric Trump. Trump now faces three lawsuits alleging that he is profiting from his business empire in violation of the Constitution. Three days after his inauguration, Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW), a government accountability watchdog group, filed the first suit in the Southern District of New York. This month, two more complaints were filed by the attorneys general of Washington D.C. and Maryland and 196 congressional Democrats, in federal district courts in Maryland and the District of Columbia, respectively.

All three suits center on the meaning and scope of the Foreign Emoluments Clause, which provides that “no person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept any present, Emolument, Office or Title of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign state” (U.S. Const. art. I, § 9, cl. 8). Citing Trump's business dealings with state governments and federal agencies, such as its lease on the Old Post Office Building that now houses the Trump International Hotel, two of the suits also allege violations of the Domestic Emoluments Clause. This provision applies specifically to the president and provides that he shall receive “for his Services” a fixed compensation during his tenure and not “any other Emolument from the United States, or any of [the states]” (U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 7).

Serious procedural challenges like standing notwithstanding, given the House and Senate’s failure to address head-on the risks posed by Trump’s financial conflicts pose, the lawsuits could prove important in forcing a much-needed conversation: Is Trump taking in profits in violation of the Constitution? And just as critically, are future presidents entitled to pull a Trump—or does the Constitution dictate that they, like Jimmy Carter, must sell their family peanut farms as a condition of taking office?

No Article III court has ever rendered an opinion on how either Emoluments Clause should be interpreted, though the Supreme Court has offered interpretations of the term “emoluments” as it appears in Foreign Emoluments Clause-related statutes periodically enacted by Congress since 1881. Because of the limited judicial precedent, the internal memoranda from the Comptroller General and the Office of Legal Counsel that have been made public over the years are among the most important sources of guidance we have on emoluments issues. And though these memoranda do not directly address the question posed by the Trump business empire, making some amount of inference and legwork necessary, in critical respects they quite clearly contradict the sweeping defense that the Justice Department put forward this month in its 70-page motion to dismiss the CREW case against Trump.

The key issue in these suits—once you get behind a set of justiciability questions that may prove dispositive—is what constitutes an emolument (though with respect to the Foreign Emoluments Clause there’s also some disagreement about what kind of entity constitutes a “foreign state”). In plain English, we are looking at an exotic presidential twist on the biggest and oldest challenge to enforcing any anticorruption law: What counts? Do the forbidden “emoluments” cover only goodie boxes, blatant quid pro quo arrangements, and employment-related compensation? Or are the profits that Trump enjoys by way of his business transactions also prohibited when they come from foreign states and domestic government entities? And if the latter, more expansive definition is the appropriate one, are the profits prohibited only when the take is in excess of  “fair-market-value”—and if so, does that definition serve as a meaningful limitation when at issue are luxury goods whose value or sales may be inflated by the fact that Trump is president and the products are prominently branded with his name?

Predictably, the dispute has taken the form of a battle for the original meaning of “emoluments.” An array of historical materials support both a limited and broad definition. The two possible interpretations are well summed up by the Oxford English Dictionary, which provides two definitions dating back to the Founding: “1. Profit or gain arising from station, office, or employment . . . . 2. Advantage, benefit, comfort.”

The Justice Department, like Trump’s lawyers at Morgan Lewis, latches onto the first definition  to argue that “the Emoluments Clauses apply only to the receipt of compensation for personal services and to the receipt of honors and gifts based on official position.” That is, President Trump is precluded only from receiving benefits in exchange for services provided to a foreign state in his official capacity as president, or—and this is crucial, given the subject matter of the OLC opinions—services provided “in a capacity akin to an employee of a foreign state.”

The plaintiffs in the three suits, on the other hand, argue for the much more expansive definition. Marshaling its own set of historical evidence, CREW asserts that emoluments are "anything of value, including money, permits, approvals, tax benefits, any other benefits, and anything else monetary or nonmonetary, regardless of whether it is given in exchange for goods or services, and regardless of whether it is part of a transaction at, above, or below market rates."

A close examination of the relevant Comptroller and OLC opinions reveals that the current Justice Department is reading the Emoluments Clauses too narrowly, while CREW and the other plaintiffs are reading them too broadly. None of the opinions approves the receipt of benefits that can even arguably be attributed to the prestige or influence conferred by an office, and together they do not support the Justice Department’s claim that presidents may, as a categorical matter, collect profits from business transactions with foreign entities and domestic government entities as long as fair value is extracted on both sides. But notwithstanding the plaintiffs’ hard pull in the other direction, the opinions also suggest that presidents may in limited cases accept certain fixed benefits—as I will explain, these might be pensions from the U.S. state that used to employ them or money damages from a foreign country against which, in a past life, they successfully won a judgment. The key is that those benefits cannot be subject to foreign or domestic government manipulation or adjustment in connection with the presidential office.

This happens to be a sensible position that accords with what the opinions repeatedly underscore as the purpose of the Emoluments Clauses and the ultimate touchstone for interpreting their meaning: “to prevent corruption and foreign influence” and to bar “payments which have a potential of influencing or corrupting the integrity of the recipient.”

 

Why Language About Emoluments Is Easily Misused

A threshold issue before turning to the OLC literature is the confusion created by cherry-picking historical materials without consideration of their factual context. For example, in its motion to dismiss, the Justice Department followed the lead of some scholars in pulling some Supreme Court language that suggests the term “emoluments” applies only to salary and other duty-related benefits. Most notably, in Hoyt v. United States, 51 U.S. 109 (1850), the Court defines emoluments as “every species of compensation or pecuniary profit derived for a discharge of the duties of office” (emphasis added).

But in Hoyt, the Supreme Court was specifically asked to decide what constitutes an “emolument of office” per a statute governing Treasury Department collectors in their official capacity; the case did not require the Court to consider or rule on the existence of emoluments of other kinds. This is a key point for purposes of properly construing any Comptroller or OLC opinion that cites Hoyt and regurgitates its definition of “emoluments.” These opinions, like Hoyt, have to be read with an eye to their facts: they do not assert that “emoluments” must derive directly from discharge of duty; rather, the kind of emoluments at issue in those opinions was the kind derived for discharge of duty. As a consequence, the reliance on Hoyt in these opinions does not serve as evidence of a limiting principle for emoluments in general.

In short, as pointed out by the plaintiffs and by assorted scholars, the proper question for purposes of discerning the historical scope of “emoluments” is not whether the term could be interpreted in a restricted way, to refer only to benefits derived from discharging the duties of an office, but whether it was necessarily so interpreted at the time the Emoluments Clauses were drafted. As John Mikhail has painstakingly documented, the answer is no—and we don’t have to look at secondary sources, however authoritative (e.g., Black’s Dictionary) to draw that conclusion. Consider, for example, some of the constitutions ratified during the first of two major waves of state constitution-making in the Founding decade. Several included “common benefits clauses” that used the word “emoluments” in a way that simply defies narrow interpretation. The Pennsylvania Constitution (1776) provides: “That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection and security of the people, nation or community; and not for the particular emolument of advantage of any single man, family or sett [sic] of men, who are a part only of that community[.]” Very similar language appears in the Virginia (1776), Vermont (1777), and New Hampshire (1784) constitutions. Far more elaborate historical arguments demonstrating the broad uses of the term have been presented elsewhere: see here, here and here. The bottom line is that there is an abundance of primary Founding-era material making use of the broad definition of emoluments, so it is wrong to use language from fact-bound case law to assert that the term is an inherently limited one.

 

The Plaintiffs Define “Emoluments” Too Broadly

Does that mean, as plaintiffs assert, that all types of benefits conferred on the president by foreign countries and U.S. states are prohibited emoluments? According to the Comptroller and OLC opinions, clearly not.

A number of opinions explain that officers do not need to forego fixed benefits to which they are entitled for reasons manifestly unrelated to and uninfluenced by their office. This is a common-sense interpretation of the Clauses that avoids rigidity for rigidity’s sake, where denial of benefits would do nothing to serve the Clauses’ anti-corruption, anti-influence purpose.

For instance, the Comptroller and the OLC each independently concluded that President Ronald Reagan could collect ordinary retirement benefits from California, where he had served as the state governor, without violating the Domestic Emoluments Clause’s prohibition against the receipt of “emoluments” from a State. In its 1983 opinion, the Comptroller determined that President Reagan’s pension from California “cannot be construed as being in any manner received in consequence of his possession of the Presidency.” Coming to the same conclusion in its earlier 1981 opinion, the OLC also noted that “those [retirement] benefits are not emoluments in the constitutional sense” and their receipt does not “violate the spirit of the Constitution.” To support its reasoning, the OLC in turn relied on a 1964 opinion (not published) where it similarly decided the estate of President Kennedy was entitled to the naval retirement pay that had accrued during his presidency. Interpreting the Foreign Emoluments Clause “in the light of its basic purposes and principles,” it concluded he could receive payments to which he was entitled as a matter of law “prior to his taking office.”

The same principles support allowing officers to collect on certain kinds of money judgments, even from foreign powers. In a 1955 opinion, the Comptroller decided that an attorney in the Justice Department could receive a lump sum payment and lifetime annuity from the German government for his wrongful removal from the judgeship he held before he emigrated to the United States, as provided by German indemnification legislation. The Comptroller reasoned that those payments did not constitute emoluments from his former office, but rather “represent damages payable as a direct result of a moral and legal wrong.” Turning to its “spirit of the Constitution” analysis, the Comptroller had no trouble determining the payments were not problematic: they were “obviously . . . not intended to influence him as an officer of the United States,” were made under laws not specific to him, and were not payments voluntarily made by the German government but rather mandatory indemnification required by the Allied powers. In a 1954 opinion on the same matter, the OLC came to a slightly different place—the payments were not permitted to the extent they amounted to German retiree benefits—but like the Comptroller, it found that damages intended to redress injury were not prohibited emoluments.

Note what these opinions have in common: they generally allow the officer in question to collect payments or benefits that, patently, have nothing to do with and cannot possibly have been affected by his U.S. office. That 1983 Comptroller opinion put it best, and contains a line worth repeating: President Reagan was entitled to his pension because it “c[ouldn’t] be construed as being in any manner received in consequence of his possession of the Presidency.”

Applying this general rule, it makes sense that presidents are permitted to invest in U.S. Treasury bonds; and the rule also explains why wealth management solutions like blind trusts have long been accepted as workable resolutions to problems of conflict of interest. But it certainly doesn’t provide clearance for all profits derived from discretionary, “fair-market-value” transactions where the president is obviously and individually on one end of the sale.

 

The Justice Department Defines “Emoluments” Too Narrowly

A key move in the Justice Department’s brief is to rely heavily on a point of dubious significance: it asserts that “in every published OLC or Comptroller General opinion in which proposed conduct was determined to involve prohibited emoluments, the determination involved an employment relationship (or a relationship akin to an employment relationship) with the foreign government.”

If you think about it, there’s at least one common-sense explanation for the limited precedent: In general, the government employees on whose behalf these opinions were sought probably didn’t own hotel chains, lucrative licensing agreements, or hundreds of trademarks from which they derived significant foreign-based or domestic government-based income. Their thing of value, as civil servants, was their skill set, and thus the relevant question was whether they were constitutionally permitted to lend out that skill set to foreign governments or organizations with foreign state ties for payment.

A 1986 OLC opinion written by then-Deputy Assistant Attorney General Samuel Alito cuts against the assertion that whether the profit in question is derived from employment or personal services should be, by itself, dispositive. There, Alito determined that a NASA employee could indeed accept a fee for reviewing a PhD candidate's thesis for an Australian university. To get to this conclusion, Alito made two significant moves. First, uncertain as to whether a public university should be regarded a "foreign state," Alito instead decided to turn to the features of the proposed consultancy and consider whether they "raise[d] the kind of concern . . . that motivated" the prohibition’s enactment. This marks a functional, purpose-driven approach to the question of permissible benefits. Second, he suggested the following facts weigh against finding the fee a prohibited emolument: (1) the NASA scientist was not selected because of his position with the U.S. government, (2) the fee was an ordinary amount given the service to be rendered, (3) there was no reason for the officer to have "direct contact" with the university officials, and (4) the consultancy was "limited both in time and in substantive scope," and no "continuing relationship" was anticipated.

Note that the fact the scientist would be acting in an employment or personal services capacity did not automatically render the payment an emolument. This is the key takeaway from this opinion, and it is at odds with the Justice Department’s claim that employment is the make-or-break issue when it comes to determining whether a benefit or payment is an emolument. Second, consider the implications of the first and fourth points Alito highlighted. The scientist’s selection for the job and associated payment had nothing to do with his U.S. office, which is not a conclusion that can be readily drawn about the services purchased by foreign and state government employees newly flocking to Trump International Hotel. It may suggest the permissibility of accepting profits from truly routine transactions by truly routine hotel customers, including some government diplomats—but this possibility is undercut by Alito’s reference to the extremely limited nature of the permitted relationship and transaction in question.

The Justice Department is understandably leaning hard on the idea that an emolument must be received specifically as a function of office or employment. After all, without this very specific qualification, its argument for the permissibility of accepting profits from ordinary transactions falls apart. Two OLC opinions make this clear.

A 1982 OLC opinion determined that the Foreign Emoluments Clause barred an employee of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from working on his leave time for an American firm contracted by a Mexican government agency to review the design of a government-owned nuclear power plant. And a 1993 OLC opinion concluded that law firm partners serving as non-government advisors on the Administrative Conference of the United States could not accept partnership earnings “where some portion of that share is derived from the partnership’s representation of a foreign government” without triggering the constitutional prohibition. In the 1993 opinion, the OLC actually dismissed the argument that the conference member was not subject to the foreign government's “control” as “not decisive.” Instead, the OLC concluded that the portion of partnership profits the conference member would receive "would be a function of the amount paid to the firm by the foreign government," such that "the partnership would in effect be a conduit for that government." Acceptance of that portion of income was therefore a prohibited emolument (OLC reconsidered this opinion in 2010, but only with respect to whether the members held an “Office of . . . Trust” for purposes of the Foreign Emoluments Clause).

In these opinions, the OLC simply did not care that there was nothing out of the ordinary about the payments in these cases from a transactional or fair-market perspective. This runs contrary to the crux of the Justice Department’s argument for the innocuousness of Trump’s business-related foreign and domestic government income.

The textual kicker in all this is that even accepting the Justice Department’s insistence that “emolument” is best read to mean “profit arising from an office or employ” (Barclay’s A Complete and Universal English Dictionary on a New Plan (1774)), it doesn’t follow that all ordinary business transactions are okay: What if those transactions are, in number or value, enhanced by the prestige of the president’s office? Couldn’t the profit thereby derived then constitute “profit arising from an office or employ”? [Update, 5:17 pm: This is a line of argument that Marty Lederman compellingly and more thoroughly details here.]

It is to prevent this reading that the Justice Department argues that prohibited benefits must arise not just from the office but from the provision of services pursuant to that office. But this argument relies on a stunted conception of the power that an "Office of Profit or Trust" confers. To lift an example wholesale from Ben Wittes: If Trump owned a nondescript hotdog truck outside the White House that charged the same price for hotdogs as any other foodtruck and sold them to some incidental foreign customers, that would not be problematic under this definition of emoluments. If the truck were Trump-branded and either charged inflated prices or enjoyed inflated sales because Trump is president, and Saudi potentates lined up to put cash in his register, that would seem to constitute impermissible “profit arising from an office,” as a textual matter and in view of the historic Comptroller and OLC perspective.

At base, this is what plaintiffs are claiming—that the profits Trump is enjoying “aris[es] from” his office—so “aris[e] from” may be a definitional phrase the Justice Department is interpreting too narrowly. Trump’s status as the most powerful man in the world affects his business transactions, which are self-branded to boot. Not only is he enjoying booming business at his exclusive properties, in part thanks to foreign guests reportedly seeking to get in the president’s good graces, but he has also won Chinese trademark protection that, according to plaintiffs, he would not have received had he not become president.

Finally, on a practical note, notice the perverse upshot of the Justice Department’s fixation on employment and personal services as the place where the river divides. This assertion that payment for goods and business-related services is permissible but payment for employment and “personal services” is not means that a president can’t profit off his brain or body when it comes to cash from foreign sources or U.S. government entities, but can, without limitation, profit off the brains and bodies of those he can afford to employ in his private capacity. It’s what you might call a constitutional free pass for super-rich presidents.

The Comptroller and OLC opinions do not support such a result. They repudiate it.

***

Ultimately, the Justice Department’s view of emoluments marks a departure from the public Comptroller and OLC opinions in at least two critical respects. First, the new position is a clear abrogation of the practical “spirit of the Constitution” analysis on which the Comptroller and OLC have consistently relied to ensure a stringent rather than forgiving interpretation of what constitutes an impermissible benefit or undue influence (see, e.g., 1955 Comptroller Opinion, 1981 OLC Opinion, 1983 Comptroller Opinion; see also OLC 1962, noting “the sweeping nature of the constitutional prohibition”; OLC 1980, citing 1902 Attorney General Opinion stating the Foreign Emoluments Clause is “directed against every kind of influence by foreign governments upon officers of the United States” and the “prohibition should be given the broadest possible scope and application”). Second, the Justice Department’s quite specific argument that the president can profit from employing people to do business with foreign countries and government entities in the United States amounts to a strange carve-out, one that allows extremely wealthy officers with people in their employ to cash out as they wish on the advantages that the prestige of their office confers, without any consideration whatsoever of the sources of that cash. This interpretation is flatly at odds with executive branch tradition: I have yet to see a single opinion that has permitted an officer to collect profits even arguably enhanced by the power of his office, much less categorically benefit from discretionary, price-indeterminant transactions that foreign governments and U.S. government entities may enter into at will.

Note the issues I did not address here. What is not (yet) a point of debate in these particular lawsuits is whether these constitutional provisions apply to the president at all. The Domestic Emoluments Clause applies to the president by its express terms, and in its recent motion, the Justice Department doesn’t dispute CREW's claim, or the OLC’s preexisting determination, that the more obliquely phrased Foreign Emoluments Clause applies to the president as well (and notwithstanding the occasional argument to the contrary).

In addition, as the suits proceed in federal court, we can expect much of the legal discussion to focus on jurisdictional hurdles. There’s a strong argument that the courts don’t have a role to play, and that presidential corruption rising to the level of an emoluments violation is a political question whose resolution properly lies with Congress. Though the congressional suit spearheaded by Senator Richard Blumenthal and Representative John Conyers, Jr. alleges that Trump has failed to come to Congress for requisite permission in accepting foreign emoluments, Congress’s best recourse be impeachment proceedings. (Or if it so chose, Congress could avail itself of a lot of options short of impeachment, but in the words of Charles Black, Jr., circa 1974, “what an enormous if.” Recall that the House of Representatives has the power to demand Trump’s tax returns but has not exercised it.)

But as for the substantive question of whether the Comptroller and OLC of yore would have signed off on the Justice Department’s blessing of all monies flowing in by way of business transactions, the answer is “no.”


          Comment on ALA Recap: Libraries are Not Neutral Spaces (Things I Never Learned in Library School) by Cathy Jo Nelson   
http://www.eventscribe.com/uploads/eventScribe/PDFs/2017/2187/418775.pdf
          Copper Pipe Freezing Point   
Paris on the Nile

To keep a little of that light, sunshine and sweetness, columns, plant, tops and bas-reliefs of sphinxes, which dream ... I ' I ran Paris to find traces of Egypt, I found it and ready to smile sometimes, follow me!

the 17th century already ...
A Pierre Aubert, responsible for collecting tax on salt, the salt tax partnership building in the Marais a mansion . Built between 1656 and 1659 , the scenery is especially entrusted to the brothers Marsy. It Hotel Salé (5 rue de Thorigny, Paris 75004), Picasso museum since 1985.
Two sphinxes (lion body and bust of woman), with front paws crossed . A garland covers the sides and nemes (Egyptian headdress) is topped with crenellated towers
(I admit not having seen such Egypt ...)
Here is one who watches!

Not far away, along the Seine , 2a Wharf Celestine, 4 th arrondissement, the hotel door Fieubet (Gaspard Fieubet, Chancellor of Queen Marie-Therese) is guarded by two sphinxes,
that as the left wing and courtyard garden on the back cover are from the time of construction and renovation by the Sweat and Vicott on plans by architect Jules Mansart Hardoin in the years 1676 - 1681 . For the rest, since 1857 the hotel is a pastiche of Baroque Italian-English.


Along the Seine - stop at the Louvre, Egyptian Antiquities destination, if the desire is there, of course! - You can reach the garden of Tuileries (75001), near la Concorde to find " the Nile," marble, by Lorenzo Ottone ( 1688 - 1692)

This Italian sculptor (1658-1736) is best known for its baroque statues religious (cons-reform) in Rome.

In the next century, 18 th , and a long way to go to the park Bagatelle (Bois de Boulogne Route de Sevres to Neuilly and Allée de Longchamp , Paris 75016). Sphinxes ... by two, before the castle (18th century Folly built by the Comte d'Artois in 1777 after a bet with Queen Marie-Antoinette) ...

Oops! these, the garden, are well suited ... Egyptian character really, is not it?

A pair, controlled by Lhuillier 1778 by Belanger, architect of the Comte d'Artois to the steps of the castle. Lhuillier subcontracted in sculpture at Philip Lawrence Rolland (1746-1816) and fought in 1781.

And ... Bonaparte and then the campaign and the shipment Egypt (1798-1801).
A fighter, Maximilian Cafarelli, General (Engineering) to the wooden leg , scholar and philosopher, who held a key role in preparing the expedition will give Egypt as far his talent to improve the protection of Cairo, facilitate liaison between Alexandria and the Nile, participate in the creation of the Institute of Egypt. Creations of bread ovens, construction of windmills, water supply, irrigation, urbanization, conservation of "objects antique ", etc.. its activities are manifold.
He follows Napoleon en route to Syria, attended the massacre of Jaffa, and died before St. Jean d'Acre: the failure of Bonaparte the end of the dream of the Orient!
Even if little known, a street named after him, close to Temple Street (75003)

Part of Toulon, the expedition took with her soldiers but also 167 scientists, engineers and artists Members of the Commission of Science and Arts: Dolomieu geologist, mathematician Gaspard Monge (a founder of the Ecole Polytechnique), the chemist Claude Louis Berthollet , Vivant Denon, the mathematician Jean-Joseph Fourier, physicist Etienne-Louis Malus , naturalist Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire , engineer Nicolas-Jacques Conté the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers are part of the trip, the sculptor Jean-Jacques Castex ...
Dolomieu Scientists (since 1879), Malus (since 1879), Berthollet, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Monge have a street in their name in the 5 th Borough Street Monge constituting a sort of central axis.

Deodat Dolomieu (1750-1801), is recruited by the chemist Berthollet January 4, 1798 to participate in the expedition to Egypt. Upon landing on Egyptian soil, he undertook the verification of spatial data he had read in ancient authors, Greek and Latin . At the same time, following his experience in Malta he set up and monitor mills, grinding wheels, gears, flour and ovens for the manufacture of rolls of the army of General Bonaparte East. Urged by his friend Sucy, chief officer of the army of the East, returning to France with him, refuses Dolomieu, as two more months living in Egypt are necessary for the study of the Nile delta. This in turn will be captured in Calabria by Queen of the Two Sicilies. Stripped of its collections and manuscripts, it survives very painfully in a cell with almost no light with a few books he has managed to hide. This prison, as a criminal State in a dark dungeon of Messina in Sicily, will last 21 months. Dolomieu owed his deliverance to the military victory of Bonaparte at Marengo, June 14, 1800. Marked by his captivity, he died 17 months later.
It owes its name to the sustainability of mineral and rock that he discovered, dolomite.

Etienne-Louis Malus , physicist and mathematician (1775-1812) working to study Light . He participated in the expedition and became a member of the Institute Egypt

Claude Louis Berthollet (1748 - 1822) chemist , hand in Egypt in the Committee of Science and Arts, where he joined the Institute Egypt in the physics section and was elected vice president. He was elected president the following year. He made important research on natron to enable it to develop his theory on the affinities. In 1802 he was appointed chairman of the committee responsible for preparing the Description of Egypt .

During the expedition, Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire , French naturalist (1772 - 1844) passion for archeology to zoology as well as because he found in some graves animal mummies. He studied diligently birds, monkeys, crocodiles
(in Paris it!)
and snakes of Egypt, collected many specimens and made many communications various topics. After the surrender of French troops (August 1801), he played bitterly to the English collections he had so much trouble to set up and managed to return them intact in France they are so rich that their inventory it takes several years


Gaspard Monge (1746-1818) was a mathematician whose work touches to descriptive geometry, infinitesimal analysis and analytic geometry. After playing a major role in the French Revolution, both politically and in terms of establishing a new education system, He is responsible for mission in the expedition to Egypt (1798-1799).

Jean-Jacques Castex , (1731-1822), sculptor and is part of the Expedition to Egypt.
In January 1799, he accompanied the geographer Bertre engineer in his trip to Fayoum and is part of the commission led by Girard, who share Cairo March 19, 1799 for Upper Egypt . He creates a wax model, reduced to a third of Dendera Zodiac.
He is still famous to be carved on the great temple of Philae , registration
"year 6 of the Republic on 15 Messidor / a French army / commissioned by Bonaparte, / is down in Alexandria. / The army has taken twenty days, / the Mamelukes at the Pyramids on the run, / Desaix, commanding the first division, / has on undergraduate beyond the cataracts, / where he arrived on 13 of Ventose year 7. / The brigadiers / Davoust, Friant and Belliard, / Donzelot Chief of Staff, / Latournerie comm. of artillery / Eppler, Chief the 21st light / 13 Ventôse 7 of the Republic / March 3, year of Christ 1799. / Engraved by Castex sculptor.
Pphilae
Castex Street is close to the Rue St Antoine and bd Henri IV (75004)

" County has all the sciences in the head and all the arts in hand. " said Monge.
Nicolas Jacques Conte (1755-1805), invented the pencil as we know even today, consisting of a graphite mine and clay inserted in a body made of cedar wood. He was also one of the organizers of National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts . He took part in the expedition to Egypt with the dual capacity as head of brigade balloonists and director of engineering workshops. As such, it has created and is creating all sorts of instruments and tools.
From August 22, 1798, Conte was a member of the first Institute of Egypt, commissioned by the then government to lead the creation of great work that the commission would publish Egypt, Description Egypt.
Street County is in the 3 rd district, very close to the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers
Mentioned several times, the engravings of the Description of Egypt is exciting and always consult a reference. Do not hesitate, just one click! careful surveys that are the source of these illustrations are due mostly to two boys, Prosper Jollois and Edouard Devilliers . These two men, engineers fresh out of the Ecole Polytechnique, arrive in Egypt in 1799. Members of the subcommittee that studied the regime of the Nile and the irrigation system, they are much more passionate for ancient monuments they discover. Soon completed their tasks, they "devour" the monuments. "The temples of Dendera, Esneh, Edfu, Kom Ombo, Philae, Luxor and Karnak and Thebes, the ancient Antinoe" erected by the Roman emperor Hadrian, come alive in their pencils.

Enthusiast entry Bonaparte in Cairo, Paris gave in 1799 the name Passage of Cairo, and Cairo Street (75002) tract newly created site of the former convent of the Filles-Dieu sold in batches to the revolution.




































Here the facade of the building au, 2 place in Cairo (75002), of style "return from Egypt", unique in Paris tree and surprising! Oh! Beautiful Hathor!






















A fountain 'return from Egypt "Is the fountain of Fellah at 42 rue de Sevres (75007), right beside the metro station Lapwing. This fellah, it would Antinous, a young favorite of the Roman emperor Hadrian.
A semicircular basin collects water flowing from two amphorae he holds in his hand. At the bottom of the fountain, a grotesque head of a lion. A Napoleonic eagle dominates all under the roof of the fountain.

Designed by Jean-François Bralle (1750-1832) and sculpted by Pierre Nicolas Beauvallet, it dates from 1806 .




Directorate on 19 th borough and at 211 Avenue de la Villette The fountain of lions Nubian . Built Place du Chateau d'Eau (now Republic Square) in 1811, it was renovated and transferred to the slaughterhouses of La Villette, where she served as a watering place for animals, when enlargement of the square in 1867. architecture was made by engineer Pierre Simon Girard (1765-1835), designer Ourcq canal, and the realization by the workshops at Le Creusot.
It has its place today at the Grande Halle de la Villette.


Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832) decipher the hieroglyphics on September 27 1822.
At Pere Lachaise Cemetery (75020), it lies beneath an obelisk .
It is very close to his friend the mathematician Jean-Joseph Fourier, who participated in the expedition to Egypt ...
friendly hands still lay stones and beetles ... double click on the picture to zoom , and look carefully on the edge of the base! Then the cursor on the back arrow at the top left of the screen in front of you, and click to go back on the blog!
the Père Lachaise cemetery if eclectic, there are also pyramids !























Between the Louvre and Opera, Underground station Pyramids


Seen in a window on the Rue de la Paix ...

Well no!
"The body of a goddess" of the Middle or new empire (2033-1069 BC), now in the Louvre, a gallery of Egyptian antiquities. Beautiful, is not it?


the center of the Place de la Concorde (75008) the obelisk of Luxor, offered to France in 1831 by the Viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, arrived and erected in October 1836.
Transportation of this monolith of pink granite, 230 tons and 23 meters tall, was an epic: it took two and a half years to ship , specially created for this event, arriving in France.


























Originally, the obelisk and its Twin carved there are over 3000 years were placed on each side of the door of the Temple of Thebes, Luxor in Upper Egypt .


The cartridge Ramses II ...


must pass through the Tuileries Gardens to meet a Sphinx on the intersection of the Quai des Tuileries, Avenue du General Lemonnier . It arrived in Paris in 1855 with the spoils of war taken in Sevastopol by General Pélissier. (source loisirs.over-my-blog.com)














On your way into the garden, you can cross this another sphinx, seated in front of marble the "Venus Callypige, after the antique" Francis Barois (1656-1726)

can certainly look back towards the Louvre pyramid superb which I do not dwell in deference to his architect, M . Pei who rejects Egyptian inspiration ... It's like you want!

To reach the Place du Chatelet 75001, just not from the bridge ... but along the Seine ... here the fountain of Palm!
Napoleon I shaved the Grand Châtelet in 1802, and there built a fountain by Jean-François Bralle, between 1806 and 1808 to commemorate his victories and give free drinking water to Paris .





Circled ring bearing the names of the campaigns in Egypt and Italy, the column the fountain is decorated with palm leaves that give it its name Palmier fountain.













The four sphinx crouching in foot of the basement, which feeds the lower pool, were designed by Gabriel Davioud (1824-1881), architect and collaborator of Haussmann, and sculpted by Jacquemart in 1858.



The Luxor is a cinema located in the 10 th arrondissement of Paris, built by the architect Henry Zipcy decorated by Amedeo Tiberi and inaugurated in 1921 located at the corner of Boulevard Magenta and the Chapel. Long abandoned (1983), it is now being restored .

(c) lesamisdulouxor.fr

Finally, the icing on the cake, then see the program of the Paris Opera! earlier Egyptian ...




Do you know that you can make a trip to Egypt on Blog
" Parisienne truant?



          Enigmatica: Макробиотическая ДИЕТА №7 (монастырская) на кашах Здоровяк   

Это цитата сообщения ольга_абрамушкина_власова Оригинальное сообщениеБез заголовка

Макробиотическая ДИЕТА №7 (монастырская) на кашах Здоровяк

"Если восточное понимание счастья вас интересует, испробуйте на себе макробиотический метод питания в течение всего лишь двух недель. Я рекомендую его всем после того, как сам изучал макробиотику в течение 48 лет, и уверен, что она лучший путь к здоровью и счастью".
Джордж Озава.

каша здоровяк диета7

Монастырскую диету или диету №7 представил западному миру американец японского происхождения Джорж Озава в книге «Макробиотика дзен».

Данная диета основана на исключении из рациона белков и жиров. Так как организм постоянно использует белок как строительный материал, он в течение диеты будет использовать тот белок, который находится в организме. А это - одноклеточные паразиты, грибковая, вирусная, кокковая, бактериальная флора и паразиты, живущие в кишечнике. Затем в ход идут новообразования – спайки, рубцы, кисты, папилломы. Таким образом, организм САМ СЕБЯ ОЧИЩАЕТ, проводит ДЕТОКСикацию - восстанавливает нормальную флору кишечника, очищает от шлаков, канцерогенов, паразитов и различных новообразований, включая атеросклерозные бляшки. Суть диеты состоит в том, что в течение десяти дней питание включает преимущественно цельные, толченые злаки, приготовленные особым способом. 

И что немаловажно, а может, для многих и самое привлекательное в этой диете - за 10 дней улучшается обмен веществ и организм легко прощается с избыточным жиром!

каша здоровяк диета7

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Почему минимум 10 дней

Десять дней диеты взяты не случайно.

По макробиотике причины всех болезней заключены в плохом составе крови. Состав крови определяется питанием, поэтому при неправильном питании болезнь развивается в следующей последовательности: через пищу - к крови, от крови - к клеткам тела.

Озава утверждает, что в организме человека ежедневно отмирает и заменяется новыми одна десятая часть красных кровяных телец. То есть за 10 суток кровь может полностью очиститься при помощи определенного питания.

Почему диета на цельных злаках?

1. Цельные злаки – это сложные углеводы, которые являются самым чистым источником энергии для организма, потому что конечными продуктами преобразования углеводов в энергию, являются вода и углекислый газ, т. е. — это экологически чистый процесс усвоения пищи.

Если же организм, во время очистительной диеты, использует в качестве источника энергии белок или жиры, то при их усвоении образуются яды, на нейтрализацию которых он вынужден тратить энергию и ресурсы.

2. Растительная клетчатка, содержащаяся в цельных злаках и растительных добавках является натуральным, растительным энтеросорбентом. Клетчатка, продвигаясь по желудочно-кишечному тракту, всасывает в себя, как губка, токсины, соли тяжелых металлов и выводит их из организма естественным путем.

3. В монастырской диете вместе с цельными злаками употребляют целебные растения и другие природные продукты, имеющие биологически активные вещества, такие как расторопша, спирулина, топинамбур, воск, перга, шрот косточки красного винограда, хитозан и т. д. Их иммуннопротекторные и гепатопротекторные свойства способствуют избавлению от многих болезней, в том числе и от онкозаболеваний.

Остается один вопрос, где взять цельные злаки и как их готовить для диеты.

Есть два варианта.

1. Покупать цельные злаки на базаре (ищите зерно разнообразное, цельное, и желательно экологически чистое), там же у знакомых бабушек покупать целебные растения и другие природные продукты, имеющие биологически активные вещества (расторопша, спирулина, топинамбур, воск, перга, шрот косточки красного винограда и т. д.). Рецепт приготовления не простой, его найдете в книге Джоржа Озавы "Макробиотика Дзен"».

2. Купить готовый макробиотический цельнозерновой продукт - кашу «Самарский Здоровяк», изготовленную по древним рецептам Макробиотики с добавлением целебных фитокомпонентов.

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Преимущества продукта "Самарский Здоровяк" перед другими цельнозерновыми кашами:

Сохранена очень ценная зерновая оболочка, моментальное приготовление (просто добавь воды), стерильность продукта (запатентованная технология стерилизации, поэтому можно убрать диатезы у детей с 5 мес. возраста), отсутствие синтетических компонентов (никаких Е добавок и консервантов), экологическое сырьё (проверенные поставщики), сбалансированность (суточная норма каши содержит норму клетчатки, витаминов, минералов, бифидо- и лактобактерий), противопаразитарный эффект (в составе присутствуют фитокомпоненты, обладающие противопаразитарной активностью), доказанные клиническими испытаниями лечебно-профилактические свойства.

Для того чтобы включить в свой рацион функциональный продукт питания "Самарский здоровяк" достаточно сделать заказ на сайте.

А теперь подробно о Диете №7 на кашах «Самарский Здоровяк»

Подготовка к диете

Если человек никогда раньше не употреблял кашу «Здоровяк», то ему необходимо на протяжении нескольких дней, с целью адаптации организма к незнакомой пище, есть кашу 1-2 раза в день по 1 столовой ложке (постепенно доведя до 2-3-х), разводя водой, соком, бульоном или кисломолочными продуктами до желаемой консистенции, но температура жидкости не должна превышать 60 градусов.

Перед началом диеты рекомендуется сделать очистительную клизму.

В практике применения монастырской диеты существуют следующие режимы:

Режим   Каша (%)   Овощи (%) 
№7   100  0  
№6  90  10 
№5  80  20 

Обычно для начинающих советуем применять режим № 5, так как он позволяет наиболее мягко пройти эту диету до конца. После этого режима можно переходить к режиму № 6 и затем - к № 7. Для желающих быстро получить результат можно зайти на диету №7 уже через 3 дня после подготовки.

Сколько циклов проходить?

Минимальный курс прохождения Монастырской диеты для нормализации обмена веществ, восстановления микрофлоры ЖКТ, похудения – 10 дней.

Приятный бонус - побочным эффектом данной диеты являются обещанные минус минимум 5 кг, хотя у нас есть практика, когда люди теряли до 14 кг (чем больше лишний вес на старте, тем больше потеря). Самое главное, что вес не возвращается, так как обмен веществ нормализован, желчные протоки, поджелудочная железа, кишечник, сосуды лишены шлаков, а организм излучает чистую энергетику. 
Для стойкого положительного результата необходимо пройти ещё 2 курса с интервалом в одну - две недели. Таким образом, чередуя диету №7 (10 дней) и диету №6 (7-14 дней) в три подхода за полтора месяца Вы получаете оздоровление организма, постройневшую фигуру и подтянутую кожу с явным омоложением.

Из опыта кашеедов - при серьезных заболеваниях, таких как диабет, псориаз, онкология самые лучшие результаты достигаются при диете в 21 (24) дня, а еще лучше - 50 дней на каше и воде.

Есть много примеров, когда серьезно больные люди, которым не помогли другие методы лечения, пройдя нашу диету, добивались ремиссии и снятия диагноза.

Вопрос:
Меня очень заинтересовали ваши каши и хотелось бы сесть на монастырку, но смущает то, что люди сбрасывают большой вес за короткий срок. Ведь нельзя так резко худеть, это же стресс для организма... И потом, резко потерянные килограммы могут так же быстро и возвратиться. И даже если при монастырке такое не происходит, все равно вопрос о последствиях быстро потерянных кг остается открытым.

Ответ: 
Действительно, за 10 дней Монастырки, в среднем уходит 5 кг. В первые 3 дня запускается работа почек и лимфатической системы, поэтому уходит вначале лишняя вода из тканей 2,5 кг, а потом уже 2,5 кг - старые каловые массы, жир, токсины, одним словом, то, что нам не нужно. 
При выходе из диеты в первую неделю возвращаются 2 кг (вода), и в итоге мы получаем по факту отвес 2,5-3 кг за 10 дней. Именно поэтому, чтобы улучшить или закрепить результат, мы рекомендуем садиться через недельный перерыв на повторную 10-дневку. 
За вторую 10-дневку уходит еще около 3 кг. 
Итого схема такая: 10 дней диеты – 7 дней перерыв - 10 дней диеты = получаем гарантированные минимум 5 кг за месяц. Это допустимая норма. 
Если у вас, все-таки, остались опасения, то у нас все весьма добровольно, кушайте кашу на завтрак и вы получите хороший постепенный оздоравливающий результат.

Еще забыла отметить главное, что похудеть, и при этом не потерять здоровье, а приобрести его, такое возможно только с нашей кашей:-). Суть монастырской диеты именно в этом - сначала здоровье поправить - а вес - это побочный приятный бонус.

Сколько порций употреблять в день

Диета №7 предусматривает 3-5 разовый прием каши "Здоровяк" в день.
Таким образом, на 10-дневный курс вам понадобится 4-5 пачек обычной каши (в каждой пачке 8-10 порций) и 1 пачка каши-Пробиотика. На пробиотической каше рекомендуется готовить натуральный домашний квас, который очень помогает при прохождении диеты.

Главный принцип - все номера каш должны присутствовать в рационе каждый день.

Можно на каждый прием есть разную кашу, а можно смешивать их в одном приеме (кроме пробиотика, конечно, - он делается в виде кваса и пьется в течение дня).

Количество приёмов пищи будет диктовать ваш организм, главное - без чувства голода. Всегда носите с собой квас или кашу, насыпав порцию в бутылочку с широким горлом (а воду Вы всегда сможете купить по дороге) - разведите пожиже и выпейте.

Срываются с диеты, как правило, те, кто во время ощущения голода не имел с собой порции каши.

 

Рецепт кваса на каше-Пробиотик "Здоровяк"

Рецептура на 1,5 литра:

Всыпьте в кружку 2-3 ст.л. с верхом любой каши "Здоровяк-Пробиотик", влейте теплой воды и добавьте 1 ст.л. с верхом меда (аллергии не бойтесь - мед при брожении теряет аллергенные свойства, к слову, самый неаллергенный мед - акациевый), хорошо размешайте, вылейте содержимое в подходящую по объему банку и добавьте чистой воды комнатной температуры, доведя объем до 1,5 литров, перемешайте, накройте марлечкой (не крышкой! - квас должен дышать) и поставьте для созревания в темное место при комнатной температуре (не на холод, но и не на батарею!) - как-будто вы поставили "подходить" тесто на дрожжах. 
Примерно через сутки квас уже можно употреблять (он имеет легкий кисло-сладкий вкус), через два-три дня он уже будет слегка газированный. Только не допускайте перекисания - если не успеваете весь выпить, поставьте оставшийся в холодильник. 

На дне посуды будет находиться ферментированный осадок - это практически наполовину переваренная каша, ее не выкидываем, а тоже съедаем - организм переварит ее с минимальными энергозатратами.

Готовим новый квас по мере надобности. 
Если с первого раза у вас не получился квас такой, какой вы ожидали, все равно выпейте его. И не отчаивайтесь - надо приноровиться, поэкспериментируйте с температурой, временем выдержки, замените воду на более качественную, мед на другой... Поверьте, ваши усилия будут вознаграждены - вы найде свой индивидуальный рецепт и ЖКТ обязательно скажет вам "спасибо".

Какие каши исключаются при диете №7

Не рекомендуются для прохождения тибетской диеты каши, богатые растительным белком, т.е. с орехами, семенами и бобовыми (№ 57, 68, 70, 75, 76, 77, 78, 86, 91, 92).

Напоминаю - данная диета основана на исключении из рациона белков и жиров. Так как организм постоянно использует белок как строительный материал, он в течение диеты будет использовать тот белок, который находится в организме. А это - одноклеточные паразиты, грибковая, вирусная, кокковая, бактериальная флора и паразиты, живущие в кишечнике. Затем в ход идут новообразования – спайки, рубцы, кисты, папилломы...

Какие каши использовать при Монастырской диете

Каши в течение дня должны быть разные - желательно 5 наименований, причем обязательно должны присутствовать: Суперкремниевая (№52), Антицеллюлитная(№56), Беспшеничная (№71 или №84), выбранный вами Пробиотик (из набора - 21, 72, 79, 80, 85, 87) и еще 1-2 каши по вашим предпочтениям (из набора - 36, 54, 61, 62, 63, 74).

Если вы решились на диету №7, то кашу нужно разбавлять только водой, а не соком или бульоном, масло сливочное также не надо добавлять.

Важно! Когда вы едите каши, обязательно жуйте их! Помните - переваривание начинается уже во рту, когда пища обволакивается слюной.

Каша-Пробиотик - обязательна при диете

Почему обязательно Пробиотик - потому что каша Здоровяк-Пробиотик, в отличие от других каш, способствует ускоренному восстановлению нормальной флоры кишечника.

И самое главное - в каше “Здоровяк-пробиотик”, содержится фермент липаза, способствующий расщеплению лишних жиров, которые до этого "неправильно" откладывались нашим организмом в подкожном слое.

Кашу-пробиотик вы подбираете сами в зависимости от целей, которые вы ставите перед диетой: (кликните, чтобы развернуть/свернуть текст)

Подключаем овсяный кисель "Самарский Здоровяк"

Если ощущаете слабость, есть проблемы с ЖКТ, наряду с кашами употребляйте 1 раз в день Овсяный кисель "Самарский Здоровяк".

Состав: Термообработанные цельные зёрна (с сохранением оболочек) овса, а также ягоды клюквы (смородины), топинамбур и фруктоза. Без искусственных добавок! Не содержит крахмала.

Овсяный кисель показан, как укрепляющее средство истощённым больным при анемии, синдроме хронической усталости, при иммунодефиците, при заболеваниях желудочно-кишечного тракта: гастритах, язвенной болезни 12-перстной кишки, панкреатитах, при заболеваниях печени и желчного пузыря, болезнях кишечника, в том числе при дисбактериозе. Улучшает состояние при болезнях сердца, после операции на почках, печени, желудке, кишечнике. Применяется при заболеваниях печени, атеросклерозе, анемии, заболеваниях суставов. Регулярное употребление овсяного киселя улучшает кровообращение, повышает иммунитет.

Его приятно пить в горячем виде.

Кисель готовится быстро, варить его не надо: несколько чайных ложек киселя (4-5) всыпать в стакан, залить до половины водой комнатной температуры и размешать, оставить на 5-10 минут для набухания. После того, как кисель загустеет, разбавить его горячей водой до достижения необходимой консистенции.

На какой воде готовить каши

Для получения наилучшего результата от диеты каши лучше готовить на самой чистой воде, которую вы себе можете позволить. На этом моменте заостряю внимание, т.к. это становится актуальным в наше экологически неблагополучное время. Будет это родниковая вода или бутилированная артезианская, купленная в магазине - решать вам, но, очень желательно - чтобы не из-под водопроводного крана.

А еще лучше эту чистую воду перед употреблением "оживить", другими словами "структурировать" любым доступным вам способом. В этом случае, ее не надо будет кипятить.

Ну, а если ничего другого не остается, кроме как использовать водопроводную воду, тогда очищаем ее фильтром и обязательно кипятим.

Температура воды для каши

Вода должна быть приятной температуры, но не выше 60 градусов, чтобы не убить полезные составляющие - фитокомпоненты.

Как готовить кашу

Обычная каша Здоровяк. 3-4 ст. л. сухой каши "с горкой" залить водой до нужной консистенции, можно немного подсолить (правильнее использовать для этого гомасио).

Надо уяснить, что во время диеты не случайно исключаются все сладкие добавки к каше. Это объясняется тем, что сладкое - это питание для паразитов. А наша задача не подкармливать их, а распрощаться с ними.

Каша Здоровяк-Пробиотик готовится так: залить 2-3 ст.л. сухой каши-Пробиотика теплой водой(300-400 мл), в которой предварительно растворить 1 ч.л. меда. В данном случае мед необходим для брожения и питания бактерий, которые в сухом виде находятся в каше-Пробиотике. Аллергии не бойтесь - мед за сутки ферментируется и теряет аллергенные свойства. 
Накрыть банку марлей и оставить в темном сухом месте на сутки (как-будто вы поставили "подходить" тесто на дрожжах). Готовая каша имеет приятный кисло-сладковатый вкус. 
Каша размешивается и съедается (выпивается) вместе с ферментированной гущей. (Подробнее про кашу-Пробиотик).

Сколько пить жидкости

Диету №7 разработал японец Дж. Озава, но он вряд ли предполагал, что современному человеку приходится есть большое количество токсичной пищи, ведь продолжительность жизни японцев – 90 лет. Он рекомендует употреблять как можно меньше воды. Но относительно нашего способа жизни это не очень подходит. Вымыть токсины из организма может только вода, поэтому надо просто прислушаться к себе и пить воды столько, сколько требует организм, это избавит от тошноты и головной боли. Но повторяю, вода должна быть максимально чистой, какую вы можете себе позволить.

Обязательно делаем квас на пробиотике - 1,5 л в день для восстановления микрофлоры кишечника достаточно.

Важно! Про чай и кофе на время диеты забываем. Исключение может составить легкий травяной чай.

Главное правило - жидкость пить по потребности - организм не должен испытывать жажду в течение дня, но и не заливаться водой. Лучше пить через час после приема каши.

И, естественно, на весь период прохождения диеты №7 исключается употребление алкоголя.

Что помогает прохождению Монастырской диеты

Физические упражнения, обращающие вспять большинство хронических заболеваний. Зарядка стимулирует работу кишечника, кровеносной и лимфатической систем, сжигает калории, способствует выработке эндорфинов, ускоряет метаболизм и способствует снижению веса;

Йога (расслабление, дыхательные упражнения);

Массаж, стимулирующий циркуляцию лимфы, жидкости, которая выводит из организма отходы, токсины и больные клетки;

Травяной пилинг, солевой скраб. Наряду с отшелушиванием отмерших клеток кожи стимулирует лимфатическую и гормональную системы;

Сауна, баня максимально ускоряют выведение токсинов через кожу.

Женщинам рекомендуется проводить диету в период менструации - тогда происходит очень эффективное оздоровление. В практике есть случаи, когда после прохождения Монастырской диеты женщины начинают беременеть, так как восстановилась проходимость маточных труб. Вот такой неожиданный бонус! Во время диеты из влагалища может выделяться гной, слизь, большие студенистые сгустки. Не пугайтесь, идет очищение.

Вниманию женщин, использующих естественный метод предохранения от беременности (по срокам). После очищения циклы путаются, могут возвратиться к первоначальному циклу, как в 14-16 лет, так как происходит омоложение организма. После очищения усиливается потенция у мужчин и женщин.

Выход из диеты

После 10 дней употребления только каши «Здоровяк», следующие 7-14 дней жидкость не ограничивать(естественно, только вода, квас, травяной чай) и питаться в таком режиме:

60% объёма пищи за сутки должна составлять каша «Здоровяк» (например, завтрак, ужин);

40% объема пищи – отварные или тушеные овощи;

с 3-го дня – подключаем легкие супы;

с 5-го дня - отварное мясо птицы или рыбы.

выход из монастырской диеты

Затем вы можете проводить эту диету 2-3 раза в год с профилактической целью. В остальное время кушать кашу хотя-бы 1 раз в день.

Что же происходит, если человек питается кашами «Здоровяк» по диете №7:

Когда человек в течение 10 суток питается только кашей «Здоровяк», он обеспечивает свой организм «сложными» углеводами. Но организм требует и «строительные материалы», т.е. белки и жиры, так как старые клетки ежесекундно отмирают и надо формировать новые.

А в течение 10 суток такого притока нет.

Организм, помаявшись сутки, приступает к поиску белка и жира внутри себя, изыскивает внутренние резервы - это паразиты: токсоплазма и трихомонада.

Токсоплазма питается тканями мозгового вещества, а трихомонада – возбудитель многих заболеваний.

Клетки-киллеры (лейкоциты) захватывают этих одноклеточных паразитов и поедают их (внутренний фагоцитоз). Этот процесс продолжается 3-5 дней и заканчивается уничтожением этих паразитов. Кровь человека становится стерильной.

После этого приходит очередь усвоения других «запасов» организма – папиллом, фибром, жировых клеток, рубцов и т.д., открываются депо, в которых организм «законсервировал» токсины.

И эти токсины не имеют другого пути выхода из организма человека, кроме как через его выделительную систему, а значит и через печень. Если токсинов накоплено много, выделительная система в связи с этим может испытывать напряжение, проявляясь в виде тошноты, рвоты, повышения температуры тела, высыпаний на коже, болями в различных частях тела и т.п.

Первые два дня могут быть упадок сил, головные боли, возможно очень захочется привычной еды. Самый сложный в этом плане, как правило, третий день. Эти состояния необходимо преодолеть и довести процесс до конца. В противном случае положительный результат достигнут не будет.

Важно в первые дни уменьшить расход энергии и, по возможности, больше отдыхать. Это критическая фаза, и если человек прибегает к стимуляторам любого вида, он прервет и расстроит восстановительный план организма. 

Очень важно иметь терпение и веру, и немного подождать, и через некоторое время вы почувствуете силу, которую никогда не ощущали ранее. Успех в возвращении или улучшении здоровья зависит от правильного понимания этого пункта – осознания того, что организм максимально использует основные свои ресурсы на более важную внутреннюю работу, не растрачивая энергию вовне, включая мускульные движения. Будьте мудры – примите это, как должное и расслабьтесь.

По мере того как человек продолжает придерживаться нашей диеты, начинают появляться интересные симптомы. Организм начинает процесс, называемый «восстановление».

Клеточный разум рассуждает приблизительно следующим образом: «О! посмотрите-ка на эти поступающие материалы! Как чудесно – у нас есть шанс избавиться от этого старого мусора и построить новый прекрасный дом. Давайте начнем немедленно! Давайте выпустим этот избыток желчи из печени и желчного пузыря. Давайте выгоним эти шлаки из артерий, вен и капилляров. Эти зловонные, загазованные, немыслимые массы были здесь слишком долго – избавимся от них! Эти артритные отложения в суставах требуют прочистки! Давайте изгоним раздражающие пищевые концентраты, консерванты, аспирины, снотворные, наркотики наряду со всеми отложениями жира, которые делают жизнь столь обременительной для нас. Давайте начнем, и будем продолжать, пока организм не придет в прекрасное рабочее состояние».

Как уже отмечалось выше, сначала могут быть головные боли, может возникать жар или простуда, кожа может покрыться сыпью, может какое-то время работать вяло кишечник, или наоборот, возникнет понос, появится чувство усталости или слабости. Нерасположенность к движениям, раздражительность, умственная депрессия, частое мочеиспускание и т.д и т.п. 
Однако большинство людей находят такие

          Concurso público do TCE-PE oferece 36 vagas com salários de até R$ 18,4 mi   





Quem tem interesse em integrar o quadro de servidores públicos do Tribunal de Contas do Estado de Pernambuco (TCE-PE) deve ficar atento. Foi publicado nesta quinta-feira (29) o edital do concurso público para o órgão. Ao todo, são oferecidas 36 vagas de nível superior, incluindo três oportunidades para pessoas com deficiência. As remunerações variam de R$ 11,6 mil a R$ 18,4 mil para uma jornada de trabalho de 30 horas semanais.


As inscrições devem ser feitas na internet a partir das 10h do dia 11 de julho até as 18h de 31 de julho. A taxa de inscrição varia de acordo com o cargo pretendido, tendo os seguintes valores: R$ 200 (para todas as áreas de Auditor de Controle Externo), R$ 190 (Analista de Controle Externo - Área: Auditoria de Contas Públicas) e R$ 150 (Analista de Gestão - Todas as áreas).

O pagamento do boleto bancário, que pode ser realizado em qualquer banco, nas casas lotéricas e nos Correios, deve ser feito até o dia 18 de agosto. Para solicitar isenção da taxa, é necessário preencher o requerimento do candidato, disponível no site da inscrição, contendo a indicação do Número de Identificação Social (NIS), atribuído pelo CadÚnico, e uma declaração constante do anexo do edital, no mesmo período destinado às inscrições.

O concurso do TCE-PE traz oportunidades distribuídas entre os cargos de Auditor de Controle Externo, sendo 13 vagas para a área de Auditoria de Contas Públicas e uma vaga para a área de Auditoria de Obras Públicas, ambos com remuneração de R$ 18.477,13, além de oito vagas para Analista de Controle Externo - Área: Auditoria de Contas Públicas, com remuneração de R$ 15.841,17. Há também 13 vagas para o cargo de Analista de Gestão - Área: Administração e uma vaga para Analista de Gestão - Área: Julgamento, ambos com remuneração de R$ 11.606,55.

Para se candidatar aos cargos, é necessário ter diploma de conclusão de curso de graduação de nível superior em qualquer área de formação, fornecido por instituição de ensino superior reconhecida pelo Ministério da Educação (MEC). Apenas para o cargo de Auditor de Controle Externo – Área: Auditoria de Obras Públicas, é exigida formação em cursos superiores de Arquitetura ou Engenharia em instituições reconhecidas pelo MEC.

Provas: A banca examinadora do concurso é o Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisa em Avaliação e Seleção e de Promoção de Eventos (Cebraspe). As provas objetivas e a prova discursiva têm durações que variam de 3 horas e 30 minutos a 4 horas e 30 minutos, conforme a função desejada. As datas prováveis de aplicação dos testes também são diferentes para cada um dos cargos contemplados no concurso.

Confira, a seguir, o cronograma:

-Auditor de Controle Externo – Área: Auditoria de Contas Públicas: 17/09, de manhã.

-Auditor de Controle Externo – Área: Auditoria de Obras Públicas: 17/09, de manhã.

-Analista de Gestão – Área: Julgamento: 17/09, à tarde.

-Analista de Controle Externo – Área: Auditoria de Contas Públicas: 24/09, de manhã.

-Analista de Gestão – Área: Administração: 24/09, à tarde.



Fonte Motiva Gente



          Does Auckland have the infrastructure capacity to host the America's cup? Alex Tarrant reviews two of the Mexican stand-offs involving central government, the Auckland Council, the Airport and Watercare   

By Alex Tarrant

Emirates Team New Zealand’s America’s Cup win has certainly fired up the Auckland infrastructure debate (as if it needed more fuel). Every interested party is now reviewing their wish list trying to figure out whether their pet project could be completed in four years. Rail, roads, houses and water pipes.

The 2021 event (Auckland will also hold the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit that year) might be a Godsend for getting even more Auckland infrastructure work on the move (if we can find the labourers needed – don’t mention foreigners!).

But the multiple Mexican stand-offs between the Government, Auckland Council and other parties like Auckland Airport and Watercare need to be resolved. The key in each dispute is who pays for what, when, why and how.

This (rather long) column focuses on two of those stand-offs. Rail to Auckland Airport from the CBD, and cheaper, faster provision of water services for new housing in Auckland – including boosting incentives for cheaper densification. On Rail, there is a simple answer to get things moving if the project would indeed lead to benefits. On water, revised legislation debated in Parliament last week provides some hope.

Rail to the airport

Politicians were quick to jump on the success of ETNZ earlier this week and the expected economic benefits to Auckland from holding the Cup in 2021. The Green Party used the occasion to question the Transport Minister on whether Auckland would have capacity to host the event.

“Will the government start building rail to the airport sooner, if Auckland hosts the next America’s Cup regatta, or will Aucklanders still have to wait 30 years?” Julie Anne Genter asked Simon Bridges.

Bridges’ answers focussed on the current plan of protecting a sole purpose route that will originally be marked out for a busway to the Airport. This showed the government was prioritising the project, he claimed, being careful to add it was difficult to explain what the timeframe could be for progressing to rail. This would be driven by demand and usage numbers, Bridges said.

So why not just kick-start the project of rail to the airport? If central government were to lead on funding, couldn’t others like the Council be given time to come up with their share? The reason this National-led government isn’t making any firm commitments like this is down to the principle of, whoever benefits should pay.

Steven Joyce, Simon Bridges and other Ministers have in recent months been talking more about the use of value uplift taxes to help fund new projects – rates will be higher in areas that profit from increased transportation links, for example. These could be residential rates paid by homeowners in areas with improved access to the CBD from a new road, which would have boosted the value of their property. They could also be imposed on commercial businesses that benefit from more foot-traffic due to being closer to, say, a new train station.

The government openly admits that a value uplift tax would have been a perfect fit for Auckland’s inner-city rail loop. But, because the loop was announced before Ministers could start spraying the idea around, they feel it would be a bit rude (think a vote-loser) to suddenly turn around and clamp such a tax on business owners close to where the new stations would be, regardless of the economics.

They have to find a project that hasn’t yet started, and which would clearly benefit the areas linked by the project. Penlink has been talked about. I also give you the Airport-City rail link.

However, Bridges and Joyce are engaged in a stand-off with Auckland Airport. ‘If you come to the table, then we will too.’

Auckland Airport would clearly benefit from any rail link with the city. So, Bridges et al are waiting for them to come to the party. If we’re talking light rail – trams – then Dominion Road businesses and residential properties should also benefit in value uplift.

It’s a stand-off though. If the airport argues against paying more because the benefits won’t be that great, then the government can turn around and say, ‘ok well that’s a good argument for not needing to build the new connection’. If the government just starts funding the link itself, then it runs the risk of no-one else coming to the party. They also don't want to be seen starting the project with inclusion of value-uplift taxes that no-one agrees on - that's not the way this government wants to work.

In effect, the sticking point is a matter of principle. It’s a principled Mexican stand-off. Or a prisoners’ dilemma in a low-security prison.

Water pipe dream

The next stand-off is a key component in Auckland’s housing debate. Water pipes. A couple of weeks ago I wrote about how the National Cabinet would love to take a swipe at the monopolistic, not-for-profit Watercare in Auckland. They’re getting nearer to it.

The Local Government Amendment Act 2002 Amendment Bill (No 2) was introduced last year by former Local Government Minister Peseta Sam Lotu-Iiga. And boy was it popular. The Local Government Select Committee heard nearly 200 submissions on the Bill. They’ve now reported back with amendments. The Bill received a second reading last week.

The stand-off between local and central government on water pipes can best be summed up by a conversation between media and Local Government New Zealand a few weeks back. A lot of New Zealand’s water pipe infrastructure was put in in the 1960s, we were told. Those pipes had an expected lifetime of 60 years, so we’re heading towards an exponential renewals curve over the next 15 years for assets worth over $100 billion.

A couple of the journalists (including this correspondent) were a tad miffed by this. Did local councils know there was only a 60-year life span? “Yeah, they did,” was the reply. ““The renewals curve is not a surprise. But it’s here, now.”

So why haven’t councils planned over those 60 years to put replacement funds aside? The problem, we were told, was that in the 1960s a lot of the pipes were paid for by central government. Now, technically only local government is on the hook. “Under our current funding model, it’s rates and debt [to pay for it]. The issue becomes, is that a sustainable position? Our view is it is not.”

That’s why local government is calling on central government to agree to a co-funding model for the replacement of water pipes nationwide that are coming to the end of their working life (even though this was all known about for 60 years).

I asked Local Government New Zealand chairman Lawrence Yule whether they’d had any indications from central government that this could be done. He said central government had always indicated a willingness to look at it “but only once you’ve made sure what you’re doing currently is being done as efficiently as it can be.”

It’s a stand-off. Local government is refusing to consider how to fund replacement pipes until central government agrees to a co-funding model. Central government won’t agree to a co-funding model until local government gets its own house in order and ensures water services operations are as efficient as possible.

The issue got to a point where central government decided to try and take the initiative. This is where the Local Government Local Government Act Amendment Bill (No 2) comes in. Central government clearly believes things aren’t being done as efficiently as possible.

The Bill will allow various councils to band together to create Transport and Water Council Controlled Organisations (CCOs) to provide services across several local authorities. Scale. It will also give greater scope for re-organisation of CCOs. As now-Local Government Minister Anne Tolley put it in Thursday’s second reading, it provides “an opportunity for the sector to show their local strategic leadership, which may require hard decisions about difficult options in order to secure a positive future for their communities.”

Let’s take Watercare. In its submission on the Bill (co-submitted with Auckland Council), it argued that since its first fully operational year in 2011/12, it has reduced the cost of water delivery to Aucklanders compared the rag-tag pricing run previously by individual councils pre-Super City.

That’s true. The $1.30 per thousand litres was below the range of $1.31-$3.50 encompassing Rodney, North Shore, Waitakere, Auckland, Manukau and Franklin. Job well done. Scale worked. But since then, that cost has risen each year to $1.44 per thousand litres in 2016/17. That’s not what central government (or Auckland residents) wanted to see.

A 2015 Cabinet paper introducing the Amendment Bill reveals what some Cabinet Ministers really wanted to do. The Local Government Minister at the time highlighted the potential benefits of requiring Watercare to have to pay a dividend (“distribute surpluses”) to the Council. This could encourage more efficient pricing of water services and allow it better access to finance.

However, due to the prospect of the move not being supported by “the community,” the idea was not included. Indeed, when the Local Government Select Committee reported the Bill back to the House in June, Section 70 was there prohibiting the distribution of surpluses by water services CCOs.

A pity. There is some exciting stuff in there, though. Central government is aiming to be imposing a number of requirements that I’m told are aimed at drastically changing the way Watercare operates.

The Productivity Commission’s 2016 report, Using Land for Housing, helped. Looking at Watercare from a housing supply lens, the Commission raised a number of concerns and recommendations which will partly be tackled by the Bill.

Firstly, Watercare’s Infrastructure Growth Charges (IGCs) do not recover the full costs of growth (new pipes for new housing), the Commission pointed out. Although initially this could produce benefits for new home buyers not paying the full cost for water infrastructure, deficits will need to be recovered from somewhere. Recovery from existing residents will reduce community acceptance of growth, limiting the supply of infrastructure-enabled land, therefore contributing to higher house prices.

Watercare needed to change how it calculates charges to better reflect the underlying economic costs of supply in different locations and for different types of dwelling, the Commission said. This linked in with criticisms of Watercare’s model of charging flat fees.

“To the extent that certain types of development result in lower infrastructure costs than others, a flat charge will result in a cross-subsidy between different types of dwelling. This might result in a situation in which smaller and more affordable dwellings are cross-subsidising larger standalone dwellings.”

The Bill requires Watercare to shift away from the IGC model to a development contribution model. It has until 30 June 2018 at the latest to figure out how to best make the switch.

Meanwhile, the Commission urged Watercare to consider development agreements, which would enable private developers to take responsibility for building trunk infrastructure. It referenced research that developers may be able to provide infrastructure solutions at lower costs than Watercare, particularly due to ‘over specification’ required by Watercare.

“Watercare notes that development agreements have a range of advantages (eg, they provide a mechanism for bringing in private capital into the provision of public infrastructure) and disadvantages (eg, the time required to prepare and finalise the agreements, especially if more than one developer/landowner is involved). The obligation to consider requests from a developer to enter into development agreements and provide the developer with a written response would not compel Watercare and other CCOs to enter agreements where there are good reasons not to. But a requirement to set out in writing why a development agreement may not proceed would provide clarity and transparency about the reasons for the decision.”

The Bill doesn’t appear to go as far as the Commission would have hoped, but it does provide legislation for Watercare to be able to enter into development agreements.

Finally, the Commission appeared horrified that for both Auckland Transport and Watercare, “supply of infrastructure to support growth is not reflected in either organisation’s performance measures.”

“While the primary accountability documents for Watercare and Auckland Transport (the Statements of Intents) are broadly aligned with the Auckland Plan vision, they do not give effect to the specific objective in the Auckland Plan to increase the city’s supply of new dwellings,” it said.

“Auckland Transport and Watercare’s SOIs should be amended to include performance measures relating to the efficient roll-out of new infrastructure to support an increased supply of new dwellings.

“The regulatory and institutional framework around the water sector can be improved. Discipline and transparency around the pricing of water services, and better performance monitoring, would improve the ability of the water sector to support urban growth,” the Commission said.

The Bill includes provision for Council input on CCO statements of intent and for performance monitoring. Each CCO – ie Watercare – must provide its shareholders the opportunity to influence the direction of the organisation, and must provide a basis for the accountability of the directors to their shareholders for the performance of the organisation.

And that performance monitoring? A local authority must undertake regular performance monitoring to evaluate a CCO’s contribution to the achievement of the authority’s objectives for the organisation, the desired results set out in its SOI and the overall aims and outcomes of the local authority.

What’s yet to be seen, however, is whether the changes would have such an effect as to fix the pending funding crisis for water pipe replacement and extension. I would think not. But with this Bill, central and local government will both be able to tap the argument that councils and their organisations have reached, or will soon reach efficiency limits.

And that’s the trigger for central government coming to the funding party.


          Comment on An argument from “The Standards of Faith of the United Methodist Church” part 2 by Gary   
In light of this 2017 report, things don't look all bad. http://s3.amazonaws.com/Website_Interpreter/magazine/2017/2017_State_of_the_Church.pdf Sure, there is a 12% drop in membership in North America in 10 years. But there is an overall increase worldwide by 12%. And interestingly, on Paid on Apportionments to All General Funds, 1994-2016* Only 84.4% paid in 1994. But 91.9% paid in 2016. So members must think something is better, or they are just doing better economically. So, the obvious questions to ask directly of the LGBTQ community in the Methodist Church - "What % of members are in the LGBTQ category? What % of those just can't live with the current status quo? What % are so upset, that they just can't accept status quo? What % are satisfied with a civil marriage, and what % just have to have a church wedding? What % are clergy or Bishops?" I would like to see a survey like that taken by this "Way Forward" group. Plenty of time, since they have till 2019 to decide their findings. The survey should be of LGBTQ Methodist members only. NOT the none-LGBQT members. I have a feeling that the majority of very militant advocates of this are either outside advocates (non-UMC), or - excuse the phrase - super liberal, self-perceived do-gooder types, that want to burn the house down to save the "principle" of acceptance of all. This, considering that "all" are already accepted, including taking communion. We are talking only of the expansion of clergy, and gay marriage within the church. Nothing else. I would also like to see a question included in a survey of LGBTQ Methodist members only, that asks, "Eliminating the phrase 'homosexual lifestyle is contrary to Christian teaching' from the BoD, if it results in the breakup of UMC as it currently stands, do you favor or oppose the change?" My guess is that the answers to the survey will only include a small % of the LGBTQ Methodist community that wants to burn the house down to eliminate the phrase. BTW - I still favor gay marriage within UMC, and gay clergy. But not at the expense of destroying a good thing (UMC). I suspect the majority of the gay Methodist may feel the same way. I suspect that the agenda for "change or else", is coming from mostly non-members, or members that are not gay, but think they are on a holy crusade. Either way, I think it would be important to get anonymous survey data from the actual LGBTQ Methodist community, and not just from politically driven "do-gooder" members, and non-members. My 2 cents worth.
          Los agricultores canarios se resignan ante un año catastrófico por la escasez de lluvias   

La lluvia, ya de por sí escasa en Canarias, apenas ha caído del cielo durante este 2017. “Desde octubre de 2016 a junio de este año ha habido un déficit de precipitaciones”, desvela el delegado de la AEMET en las Islas, Jesús Agüera. A los agricultores les quedaba la esperanza de que con la primavera, en los meses de abril o mayo, cayese algo de agua, pero lo que se ha producido es “un aumento de la temperatura de uno o dos grados por encima de la media”.

Aceptada ya la situación “catastrófica” para el sector primario en Canarias, según el presidente de la Unión de Pequeños Agricultores y Ganaderos (UPA) en Las Palmas, Antonio Suárez, no queda más que resignarse porque “no se puede hacer absolutamente nada, cuando viene un año como este es imposible aportar soluciones”. 

“En los últimos 30 años es difícil encontrar una época más húmeda de lo normal, en general las temperaturas son más cálidas de lo habitual”, afirma Agüera. Lo corroboran las presas: en Gran Canaria, los volúmenes de los embalses públicos (Chira, Ayagaures, Gambuesa, Candelaria, Fataga, Vaquero y El Mulato), estaban en su conjunto al 32% de su capacidad a finales de diciembre de 2015, al 23% en el mismo mes de 2016 y el último dato de 2017 las cifra en el 22%; en Tenerife, donde suelen caer más precipitaciones, los 20 embalses que gestiona la empresa pública de la corporación insular (Balten), muestra que están justo al 50% de su capacidad de media, lo que confirma también una progresiva disminución, ya que al cierre de 2016 estaban al 51% de ocupación, frente al 62% de la misma época en 2015.

En estas dos islas, las zonas más castigadas se ubican en el sur. “En el sur de Gran Canaria ya hay restricciones y hay que dejar de plantar el 40% de lo que otros años se ha podido cultivar”, explica Suárez.

De las restricciones sabe bastante el agricultor Juan Ramírez, miembro de Cosecha Directa que trabaja en la zona de El Tablero (San Bartolomé de Tirajana): “Nosotros tenemos unas limitaciones a la hora de usar el agua, contamos con un gasto de agua anual y de ese gasto, nos quitan unas 400 horas de agua, un 20% del agua que se consume en condiciones normales”.

Normalmente el agua con la que Ramírez riega sus cultivos proviene de las presas, que le cuesta unos “quince euros la hora” (36.000 litros), pero con la escasez de lluvias, deben recurrir a las depuradoras de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, “y me sale a 18 euros la hora”, aunque sabe que a otros les cuesta hasta "36 euros la hora", algo "totalmente inviable".

Todo ello hace que los agricultores del sur grancanario se vean “limitados a la hora de cultivar” porque “la sequía nos deja sin mucho margen de maniobra”, ya que “no podemos usar todo el agua que necesitamos, que es la que usamos normalmente”, relata Ramírez. 

Hernán Tejera, secretario de la Asociación de Agricultores y Ganaderos de Canarias (Asaga), expone que “en el sur de Tenerife sigue habiendo problemas graves, como en Arico, a donde no llega el agua”, pero deja lugar a la esperanza debido a las medidas que se están tomando desde las instituciones: “Hay que recordar que se puso en funcionamiento la desaladora de Granadilla, que da servicio desde Arico hasta el Valle de San Lorenzo”.

“El espacio que va de Santiago del Teide hasta Adeje tiene posibilidades de mejora porque se ha inaugurado el bombeo desde la desaladora de Fonsalía, que está en fase de pruebas, hasta el depósito de Lomo del Balo. Se va aportar un caudal pequeño, entre 2.500 y 2.300 metro cúbicos de agua, pero es un aporte interesante debido al invierno tan seco que hemos tenido. Así que cualquier aporte es importante” narra Tejera.

Esta situación no se da en el sur grancanario porque “las desaladoras que están en Maspalomas funcionan para el abasto de la zona turística, que consume una barbaridad de agua. También hay alguna más, pero son particulares, de algún conde”, detalla Ramírez.

Lo que desconcierta al agricultor es que el principal municipio turístico de la Isla no tenga depuradoras y deban recurrir a traerla de la capital, algo que, por otro lado, agradece a las instituciones que lo hacen posible porque gracias a eso pueden decir que nunca se quedan sin agua.

Ramírez ha visto como compañeros “han abandonado cultivos por falta de recursos hídricos" y desconoce cómo se podrían mitigar los efectos de una sequía: “¿Cómo se reduce el gasto de agua? “ se pregunta.

Aunque en Tenerife Tejera no conoce "casos de abandono" sí reconoce que la sequía tiene una incidencia en el cultivo de la papa de forma indirecta. "La escasez de agua favorece el desarrollo de las plagas y la polilla guatemalteca ha echado a perder el 50% de los cultivos de papa".

Apuesta de futuro

Ante la falta de lluvias no se puede hacer gran cosa en la agricultura más que esperar a que llegue una época más húmeda, ya que lo prioritario es el abastecimiento de la población y el turismo.

"Hay municipios en los que el uso de agua compite con el abasto urbano y el turismo. Y esto hace que sea necesario dotar a todas las áreas turísticas de agua desalada a coste competitivo y, en la medida en la que la población pueda tener acceso a otro tipo de suministro hídrico, entendemos que las zonas dedicadas a la agricultura también tendrán más disponibilidad", explica Tejera

Mientras tanto, Ramírez recomienda “hacer campañas de concienciación para que la población consuma el agua de forma responsable” o, sobre todo, que los políticos “no estén dando un paso adelante y luego, cuando llega otro, den un paso hacia atrás”.

Se refiere Ramírez al salto de la central de Chira con Soria: “El mayor problema es que tenemos todo el agua que queramos, pero la tenemos que desalar y aquí entra la política. Lo ideal sería el salto de Chira, sería la panacea para el sur de Gran Canaria, porque esto significaría tener dos desaladoras que estarían bombeando agua permanentemente”, pero, hasta que eso llegue, debe aguantar lo mejor que pueda.

"Este año es un desastre para el agro de Gran Canaria porque las infraestructuras son las que están", remarca Suárez (UPA), quien tiene claro que la apuesta de futuro debe ir enfocada a "las desaladoras y renovables" porque las primeras no pueden abastecer a territorios de las zonas altas "debido a su coste energético" y, si además hay sequía "el agua de las presas de esos espacios se traslada a las zonas costeras", lo que provoca que "las partes altas se quedan secas".

Las renovables "reducen ese coste energético y abaratan el traslado de un metro cúbico de agua de un sitio a otro", concluye Suárez.


          iPhone unlocking software sale begins   
iPhoneSIMFree‘s retail partners have begun sales of iPhone unlocking software. To date, iPhoneWorldwideUnlock in Australia, 1digitalphone in Germany, iPhone4arab.com in Saudi Arabia, and Wireless Imports in the US have licensed the software from iPhoneSIMFree which can be purchased online for $99. Take note that there is no guarantee of compatibility with future iPhone firmware, so this could be just a temporary measure.

You can download the full tutorial as PDF file by
clicking here


          What the Senate healthcare bill could mean for Californians - Los Angeles Times   

Los Angeles Times

What the Senate healthcare bill could mean for Californians
Los Angeles Times
The Affordable Care Act has had a huge impact on California, where roughly 4 million people have gained insurance and the percentage of uninsured residents has dropped more than half. Below is a breakdown of some of the ways the Senate bill could ...
Senate health care bill called 'devastating' to CaliforniaSan Francisco Chronicle
New GOP health-care plan could wreck Medi-Cal, complicate California's single-payer effortPress-Enterprise
California Insurance Commissioner Issues Statement Following Senate Republicans' Health Care ProposalSierra Sun Times
SFGate -KCET -In These Times -Senate Budget Committee
all 10,249 news articles »

          Boucher, Dingell in House Energy Committee Call for Cap-and-Trade   

As he previously announced he would, Energy and Commerce’s Energy and Air Quality Subcommittee chair Rep. Rick Boucher (D-Va.) released the first of a series of white papers on climate legislation today, Scope of a Cap-and-Trade Program.

Based on the hearings earlier this year, the Committee and Subcommittee Chairmen have reached the following conclusions: The United States should reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by between 60 and 80 percent by 2050 to contribute to global efforts to address climate change. To do so, the United States should adopt an economy-wide, mandatory greenhouse gas reduction program. The central component of this program should be a cap-and-trade program. Given the breadth of the economy that will be affected by a national climate change program and the significant environmental consequences at stake, it is important to design a fair program that obtains the maximum emission reductions at the lowest cost and with the least economic disruption. The Subcommittee and full Committee will draft legislation to establish such a program.

Oddly, the white paper fails to mention a baseline for emissions reductions; the scientific consensus for the 80 percent reduction is from 1990 emissions levels.

The white paper makes no recommendations on how credits should be allocated, though Boucher has stated his resistance to auctions in the past. Nor does it discuss interaction with foreign carbon markets or how to deal with imports from unregulated entities.

The white paper argues that complementary measures are necessary:
“Even with a broad-based cap-and-trade program, complementary measures (such as a carbon tax or other tax-based incentives, efficiency or other performance standards, or research and development programs) will also be needed. For example, funding for research, development, and deployment of new technologies would assist industries that will need to adopt new technologies. In addition, efficiency or other performance standards might be appropriate for some economic actors that would be inappropriate to include directly in a cap-and-trade program, but that should contribute to an economy-wide reduction program in some other way.

Proposed measures range from Dingell’s carbon tax, increased CAFE standards, appliance and lighting efficiency standards, a federal renewable energy standard, to carbon sequestration funding.

Further notes are below.

Interestingly, the report draws extensively from the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions September report, Size Thresholds for Greenhouse Gas Regulation: Who Would be Affected by a 10,000-ton CO2 Emissions Rule? The Nicholas Institute is run by Sen. Lieberman’s former environmental counsel, Nick Profeta.

A later white paper will discuss carbon offsets in the agricultural and industrial sector.

Greenhouse gas emissions from other sources in [the industrial] sector (such as landfills) generally may not lend themselves to regulation under a cap-and-trade program if there is difficulty in measuring the emissions accurately. For example, EPA currently operates methane programs that encourages landfills and other soruces to capture gas and use it for electricity generation. . . . The agricultural sector, however, does have significant opportunities to reduce emissions that may lend themselves to measurement, which could make them appropriate as a source of credits or offsets in a cap-and-trade program…. [manure methane capture, cropland biological sinks]... A later White Paper will discuss the potential for using such reductions as offsets or credits as part of the cap-and-trade program.

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          Russians were holocausted by Bolshevik Jews   
Russians were holocausted by Bolshevik Jews
I am part Russian and will continue to expose the Jews behind the New World Order.  The same tactics and death camps are here in america just waiting to be used.  we know from the apocalypse they will "behead" Christians that is why there were 30,000 guillotines sent to these FEMA camps.  You may ask why beheading?  This is where the "organ harvesting" business comes into play.  It is not conspiracy folks get your head out of the sand.  The Jews are now saying their Messianic Era will start in about 5 years or so hence why I warn you that Antichrist Maitreya is about to arrive onto the scene.
SOURCE
WARNING: Sensitive Material
Below is a excerpt from the book, ‘under the sign of the scorpion’ which describes some of the methods of torture and mass murder the Jewish Communists (Bolsheviks) sadistically inflicted onto the Russian Christian people. I warn you, you will be horrified. This is the real holocaust that happened in the 20th century, the Russian Holocaust, carried out by blood-thirsty and demonic bolshevik jews. I highlighted the parts I found to be most gut-wrenching in red.
Here it must be pointed out that the Cheka was under the control of Jews, according to documents now available. Much of this was known already in 1925. The researcher Larseh wrote in his book “The Blood-Lust of Bolshevism” (Wurttemberg, p. 45) that 50 per cent of the Cheka consisted of Jews with Jewish names, 25 per cent were Jews who had taken Russian names. All the chiefs were Jews. Lenin was well informed about all those serious crimes. All of the documents were placed on his desk. Lenin answered: “Put more force into the terror… shoot every tenth person, place all the suspects in concentration camps!”
Image result for under the sign of the scorpion
Lenin incarcerated people without any sentence, despite the establishment of revolutionary tribunals, as was the case in France under the Jacobins. Lenin actually claimed that the concentration camps were schools of labour. (Mikhail Heller and Alexander Nekrich, doctors of history, “Utopia in Power”, London, 1986, p. 67.) Lenin also claimed that the factory was the workers’ only school. They did not need any other education. He emphasised that anyone who could only do simple arithmetic could run a factory. Just like the terror of the Jacobins in France, the Jewish Bolshevik functionaries used barges to drown people in. Bela Kun (actually Aaron Kohn) and Roza Zemlyachka (actually Rozalia Zalkind) drowned Russian 110 officers in this way in the Crimea in the autumn of 1920. (Igor Bunich, “The Party’s Gold”, St. Petersburg, 1992, p. 73.)
The unusually cruel Jewish Chekist Mikhail Kedrov (actually Zederbaum) drowned 1092 Russian officers in the White Sea in the spring of 1920. Lenin and his accomplices did not arrest just anyone. They executed those most active in society, the independent thinkers. Lenin gave orders to kill as many students as possible in several towns. The Chekists arrested every youth wearing a school cap. They were liquidated because Lenin believed the coming Russian intellectuals would be a threat to the Soviet regime. (Vladimir Soloukhin, “In the Light of Day”, Moscow 1992, p. 40.) The role of the Russian intellectuals in society was taken over by the Jews. Many students (for example in Yaroslavl) learned quickly and hid their school caps. Afterwards, the Chekists stopped all suspect youths and searched their hair for the stripe of the school cap. If the stripe was found, the youth was killed on the spot.
The author Vladimir Soloukhin revealed that the Chekists were especially interested in handsome boys and pretty girls. These were the first to be killed. It was believed that there would be more intellectuals among attractive people. Attractive youths were therefore killed as a danger to society. No crime as terrible as this has hitherto been described in the history of the world. The terror was co-ordinated by the Chekist functionary Joseph Unschlicht. How did they go about the murders? The Jewish Chekists flavoured murder with various torture methods. In his documentary “The Russia We Lost”, the director Stanislav Govorukhin told how the priesthood in Kherson were crucified. The archbishop Andronnikov in Perm was tortured: his eyes were poked out, his ears and nose were cut off.

In Kharkov the priest Dmitri was undressed. When he tried to make the sign of the cross, a Chekist cut off his right hand. Several sources tell how the Chekists in Kharkov placed the victims in a row and nailed their hands to a table, cut around their wrists with a knife, poured boiling water over the hands and pulled the skin off. This was called “pulling off the glove”. In other places, the victim’s head was placed on an anvil and slowly crushed with a steam hammer. Those due to undergo the same punishment the next day were forced to watch.
The eyes of church dignitaries were poked out, their tongues were cut off and they were buried alive. There were Chekists who used to cut open 111 the stomachs of their victims, following which they pulled out a length of the small intestine and nailed it to a telegraph pole and, with a whip, forced the unlucky victim to run circles around the pole until the whole intestine had been unravelled and the victim died. The bishop of Voronezh was boiled alive in a big pot, after which the monks, with revolvers aimed at their heads, were forced to drink this soup.
Other Chekists crushed the heads of their victims with special headscrews, or drilled them through with dental tools. The upper part of the skull was sawn off and the nearest in line was forced to eat the brain, following which the procedure would be repeated to the end of the line. The Chekists often arrested whole families and tortured the children before the eyes of their parents, and the wives before their husbands. Mikhail Voslensky, a former Soviet functionary, described some of the cruel methods used by the Chekists in his book “Nomenklatura” / “Nomenclature” (Stockholm, 1982, p. 321):Related image
“In Kharkov, people were scalped. In Voronezh, the torture victims were placed in barrels into which nails were hammered so that they stuck out on the inside, upon which the barrels were set rolling. A pentacle (usually a five-pointed star formerly used in magic) was burned into the foreheads of the victims. In Tsaritsyn and Kamyshin, the hands of victims were amputated with a saw. In Poltava and Kremenchug, the victims were impaled. In Odessa, they were roasted alive in ovens or ripped to pieces. In Kiev, the victims were placed in coffins with a decomposing body and buried alive, only to be dug up again after half an hour.” Lenin was dissatisfied with these reports and demanded: “Put more force into the terror!”
All of this happened in the provinces. The reader can try to imagine how people were executed in Moscow. The Russian-Jewish newspaper Yevreyskaya Tribuna stated on the 24th of August 1922 that Lenin had asked the rabbis if they were satisfied with the particularly cruel executions. The Ideological Background of the Terror Compare the crimes mentioned in the previous chapter with the Old Testament account of King David’s massacre of the entire civilian population of an enemy (“thus did he unto all the cities of the children of 112 Ammon”). He “cut them with saws and with harrows of iron” and “made them pass through the brickkiln”. After the Second World War, this text was changed in most European Bibles. Now, many Bibles state that the people were put to work with the tools mentioned and were occupied with brick-making – something the inhabitants had been doing continually for several thousand years already. (This is found in II Samuel, 12:31, and in I Chronicles 20:3.)
The Jewish extremists’ serious crimes in Russia were committed in the true spirit of the Old Testament (King James’ Bible): * The god of the Israelites demands the mass-murder of Gentiles (i.e. goyim = non-Jews), including women and children. (Deuteronomy, 20:16.) * Yahweh wishes to spread terror among the Gentiles (Deuteronomy, 2:25). * Yahweh demands the destruction of other religions (Deuteronomy, 7:5). * The Jews may divide the prey of a great spoil (Isaiah, 33:23). * The Jews may make Gentiles their slaves (Isaiah, 14:2). * Those refusing to serve the Jews shall perish and be utterly wasted (Isaiah, 60:12). * Gentiles shall be forced to eat

their own flesh (Isaiah, 49:26).


Returning to the Bolshevik terror: in order to control the people’s hatred of their Jewish torturers and executioners, people suspected of having an anti-Semitic attitude were also executed. Those in possession of the book “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” were executed on the spot. At the end of March 1919, Lenin was forced to explain: “The Jews are not the enemies of the working classes… they are our friends in the struggle for Socialism.” But the people hated precisely this Socialism and those who practised terror in its name. Vladimir Ulyanov’s passion was to kill as many people as possible without thinking of the consequences. Of course, he never wondered whether it was really possible to build a state on violence and evil.
Lenin showed the same kind of thoughtlessness by the Yenisei, where he had loaded his boat with so many dead rabbits with crushed heads that it sank under the weight. In August 1991 the state-ship Lenin had launched, sank. What else was to be expected? In the beginning of the 1920s there were already 70 000 prisoners in 300 concentration camps, according to “The Russian Revolution” by 113 Richard Pipes at Harvard University, though in reality there were probably many more. It was in this manner that Lenin built his GULAG archipelago.
continued here 

see also – 

do americans face a red terror

the genocide you never hear of

judaism is communism

THE VICIOUS JEWISH PARTISANS OF WW2 

HELLSTORM: THE RAPE AND MASS MURDER OF GERMAN WOMEN AFTER WWII

 CENTRAL BANK SCAM EXPLAINS WORLD MALAISE 

time to start defending christianity

Great Anti-Bolshevist Exhibition (1937)

Secret Behind Communism –  The Ethnic Origins of the bolshevik revolution

jewish murderers of the russian revolution
 

The Jewish Butchers Behind Communism 

Jewish Quotes from the New World Order

  This was my talk with Scottie Spencer from Smoloko.com



          9/11 Simplified...   
9/11 Simplified...
James Perloff

Yes, Virginia, there really were hijackers on the 9/11 planes—but not the ones we were told

This post is not intended to be taken dogmatically; I do not insist that its conclusions are correct; they are just presented for consideration.
In this post, though they have already been much discussed and debated within alternative media, I’ll address three major components of the 9/11 controversy: (1) what brought down the Twin Towers; (2) what initially struck the Towers; and (3) what happened to the original planes and passengers.
However, there is a valid complaint often voiced in the Truth Movement, which runs like this: “I really don’t care how 9/11 was done and I’m tired of all the infighting about this. What really matters is, we know the government’s story is bogus, so we need to focus on identifying the criminals and bringing them to justice.”



I consider this a very legitimate grievance. But I don’t think we can separate “who” from “how.” When a prosecutor presents his case in a courtroom, he doesn’t name a crime’s perpetrator without describing how the crime was carried out. Nor does he present the jury with the crime’s details and methodology without identifying the suspect(s).
So let’s tackle both how and who, and we’ll start with “who,” because doing so clarifies a lot of “how.”

The Who

What’s wrong with the following math equations?
3 + 3 = 68
98 – 7 = 2
58 X 7 = 35
What’s wrong, of course, are the 8s. Take away the 8s and each equation reads correctly.
I believe that, when it comes to resolving the mystery of how 9/11 was executed, the Truth Movement suffers from a major “8” (in addition to any individual doses of cognitive dissonance that have been deliberately sprinkled in). I believe that “8” is:
9/11 was an inside job.
I believe a far more correct rendering is:
9/11 was an outside job, done by Israeli operatives, but with consent and cooperation at the highest levels of the U.S. government.
To understand this, it may be helpful to compare Israel’s vicious 1967 attack on the USS Liberty. It is well understood that President Lyndon B. Johnson and Defense Secretary Robert McNamara fully cooperated, by twice recalling U.S. fighters that the Sixth Fleet had sent to rescue the Liberty, and later by ordering a cover-up. However, at the physical operational level, the attack was carried out by Israelis, not by Americans in an “inside job.”
OK, but what’s the evidence that Israel was behind 9/11? By far the best summary I’ve seen is the WikiSpooks post 9-11/Israel Did It. (Incidentally, as many of my regular readers know, I’m half-Jewish on my father’s side, so knee-jerk charges against me of “anti-Semitism” can be stuffed in the appropriate place.)
A sampling of highlights:
• The five notorious “dancing Israelis” who filmed the Twin Towers’ destruction, after which they celebrated, high-fiving each other and even photographing themselves flicking a lighter against the backdrop of the smoking ruins. They were arrested after driving off in a van whose license number was reported by a neighbor. Later it was revealed that at least two of them were agents of Mossad, Israel’s intelligence service.
• Michael Chertoff was put in charge of the Justice Department’s investigation of 9/11, despite his mother having been a Mossad agent, and Chertoff himself reportedly holding dual citizenship in Israel. Chertoff released hundreds of arrested Israelis back to Israel, including the notorious “dancing Israelis.”
• Quoting Wikispooks: “The company that ran airport security at all three airports where the alleged hijackings originated was Huntsleigh USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of ICTS International and owned by Ezra Harel and Menachem Atzmon —both Israeli Jews.”
• ”Lucky Larry” Silverstein, who became the new owner of the World Trade Center less than two months before the attacks, and earned an insurance payout of nearly $5 billion on his $124 million investment (after missing the disaster due to a fortuitous doctor’s appointment on the morning of 9/11) was such good friends with Benjamin Netanyahu that the Israeli newspaper Haaretz reported in November 2001: “Every Sunday afternoon, New York time, Netanyahu would call Silverstein. It made no difference what the subject was or where Netanyahu was, he would always call.”1
• Supported by funds from Israel’s government, Zim Israel Navigational was the world’s ninth largest shipping firm. It had its American headquarters in the World Trade Center—until about two weeks before 9/11. Zim then moved its offices and employees to a new building, claiming rent was cheaper there.
• The 9/11 Commission’s executive director was Philip Zelikow, a dual U.S.-Israeli citizen. Why should anyone with sworn loyalty to a foreign nation be entrusted with such a position?
• On 9/11, the chairman of George W. Bush’s Defense Policy Board was Richard Perle, whom the National Security Agency had caught spying on the U.S. for Israel in 1970.
• On 9/11, employees of the Israeli instant messaging company Odigo received messages two hours before the attack, warning them not to be in the World Trade Center.
• Ptech, a software firm linked to Israeli intelligence, had provided vital software being used by the FAA, FBI, and U.S. armed forces on 9/11.
• On 9/11, seated in row 9 of Flight 11 (directly behind “Mohammed Atta”) was Danny Lewin, a former captain in the IDF (Israeli Defense Force), and who served in the Sayeret Matkal, which specializes in counter-terrorism, hostage rescue, and assassination. Lewin could bench-press 315 pounds and “was trained to kill terrorists with a pen or a credit card, or just his bare hands.”2 In 2000, he had himself photographed in front of panels resembling the Twin Towers, wearing a Swatch Watch whose model name was “Hijacker.” The hour, minute and second hands were all on the “11” and the date was set to the 11th, even though the picture was taken on the 10th.




The odds against all four time indicators being on “11” are more than 20,000 to 1. Times the odds of the watch model being named “Hijacker”: unfathomable.
That’s just a small sampling of the evidence that Israel did 9/11. When police detectives try to solve a murder, among the first questions asked is: Who benefitted from the crime? In 9/11’s case, Middle Eastern Muslims did not benefit—the U.S. has been making war on them for 16 years. America did not benefit—we’re suffering the casualties and trillions in costs from the wars, as well as degradation of our liberties in the name of security. The only beneficiary was Israel—her enemies have been neutralized one by one, courtesy America, in fulfillment of the Greater Israel plan, with Iran reputedly next on the hit list.
That’s the main who; let’s talk about the how.

(1) How were the Twin Towers destroyed?

Within alternative media are three major schools of thought about this. One is nano-thermite, largely advocated by Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth. Another is Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs), whose foremost advocate is Dr. Judy Wood. The third is nuclear devices, which I and a few others support. Let me be clear: I have friends in all three camps, and differing opinions on this matter don’t impede our friendships.
I’ve laid out why I believe the Twin Towers’ collapse was a nuclear event in an extensive blog post. To minimize redundancy, I’ll shrink this to a “top ten” list:

TOP TEN REASONS THE WTC COLLAPSE WAS A NUCLEAR EVENT

1. Thyroid cancer occurs at above-average frequency in 9/11 first responders more than any other type of cancer (see full post for citations). This is a signature of nuclear bombs; they emit iodine-131, which collects in the thyroid, often causing cancer. (This is why some people keep potassium iodide tablets on hand—to protect their thyroid glands in case of a nuclear attack.)
2. World Trade Center dust samples examined by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) found Uranium, Strontium, Barium, Thorium, and other products of nuclear fission, in high concentrations that only an atomic blast could explain. Although the Survey avoided calling attention to the significance, William Tahil vetted it in his pioneering 2006 book Ground Zero: The Nuclear Demolition of the World Trade Centre. (The phrase “ground zero,” incidentally, had only been applied to nuclear detonation sites prior to 9/11.)
3. There was molten steel underneath the rubble of the World Trade Center, whose fires kept burning for over three months. Extraordinary heat is yet another signature of a nuclear bomb.
(Note: I’m aware that molten steel was seen at a corner of the South Tower before its collapse; I don’t doubt that pre-planted explosives were in the Towers, probably including the incendiary thermite, but I don’t believe these explosives were what destroyed the WTC. To clarify, each Tower had six basement levels, and the thesis of my full post—which I had excellent assistance with—is that each Tower was destroyed by a suitcase nuke positioned at the lowest point in either building: the services pits beneath elevator 50. This was the only elevator that ran the full length of either Tower, and the only elevator whose service pits were carved into the bedrock beneath the World Trade Center. This location would make the ideal “launching pad” for a nuke, as the bedrock would contain the sideways and downward force of a nuclear explosion, which would follow the path of least resistance up through the shaft. See the full post for diagrams.)
4. The Towers did not simply “fall,” they exploded, throwing chunks of steel weighing multiple tons hundreds of feet. Check, for example, this piece that embedded itself in the American Express Building across the street:

No exotic weapons are needed to explain this. A nuclear bomb is the most powerful explosive known.
5. The Towers’ inner contents were vaporized: no furniture, filing cabinets (except one), computers, or toilets survived. All turned into dust. Even the buildings’ concrete became dust, instead of falling as chunks of debris. The vaporization, of course, included the people inside (whole bodies that were found belonged to people who jumped before the Towers disintegrated). Not only is a nuclear bomb the most powerful explosive known, its blast—unlike conventional explosives—endures for several seconds, enabling it to inflict considerably more damage.
6. At the times of the two Tower “collapses,” seismographs at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, New York, recorded enormous off-the-chart spikes consistent with huge explosions.


This shot of the South Tower exploding caught a huge singular upward burst of energy.
7. A nuclear blast explains the damage to the rest of the World Trade Center. Buildings 5 and 7 suffered enormous fires, and building 6 was cratered out. These phenomena could not have begun before the Towers’ destruction; otherwise, videos of the burning Towers would have shown additional smoke plumes, and cameras would have panned to the blazes.
Nuclear blasts originating at the lowest levels of the Twin Towers may provide the answer. Underground the World Trade Center was interconnected by pipes, not only for sewage, but a 3-foot-wide storm water drainage system.
Any building’s place at greatest risk for flooding is its lowest point. For the Twin Towers, this would have been Elevator 50’s service pits. From here flood water would be pumped through pipes to the 36-inch storm drain. Thus atomic blasts here would not only follow the path of least resistance through Elevator 50’s shaft, but through the 36-inch storm water drain, traveling through the underground pipes and shooting up through buildings 5, 6 and 7, igniting them. Falling debris could not have caused the raging internal fires seen in the smaller buildings; edifices outside the World Trade Center (American Express Building, Winter Garden Atrium) were heavily impacted by debris, but they did not catch fire. THEY WERE NOT CONNECTED TO THE WTC’S UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE SYSTEM.
Please see my full post for elaboration and documentation of the above point.
8. On 9/11, New Yorkers fled two terrifying dust clouds that engulfed the area surrounding the WTC. Anyone who watches videos of nuclear bombs detonating will see that they create sprawling ground-level clouds. Although building demolitions also routinely make dust clouds, the 9/11 ones seemed to have had a life of their own.

READ IT ALL HERE!
https://jamesperloff.com/2017/06/30/911-simplified/ 


Chris Bollyn "9-11 Deception: Greater Killsrael"  


          “Certain fashions will be introduced that will offend Our Lord very much.” - Our Lady of Fatima, 1917   
“Certain fashions will be introduced   that will offend Our Lord very much.”   - Our Lady of Fatima, 1917
Free EBOOK.  Recall Our Lady warned the world in 1917!  How much worse is the scandal these days with immodest dress especially in Summer
http://www.fatima.org/essentials/requests/mid.pdf

Summer unfortunately brings with it the height of immodesty, in both men and women.  This is a good time, then, to remember that words of Our Lady of Fatima who warned us that "more souls go to hell for sins of the flesh (i.e. sins against the 6thand 9th Commandments) than for any other reason." Our Lady of Fatima told Jacinta, "Certain fashions will be introduced that will gravely offend My Son." Jacinta also said, “People who serve God should not follow fashions. The Church has no fashions; Our Lord is always the same.”
Shorts, sleeveless tops, slacks on women, mini-skirts, swimwear, bare midriffs, tight and sheer clothing would all fit into this category of immodest fashions. Sadly, few priests warn their flock of the great danger associated with immodesty of dress, that of losing one’s soul for all eternity.  So many girls and young women are growing up today without direction and, like so many misled sheep, are following immoral fashions to the destruction of souls.


The Bible tells us, "In like manner I wish women to be decently dressed, adorning themselves with modesty and dignity, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly clothing, but with good works, such as become women professing godliness." (1 Tim. 2:9-10)  
The following are various warnings the Catholic Church has given to the faithful, for the protection of their immortal souls.

CHURCH STATEMENTS ON MODESTY OF DRESS
Pope Benedict XV wrote in his encyclical Sacra Propediem on January 6, 1921:
“One cannot sufficiently deplore the blindness of so many women of every age and station. Made foolish by a desire to please, they do not see to what degree the indecency of their clothing shocks every honest man and offends God. Most of them would formerly have blushed for such apparel as for a grave fault against Christian modesty. Now it does not suffice to exhibit themselves on public thoroughfares; they do not fear to cross the threshold of churches, to assist at the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, and even to bear the seducing food of shameful passion to the Holy Altar, where one receives the Author of Purity.”

On January 12, 1930, the Sacred Congregation of the Council, by mandate of Pope Pius XI, issued emphatic instructions on modesty of dress to all bishops:
“We recall that a dress cannot be called decent which is cut deeper than two fingers breadth under the pit of the throat, which does not cover the arms at least to the elbows, and scarcely reaches a bit beyond the knee. Furthermore, dresses of transparent material are improper. Let parents keep their daughters away from public gymnastic games and contests; but, if their daughters are compelled to attend such exhibitions, let them see to it that they are fully and modestly dressed. Let them never permit their daughters to don immodest garb.” 

Pope Pius XII said in 1954:
“Now many girls do not see anything wrong with following certain shameless styles (fashions) like so many sheep. They would surely blush if they could only guess the impressions they make and the feelings they evoke (arouse) in those who see them.” (July 17, 1954



Pope Pius XII seriously admonished Christian mothers: 
“The good of our soul is more important than that of our body; and we have to prefer the spiritual welfare of our neighbor to our bodily comforts… If a certain kind of dress constitutes a grave and proximate occasion of sin, and endangers the salvation of your soul and others, it is your duty to give it up…  O Christian mothers, if you knew what a future of anxieties and perils, of ill-guarded shame you prepare for your sons and daughters, imprudently getting them accustomed to live scantily dressed and making them lose the sense of modesty, you would be ashamed of yourselves and you would dread the harm you are making of yourselves, the harm which you are causing these children, whom Heaven has entrusted to you to be brought up as Christians.” (Pius XII to Catholic Young Women’s Groups of Italy)



The Canadian bishops in May of 1946 wrote:
“Man himself does not escape from the inclination of exhibiting his flesh: some go in public, stripped to the waist, or in very tight pants or in very scanty bathing suits. They thus commit offenses against the virtue of modesty. They may also be an occasion of sin (in thought or desire) for our neighbor.” 

Cardinal Pla y Daniel, Archbishop of Toledo, Spain, stated in 1959:
“A special danger to morals is represented by public bathing at beaches ... Mixed bathing between men and women, which is nearly always a proximate occasion of sin and a scandal, must be avoided.”

From a 1930 Letter of the Congregation of the Council:
“By virtue of the supreme apostolate which he wields over the Universal Church by Divine Will, our Most Holy Father Pope Pius XI has never ceased to inculcate, both verbally and by his writings, the words of St. Paul (1 Tim. 2:9-10), namely, ‘Women ... adorning themselves with modesty and sobriety ... and professing godliness with good works.’  Very often, when occasion arose, the same Supreme Pontiff condemned emphatically the immodest fashion of dress adopted by Catholic women and girls--which fashion not only offends the dignity of women and against her adornment, but conduces to the temporal ruin of the women and girls, and, what is still worse, to their eternal ruin, miserably dragging down others in their fall. It is not surprising, therefore, that all Bishops and other ordinaries, as is the duty of ministers of Christ, should in their own dioceses have unanimously opposed their depraved licentiousness and promiscuity of manners, often bearing with fortitude the derision and mockery leveled against them for this cause.”

 

From the Plenary Assembly of the Bishops of Brazil:

“Let the priests forcefully insist that women wear clothing which expresses modesty ...
     “Let women, at all times, but especially, as the Apostle Saint Paul teaches, when they are in church, dress with modesty. If they should dare to enter the church immodestly dressed, let them, as Canon Law commands (Canon 1262, par. 2), be judiciously put out and prevented from assisting at any function whatsoever.
     “Let those who are going to receive Holy Communion be decently dressed. Women whose heads are not covered and who are improperly dressed are to be excluded from the Sacrament, as Canon Law directs (Canons 855 & 1262, par. 2).”
St. Padre Pio, the stigmatist priest, who bore the bleeding wounds of Christ on his own body from 1918 until his death in 1968, refused to grant absolution to any woman who did not wear her skirt well below the knee.  He also insisted that women do not wear slacks. (Verified by mail at Padre Pio’s monastery.  Address: Rev. J. P. Martin, San Giovanni Rotondo 71013 FG Italy)

A General Pastoral Directive from 1915 reads: “Women must be decently dressed, especially when they go to church. The parish priest may, with due prudence, refuse them entrance to the church and access to the reception of the Sacraments, any and every time that they come to church immodestly dressed.”

St. John Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople and one of the 32 doctors of the Church, said the following regarding women who dress immodestly:   
"You carry your snare everywhere and spread your net in all places.  You allege that you never invited others to sin.  You did not indeed by your words, but you have done so by your dress and your deportment.  And much more effectively than you could by your voice.  When you have made another sin in his heart, how can you be innocent?  Tell me whom does this world condemn?  Whom do the judges in court punish?  Those who drink poison or those who prepare it and administer the fatal potion?  You are more criminal than those who poison the body.  You have given the death-dealing drink.  You murder not the body but the soul, and it is not to enemies do you do this nor are you urged on by any imaginary necessity nor provoked by injury.  But you do it out of foolish vanity and pride."  
Unfortunately, today's attire seems to have almost no boundaries. It is a disgrace for Christian women to expose their bodies, which are the temples of the Holy Ghost after baptism. A women who dresses immodestly commits a double sin:  
“You women who profane your bodies have been led by satan to soul destruction.  You expose your bodies not knowing the evil that comes into the minds of the beholder.  Therefore, your sin is twofold for you have led another to fall into sin!”

The Bible tells us: “Know you not that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost, who is in you, whom you have from God: and you are not your own? For you are bought with a great price. Glorify and bear God in your body.” (1 Corinthians 6:19-20)  Immodest dress is an offense to God and does not glorify God, but rather reduces the Christian woman to an object of lust and mocks the laws of God. Modesty in dress, on the other hand, helps safeguard the virtue of purity and is demanded by the moral law of God.  St. Cyprian writes: 
"Nothing so delights the faithful soul as the healthy consciousness of an unstained modesty. To have vanquished pleasure is the greatest pleasure; nor is there any greater victory than that which is gained over one's desires."  


Related:
http://tradcatknight.blogspot.com/2016/10/modesty-why-should-i-have-to-dress.html
http://tradcatknight.blogspot.com/2015/09/former-fashion-model-modesty-is-about.html
http://tradcatknight.blogspot.com/2014/04/the-path-to-hell-vanity-indecency.html
http://tradcatknight.blogspot.com/2017/03/modesty-are-you-modest-in-sight-of-god.html
http://tradcatknight.blogspot.com/2015/05/modesty-in-dress-love-of-god.html

 

Maria Cahill, "Modesty In The Modern World" 

          FREE EBOOK: The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass by Fr. Michael Muller, 1884   
 The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
by Fr. Michael Muller, 1884


This unique book was written to give Catholics an appreciation of the value of the Mass. Fr. Michael Muller considers the true Mass from every conceivable angle, showing it to be the central aspect of our faith, and in the process he touches on virtually every important facet of our faith, explaining how it is tied to this supreme sacrifice. Containing a wealth of Catholic traditions, Biblical facts, and enthralling, true stories from history and the lives of the Saints, this 18th century masterpiece is a must read for all traditional Catholics.




Who are those that will remain firm in their faith in those days of unheard-of tribulation? Who will not be conquered, but will fight the good battle of the Lord? They will be those especially who, in the course of their life, assisted regularly at Mass with fervor and devotion. We have seen how the early Christians prepared themselves for their severe trials, by assisting at, and partaking of, the sacred mysteries. They knew that it was only from the Lamb of God, sacrificed on the altar, that they could receive that heroic courage which was requisite to sacrifice all, even their own lives, for the sake of Him who sacrificed Himself upon their altars. In like manner Catholics who will live in the days of Antichrist and have heard Mass regularly, will be endowed with a strength supernatural to baffle all the efforts of the son of perdition and his infernal agents to make them apostatize and to pass over to his army.--pages 497 - 498

READ HERE:

          The Running of the Bulls Is an Abhorrent, Cruel Practice That Must Stop Now   
It's hard to believe that bulls are still being stabbed to death for entertainment in 2017.

I love an adventure. I've climbed cliffs on Kauai and stripped down to my skivvies to swim in a Mexican cenote. But the challenges that I pursue are a danger only to me. Those who participate in the annual Running of the Bulls can't say the same. Most tourists who travel to Pamplona for the July event suffer from nothing more than a hangover, but the bulls they run with lose their lives.

Few tourists know that at the end of every day's run, the bulls they used to cross an item off their bucket list will be killed in the bullfighting arena.

After slipping and sliding along the cobbled streets as hordes of people brandishing rolled-up newspapers scream at them, the exhausted, confused bulls must fight to the death. Men on horses circle them while repeatedly piercing them with sharp sticks called banderillas until they are dizzy, weakened from blood loss and in agonizing pain. The horses, who are blindfolded, can also sustain serious injuries if they can't avoid a charging bull.

When the bleeding bull is spent and losing the will and strength to charge, the matador (Spanish for "killer") makes his entrance to administer the death blow. In a sickening twist to an already sadistic spectacle, the crowds often cheer as the animal's ears are cut off as "trophies."

But condemnation of this bloody pastime is growing worldwide, and those few people still clinging to it are finding themselves in increasingly empty arenas. In 2007, some 3,651 bullfights were held in Spain, according to figures from its Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. In 2015, that number had declined to 1,736. An online poll by Ipsos MORI last year found that just 19 percent of Spanish adults supported bullfighting, compared to 58 percent who opposed it.

Bullfighting is already banned in many parts of Spain, and more and more areas are following suit. In 2015, one town decided to divert funds usually reserved for propping up the local bullfighting industry into buying books for schoolchildren instead. Another swapped tormented bulls for giant polystyrene balls in its annual running festival. Madrid's mayor has eliminated public subsidies for bullfights, and earlier this year, thousands marched through the Spanish capital to demand an end to this cruel spectacle.

Further afield, the Mexican states of Coahuila, Guerrero, and Sonora have all imposed bans, joining Argentina, Cuba, Italy, and others. When the Portuguese city of Viana do Castelo banned bullfighting in 2009, its mayor stated, "The defence of animal rights is not compatible with spectacles that torture and impose unjustifiable suffering."

Since most Spaniards shun bullfights, it's unwitting tourists who are keeping the killing going. Some buy a ticket out of curiosity. Others just go along with the events laid out for them in their package deal. By the time an appalled spectator rushes out of the arena in horror, the damage has already been done.

It's hard to believe that bulls are still being stabbed to death for entertainment in 2017.

Would those who participate in the Running of the Bulls still do it if they knew that the bulls are being forced to run toward their own death? Let's hope not.

 

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          United Nations and World Health Organization Call for Drug Decriminalization   
American activists aren't the only ones seeking drug policy reform.

In a joint statement, the United Nations (UN) and World Health Organization (WHO) expressed their support for countries in the review and repeal of laws that criminalize drug use and possession of drugs for personal use. This joint statement, which addresses discrimination in health care settings, comes in light of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which aim to “ensure that no one is left behind”.

The WHO has previously called for drug decriminalization as a necessary measure for public health but this joint statement with the UN represents another significant step in the global movement for drug decriminalization.

There is growing support for drug decriminalization – the elimination of criminal penalties for drug use and possession – in the U.S. and around the world. Leading medical, public health and human rights groups have endorsed drug decriminalization, including the International Red Cross, the American Public Health Association, American Civil Liberties Union, the NAACP and Latino Justice.

Public opinion on decriminalization has also been steadily increasing as the harms of criminalizing drugs become more apparent. Polls of presidential primary voters in MaineNew Hampshire and even South Carolina found that substantial majorities in each state support ending arrests for drug use and possession. In 2016, the first state-level decriminalization bill was introduced in Maryland and a similar version was reintroduced in 2017. 

Internationally, several countries already have some form of drug decriminalization. Portugal, most notably, decriminalized drugs back in 2001 as a response to the country’s HIV crisis and has demonstrated the vast benefits of decriminalization – substantial reductions in overdose, HIV/AIDS and addiction, all without any increase in drug use or crime.

Not only does drug decriminalization drastically reduce the number of people mired in the quicksand of the criminal justice system – it also, as the UN/WHO statement highlights, vastly improve public health. It decreases the stigma against people who use drugs and addresses the discrimination they historically face.

The harms of discrimination are only exacerbated in health settings, where it is literally a matter of life and death. Decriminalization can be the difference between a loved one getting the health services they need and a loved one being stigmatized, denied treatment and in danger of losing their life.

Drug decriminalization is a rational and fiscally sound policy rooted in health and human rights. Governments throughout the U.S. and around the world have an indisputable moral and scientific imperative to pursue it.

 

 

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          By 2100, Refugees Would Be the Most Populous Country on Earth   
Poverty and deadly wars are the major drivers of displacement.

The UN Refugee Agency has announced the new figures for the world’s displaced: 65.9 million. That means that 65.9 million human beings live as refugees, asylum seekers or as internally displaced people. If the refugees formed a country, it would be the 21st largest state in the world, just after Thailand (68.2 million) and just ahead of the United Kingdom (65.5 million). But unlike these other states, refugees have few political rights and no real representation in the institutions of the world.

The head of the UN Refugee Agency, Filippo Grandi, recently said that most of the displacement comes as a result of war. "The world seems to have become unable to make peace," Grandi said. "So you see old conflicts that continue to linger, and new conflicts erupting, and both produce displacement. Forced displacement is a symbol of wars that never end."

Few continents are immune from the harsh reality of war. But the epicenter of war and displacement is along the axis of the Western-driven global war on terror and resource wars. The line of displacement runs from Afghanistan to South Sudan with Syria in between. Eyes are on Syria, where the war remains hot and the tensions over escalation intensify daily. But there is as deadly a civil war in South Sudan, driven in large part by a ferocious desire to control the country’s oil. Last year, 340,000 people fled South Sudan for refugee camps in neighboring Uganda. This is a larger displacement than from Syria.

Poverty is a major driver of displacement. It is what moves hundreds of thousands of people to try and cross the Sahara Desert and then the Mediterranean Sea for European pastures. But most who try this journey meet a deadly fate. Both the Sahara and the Mediterranean are dangerous. This week, the UN’s International Organisation for Migration (IOM) in Niger rescued 600 migrants from the Sahara, although 52 did not survive.

A 22-year-old woman from Nigeria was among those rescued. She was on a pick-up truck with 50 people. They left Agadez for Libya. ‘We were in the desert for ten days,’ she says. "After five days, the driver abandoned us. He left us with all of our belongings, saying he was going to pick us up in a couple of hours. But he never did." Forty-four of the migrants died. The six who remained struggled to safety. ‘We had to drink our own pee to survive,’ she said.

Getting to Libya is hard enough. But being in Libya is perilous. Violence against vulnerable migrants inside Libya continues to occur. The IOM reports the presence in Libya of ‘slave markets.’ Migrants who make it across the Sahara into Libya have told investigators that they find themselves in these slave markets where they are bought to be taken to private prisons and put to work or else sold back to their families if they can raise the high ransom payments. UNICEF reports incidents of rape and violence against women and children in these private prisons. One 15-year-old boy said of his time in a private prison, "Here they treat us like chickens. They beat us, they do not give us good water and good food. They harass us. So many people are dying here, dying from disease, freezing to death."

Danger lurks on the sea as well. This year already IOM reports least 2,108 deaths in the sea between Libya and Italy. This is the fourth year in a row that IOM has counted over 2,000 deaths by mid-year. Over the past five years, this averages out to about 10 deaths a day. Libya, broken by NATO’s war in 2011, remains a gateway for the vulnerable from various parts of Africa, countries damaged by IMF policies and by warfare. There is no expectation that the numbers of those on the march will decrease.

In a recent paper in The Lancet (June 2017), Paul Spiegel, formerly of the UN Refugee Agency suggests that the "humanitarian system was not designed to address the types of conflicts that are happening at present." With over 65 million people displaced, the various institutions of the UN and of the NGO world are simply not capable of managing the crisis.

"It is not simply overstretched," Spiegel wrote of the humanitarian system, "it is no longer fit for purpose."

These are shattering words. One problem Spiegel identifies is the assumption that refugee flows are temporary, since wars will end at some point. What happens when wars and occupations are permanent? People either have to live for generations in refugee camps or they will seek, through dangerous passages, flight to the West. He gives the example of Iran, which absorbed over a million Afghan refugees without using the camp strategy. They simply allowed the Afghans into Iranian society and absorbed them by putting money into their various social schemes (such as education and health). Spiegel also points out that refugees must be part of the designing the process for humanitarian aid. These are good suggestions, but they are not going to be possible with the limited funds available for refugees and with the crisis level of activity that detains the humanitarian agencies.

Spiegel does not deal with one of the great problems for humanitarianism: the persistence of war and the theory that more war—or the current euphemism, security—is the answer to humanitarian crises. This January, over 1,000 people tried to scale the large barrier that divides Morocco from the Spanish enclave of Ceuta. Looking at that barrier, one is reminded of the idea that walls will somehow prevent migration, a view driven by President Donald Trump. Violence met the migrants, a mirror of the violence that was visited among migrants along the spinal cord of Eastern Europe last year. Walls, police forces and military interventions are all seductive to an imagination that forgets why people migrate and that they are human beings on the run with few other options. There is a view that security barriers and security forces will raise the price of migrant and deter future migrants. This is a silly illusion. Migration is dangerous already. That has not stopped anyone. More humane thinking is necessary.

It is important therefore that the UN Deputy Secretary-General Amina Mohammed told a meeting on the Sahel on June 28 that the world leaders need to "avoid a disproportionate emphasis on security" when dealing with the multiple crises in the Sahara region and north of it. "No purely military solution" can work against transnational organized crime, violent extremism and terrorism, nor against poverty and hopelessness. Underlying causes are not being addressed, and indeed the surface reactions—to bomb more—only create more problems, not less.

In the July issue of Land Use Policy, professors Charles Geisler and Ben Currens estimate that by 2100 there will be 2 billion refugees as a result of climate change. These numbers are staggering. They are an inevitable future. By then, refugees will be the largest country on earth—nomads, seeking shelter from destruction of climate and capitalism, from rising seas and wars of greed.

 

Related Stories


          Concerto X per 4 Violini, 2 Viole, Violoncello e Basso, "Introduttioni teatrali", Opera Quarta   
Source: 
Source of Concerto X is a printed edition of eight separate parts by M. C. Le Cène (Amsterdam), 1735, VM7-1685. Caption title: „Opera quarta / Parte Prima / VI. Introduttioni teatrali / Parte Seconda / VI Concerti...“, online available at the digital library Gallica, BNF, Paris.
Sample: 
Date: 
Saturday, June 1, 2013
Release notes: 
Publication of version 1.0.

          Lamento funebre in Fa minore per orchestra [DunL 2.2]   
Source: 
Source is a ms. of separate parts Mus. 2458-N-2a, SLUB Dresden: Digitale Bibliothek. The original label has a reference to „Sig. Hoffman“, but SLUB correctly attributes  Lamento to P. A. Locatelli [DunL 2.2].
Sample: 
Date: 
Sunday, August 1, 2010
Release notes: 
Version 1.0 with a revised editorial format.

          The get-up-to-speed-guide on the school voucher debate   

With a choice-friendly President and Secretary of Education now in office, private school choice programs have been cast into the national spotlight. This week has been no different: On Monday, researchers released two major studies on vouchers—one on Indiana’s program, the other on Louisiana’s—and the U.S. Supreme Court handed down a decision that may have implications for choice programs across this nation.

Among other things, this means that the debate on private school choice has moved from the periphery of the education policy conversation to center stage. As a result, some of you may be joining the conversation for the first time. As a long-time participant in the voucher wars, we at the Fordham Institute thought it might be helpful to offer a get-up-to-speed guide featuring some of our “greatest hits” on the topic.

We’ve arranged it around four questions:

  1. What does the research tell us about the impact of school vouchers on participants and on traditional public schools?
  2. What is smart policy regarding results-based accountability in the context of private school choice?
  3. How can we encourage private schools to participate in choice programs, and get high-quality schools to grow or replicate?
  4. What are the pros and cons of a big new federal initiative on private school choice?

What does the research tell us about the impact of school vouchers on participants and on traditional public schools?

Boosting student outcomes remains a key goal of private-school choice. While Fordham isn’t a program evaluator per se, we’ve been proud to assist and support several important empirical analyses on the impacts of vouchers on both participants and pupils in public schools. Back in the early 2000s, we helped support an experimental study of a privately funded scholarship program in Dayton. The analysis found that African American participants made significant progress (more so in reading). Fast forward almost a decade: Ohio lawmakers had enacted a statewide voucher program known as EdChoice. In 2008, Fordham and a number other groups released an early study offering evidence that vouchers may have improved public schools as competition increased. Eight years later, we released a rigorous analysis of EdChoice by David Figlio. His study would corroborate the “competitive effects” finding, though he also found that voucher students themselves lost ground on state tests. As we’ve discussed, however, the participant analysis has several limitations that should be kept in mind. For an accessible overview of this study, see Dr. Figlio’s slide deck presented at our February event on voucher research.

What is smart policy regarding results-based accountability in the context of private school choice?

One of the central, thorniest policy questions of private-school choice programs is whether and how to hold them accountable for results. In 2009, we interviewed twenty top thinkers on choice and accountability. They offered a variety of perspectives on matters such as testing and transparency around those results; financial disclosures; and whether low-performing private schools should be stripped of their ability to enroll scholarship students. In the end, we suggested a “sliding scale” approach—private schools with more voucher students would face closer scrutiny than those with just a handful. Five years later, we released a policy toolkit aimed at state legislators wrestling with accountability in voucher or scholarship programs. Our recommendations insisted on protecting private schools’ freedoms, while holding them accountable for student outcomes (again on a sliding scale). In a couple follow-up blog posts, we continued to make the case that choice, done well, requires accountability for student learning. We noted earlier this year that as scholarship programs have expanded, states have indeed put into place reasonable accountability provisions, debunking one of critics’ favorite claims—that voucher-accepting schools are “unaccountable.”

How can we encourage private schools to participate in choice programs, and get high-quality schools to grow or replicate?

Not every private school decides to admit scholarship students when given the opportunity. Why do some schools participate, while others decline? In Red Tape or Red Herring, we surveyed private-school leaders to find out which policies weigh most heavily on this decision. Most respondents cite regulations that restrict admissions or religious practices as deterrents, while just a minority felt that testing discourages participation. The overwhelming majority said they were motivated by the opportunity to “expand their mission to their community.” Our case study of five Ohio private schools also reveals that vouchers are seen as a way to reach more families. Yet the school leaders also are candid about the challenges of maintaining a culture of high expectations, while working on shoestring budgets. Similar themes are echoed in a Fordham report that looked inside Catholic voucher-accepting schools in Milwaukee.

What are the pros and cons of a big new federal initiative on private school choice?

This all brings us to the burning question of the day, at least for Beltway policy wonks: Should there be a federal private-school choice initiative—and what should it look like? On these questions, we’ve got you covered. Just two days before President Trump’s inauguration, we co-hosted an event that debated three options for a federal private-school choice program. Throughout February, we published the views of a dozen top-notch experts in our fourth annual “Wonkathon.” We crowned a quartet from the Foundation for Excellence in Education as our “wisest wonks” in this competition, having won a popular vote for the most persuasive proposal. In February and April, we at Fordham co-hosted events that continued to explore issues in a potential federal choice program, from both research and policy angles. After weighing the competing arguments, Mike expressed his skepticism about the wisdom of a big new federal tax credit scholarship program.

***

Needless to say, we at the Education Gadfly have logged countless hours and spilled much ink wrestling with the issues around private school choice. We’ve done everything from commenting on presidential candidate Al Gore’s position on vouchers to penning editorials in newspapers to testifying before legislators in our home state of Ohio. We’ll continue to be relentless in advocating for thriving private schools that are accessible to families of all backgrounds. We certainly don’t have all the answers to get us there, but we hope you’ll consider joining us in this effort.

***

Fordham reports

Marshall Allen, “Public Support for Catholic Schools” in Scott Hamilton (ed.) Who Will Save America’s Urban Public Schools (2008); Chester E. Finn, Jr., et al, When Private Schools Take Public Dollars: What’s the Place of Accountability in School Voucher Programs? (2009); David Stuit and Sy Doan, School Choice Regulations: Red Tape or Red Herring? (2012); Ellen Belcher, Pluck and Tenacity: How Five Private Schools in Ohio Have Adapted to Vouchers (2014); Fordham Institute, Public Accountability and Private-School Choice: A Policy Toolkit (2014); David Figlio and Krzysztof Karbownik, Evaluation of Ohio’s EdChoice Scholarship Program: Selection, Competition, and Performance Effects (2016).

Fordham commentary

Michael Petrilli, “The problem with ‘bad voucher schools aren’t a problem,’” (2014); Michael Petrilli and Chester E. Finn, Jr., “The two tracks of school reform,” (2014); Michael Petrilli, “Vouchers have changed. Maybe your position should change, too” (2017); Michael Petrilli and Richard Kahlenberg, “Two experts debate whether public funds should be used to support private school vouchers” (2017); Aaron Churchill, “Don’t neglect vouchers’ competitive effects” (2017); Michael Petrilli, “The Fordham Institute’s 2017 Wonkathon: The $20 billion school choice edition” (2017); Fordham Institute, “A new federal push on private school choice?” (2017); Fordham Institute, “A $20 billion school choice tax credit program: Yes, maybe, how so?” (2017); Chad L. Aldis, “Testimony before the Ohio House Finance Committee” (2017); Michael Petrilli, “The three miracles required for Donald Trump to become the patron saint of school choice” (2017).


          Making good on the apprenticeship promise will require major investment in states   

Apprenticeships are all the rage. President Trump recently announced a doubling of federal funding for apprenticeship programs to $200 million in his next budget. This follows an investment by President Obama of $50 million in the outgoing months of his administration. In fact, this follows a major rewrite of the federal legislation governing job training in 2014. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunities Act (WIOA) calls for a much greater level of coordination among workforce programs.

President Trump correctly noted that the organizational framework surrounding workforce development still needs some work, but this criticism is too simplistic. States have made major strides in recent years to improve the coordination of workforce development, and some have promoted apprenticeships as a part of the effort. The WIOA legislation made a requirement for workforce plans at the state level and some states have plans to expand apprenticeships. Many states have invested state tax revenue in apprenticeships and other mechanisms to strengthen training for youth.

Ohio, for instance, has recently taken critical steps to link apprenticeship programs to young people’s educational experiences. These include: 1) expanding linkages between high schools and state-recognized pre-apprenticeship programs through the College Credit Plus program, 2) developing an optional state recognized pre-apprenticeship pathway for students in regular career and technical programs, and, 3) expanding registered apprenticeships utilizing the state community college system, particularly for non-traditional apprentice occupations and under-represented populations.[1]

The point here is that apprenticeship programs are—not to mince words—boutique programs. A program that trains roughly 3,000 new apprentices a year in 2010 in Ohio cannot make a major dent in the labor demands for the state as a whole. In a study of ten states, only 35,000 students annually start apprenticeship programs. Ohio has over 5.8 million people working and has an unemployment rate of below 5 percent. There is great need for new entrants into the skilled trades. There are currently 7,500 jobs for “construction” alone and 700 for “welders” on OhioMeansJobs, the state online job posting system. In 2015, the combined output for all Ohio schools on an annual basis was only 654 welders. While it is projected to increase over time, the Ohio Education Research Center’s research shows that it can be very hard to meet the labor supply needs of growing firms with educational institutions.[2] All the more reason for the apprenticeship system to be improved.

Registered apprenticeship programs can be high quality. The best evidence indicates that the median annual earnings of completers of apprenticeships are over $60,000/year in the State of Washington, which works out to a median hourly wage of $37. In the ten-state study from 2012, the average difference in annual earnings for those in skilled professions was over $6,000 between those that did an apprenticeship and those that did not.  

Dr. Eric Hanushek recently suggested in an opinion piece that apprenticeships might not be the ideal education program for youth, and that young people need better general education. However, since the average age of apprentices is about 30 years old, apprenticeships are clearly serving a clientele that has tried other programs and had work experience and is looking for something new. An apprenticeship is still a great option for an adult seeking to support a family. And programs have gotten much better at linkages with community and technical colleges. In the future, they very well may be a real alternative for youth as well as 30-year-olds. But what I worry about in response to Dr. Hanushek’s work is that we throw out a good training system just because it doesn’t teach general skills as well as a good suburban high school.  

In addition to being small in comparison to the demand, apprenticeships are devilishly hard to scale up. An apprenticeship is a complex system of industrial relations, including an educational component (often at a community college), a trade union supervising the curriculum and training, and employers working on the practicum part of apprenticeships. The reason they thrive historically in Germany has a lot to do with the interdependence between firms, unions, and educational institutions and the “Lander” or regional government. We should be very skeptical that we can transplant the form to the United States without major effort at research and development. 

Doing this right at the national level is not going to cost $200 million. If we take the estimates on the government costs from the 2012 study, it might be on average $1,000 per apprentice. For an apprenticeship system as big as, say, the community college system, we would need $170 million dollars just for Ohio. What happens if we really want to take on the problem and we give $1,000 per apprentice to a state the size of Texas or even California? Costs will vary among programs, so the real costs will be much greater. Clearly, President Trump will need to increase the overall budget for apprenticeships, as will states, if we really want to make a dent in the demand for skilled trades in the nation.

The nation would do well to take education for careers more seriously than it has in the past. The apprenticeship system is a major part of this potential source of training. However, taking it seriously requires dealing with a whole host of fiscal, educational, and social issues. I hope the states, including Ohio, are up for it.

Joshua D. Hawley is Associate Professor in the Glenn College and an Associate Professor in the College of Education and Human Ecology at The Ohio State University.




[1] The State of Ohio has a new apprenticeship website: http://apprentice.ohio.gov/index.stm.

[2] We have built two tools for state government in Ohio to examine workforce supply. They are available at https://workforcesupply.chrr.ohio-state.edu/ and http://www.measures.workforce.ohio.gov/.

 


          Three ways to improve Ohio’s ESSA Plan   

In early June, the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) released an updated draft of its ESSA plan for public comment. The department had initially intended to submit its plan earlier this spring, but after heavy pressure, state officials decided to delay submission until September. The most important part of the document is its description of the state’s proposed school accountability and intervention policies. We believe that Ohio’s plan does a good job meeting both federal and state requirements.

Still, Ohio should aim for excellence, if not perfection. Allow me to identify three improvements worthy of consideration before ODE submits its plan to the U.S. Department of Education. These are sections that ODE could likely tweak without running afoul of federal or state law.

Eliminate the Chronic Absenteeism indicator (Title I, Part A: Improving Basic Programs Operated by LEAs—Indicators; lines 428-512)

ODE proposes using Chronic Absenteeism as a new report-card measure to comply with ESSA’s requirement for an indicator of School Quality or Student Success. This is a mistake. While related to student learning, absenteeism is not itself an outcome measure, which should form the basis of school accountability. Attendance should be viewed more akin to an “input” measure, like student demographics; as the Ohio Auditor of State writes, “attendance is merely an input over which schools have minimal control.” In addition, to maintain the integrity of the indicator, a robust process may need to be in place to verify schools’ attendance data. Audits of attendance data have revealed unintentional errors or intentional manipulation of records under what the Auditor has called an “honor system” of district attendance reporting. A recent Plain Dealer article notes that the district with Ohio’s highest chronic absenteeism rate claims an error was likely made in the data. For these reasons, ODE might consider other options to comply with ESSA’s School Quality indicator, such as using only its Prepared for Success component (for high schools) or perhaps data from its Achievement component (such as “indicators met” which would cover almost all schools).

Identify the bottom 5 percent of schools for “comprehensive support”—and no more (Title I, Part A: Improving Basic Programs Operated by LEAs, Subpart 4; lines 224-233).

ESSA requires states to identify a minimum of 5 percent of schools as low-performing and in need of comprehensive support—i.e., some form of state intervention. Ohio should affirm that it will identify, per the federal minimum requirement, the bottom 5 percent of schools. But ODE should also make clearer how it plans to identify comprehensive schools—the draft only refers to the use of the summative rating system. It does not indicate whether the total number of points earned by a school, or whether the overall A-F letter grades themselves will lead to identification of comprehensive schools. ODE should use the point system that drives the A-F ratings, not the summative ratings. That’s because the number of F-rated schools may exceed the 5 percent target. Using the points system, however, would allow ODE to identify just the bottom 5 percent. By limiting the number of comprehensive-support schools, the state could better focus its resources on the organizational changes necessary to improve Ohio’s lowest performing schools. It may also discourage state policymakers from lowering the bar just to have fewer schools assigned F’s and placed under state oversight.

Eliminate the Watch category of schools from the ESSA Plan (Title I, Part A: Improving Basic Programs Operated by LEAs, Subpart 4; lines 319-337).

Under ESSA, Ohio must identify two groups of schools as in need of improvement (“comprehensive” and “targeted” support schools). But ODE’s plan goes beyond these categories and identifies a third group of low-performing schools called “watch” schools. The basis for this identification is found in state, not federal, law, and ODE may not need to include Watch schools in its plan to comply with ESSA. In the coming days, Ohio lawmakers should consider eliminating or modifying the state law that allows ODE and the State Board to identify Watch schools and subject them to school improvement plans. Under federal law, Ohio must already intervene in schools with low-performing subgroups, i.e., “targeted” support schools. The Watch category goes further—perhaps a step too far—by identifying even more schools for intervention based on subgroup performance. It’s unlikely that ODE has the capacity to support in a meaningful way so many schools for improvement.

***

ODE’s ESSA plan should simply describe how it intends to meet federal requirements within the state accountability framework. In the areas noted above, ODE could dial back or clarify its compliance with ESSA before submitting the plan to federal officials. Each of these suggestions has the potential to reduce the administrative burdens—while maintaining accountability for outcomes—and free Buckeye educators to focus on students. 


          9月27日(日)体験へおでかけ!白山市福祉健康まつり   
9月27日(日)松任総合運動公園体育館前 10:00~14:00
白山市福祉健康まつり 出店します。ボーイスカウト松任第1団です。

たべものコーナー、体験コーナー、展示コーナーとあります。

たべものコーナーではおいしいメニューでお待ちしております。
”売り切れゴメン”・焼きそば ・唐揚げ ・金沢かれいぱん ・フライドポテト

体験コーナー(無料)では「いざという時のために」
”数量限定”・いざという時に役に立つ結索(ロープ結び)

案内チラシです。


昨年の様子はこちらのアルバムでご覧いただけます。
20140928福祉健康まつり20140928福祉健康まつり by (C)bsmatto



あなたのお子さんが、たくましくなる習い事。さまざまな体験。

松任第1団は1980年に発団。皆様のご理解、ご支援で35年を迎え、次の2020年発団40年に向けて

さらに多くのヒーローの誕生するお手伝いさせていただきます。

お子さんばかりでなく、指導者も一丸となって「最善を尽くす」です。

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白山市でひとつ、ボーイスカウト松任第1団では、何でも楽しみながら体験。

入隊ご希望の方へ詳しくは★入団案内所へお尋ねください。

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          【ボランティア】白山白川郷ウルトラマラソン、白山市福祉健康まつり   
9月13日(日)午前4時~午前11時 白山白川郷ウルトラマラソン 
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給水ポイントボランティア 県内外からのランナーに激励とおもてなしです。
 
夜明け前からのボランティアです。早速松任ライオンズクラブさんから寄贈いただいたLEDランタンが準備作業で活躍しています。

 

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20150913白山白川郷ウルトラマラソン ボランティア20150913白山白川郷ウルトラマラソン ボランティア by (C)bsmatto


【予告】9月27日(日)松任総合運動公園体育館前
白山市福祉健康まつり 出店します。ボーイスカウト松任第1団です。

たべものコーナーではおいしいメニューでお待ちしております。
・焼きそば ・唐揚げ ・金沢かれいぱん ・フライドポテト

体験コーナーでは「いざという時のために」
・役に立つ結索(ロープ結び) ・平和を願う凧作り

昨年の様子はこちらのアルバムでご覧いただけます。
20140928福祉健康まつり20140928福祉健康まつり by (C)bsmatto



あなたのお子さんが、たくましくなる習い事。さまざまな体験。

松任第1団は1980年に発団。皆様のご理解、ご支援で35年を迎え、次の2020年発団40年に向けて

さらに多くのヒーローの誕生するお手伝いさせていただきます。

お子さんばかりでなく、指導者も一丸となって「最善を尽くす」です。

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入隊ご希望の方へ詳しくは★入団案内所へお尋ねください。

見学体験は、お気軽に問い合わせください。  

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          2017 CRKT Ruger Knives Catalog   
Click to view .pdf
          Lancer Systems 2017 Catalog   
Click to view .pdf Check out the Lancer Systems 2017 catalog, which features their entire line of magazines, handguards, and rifles. lancer-systems.com
          ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for 18 Medical Officer, Manager vacancy    

ONGC Recruitment 2017 Attend walkin Interview for 14 Medical Officer vacancy before 9th July 2017

ONGC invites application for Recruitment of 14 Medical Officer and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.ongcindia.com . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Medical Officer opening in Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited on 14 and have MBBS, MD/MS can Attend walkin Interview.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from ONGC recruitment notification summered below:-

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.ongcindia.com .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 14 posts
1. Contract Medical Officer - 14 posts

Employment Terms - Contractual

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 72,000/- (Office), Rs.75,000/-(Field) and Rs.1,00,000/- (Full time) Rs.55,000/- (Part Time). .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited notification

Place of Posting - Assam

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - For Postwise Age Details Go To Detailed Advertisement 

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in ONGC recruitment process must have MBBS, MD/MS Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant must go through detailed advertisement available for Download in www.ongcindia.com . and attend walk-in interview with required document as Mentioned in detailed advertisement to the following Address before or on 09-07-2017

Address -
Officers’ Club, ONGC Colony, Nazira.

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 09-07-2017


ONGC Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for  04 Manager  vacancy before 5th July 2017

ONGC invites application for Recruitment of 04 Manager and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.ongcindia.com . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Manager opening in Oil and Natural Gas Corporation on 04 and have Post Graduation Degree can Apply Online.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from ONGC recruitment notification summered below:-

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.ongcindia.com .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 04 posts
1. Manager (Security) - 04 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 36,600 – 62,000/-. .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Oil and Natural Gas Corporation notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate upper age limit should not exceed 44 Years As On 05-07-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in ONGC recruitment process must have Post Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - Interested aspirant can fill online application form www.ongcindia.com . before or on 05-07-2017

Important dates - Last date for Online Registration of Application : 05-07-2017


          SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for 7042 Assistant Teacher vacancy before 15th July 2017   
SSA invites application for Recruitment of 7042 Assistant Teacher and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.ssaassam.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Assistant Teacher opening in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan on 7042 and have with LP-TET/CTET / Graduation Degree can Apply Online.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from SSA recruitment notification summered below:-

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.ssaassam.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 7042 posts
1. Assistant Teacher - 7042 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Place of Posting - Assam

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 18 to 43 Years as on 01-01-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in SSA recruitment process must have with LP-TET/CTET / Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - Interested aspirant can fill online application form www.ssaassam.gov.in . before or on 15-07-2017

Application Fee
  1. For General/OBC Candidates Application Fee is - 200/- 
  2. For All Other Candidates (SC/ST/PH/BPL) Application Fee is - 150/-
Important dates - Last date for Online Registration of Application : 15-07-2017


          Collector Office Surajpur Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 23 Data Entry Operator, Technical Assistant vacancy before 5th July 2017   
Collector Office Surajpur invites application for Recruitment of 23 Data Entry Operator, Technical Assistant and regarding this a job advertisement is published in surajpur.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Data Entry Operator, Technical Assistant opening in Collector Office Surajpur on 23 and have 5th, 12th, Diploma in Data Entry Operator, B.E./B.Tech., MCA/MCM/M.Sc. can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from Collector Office Surajpur recruitment notification summered below:-

Collector Office Surajpur Recruitment Notification 2017 (surajpur.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 23 posts
1. Assistant Programmer - 04
2. Technical Assistant - 04
3. Data Entry Operator - 08
4. Assistant Grade-III - 04
5. Peon - 03 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 20342/- (Post 1), Rs. 18900/- (Post 2), Rs. 13776/- (Post 3), Rs. 10612/- (Post 4), Rs. 8470/- (Post 5). .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Collector Office Surajpur notification

Place of Posting - Surajpur

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Merit List, Computer Practical Test.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 18 to 35 Years as on 01-06-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in Collector Office Surajpur recruitment process must have 5th, 12th, Diploma in Data Entry Operator, B.E./B.Tech., MCA/MCM/M.Sc. Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from surajpur.gov.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 05-07-2017

Address -
Chief Executive Officer, Zila Panchayat Surajpur

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 05-07-2017


          Education (School) Department Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 12000 Counsellor, Library Assistant, Warden vacancy before 10th July 2017   
Education (School) Department invites application for Recruitment of 12000 Counsellor, Library Assistant, Warden and regarding this a job advertisement is published in schooleducation.tripura.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Counsellor, Library Assistant, Warden opening in Education (School) Department on 12000 and have 10th, Graduation Degree can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from Education (School) Department recruitment notification summered below:-

Education (School) Department Recruitment Notification 2017 (schooleducation.tripura.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 12000 posts
1. Academic Counsellor - 1200
2. Student Counsellor - 3400
3. School Library Assistant - 1500
4. Hostel Warden - 300
5. Programme Assistant - 5600 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 5700 - 24000/- With 4200/- Grade Pay (Post 1), Rs. 5700 - 24000/- With 2800/- Grade Pay (Post 2-4), Rs. 5700 - 24000/- With 2200/- Grade Pay (Post 5).as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Education (School) Department notification

Place of Posting - Tripura

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 27 to 45 years (Post 1), 26 to 45 years (Post 2-4), 21 to 45 years (Post 5). Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in Education (School) Department recruitment process must have 10th, Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from schooleducation.tripura.gov.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 10-07-2017

Address -
Respective District Education Offices of the District to which the candidates belong to

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 10-07-2017


          TCIL (Telecommunications Consultants India Limited) Recruitment 2017 Attend walkin Interview for 05 Engineers vacancy before 13th July 2017   
TCIL invites application for Recruitment of 05 Engineers and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.tcil-india.com . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Engineers opening in Telecommunications Consultants India Limited on 05 and have Diploma / B.E./B.Tech in Civil Engineering can Attend walkin Interview.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from TCIL recruitment notification summered below:-

Telecommunications Consultants India Limited Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.tcil-india.com .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 05 posts
1. Senior Engineer (Civil) - 01
2. Junior Engineer (Civil) - 04 posts

Employment Terms - Contractual

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 35,000/- (Post 1), Rs. 15,000/- (Post 2). .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Telecommunications Consultants India Limited notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate upper age limit should not exceed 35 years (for Senior Engineer), 30 years (for Junior Engineer) as on 01-07-2017 Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in TCIL recruitment process must have Diploma / B.E./B.Tech in Civil Engineering Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant must go through detailed advertisement available for Download in www.tcil-india.com . and attend walk-in interview with required document as Mentioned in detailed advertisement to the following Address before or on 13-07-2017

Address -
TCIL Bhawan, Greater Kailash -1, New Delhi – 110048.

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 13-07-2017


          Ordnance Factory Medak Recruitment 2017 Attend walkin Interview for 100 Apprentices vacancy before 25th July 2017   
Ordnance Factory Medak invites application for Recruitment of 100 Apprentices and regarding this a job advertisement is published in ofmedak.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Apprentices opening in Ordnance Factory Medak on 100 and have Diploma / Degree in Engineering can Attend walkin Interview.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from Ordnance Factory Medak recruitment notification summered below:-

Ordnance Factory Medak Recruitment Notification 2017 (ofmedak.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 100 posts
1. Graduate / Technician Apprentices - 100 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Place of Posting - Medak

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - For Postwise Age Details Go To Detailed Advertisement 

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in Ordnance Factory Medak recruitment process must have Diploma / Degree in Engineering Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant must go through detailed advertisement available for Download in ofmedak.gov.in . and attend walk-in interview with required document as Mentioned in detailed advertisement to the following Address before or on 25-07-2017

Address -
HRD Section (OFILMD Building) near main gate Ordnance Factory Estate, Yaddumailaram.

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 25-07-2017


          ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation ) Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 05 Hindi Typist, Technician vacancy before 28th July 2017   
ISRO invites application for Recruitment of 05 Hindi Typist, Technician and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.isro.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Hindi Typist, Technician opening in Indian Space Research Organisation on 05 and have 10th / 12th + ITI/ NTC/NAC in Electrical Trade, Graduation in Arts/Science/Commerce/ Management/ Computer Applications can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from ISRO recruitment notification summered below:-

Indian Space Research Organisation Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.isro.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 05 posts
1. Hindi Typist - 04
2. Technician- B - 01 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Level – 04 in Pay Matrix (for Hindi Typist), Level – 03 in Pay Matrix (for Technician). .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Indian Space Research Organisation notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Skill Test.

Age Criteria - Candidate upper age limit should not exceed 26 years (for Hindi Typist), 35 years (for Technician) as on 21-07-2017 Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in ISRO recruitment process must have 10th / 12th + ITI/ NTC/NAC in Electrical Trade, Graduation in Arts/Science/Commerce/ Management/ Computer Applications Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from www.isro.gov.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 28-07-2017

Address -
ISRO Headquarters, Bangalore


Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 28-07-2017


          SMC (Surat Municipal Corporation) Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 2167 Beldar, Sweeper, Accountant, Recovery officer, Engineer vacancy    
SMC  Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for  2144 Beldar, Sweeper vacancy before 28th July 2017

SMC invites application for Recruitment of 2144 Beldar, Sweeper and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.suratmunicipal.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Beldar, Sweeper opening in Surat Municipal Corporation on 2144 and have 4th can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from SMC recruitment notification summered below:-

Surat Municipal Corporation Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.suratmunicipal.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 2144 posts
1. Beldar - 599
2. Beldar (VBDC) - 103
3. Sweeper - 1087
4. Sweeper Drainage - 355 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 4440 - 7440/- With 1650/- Grade Pay. .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Surat Municipal Corporation notification

Place of Posting - Gujarat

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Practical Test.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 18 to 33 Years. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in SMC recruitment process must have 4th Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from www.suratmunicipal.gov.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 28-07-2017

Address -
Office of the Superintendent, Surat Municipal Corporation, Mhanagar Seva Sadan, Muglisara Surat - 395003, Gujarat

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 28-07-2017


SMC Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 23 Accountant, Recovery officer, Engineer vacancy before 14th July 2017

SMC invites application for Recruitment of 23 Accountant, Recovery officer, Engineer and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.suratmunicipal.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Accountant, Recovery officer, Engineer opening in Surat Municipal Corporation on 23 and have Graduation Degree can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from SMC recruitment notification summered below:-

Surat Municipal Corporation Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.suratmunicipal.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 23 posts
1. Radiologist - 01
2. Accountant - 03
3. Chief Fire Officer - 01
4. Manager Solid Waste Management - 01
5. Anesthetist - 01 Post
6. Accused and recovery officer - 01
7. Assistant Engineer (Mechanical) - 08 Posts
8. Resident Medical Officer - 07 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 15600 - 39100/- With 5400/- Grade Pay . .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Surat Municipal Corporation notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Age Criteria - Candidate  upper age limit should not exceed 25 Years (Post 2), 48 Years (Post 3), 45 Years (Post 6), 35 Years (Post 7,8). Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in SMC recruitment process must have Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from www.suratmunicipal.gov.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 14-07-2017

Address -
Office Superintendent, Central Office, Room No. 75, 1st Floor, Surat Municipal Corporation, Muglisara, Surat

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 14-07-2017


          NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for 117 Assistant Manager, Manager vacancy    

NABARD Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for 09 Assistant Manager vacancy before 12th July 2017

NABARD invites application for Recruitment of 09 Assistant Manager and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.nabard.org . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Assistant Manager opening in National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development on 09 and have Post Graduation Degree can Apply Online.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from NABARD recruitment notification summered below:-

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.nabard.org .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 09 posts
1. Assistant Manager (P&SS) - 09 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs.28,150/- .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 25 to 40 Years As on 01-06-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in NABARD recruitment process must have Post Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - Interested aspirant can fill online application form www.nabard.org . before or on 12-07-2017

Application Fee
  1. For General/OBC Candidates Application Fee is - 750/- 
  2. For All Other Candidates (ST/SC) Application Fee is - 100/-
Important dates - Last date for Online Registration of Application : 12-07-2017


NABARD Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for 91 Assistant Manager vacancy before 10th July 2017

NABARD invites application for Recruitment of 91 Assistant Manager and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.nabard.org . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Assistant Manager opening in National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development on 91 and have Bachelor’s Degree / Chartered Accountant /Cost Accountant / Company Secretary / P.G. Diploma can Apply Online.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from NABARD recruitment notification summered below:-

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.nabard.org .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 91 posts
1. General - 46
2. Economics - 05
3. Agriculture - 06
4. Agriculture Engineering - 02
5. Plantation & Horticulture - 04
6. Animal Husbandry - 05
7. Fisheries - 03
8. Food Processing - 03
9. Forestry - 03
10. Environmental Engineering - 03
11. Water Resource Development & Management - 04
12. Social Work - 02
13. Chartered Accountant - 03
14. Company Secretary - 02 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 28150 - 55600/-.as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 21 to 30 years as on 01-06-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in NABARD recruitment process must have Bachelor’s Degree / Chartered Accountant /Cost Accountant / Company Secretary / P.G. Diploma Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - Interested aspirant can fill online application form www.nabard.org . before or on 10-07-2017

Important dates - Last date for Online Registration of Application : 10-07-2017


NABARD Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for  17 Manager vacancy before 7th July 2017

NABARD invites application for Recruitment of 17 Manager and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.nabard.org . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Manager opening in National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development on 17 and have Graduation Degree can Apply Online.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from NABARD recruitment notification summered below:-

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.nabard.org .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 17 posts
1. Manager (RDBS) General - 09
2. Manager (RDBS) Agriculture - 08 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 35,150 - 62,400/-. .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 21 to 35 Years As On 01-06-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in NABARD recruitment process must have Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - Interested aspirant can fill online application form www.nabard.org . before or on 07-07-2017

Important dates - Last date for Online Registration of Application : 07-07-2017


          HCL (Hindustan Copper Limited) Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 05 Welder, Office Management vacancy before 5th July 2017   
HCL invites application for Recruitment of 05 Welder, Office Management and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.hindustancopper.com . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Welder, Office Management opening in Hindustan Copper Limited on 05 and have 8th / 10th / 12th / ITI can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from HCL recruitment notification summered below:-

Hindustan Copper Limited Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.hindustancopper.com .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 05 posts
1. Welder (Gas and Electric) - 01
2. Turner - 01
3. Electrician - 01
4. Accountancy & Auditing - 01
5. Office Management - 01 posts

Employment Terms -

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam.

Age Criteria - Candidate upper age limit should not exceed 25 Years As on 01-06-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in HCL recruitment process must have 8th / 10th / 12th / ITI Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from www.hindustancopper.com . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 05-07-2017

Address -
The Office of Manager (HR), Taloja Copper Project, E33-36, MIDC, Taloja – 410208

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 05-07-2017


          Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Chhattisgarh Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 44 District Coordinator & Consultant vacancy before 20th July 2017   
Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Chhattisgarh invites application for Recruitment of 44 District Coordinator & Consultant and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.cgstate.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for District Coordinator & Consultant opening in Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Chhattisgarh on 44 and have Diploma (PG) / Post Graduation Degree can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Chhattisgarh recruitment notification summered below:-

Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Chhattisgarh Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.cgstate.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 44 posts
1. District Coordinator 2. District Consultant posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 40,000/- (Post 1), Rs. 30,000/- (Post 2). .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Chhattisgarh notification

Place of Posting - Chhattisgarh

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 21 to 45 Years As On 01-07-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Chhattisgarh recruitment process must have Diploma (PG) / Post Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from www.cgstate.gov.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 20-07-2017

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 20-07-2017


          NHM Tripura (National Health Mission Tripura) Recruitment 2017 Attend walkin Interview for 30 Specialists Doctors, Psychiatrist, Medical Officer vacancy before 17th July 2017   
NHM Tripura invites application for Recruitment of 30 Specialists Doctors, Psychiatrist, Medical Officer and regarding this a job advertisement is published in tripuranrhm.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Specialists Doctors, Psychiatrist, Medical Officer opening in National Health Mission Tripura on 30 and have Post Graduation Degree can Attend walkin Interview.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from NHM Tripura recruitment notification summered below:-

National Health Mission Tripura Recruitment Notification 2017 (tripuranrhm.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 30 posts
1. Specialists Doctors (Obs & Gynae) for FRU - 03
2. Specialists Doctors (Anesthetists) for FRU - 03
3. Specialists Doctors (Paediatricians) for FRU - 02
4. Specialists Doctors (Surgeon) for FRU - 01
5. Psychiatrist - 04
6. Opthalmologist - 01
7. Consultant Medicine - 01
8. Paediatricians for DEIC - 03
9. Medical Officer (MBBS) for DEIC - 03
10. Medical Officer (MBBS) Blood Cell - 02
11. Medical Officer (MBBS) for NUHM - 07 posts

Employment Terms - Contractual

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 90,000 - 1,00,000/- (Post 1-6,8), Rs. 70,000/- (Post 7), Rs. 31,500/- (Post 9,10), Rs. 55,000/- (Post 11) . .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in National Health Mission Tripura notification

Place of Posting - Tripura

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate upper age limit should not exceed 65 Years As On 30-06-2017 Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in NHM Tripura recruitment process must have Post Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant must go through detailed advertisement available for Download in tripuranrhm.gov.in . and attend walk-in interview with required document as Mentioned in detailed advertisement to the following Address before or on 17-07-2017

Address -
National Health Mission, State Health & Family Welfare Society, Tripura

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 17-07-2017


          Collector & District Magistrate Jagatsinghpur Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 03 Data Entry Operator, Data Analyst, Accountant vacancy before 5th July 2017   
Collector & District Magistrate Jagatsinghpur invites application for Recruitment of 03 Data Entry Operator, Data Analyst, Accountant and regarding this a job advertisement is published in jagatsinghpur.nic.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Data Entry Operator, Data Analyst, Accountant opening in Collector & District Magistrate Jagatsinghpur on 03 and have Graduation Degree / Post Graduation Degree can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from Collector & District Magistrate Jagatsinghpur recruitment notification summered below:-

Collector & District Magistrate Jagatsinghpur Recruitment Notification 2017 (jagatsinghpur.nic.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 03 posts
1. Assistant cum Data Entry Operator - 01
2. Data Analyst - 01
3. Accountant - 01 posts

Employment Terms - Contractual

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 10,000/- (Post 1), Rs. 14,000/- (Post 2-3). .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Collector & District Magistrate Jagatsinghpur notification

Place of Posting - Jagatsinghpur

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 21 to 35 Years. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in Collector & District Magistrate Jagatsinghpur recruitment process must have Graduation Degree / Post Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from jagatsinghpur.nic.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 05-07-2017

Address -
Read Detailed Advt

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 05-07-2017


          SDSM (Sahakari Dugdh Sangh Maryadit) Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for 02 Trainer vacancy before 1st July 2017   
SDSM invites application for Recruitment of 02 Trainer and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.mpcdf.nic.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Trainer opening in Sahakari Dugdh Sangh Maryadit on 02 and have Graduation Degree can Apply Online.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from SDSM recruitment notification summered below:-

Sahakari Dugdh Sangh Maryadit Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.mpcdf.nic.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 02 posts
1.Trainer-02 posts

Employment Terms - Contractual

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 20,000/-.as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Sahakari Dugdh Sangh Maryadit notification

Place of Posting - Gwalior

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 21 to 35 Years As On 30-06-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in SDSM recruitment process must have Graduation Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - Interested aspirant can fill online application form www.mpcdf.nic.in . before or on 01-07-2017

Address -
gwaliordairy@gmail.com

Important dates - Last date for Online Registration of Application : 01-07-2017


          State Co-Operative Election Authority Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 30 Advocate vacancy before 28th July 2017   
State Co-Operative Election Authority invites application for Recruitment of 30 Advocate and regarding this a job advertisement is published in sahakarayukta.maharashtra.gov.in . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Advocate opening in State Co-Operative Election Authority on 30 and have Bachelor Degree in Law can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from State Co-Operative Election Authority recruitment notification summered below:-

State Co-Operative Election Authority Recruitment Notification 2017 (sahakarayukta.maharashtra.gov.in .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 30 posts
1. Advocate - 30 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Place of Posting - Pune

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate upper age limit should not exceed 58 Years Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in State Co-Operative Election Authority recruitment process must have Bachelor Degree in Law Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from sahakarayukta.maharashtra.gov.in . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 28-07-2017

Address -
State Co-Operative Election Authority, Pune.

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 28-07-2017


          FCI (Food Corporation of India) Recruitment 2017 Apply Online for 127 Watchman vacancy before 15th July 2017   
FCI invites application for Recruitment of 127 Watchman and regarding this a job advertisement is published in fciregionaljobs.com . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Watchman opening in Food Corporation of India on 127 and have 8th can Apply Online.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from FCI recruitment notification summered below:-

Food Corporation of India Recruitment Notification 2017 (fciregionaljobs.com .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 127 posts
1. Watchman - 127 posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 8100 - 18070/-.as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Food Corporation of India notification

Place of Posting - Across India

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Physical Endurance Test (PET).

Age Criteria - Candidate age must be between 18 to 25 Years as on 01-07-2017 Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in FCI recruitment process must have 8th Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - Interested aspirant can fill online application form fciregionaljobs.com . After successfully submitting the application, applicant must take printout of system generated application form and take necessary action, Candidate must send this copy of application along with mentioned document to the following Address before or on 15-07-2017

Application Fee
  1. For General/OBC Candidates Application Fee is - 250/- 
  2. For All Other Candidates (SC/ST/PWD/Woman/ Ex-servicemen) Application Fee is - Nil.
Important dates - Last date for Online Registration of Application : 15-07-2017


          BECIL (Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited) Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for 18 Plumber, Junior Engineer vacancy before 14th July 2017   
BECIL invites application for Recruitment of 18 Plumber, Junior Engineer and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.becil.com . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Plumber, Junior Engineer opening in Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited on 18 and have 8th / ITI / Diploma / Engineering Degree can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from BECIL recruitment notification summered below:-

Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.becil.com .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - 18 posts
1. Junior Engineer (Civil) - 03
2. Electrician - 05
3. Plumber - 05
4. Mason - 05 posts

Employment Terms - Contractual

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 20,000 - 25,000/- (Post 1), Rs. 16,182/- (Post 2-4). .as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited notification

Place of Posting - Noida

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Written Exam, Interview.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in BECIL recruitment process must have 8th / ITI / Diploma / Engineering Degree Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from www.becil.com . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 14-07-2017

Application Fee
  1. For General/OBC Candidates Application Fee is - 300/- 
  2. For All Other Candidates (SC/ ST/ PWD (Persons with Disability)) Application Fee is - Nil.
Address -
Assistant General Manager (HR) in BECIL’s Corporate Office at BECIL Bhawan, C-56/A- 17, Sector-62, Noida-201307 (U.P)

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 14-07-2017


          UPPCL (Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited) Recruitment 2017 Apply Offline for Various Managing Director vacancy before 15th July 2017   
UPPCL invites application for Recruitment of Various Managing Director and regarding this a job advertisement is published in www.uppcl.org . and in employment news. All Interested Aspirants who want to apply for Managing Director opening in Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited on Various and have B. Tech can Apply Offline.Candidates are advised to check all eligibility requirements such as qualification, experience, upper age limit before applying from UPPCL recruitment notification summered below:-

Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited Recruitment Notification 2017 (www.uppcl.org .)

Post Name and Total No. of Vacancies - Various posts
1.Managing Director- Various posts

Employment Terms - Full time

Experience Requirements - : Freshers jobs

Pay band - Selected candidate will be posted on pay band INR Rs. 67000-79000/-.as directed by recruitment committee and as mentioned in Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited notification

Place of Posting - Uttar Pradesh

Selection Process - Selection will be done according to the direction of selection committee and based on the performance in the Interview.

Age Criteria - Candidate upper age limit should not exceed 60 Years As On 01-07-2017. Age relaxations will be applicable only in upper age limit as per the norms for individual posts age criteria check job advertisement.

Educational Qualification - Interested Aspirant who want to take part in UPPCL recruitment process must have B. Tech Certificates/Degree or its equivalent Qualification from a recognized Board / University. Post wise qualification is mentioned in Qualification criteria section in notification.


How To Apply - All Eligible and Interested aspirant have to apply in mentioned prescribed format available for Download from www.uppcl.org . . After Filling The application form, candidate must send filled copy of application form along with document mentioned In detailed advertisement to following Address before or on 15-07-2017

Important dates - Receipt of application form allowed till : 15-07-2017


          μουσικοί και ξένοι, ξένη μουσική, ... ποια ξένη μουσική;   

La musique des migrants dans les camps

Migrantinnen-musik in den migrantenlagern

Faire de l’art en situation d’urgence
Musik machen in ausnahmesituationen
*  *  *
Publié le mardi 20 juin 2017 par Céline Guilleux
RÉSUMÉ
Cette université d’été a deux objectifs. le premier est d'explorer un secteur mal étudié de l’ethnologie comme la musique dans les camps de transit. S’il existe une abondante littérature historienne et musicologique sur la musique dans les camps de concentration et dans les camps d’extermination, rares sont les études qui portent sur les pratiques musiciennes. Le second objectif est de construire une démarche comparative afin de mesurer la singularité d’une observation ponctuelle sur ce que l’on appelle la crise des migrants en Europe : Paris, Baigorri, Calais, Dunkerque (France), Friedland (Göttingen, Allemagne), M’Bera (Mauritanie), Mentao (Burkina Faso), Zaatari (Jordanie).  
ANNONCE

But 

Cette université d’été a pour titre « La musique des migrants dans les camps. Faire de l’art en situation d’urgence ». Elle a deux objectifs : 
  • explorer un secteur mal étudié de l’ethnologie : la musique dans les camps de transit. S’il existe une abondante littérature historienne et musicologique sur la musique dans les camps de concentration et dans les camps d’extermination (Dick Walda, Charles Van West, Shmuel Gogol, Emilio Jani, Gabriele Knapp, Annette Wieviorka, Philip Bohlman, Pierre-Emmanuel Dauzat & Hélios Azoulay) rares sont les études qui portent sur les pratiques musiciennes ;  
  • construire une démarche comparative afin de mesurer la singularité d’une observation ponctuelle sur ce que l’on appelle la crise des migrants en Europe : Paris, Baigorri, Calais, Dunkerque (France), Friedland (Göttingen, Allemagne), M’Bera (Mauritanie), Mentao (Burkina Faso), Zaatari (Jordanie). 

Argument

 Au mois de mai 2013, Awet Andemicael, étudiante en théologie de l’université de Yale publie sur le site de l’UNHCR un article marquant : The arts in refugee camps: ten good reasons. De la prise en charge de soi aux techniques d’apprentissage et à l’agency, ces raisons visent à légitimer l’action des ONG pour la musique. Pourtant, ces raisons sont insatisfaisantes. Car le raisonnement est élaboré à partir des catégories de l’action humanitaire et non à partir du vécu des populations.  
  1. Cette université d’été renverse la perspective. Et plutôt que de partir des catégories instituées pour examiner de quelle façon elles s’incarnent dans la réalité, nous partons de l’engagement ethnographique pour examiner les processus d’institution des catégories, ce qui permet d’organiser ensuite, mais ensuite seulement, une montée en généralité à partir de la collection des cas.  
  2. Par ailleurs, nous prenons nos distances avec les clichés sur les bienfaits prêtés à la musique et à l’art thérapie. Nous examinons, au prix d’observations ethnographiques, situées et contextualisées, la façon dont la musique modifie la vie de chacun et celle des collectifs impliqués.  
  3. Enfin, nous questionnons l’ontologie de la musique. Des travaux antérieurs nous ont permis d’entériner le fait que la musique est subjective du point de vue ontologique et objective du point de vue épistémique. Cette fois, nous soumettons la question « qu’est-ce que la musque pour qui la pratique et l’écoute ? » à l’enquête ethnographique.  

Ancrages situationnels  

Bien des chercheurs qui ont mené ces analyses sur les pratiques artistiques dans des camps se sont d’abord confrontés à ces situations au prix d’un engagement citoyen. Dans ces situations d’anomie, ils ont rencontré « la musique », et ceux qui la faisaient être. Dès lors, ces migrants qu’un élan compassionnel faisait prendre pour « de pauvres malheureux » devenaient dans le regard de l’ethnographe attentif, par la force de la performance musicienne, par les habiletés incorporées et les références culturelles actualisées, des artistes virtuoses.   
Dans des contextes qui rendent toute communication verbale difficile en raison de l’étanchéité des langues, la musique et la danse rendent possible le partage, restaurent une forme de symétrie de l’échange. La profession de foi de Natacha Bouchart, maire de Calais, résonne : « Accueillir des migrants, ça peut être une richesse culturelle exceptionnelle » (Libération, 20 octobre 2015). Pourquoi donc la musique, alors que chacun se trouve « maintenu là, dans l’inachèvement d’un parcours de mobilité, ni immigré ni émigré mais suspendu en migration » (M. Agier, 2014) ?  
Cette rencontre de jeunes chercheurs propose de travailler à partir d’études de cas.

Études de cas 

Paris, Foyer de Travailleurs Migrants du 19e arrondissement  

Un foyer de travailleurs migrants (FTM) est une structure d’hébergement qui accueille aujourd’hui des « hommes célibataires » de Mauritanie, du Mali et du Sénégal. On peut y cuisiner, se laver, dormir (et repartir travailler). Or, malgré les conditions de promiscuité, on y fait aussi de la musique. Car l’invité invite. « Invitation » est le terme par lequel les habitants de foyer désignent le fait d’accueillir dans leur chambre un griot qui vienne chanter leur nom avec son luth ngoni. « L’invitation » est une occasion musicale de rencontre. Ce n’est pas la seule. Car à une autre échelle, des moments de retrouvailles et de partage culturel sont organisés dans des salles des fêtes louées par des associations proches des habitants de foyers. Ces espaces se convertissent en lieux d’échanges, d’assemblées générales, de projets et en studio d’enregistrement. Il en est ainsi de centres sociaux et culturels où sont organisés ces journées culturelles, ces repas et ces occasions de musique. 

M’Bera, Mauritanie  

Février 2012. Les habitants du Nord Mali fuient le conflit armé. L’UNHCR installe 400.000 réfugiés Touaregs et Arabes dans des camps aux frontières de la Mauritanie, de l’Algérie, du Burkina Faso et du Niger. M’Berra est le plus important : 80.000 personnes. Ici, le quotidien s’organise. Au- delà des questions sanitaires et nutritionnelles, il y a le désir partagé de célébrer des événements en commun. Il n’y a pas de tabaski sans musique, ni de fin de ramadan. Le tinde et l’imzad sont fabriqués sur place. Il y a aussi des « soirées guitare ». Tout le monde danse et frappe des mains. Mohamed Issa ag Oumar est là. C’est LE guitariste du groupe Tartit, fer de lance avec Tinariwen de la musique touareg sur la scène de la World Music. Il a apporté sa guitare. On branche des amplis sur les batteries des voitures. Ici s’émancipe une économie de la World Music à visée interne, au sein du camp.  

Mentao, Burkina Faso  

Nous sommes à 20 kilomètres de Ouagadougou. En octobre 2014, Marta Amico visite le camp en compagnie d’une musicienne du groupe Tartit, qui dirige l’organisation des femmes du camp. Un musicien armé de sa guitare entonne un chant de bienvenue. Des femmes se joignent à lui. M. Amico interroge : Pourquoi la musique ? Parce que c’est la vie. Ici, « la musique » n’est pas quelque chose « à part », une activité en soi : c’est l’instrument de la vie sociale, c’est le fait de pouvoir continuer à se réunir autour des célébrations d’avant qui fait toute l’importance des moments de jeu. Et c’est la raison pour laquelle on retrouve ici tellement de musiciens : ils ont fui les groupes islamistes qui interdisent la musique dans le Nord Mali. Ici, ils organisent des dj set improvisés. Et ils se connectent au monde. Dans ces moments où tout cède, la musique fabrique du lien social.  

Zaatari, Jordanie  

Construit en juillet 2012, le camp de Zaatari est situé à la frontière syrienne. 80.000 réfugiés syriens y vivent dans des conditions précaires, près du pays qu’ils ont fui. Zaatari dépend entièrement de l’aide humanitaire. Plusieurs ONG travaillent autour d’activités musicales, c’est le cas d’OXFAM International. Comment la musique est-elle appréhendée dans le règlement du camp ? Comment est- elle mobilisée par les musiciens euxmêmes ? Quel rapport chacun entretient-il à l’écoute ? Et quels sont les répertoires qui entrent dans l’espace public ? Engagée par OXFAM International, Gaétane Lefebvre a travaillé au plus près des interactions musiciennes. Elle a établi des liens avec Nicolas Puig, anthropologue spécialiste des camps de réfugiés au Liban et Richard Wolf, réalisateur de A requiem for Syrian refugees” (2014). L’université d’été permettra de visionner ce film, en présence de N. Puig et du réalisateur. 

Baigorri, France (64)  

Le 20 novembre 2015, à l’initiative de l’Office français de l’immigration et de l’intégration (OFII), une cinquantaine de migrants s’installent à Baigorri, dans les montagnes basques. Ils ont quitté le Soudan, l’Erythrée, le Tadjikistan, l’Afghanistan et tous les Kurdistan. Ils ne savent pas où ils sont, ne parlent ni français, ni anglais, ni basque, mais ils ont dit oui, et l’OFII les a conduits ici. La mairie réquisitionne le VVF, la préfecture finance, les bénévoles aident les migrants dans leurs démarches administratives. Des ateliers sont en place. Une osmose s’opère. Des ateliers de danse basque sont créés, des ateliers de musique aussi. L’un d’eux réclame un violon. Un violon est trouvé. Il joue sans vibrato, sur des échelles improbables : nous offre un makâm syrien. Pourquoi donc la musique ici ? 
Ces études de cas seront complétées par d’autres cas présentés par les étudiants qui participeront à l’Université d’été, et par les exposés de Philip Bohlman (University of Chicago) sur la musique dans les camps et de Raimund Vogels (Hildesheim) sur l’institutionnalisation des expériences menées en Niedersachsen pour valoriser le talent d’artistes réfugiés et leur procurer une formation diplomantes qui leur ouvre les portes du marché du travail artistique en Allemagne.

Production scientifique

(en partenariat avec Les Cahiers d’Ethnomusicologie)  

Les candidats sont invités à présenter, à partir de leurs travaux personnels, un projet de texte (2 pages) abordant l’une des thématiques de cette Ecole d’été. Huit projets (Groupe A) seront choisis et seront développés par leurs auteurs pour donner lieu à des textes d’une dizaine de pages qui seront mis en ligne dans l’espace collaboratif. Lors de l’université d’été, les textes seront présentés et commentés par 8 autres participants (Groupe B). Nous constituerons ainsi des binômes auteur / exégète. 
L’originalité de ce travail en commun permet à plusieurs étudiants de travailler en groupes et d’écrire ensemble un article co-signé qui sera soumis pour publication aux Cahiers d’Ethnomusicologie (Laurent Aubert, Genève). Langues de l’article : français, allemand ou anglais.

Candidature

Le dossier de candidature doit comprendre : 
  • un CV ; 
  • une présentation du projet de doctorat, de master ou de post-doc ;  - une proposition d’intervention (2 pages) en lien avec l’Université d’été. 
Le dossier de candidature doit parvenir à l’adresse : dlaborde@msh-paris.fr La sélection sera faite en fonction de l’adéquation thématique entre les propositions d’intervention et l’Université d’été. 

Date limite de renvoi des dossier: 29 juin 2017

Séléction des candidatures

  • Prof. Dr. Denis Laborde (CNRS – EHESS, Centre Georg Simmel, Paris - Bayonne)
  • Prof. Dr. Raimund Vogels (Center for World Music, Hildesheim)
Sélection des candidats : 30 juin 2017  

Informations pratiques

Rendez-vous : L’université d’été se déroule du 10 au 16 septembre 2017. Arrivée des participants le dimanche 10 septembre. Départ le samedi 16 septembre. Vous pouvez rester au-delà à vos frais. 
Participants : L’Université d’été compte 16 étudiants et jeunes chercheurs (master, doctorat ou post-doctorat) de toute nationalité. Toutes les disciplines sont concernées. 
Langues de travail : français, allemand ou anglais. La langue basque sera valorisée. Chacun doit parler couramment une de ces langues et en comprendre une autre. 
Lieu : Cité des Arts, 3 avenue Jean Darrigrand, F-64100 Bayonne, Pays Basque, France
Inscription : par courrier électronique adressé à dlaborde@msh-paris.fr
Réservation des billets de train / avion : dans la semaine du 1er juillet 2017 
Frais : Les frais de transport (train 2e classe ou avion) et de séjour (nuitées et repas) sont couverts par l’Université d’été. Les billets de transport seront pris par le Centre Georg Simmel.  
Gare SNCF : Bayonne / Aéroport : Biarritz 
Contact/informations : dlaborde@msh-paris.fr & raimund.vogels@hmt-hannover.
LIEUX
  • Cité des Arts - 3 avenue Jean Darrigrand
    Bayonne, France (64)
DATES
  • jeudi 29 juin 2017
MOTS-CLÉS
  • musique, camp, migrant, accueil, musicien, crise, Afrique, Europe
CONTACTS
  • Denis Laborde
    courriel : dlaborde [at] msh-paris [dot] fr
  • Vogels Raimund
    courriel : raimund [dot] vogels [at] hmt-hannover [dot] de
SOURCE DE L'INFORMATION
  • Luigia Parlati
    courriel : luigia [dot] parlati [at] ehess [dot] fr
POUR CITER CETTE ANNONCE
« La musique des migrants dans les camps », École d'étéCalenda, Publié le mardi 20 juin 2017, http://calenda.org/409672

          From Cyborgs to Hacktivists: Postfeminist Disobedience and Virtual Communities   
by
Carolyn Guertin
2005-01-27

For many the term postfeminist might call to mind the vanilla pleasures of metrosexuality, webcams, online soaps, and blog culture, but, for me, a 40-something cyberfeminist scholar, curator and some time activist, the politically-minded feminist texts I work with are in fact dyed-in-the-wool postfeminist ones that occupy a different place on the postfeminism continuum from those more loudly-lauded, lighter confections. Usually given a bad rap by the media, postfeminism has been accused of being antifeminist, whereas it is instead what the next wave of second wave feminism has become. Its name is not a marker or movement that intends to imply that feminism is dead and gone, any more than Donna Haraway’s “postgender” and N. Katherine Hayles’ “posthuman” mean the death of those old shoes. As Ann Brooks puts it in Postfeminisms, “the concept of `post’ implies a process of ongoing transformation and change” (1). Postfeminism is that indicator that shows us the organism formerly known as feminism has grown into something far more complex than its liberal origins would lead us to expect.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, second wave feminism, which had spoken predominantly from and to a position of white middle class privilege, began to fracture to include a broader chorus of voices, classes, and races. Postfeminism or, more exactly, postfeminisms have expanded to include a multitude of situated perspectives within the context of postmodern thinking, and have swelled to embrace the new emphasis on what Michèle Barrett identified in 1992 (the year that the World Wide Web was born) as “fluidity and contingency” - features that are the trademark stock in trade of the cyber age. Barrett believed feminism’s paradigm shift to be the result of a new interest in culture that in turn gave rise to a whole new collectivity of subjectivities. It is no accident that this shift coincided with the advent of a technology that foregrounded networked communications. It was only a few years earlier, in the fledgling days of the personal computer back when the Internet was still a vehicle predominantly for hackers and technogeeks, that Haraway first articulated a politics of connectivity for women in the context of these new technologies. In her “Cyborg Manifesto” Haraway’s half-woman, half-machine revels in the confusion of body boundaries and fractures all sense of an originary unity or simplex gender through embracing the cyborg as a model: a being who revels in discursivity, multiplicity, hybridity, and perversity. As the Web has evolved, it has become something of a gene pool for creative explorations of sexualities, subjectivities and identities - and has proved to be as liberating for men as for women in that regard. Cyberfeminist scholar Sadie Plant even argues for the feminizing influence of technology in a connected age. Without a doubt, though, this new technology’s most important role has been that of facilitating communication.

 “cyberfeminism is post-feminist” (76) Cyberfeminism was born at a particular moment in time, 1992, simultaneously at three different points on the globe. In Canada, Nancy Paterson, a celebrated high tech installation artist, penned an article called “Cyberfeminism” for Stacy Horn’s Echo Gopher server. In Australia, VNS Matrix (Josephine Starrs, Julianne Pierce, Francesca da Rimini and Virginia Barratt) coined the term to label their radical feminist acts and their blatantly viral agenda: to insert women, bodily fluids, and political consciousness into electronic spaces. That same year, British cultural theorist Sadie Plant chose the same term to describe her recipe for defining the feminizing influence of technology on western society and its inhabitants.

-Judy Wajcman

Connectivity has been called the genius of feminism by theorist Robin Morgan (53), and this genius is being realized in electronic spaces and texts in more complex ways than in any other medium to date. Connectivity is the poster child of the postfeminist universe, which is why the first cyberfeminist collective, VNS Matrix, chose the image of the matrix - the cosmic womb - as its symbol The Australian collective VNS Matrix announced its inception with a rallying cry called the “Cyberfeminist Manifesto”:
__________
We are the modern cunt
positive anti-reason
unbounded unleashed unforgiving
we see art with our cunt we make art with our cunt
we believe in jouissance madness holiness and poetry
we are the virus of the new world disorder
rupturing the symbolic from within
saboteurs of big daddy mainframe
the clitoris is a direct line to the matrix
VNS MATRIX
terminators of the moral code
mercenaries of slime
go down on the altar of abjection
sucking the visceral temple we speak in tongues
infiltrating disrupting disseminating
corrupting the discourse/we are the future cunt
(http://www.obn.org/reading_room/manifestos/html/cyberfeminist.html)
__________
Its separatist nature bears a resemblance to philosophies put forward by hackers.
. Another cyberfeminist collective, the Old Boys’ Network, defined its local chapters as “nodes” that “collide, disintegrate, regenerate, engage, disembody, reform, collapse, renew, abandon, revise, revitalize, and expand” (OBN FAQ 7). These structural and mechanical concerns are not accidental. Postfeminisms do not inhabit a network; they are the network of feminist discourse in virtual space and they are at their best when they are helping to forge communities of practice. In its incarnation most familiar to ebr ‘s readers, the electronic, hyperlinked text is both a narratological structure and the means of navigation in space and time. In the webbed space of hyperlinked fiction, the pregnant gaps between the nodes are at least as important as the textual nodes themselves. The nodes exist in conjunction with the dynamic space of the journey and cannot be discussed in isolation. So with the newest literary forms of the postfeminist universe. They cannot be separated from the communities and material praxes that they both engender and nurture on and off the Web.

In the cyberfeminist corner of the postfeminist universe, girl gamers such as Brenda Laurel and Mary Flanagan immediately spring to mind; so too do techno-performers such as Laurie Anderson and Coco Fusco, and new media artists such as Mez or Olia Lialina, but the most important and distinctive Web-native postfeminist form is, I would argue, hacktivism. The term was first coined in 1998 The rallying cry of hackers has long been “information wants to be free.” to describe an emerging hybrid form that united the best attributes of peaceful social protest - activism - and tech-savvy online civil disobedience - hackerism The term “hacktivism” has been attributed to a Toronto-based hacker who goes by the handle of Oxblood Ruffin.. It is a solution-oriented form of political action that inserts bodies and media-based dissent into real time material concerns. It should not be confused with its adolescent and illegal cousins, cractivism - code cracking, vandalism, data blockades (DDos) and the loss of digital data - or cyberterrorism - acts and agents of wanton destruction including worms and viruses. One of its trademark features is that the Web cannot contain hacktivism’s flows, allowing it to spill out into the world in the form of political protest at WTO and G8 events, for example, and in books, pamphlets, net.art, and performance art.

Hacktivism as a praxis was born in December 1997 when Critical Art Ensemble Critical Art Ensemble has been very much in the news lately since one of its members, Steve Kurtz, a professor in the Department of Art at SUNY Buffalo, was arrested on 12 May 2004 and charged with bioterrorism under the American Anti-Terrorism Act. These trumped up and widely protested charges have resulted in the FBI appropriating CAE’s materials and equipment used for testing for the presence of genetically- modified DNA - the tools CAE uses in creating their political art. member and software engineer Carmin Karasic was so appalled by the events of the Acteal Massacre - 45 Zapatistas were murdered at the hands of the Mexican government - that she set out to create a Web interface that would perform political protest as an aesthetic act. Three other Critical Art Ensemble members joined her in forming a new collective they named the Electronic Disturbance Theatre. (The group’s name is drawn from the concept of civil disobedience first proposed by Henry David Thoreau.) Their electronic civil disobedience engine is named FloodNet; funded by RTMark and launched in September 1998, it is Karasic’s brainchild in her war against injustice. Filling the browser page with the names of the dead, this activism tool “would access the page for Mexico’s President Zedillo seeking bogus addresses, so the browser would return messages like “human_rights not found on this server” (Cassell). Unlike the attacks launched by cracktivists, no damage is done by this software agent. When the Electronic Disturbance Theatre alerts its “online activists to `commence flooding!’” they visit EDT’s website and click on FloodNet’s icon (Harmon). The software then directs their browser to the target, and cues the same page to load over and over again.

As a postfeminist work, it is no accident that FloodNet must function as a community-based performance:

FloodNet’s action only drew its validity from the number of people showing support. “It was only actualized through thousands and thousands of participants,” she remembers. “It was meaningless without the masses.” Popular support transforms a random act of vandalism into a show of presence, Karasic argues. “This is an important difference between the single hacker/hacktivist who takes down a server with a single script” (qtd. in Cassell).

Similar to the disruptive aestheticization of codework by the Dutch trio jodi.org, Karasic sees her collectivity interface as something more closely akin to “conceptual art” than to cyberterrorism (Harmon). No one and no data are harmed in these `attacks,’ but websites are effectively shut down while the protest is being transmitted.

Advancing human rights through the electronic media is also the purview of another collective, a cyberfeminist one called subRosa. It is currently comprised of Laleh Mehran, Hyla Willis, Steffi Domike, Lucia Sommer, and Faith Wilding. It was also formed in the fall of 1998 - around the same time that Karasic was vowing to respond to Mexican excesses with FloodNet. Donna Haraway was the first to identify science as one of the most insidious cultural forms women needed to address to regain control of their bodies; subRosa follows in that tradition. subRosa uses its art to critique “the relationships between digital technologies, biotechnologies and women’s bodies/lives/work” (Griffis). The goal of these hacktivists, akin to the Electronic Disturbance Theatre’s, is the creation of communities, what they call “female affiliations that respect difference and create productive projects in solidarity with others who are working on similar ones” (Griffis).

Embracing bell hooks’ definition of feminism as that which seeks to eradicate ideologies of domination (qtd in Griffis), subRosa undertakes projects of activism and public education on topics as wide-ranging as eugenics, Frankenfoods, stem cell and cloning research, and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Seeing their purpose as a pedagogical one, they launch inclusive electronic campaigns, publish pamphlets and books, and travel out into (particularly third world) communities to perform their topical art. These are what they call resistant projects, tactical cyberfeminist ones, and situational information theatre: “As cyberfeminists and artists we are using the framework of participatory performance as an information theatre of pedagogical art that models various tactics for intervening and commenting on the seductive representations of the flesh machine” (subRosa). One of the keys to their successful distribution of information is their willingness to mix media and cross boundaries, producing their art and materials in a plethora of formats contextually situated for their audiences. Like FloodNet’s participatory form, subRosa’s mode of information distribution is reproducible, for it argues “[i]n the digital age, resistant cultural producers can embrace recombinance for subversive ends” (subRosa).

All of this may seem somewhat removed from the electronic book and literary traditions, but when postfeminisms meet the new media they encourage these kinds of pleasures in the confusion of boundaries between bodies, texts, technologies, politics, and cultures. In a hyperlinked age when the only true path through a text is a personal journey, the many roads of postfeminism show that comminglings of radical politics and material concerns are alive and well in both the virtual and real worlds. How effective these hacktivist actions are is difficult to measure, but they are remarkable as tools for global mobilization and peaceful protest. It is clear that they are very effective at allowing women’s voices to be heard.

*

Postfeminist Artists and Groups

Electronic Disturbance Theatre. http://dpa.ntu.ac.uk/dpa_search/result.php3?Project=290

Flanagan, Mary. The Adventures of Josie True. http://www.josietrue.com/

Fusco, Coco. Coco Fusco’s Virtual Laboratory. http://www.thing.net/%7Ecocofusco/

Karasic, Carmin. FloodNet. http://www.thing.net/~rdom/ecd/ZapTact.html, http://www.xensei.com/users/carmin/wlajfa/pledge1.htm, and Karasic’s Homepage: http://www.xensei.com/users/carmin/

Lialina, Olia. http://art.teleportacia.org/

Mez. The Data][h!][Bleeding Texts. http://netwurkerz.de/mez/datableed/complete/index.htm

subRosa. http://www.cyberfeminism.net

*

Works Cited and Consulted

Barrett, Michèle and Anne Phillips, Eds. Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debates. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992.

Brooks, Ann. Postfeminisms: Feminism, Cultural Theory and Cultural Forms. London and New York: Routledge, 1997.

Critical Art Ensemble. http://www.critical-art.net/

Critical Art Ensemble Defense Fund. http://www.caedefensefund.org/

Cassel, David. “Hacktivism in the Cyberstreets.” AlterNet. 30 May 2000. 16 June 04. http://www.alternet.org/story/9223

Griffis, Ryan. “Tandem Surfing the Third Wave: Part 3, interview with subRosa.” YOUgenics. 2003. 16 June 04. http://yougenics.net/subRosaInt.htm

Haraway, Donna. “The Cyborg Manifesto.” Simians, Cyborgs and Women. New York: Routledge, 1991. [1985] 149-181.

Harmon, Amy. “`Hacktivists’ of All Persuasions Take Their Struggle to the Web.” New York Times on the Web. 31 Oct 1998. 16 June 04. http://www.thehacktivist.com/archive/news/1998/Hacktivists-NYTimes-1998.pdf

Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999.

jodi.org. 17 June 04.

metac0m. “What is Hacktivism?” thehacktivist.com. Dec 03. 16 June 04. http://www.thehacktivist.com/hacktivism.php

Morgan, Robin. Demon Lover: On the Sexuality of Terrorism. London: Methuen, 1990.

Old Boys’ Network (OBN). “FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions.” 16 June 04 http://www.obn.org/inhalt_index.html

Plant, Sadie. Zeros and Ones. New York: Bantam, 1997.

subRosa. “Tactical Cyberfeminism: An Art and Technology of Social Relations.” 16 June 04. http://www.artwomen.org/cyberfems/subrosa/

VNS Matrix. “Cyberfeminist Manifesto.” 1992. 17 June 2004. http://www.obn.org/reading_room/manifestos/html/cyberfeminist.html

Wajcman, Judy. TechnoFeminism. Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2004.

Wray, Stefan. “Electronic Civil Disobedience and the World Wide Web of Hacktivism: A Mapping of Extraparliamentarian Direct Action Net Politics. Nov 1998. 16 June 04. http://thehacktivist.com/archive/edt/wwwhack.html

*

 


          Doubleknit 107   
The Twins catch up on their knitting and movies on a summer afternoon.

Cheryl Brunette's Magic Formula
Antimony
Cameo (pattern was gifted by bijouxmaster, thank you!)
Catkin
Tambourine
Audrey's knitting instructions
Full Bust Adjustment
The Facility
Jamaica Inn
Man on Wire
The Walk


Music: History Lesson Part 2 by the Minutemen

Direct Link
          Travel ban ruling offers universities temporary relief   
The United States Supreme Court ruled on 26 June that the injunction on President Donald T ...
          Jewelry Tutorial - .PDF Format - Wire Wrap Taxidermy Glass Eye Pendant Instructional Lesson by Nixcreations   

19.99 USD

This wire wrap jewelry tutorial is in .pdf format in which is downloadable after purchase. This tutorial features 52 images and detailed instructions.This tutorial covers how to wire wrap the glass eyes that I make and can also be used with glass cabochons.

THE PENDANT IN THE FEATURED PHOTO... IS THE EXACT PENDANT SHOWN IN THE TUTORIAL.

The best size of eyes to use is 16mm. You can use smaller or larger glass cabs, depending how large you want your pendants. When using 16mm taxidermy eyes, your pendants will measure aprox 1.25 x 2 inches.

THIS TUTORIAL DOES NOT COVER HOW TO MAKE THE GLASS EYES. I MAKE AND
SELL GLASS EYES HERE ON ETSY.


          PDF Sharing and Security   
We just upgraded to Adobe Actobat 8 Professional for an upcoming project where we will be compiling a number of documents into an electronic (primarilly CD-based) journal and directory. Along with my registration of Acrobat, I received 30 days of free training via Lynda.com to help me get up to speed with the new features of this version of Acrobat.

Before gearing up to put together last year's edition of this same project, I was not very familiar with all of the capabilities of Acrobat. I'd, of course, used the free Adobe Reader and have printed to PDF with the distiller function that came with version 5.0 but hadn't done much else until working with 7.0 Pro.

Even with working on last year's project, I only dealt with the sections of the program that I needed to complete the tasks. There was a lot of trial and error and trubleshooting to make the final product function to the client's specifications. It wasn't extremely difficult, but we had our share of challenges to work through along the way.

Upon upgrading to Acrobat 8 Pro and viewing the training videos, I was not only surprised and delighted by the new features that will make this year's project go even smoother and allow the user experience to be all the more seamless (namely the ability to create PDF Packages!), but I was reminded of some security features that will be quite useful for other applications as well.

(To see what I'm working with, click here to download a PDF containing a number of images I've had as part of my NAPP Portfolio. - 6MB)

First of all, the security settings. If you are going to make a PDF available for download from your website or you will be sending it to someone to view samples of your work, you will want to make sure that your images are secure and someone won't be able to simply copy your photos to their computer or print them without permission.

Go to the "Secure" button in Acrobat and select "Password Encrypt" and click "Ok." You can look through the other options in the dialog box but the one we're concerned with is the "Permissions" section. Here, check the box that says, "Restrict the editing and printing of the document..." and enter a password - and remember it! Select your desired print and changes settings (I picked "none" for both) and leave the box marked "Enable copying of text, images, and other content" unchecked. This way, viewers can't download your images. When you click "Ok" you will be prompted to re-enter your password and told to save your document before the settings will take effect.

(Note: In the "Manage Security Policies" dialog you can create a preset if you plan to use the same security scheme a lot.)

If you allow users to print, or if you're worried about someone swiping your images using the "Print Screen" function, you can add a watermark within Acrobat to add one more layer of protection.

Go to "Document>Watermark>Add" and in the dialog box, insert your text, setup the appearance options, and click "Ok."

To combine these two security techniques, apply your watermark before you apply the security profile, otherwise you won't be able to change the settings without removing the security settings and re-saving the file.
          How to Build a Robo Advisor: Advice for Starting a Robo Advisory   

MyPrivateBanking Robo AdvisorWith the tremendous growth in robo advisor assets under management (AUM), financial institutions are scrambling to figure out how to build and become a robo advisor.

Starting a robo advisor service combines financially savvy with big data analytics, as well as a comprehensive understanding to how robo advisors work.

How Do Robo Advisors Work?

Robo advisors are platforms that leverage algorithms to handle users' investment platforms. These services analyze each customer's current financial status, risk aversion, and goals. From here, they recommend the best portfolio of stocks available based on that data.

And these automated financial services are poised to transform the tremendous worldwide wealth management industry. 

MyPrivateBanking's report, Robo Advisor 3.0, takes an in-depth look at the basic challenge of every robo advisor: how to craft a presence that succeeds in convincing website visitors to sign up as investors and then remain on board.

In this data-driven assessment, the report looks at the characteristics, business models, and strengths and weaknesses of the top robo advisors around the world. The research was conducted on a total of 76 active robo advisors worldwide - 29 in the U.S. and Canada, 38 in seven European countries and nine in the Asia-Pacific region. We've compiled a full list of robo advisors analyzed below.

The exhaustive report provides comprehensive answers and data on how to optimize the individual onboarding stages (How it works, Client Assessment, Client Onboarding, Communication and Portfolio Reporting) and details five best practices for each stage. Furthermore, the report provides strategies to appeal to different segments such as Millennials, baby boomer investors approaching retirement, and high net worth individuals (HNWIs), and analyzes the impact of new technologies.

The report provides comprehensive analysis and data-driven insights on how to utilize robo advisors to win and keep clients:

  • What a robo advisor platform should offer to successfully convert prospects into happy clients.
  • Which robo advisor features work and why.
  • What are best practices for the different stages in the digital customer journey.
  • How long clients need to onboard on the surveyed robo advisors and which specialized offers are given.
  • What the client assessment process should include 
  • How client communication should be (inbound for customer service and outbound for news, education and commentary).
  • What good portfolio reporting looks like, so that it meets the information needs of the customer.
  • How B2B providers are positioned in the development of robo advisory services and what they offer.
  • How robo advisors should adopt their strategies to appeal to different segments such as Millennials, baby boomer investors approaching retirement, and high net worth individuals (HNWIs).
  • Which robo advisors provide specialized options such as micro-investing, rewards schemes or hedging strategies, and in what manner.
  • What the impacts of new technologies are, such as the use of artificial intelligence for client interaction and narrative generation on the robo advisor model.
  • How the future of digital success will look for robo advisors.
  • Appendix containing data on the web presences of more than 70 robo advisors alongside the digital customer journey process.
  • And much more.

>> Click here for Report Summary, Table of Contents, Methodology <<

Analyzed robo advisors in this report include:

North America: Acorns, Asset Builder, Betterment, Blooom, Bicycle Financial, BMO SmartFolio, Capital One Investing, Financial Guard, Flexscore, Future Advisor, Guide Financial, Hedgeable, iQuantifi, Jemstep, Learnvest, Liftoff, Nest Wealth, Personal Capital, Rebalance IRA, Schwab Intelligent Portfolios, SheCapital, SigFig, TradeKing Advisors, Universis, Wealthbar, Wealthfront, Wealthsimple, Wela, Wisebanyan 

Europe: AdviseOnly, Advize, comdirect, Easyfolio, EasyVest, ETFmatic, Fairr.de, FeelCapital, Fiver a Day, Fundshop.fr, GinMon, Investomat, KeyPlan, KeyPrivate, Liqid, Marie Quantier, Money on Toast, MoneyFarm, Nutmeg, Parmenion, Quirion, rplan, Scalable Capital, Simply EQ, Sutor Bank, Swanest, SwissQuote ePrivateBanking, True Potential Investor, True Wealth, Vaamo, VZ Finanz Portal, Wealth Horizon, Wealthify, WeSave, Whitebox, Yellow Advice, Yomoni, Zen Assets.

Asia-Pacific: 8 Now!, Ignition Direct & Ignition Wealth, InvestSMART, Mizuho Bank Smart Folio, Movo, Owners Advisory, QuietGrowth, ScripBox, StockSpot

Here's how you get this exclusive Robo Advisor research:MyPrivateBanking Report Spread

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If you’re involved in the financial services industry at any level, you simply must understand the paradigm shift caused by robo advisors.

Investors frustrated by mediocre investment performance, high wealth manager fees and deceptive sales techniques are signing up for automated investment accounts at a record pace.

And the robo advisor field is evolving right before our eyes. Firms are figuring out on the fly how to best attract, service and upsell their customers. What lessons are they learning? Who’s doing it best? What threats are traditional wealth managers facing? Where are the opportunities for exponential growth for firms with robo advisor products or models?

The Complete Robo Advisor Research Collection is the ONLY resource that answers all of these questions and more. Click here to learn more about everything that's included in this exclusive research bundle

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: Warren Buffett lives in a modest house that's worth .001% of his total wealth — here's what it looks like


          The 16 most expensive cities in the world for commuting to work   

wellington new zealand public transportation

Next to housing, transportation is one of the largest recurring expenses people face. In a major metropolis, that likely means a fair amount of time packed into the subway, trolley, or bus getting a little too acquainted with your fellow city dwellers.

The good news: It's better for the environment, and, depending on where you live, it may be cheaper than owning a car. 

The bad news: It can still be really expensive. 

In London, the most expensive city in the world for public transportation, you'll need to shell out nearly $175 for a month of riding the Tube. In New York City, a monthly transit pass costs about $120. 

That's according to a recent report by Deutsche Bank, which analyzes the cost of living and compares prices among the largest cities around the world. 

The report sources prices from Expatistan, a site that tracks cost-of-living expenses in over 200 countries, for a "monthly ticket public transport" in nearly 50 cities. 

Here are the 16 most expensive cities in the world for commuting via public transportation each month.

All prices are in US dollars.

SEE ALSO: The 24 most expensive cities in the world to grab a beer at the local bar

16. San Francisco, United States — $86.10



15. Berlin, Germany — $87.20



14. Frankfurt, Germany — $88.50



See the rest of the story at Business Insider

          The 18 most expensive cities in the world to eat dinner out at a restaurant   

brussels belgium restaurant

Making a habit of eating out at restaurants is quick way to bust your budget. Cooking at home is almost always going to be cheaper

That's especially true in major, cosmopolitan cities like Tokyo, Oslo, and Zurich, where dinner for two at a regular neighborhood restaurant — not even a fancy establishment — will run you over $60. In 15 other cities around the world it will cost at least $40. 

That's according to a recent report by Deutsche Bank, which analyzes the cost of living and compares prices among the largest cities around the world. 

The report sources prices from Expatistan, a site that tracks cost-of-living expenses in over 200 countries, for a "basic dinner at a neighborhood pub for two" in nearly 50 cities. 

Here are the 18 most expensive cities in the world for eating dinner out at a restaurant. 

All prices are in US dollars.

SEE ALSO: The 16 most expensive cities in the world for commuting to work

DON'T MISS: The 24 most expensive cities in the world to grab a beer at the local bar

18. Singapore — $40.20



17. Helsinki, Finland — $40.70



16. Toronto, Canada — $40.90



See the rest of the story at Business Insider

          strong undercard at the Battle of Brisbane   
Pacquiao vs Horn Live Stream (http://www.centeratforesight.com/system/files/files/resumes/manny-pacquiao-vs-jeff-horn-live-stream-1st-july-2017-free.pdf) 6 hours of the Glen 2017 Live Stream (http://www.centeratforesight.com/system/files/files/resumes/6-hours-of-the-glen-2017-live-stream.pdf)
          París es siempre una buena idea   


Por Raúl Gotor


¡Por fin tenemos lo nuevo de Nicolas Barreau en un formato para llevar a todas partes!  El autor que nos encandiló con “La sonrisa de las mujeres”, vuelve para cautivarnos con una historia de amor, ilusiones y sueños a medio realizar. Nacido en Paris en 1980 es un escritor atípico, amante de su privacidad que estudió lenguas románicas en Sorbona. Envuelto en libros (trabajaba en una librería francesa) decidió encandilarnos él mismo con sus novelas obteniendo un gran éxito: “Me encontrarás en el fin del mundo”, “La sonrisa de las mujeres” o “Atardecer en París”. 

Booket nos ofrece esta maravillosa novela, ¡la portada es bonita, pero el interior es todavía mejor!

París es siempre una buena idea nos acerca a la vida de Rosalie, una chica de familia acomodada que nunca quiso una vida fácil y no se dejó amedrentar para poder crear su propia papelería en París y convertirse en ilustradora. 

Llena de deseos y de emociones ahogadas, vive su día a día con René, su novio, sin mayor emoción que la cotidianeidad de no inhalar su propia soledad. Marx Marchais, el escritor más famoso de Francia en cuentos infantiles le ofrecerá la mayor oportunidad de su vida, ilustrar su próximo éxito: El tigre azul.

Robert Sherman, proveniente de una familia americana de importantes abogados, es experto en literatura. El destino hace que viaje hasta París para sopesar una oferta como profesor en la Universidad de la Sorbona. 

Un día, paseando por el barrio de Montmatre y en plena transición existencial, se encuentra con una pequeña librería llamada Luna Luna dónde la exposición de El tigre azul, hará que se enfrente con su ilustradora para pedir explicaciones.

¿Qué esconde El tigre azul? ¿Por qué Robert se agita de tal manera al ver el libro publicado en ese país? 

Un pasado que permanece oculto y une demasiados destinos hará que lo que comienza como un encuentro en forma de ataque se desarrolle como aquella historia de amor que todos querríamos vivir en algún momento de nuestras vidas.

Escrita de una forma muy grácil, ágil como suelen ser este tipo de novelas, Nicolas nos sumerge en el mundo de personajes muy bien definidos, una Rosalie soñadora, un Robert orgulloso pero comprensivo, un Marx un tanto huraño, una madre (la de Rosalie) clasista y una Rachel (me reservo su parentesco) muy… Rachel. 

Una historia tierna, hecha para consumirla a pequeños tragos donde, aunque previsible, la trama engancha. Nicolas nos ofrece una oportunidad para escapar de nuestra monotonía y viajar a París donde, siempre con la Torre Eiffel como centro de todo, deleitará a los amantes de historias de amor únicas.

Os dejo sus primeras páginas para empezar a caminar por la ciudad de la luz.



          Desaparecido   


Por Ángela Sánchez Vicente


Es verdad que estamos acostumbrados a las buenas propuestas literarias de Duomo ya sea en la apuesta de autores cercanos o en acercarnos a los grandes autores de fama internacional. 

Sus obras pueden ser de lo más dulces o thrillers que nos dejan sin palabras. 

Realmente una editorial que se rige por la elección de buenos títulos y que respeta a sus lectores ofreciéndoles lo mejor de lo mejor.

En este caso, nos presentan Desparecido, una novela en la que un chico de quince años desaparece en la noche y la oscuridad de esta se cierne sobre su madre en forma de culpa.

¿Qué le habrá pasado a Billy? Su madre no puede dejar de pensar ni un solo minuto en su pequeño, en que pasaba esa noche, en quienes tenían acceso a él y que pudo ocasionar su desaparición.

Ella recibirá la ayuda de todo su entorno pero sus sentimientos no cambiaran. Necesita la verdad y abrazar a su hijo adorado.

Con el paso de las meses su madre afinará el dedo acusador cercando cada vez más a los posibles sospechosos pero lo que más le duele es que sospecha de gente muy cercana e incluso de familiares.

En un principio pensó que no podía ser pero y si… Se hace tantas preguntas que acaba temiendo y sospechando lo peor. Parece que las personas que ama y en las que confía van cambiando por momentos.

¿Le quieren hacer daño a Billy o quieren acabar con ella?

La autora, C.L.Taylor, narra de manera magistral los sentimientos y las incógnitas que siente una madre. Todo ello con un telón de fondo muy bien descrito y un entramado de personajes que nos harán dudar a todos.

El amor es el motor más fuerte del mundo y más aún si es el amor de una madre.

¿Creéis que lo encontraran? ¿Quién habrá sido?

Solo leyendo y desgranando esta novela lo descubriréis y os aseguramos que vale la pena.
Una trama perfecta narrada de manera excepcional.

Una luz de amor sobre las sombras del odio.

Si os gustó su anterior novela “Los confines del silencio” no os podéis perder esta nueva cita con la autora.



          Patufet, on ets? Viatge per la història de Catalunya   


Per Àngela Sánchez Vicente


Una nova aventura del nostre amic Patufet cau a les nostres mans!

Aquest cop amb Patufet, on ets? Fem un Viatge per la història de Catalunya a través d’unes meravelloses il·lustracions que a més d’un alt poder pedagògic i didàctic desperta l’agilitat visual dels menuts de casa.

El Troba el Patufet en un recorregut pel temps és la versió catalana i nostra dels mítics llibres dels anys vuitanta de cercant en Wally. Però per nosaltres és una icona en Patufet i a més ens agrada que obre debat i ens explica coses de la nostra història i la nostra terra.

L’Hugo Prades i en Roger Roig ja tenen una legió de menuts seguidors lectors que gaudeixen de l’experiència d’aprenentatge amb els seus contes com a costumari i també amb els seus llibres on les activitats els tenen ben distrets alhora que ens donen la oportunitat als adults a explicar-los una mica més allò que ja es veu a les il·lustracions i al text explicatiu.

Els àlbums del Patufet són una eina molt potent d’entreteniment doncs cerquen al seu amic, a la Patufeta, al Patufot, al Patuf, al Bru, al monstre ratolinets, i elements típics de cada època.

Des de la prehistòria, a la Barcelona olímpica passant per els grecs, els romans, els àrabs, l’edat mitjana, el 1714, la invasió francesa, l’esclat industrial i el modernisme i un somni cap al futur.

Una pinzellada fàcil i comprensible de cada època acompanyat de l’essencial als dibuixos com les robes, els pentinats, els edificis i la visió global de la societat ajuda als menuts a fer un viatge per l’eix cronològic de Catalunya.

De la mà de Cossetàniapodem desgranar, un cop més, una obra mestra pels nanos i els no tant nanos. Reconec que m’he picat i he buscat al Patufet i als seus amics!

Us el perdreu?

Vinga va, tota la colla d’en Patufet us espera!



          La Riera   


Rierencs i rierenques, estem a poques hores del final de la vuitena i darrera temporada d’aquesta sèrie familiar tant trepidant i rica en trames que entrellacen emocions i sentiments al voltant de la família Guitart i el seu restaurant Can Riera.

Creieu que serà un capítol extrem? Ja esteu preparats?

Qui va matar a en Claudi? Es farà justícia amb l’assassinat de la Candela? I en Bruno? L’Avellaneda no pot sortir indemne i la Lidia tampoc.

S’arribarà a inaugurar l’hotel de la fonda? Com acabaran els cors dels nostres protagonistes desprès d’aquesta temporada tan emocionant?

Si heu respost que si us convidem a recordar el llibre La Riera. Orígens i secrets de la família. Les receptes del restaurant de la mà de Cossetània Edicions.

Aquest llibre és imprescindible per a seguidors d’aquesta sèrie amenitzadora de migdies. 

El primer apartat i més apreciat per mi, és Orígens i secrets de la família on se’ns explica l’evolució del restaurant i la família Guitart des de el 1916 quan la Mercè Massaguer, avia de la nostra Mercè, va conèixer el seu marit, en Quimet Riera.

Amb l’ajuda de l’arbre genealògic de la família ens passegem per Sant Climent a través de cinc generacions, descobrim com a través d’herències el restaurant va anar passant de mans i creixent fins esdevenir un dels més destacats de la comarca. 

Cal tenir en compte que el llibre és de l’any 2010 i es correspon a finals de la primera temporada doncs se’ns presenten els besnéts d’en Quimet d’una manera que ara no és. Per començar en Claudi (el meu ídol, ho havia de dir) feliç i acaramel·lat amb la jove i glamourosa Lídia Almeda; l’Ernest al costat de la Sònia i veient com l’Ariadna tot just entra a l’adolescència; el Lluís amb la Carol i el Sergi, el nostre nen, sense parella, sense fills i com al gran digne successor del llegat gastronòmic familiar.

Fa gracia veure com la Núria Furió ens transporta al passat, a allò que ha desembocat en el que és ara Can Riera. Qui sospitaria que al 2013 hauríem d’incloure assassinats, divorcis, un nou restaurant a Madrid, el grup Batea, els cursos de cuina de la Maribel, restaurants a la competència i un munt d’embolics a la direcció? 

Emmarcat amb un treball fotogràfic que il·lustra a la perfecció la trama i la importància de la taula i el menjar en aquesta família. Gairebé cada escena transcendental ha passat al voltant d’un bon àpat. Si, no menciono la piscina perquè no vull ferir sensibilitats.

El segon apartat és Les receptes del restaurant on se’ns presenten una selecció de primers, peix, carn i postres que ben bé podrien ser del restaurant familiar.

Cuina catalana tradicional explicada pas a pas que faran les delícies de la família. 

Us recomano que us apropeu a alguna llibreria i fiqueu el nas en aquest llibre, no us en penedireu doncs tots intuïm el que passava amb la Mercè i la seva germana i qui van ser els fundadors del restaurant però l’autora li dona el toc que nosaltres no li sabem donar, ho explica com si fos un “previously” de les sèries americanes, un relat que ens obre la finestra del passat sense perdre de vista la coherència amb la línia de la trama i l’evolució d’aquesta al llarg de les temporades.

Ja sabeu, teniu deures d’estiu, recuperem l’essència de tan magnífica sèrie tot investigant d’on venen els nostres amics de la família Guitart.




          La vídua   


Anem a la llibreria que anem veiem a primer cop d’ull la novel·la La vídua i nosaltres que som una estona curiosos no hem pogut evitar caure als seus encants.

En aquesta novel·la debut de la autora anglesa Fiona Barton trobem l'essència de l’ésser humà i el que és capaç de fer per amor.

Com si fos un tamboret de tres potes aquesta novel·la s’estructura des de tres punts de vista que sustenten un mateix cas a investigar.

Un home i un gran secret que s’ha endut a la tomba. Què hi podem fer ara?

La primera pota d’aquesta investigació és en Bob Sparkes, un policia obsessionat en un rocambolesc cas d’homicidi que fa que tot apunti a un home tan vulgar i corrent con en Glen Taylor.

La segona pota d’aquest gran interrogant és la part més mediàtica protagonitzada per la Kate Waters, periodista del Daily Post que es debat entre els seus principis i aconseguir posar llum i desvetllar el que seria una exclusiva que faria que la seva carrera es catapultes fins al més alt.

La tercera pota és la vídua d’aquest bon home al que tots acusen d’un crim horrible.

Aquí és on mirarem cara a cara a la veritat, a l’amor, la confiança i el sentit del matrimoni.

El seu marit era l’assassí? Què sabia? I ella... què sap? Té dubtes? L’encobrirà o no hi ha res a amagar?

Òbviament no us desvetllarem res d’aquesta novel·la que ens ha tingut més d’una nit en blanc, el millor és que la desgraneu poc a poc vosaltres mateixos fent de detectius i alhora veient com sentiments i la veritat i la mentida es donen la mà de manera constant.

Ningú es refia de ningú i qui hauria de parlar ja no te veu. Què podem fer en aquests casos?

De la mà de labutxaca i la seva aposta per aquest èxit internacional ens qüestionarem moltes coses sobre la condició humana alhora que ens enganxarà en una trama policial en que cada protagonista vol una cosa diferent a un preu diferent.

Òbviament, la vídua té la última paraula! 

Voleu saber quina és?

Doncs no teniu més remei que acompanyar-nos en aquesta gran aventura.



          Enterrado por placer   


Por Ángela Sánchez Vicente


Hoy nos reencontramos con las historias de Edmun Crispin, un autor inglés de inicios del siglo XX que nos deja atónitos obra tras obra.

Gracias a la Editorial Impedimenta y a su gran labor por recuperar joyas de la literatura hemos podido conocer a tan maravilloso autor a través de novelas como “La juguetería errante”, “El canto del cisne”, “Trabajos de amor ensangrentados”, “El misteriode la mosca dorada” y “Asesinato en la catedral” al que recientemente se une Enterrado por placer, la novela que hoy nos ocupa.

En este Nuevo y extraño misterio para Gervase Fen el autor nos muestra lo mejor de su prosa y la maestría que le caracteriza a la hora de construir situaciones complejas y presentarlas de manera directa y sencilla.

Sus personajes desprenden personalidad y cada vez podemos entrever algún reflejo de lo que fue su vida.

En este caso el profesor Gervase Fen vuelve a hacer nuestras delicias. Es un personaje único y perspicaz con interrogantes en los bolsillos a los que ha de dar respuesta si o si a base de su terquedad y su carácter curioso y deductivo.

Este detective aficionado se traslada hacia la campiña inglesa para presentarse como candidato al Parlamento pero tras el verdor de la campiña y la claridad de su paisaje se esconde una trama oscura y secreta que planea en el aire.

Chantaje y un asesinato lo desvelarán pues su ayuda será casi nula entre el psiquiatra excéntrico, el cura que cree que hay un poltergeist y lunáticos que corren desnudos por el campo.

¿Averiguará que hay detrás de esos chantajes y si hay alguna conexión con el asesinato?

No dudéis nunca de él y su empeño.

Preferirá dejar a un lado su carrera parlamentaria y entregarse al misterio que se le presenta.

Gracias al trabajo de traducción de Magdalena Palmer volvemos a tener entre manos una joya del pasado.



Preparaos para el viaje y para resolver el misterio.






          Somnis a mida   


Estem més que acostumats a les bones lectures que ens regala la Núria Pradas. Ens va encisar amb “Sota el mateix cel” i ens va enamorar amb “La noia de la biblioteca”. Ara torna a les llibreries amb Somnis a mida, una novel·la que no us deixarà indiferents.

M’ha encantat la Laia i la seva evolució vital a la novel·la, crec que és un dels personatges més potents de tota la seva bibliografia.

Per contextualitzar una mica la narració ens situarem a la Barcelona dels anys 20, una època d’expansió en que la diferencia entre les butxaques plenes i les buides es nota a quilometres. Des de la manera de vestir, les feines que desenvolupen o els barris on viuen semblen ser el document d’identitat social diferencial.

Pot algú saltar de la humilitat al luxe més radiant?

La casa de modes Santa Eulàlia viu una de les seves millors èpoques ja que durà a terme una de les primeres desfilades de l’estat espanyol per mostrar la feina d’en Ferran Clos. Aquest fet serà la guspira que farà que la seva esplendor arribi definitivament esdevenint un referent de l’alta costura i vestiran a les dones més distingides de la societat catalana.

Se’ls gira molta feina i molts somnis i en el cor de l’empresa es barrejaran els propietaris i els treballadors.

Aquí és on coneixerem a la Laia, filla d’una de les costureres més treballadores i responsables. Per ella serà un xoc tot i que la Roser, filla dels amos, es farà amiga seva. Ambdues jovenetes són mons oposats; riquesa i pobresa, diferents nivells d’educació i responsabilitat, diferents capricis però... somnis idèntics?

Ambdues es fixaran en l’encant del Ferran i els costarà l’amistat doncs aquest primer amor marcarà les seves vides per sempre. Amb quina es quedarà?

El que si que haurà de fer la Laia és dedicar tot el seu temps al seu somni i veurem com poc a poc passa de simple dependenta a ser la Directora dels Salons. Els seu bon treball i l’empatia amb els treballadors l’ha ajudat. Sap tractar als poderosos i als humils i s’ha nodrit de l’empresa des del subsòl fins al cim més brillant.

En un tortuós triangle amorós, labutxaca ens presenta una novel·la ambientada en un espai real on els personatges són excepcionals i el glamur ho abasteix tot.

És una novel·la en que les llums i ombres es donen la mà constantment per mostrar-nos el destí de la Laia.

Voleu reviure la seva aventura? És una de les novel·les més complertes i plaents de la temporada! És un “must-have”!



          Catalunya: 50 excursions als seus rius   


Per Maria Valle Viña


Estem d’enhorabona tots els que gaudim fent excursions a la natura, ja que Cossetània Edicions ens presenta una llibre molt interessant per fer excursions pels diferents rius de Catalunya. 


Catalunya: 50 excursions als seus riuses un llibre que proposa 50 excursions als bells i encisadors indrets que voregen els rius catalans, repartides per tot el territori de Catalunya. Al llibre anirem topant amb un rierol que serpenteja pel bosc, un saltant d’aigua argentada, una resclosa d’un vell molí amb les seves aigües quietes, un torrent embravit que esculpeix una petita gorja o un antic pont de pedra que s’emmiralla en les aigües encalmades d’un riu. 

A Catalunya és molt fàcil gaudir d’aquestes boniques troballes tot caminant, ja sigui pels boscos humits a peu de les muntanyes, per pinedes i alzinars mediterranis, per planes de conreus de secà o per alguns indrets propers al litoral. 

El llibre s’estructura de forma molt senzilla, a l’inici podem veure l’índex de les 50 excursions i les veiem situades en el mapa de Catalunya. 

Un cop anem a veure les excursions hi podem conèixer la fitxa tècnica: la durada, la dificultat, l’inici i el final de cada ruta, com arribar i aspectes a tenir en comte abans de fer l’excursió. 

A més trobem de cada ruta un mapa i fotografies del paisatge. Tot plegat fa que sigui molt agradable consultar les excursions i molt fàcil preparar tot el que ens serà necessari. 

Hi ha excursions de tot tipus, per gent que s’atreveix amb rutes llargues i per gent que vulgui fer passejades tranquil·les o curtes si es va en família.

Aquest és sense cap mena de dubte un recull indispensable per a tots aquells excursionistes i amants dels rius que s’estimen o volen conèixer millor el nostre territori.

Cèsar Pasadas ens escriu el llibre és Geògraf, fotògraf i muntanyenc. Vallesà de naixença, ha viscut en diferents indrets del Pirineu, on ha desenvolupat un coneixement intens i una estima profunda del territori, sempre envers l’evolució dels cursos d’aigua i la població a les seves valls. 

Màster en Ordenació del Territori per la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, s’ha especialitzat en temes de recursos hídrics i desenvolupament local a través del turisme rural i de muntanya, activitat que compagina amb l’organització i guiatge de grups als espais naturals, la publicació d’articles i guies excursionistes en diferents mitjans, i la producció audiovisual documental.

En voleu fer un tastet?



          Meretrice   


A Lola P. Nievala descubrí con  Esclavo de tus deseos” y su ironía sobre la vida, me conquistó con el aullido del lobo en “Los tres nombres del lobo” y “Tras las huellas del lobo” y después me mostró la esperanza con “Bruma azul”, hoy regresa a nuestras manos para presentarnos Meretrice, una obra que os dejará sin respiración.

Esta novela encierra en sí la clave del amor verdadero, de aquel que con una sola vida no es suficiente y que parece estar condenado por el destino y las malas artes de los demás, sin olvidar la fortaleza frente al infortunio y a la venganza gestada en el tiempo que sabe dulce al lector en su momento.

Está historia nos la muestran dos voces femeninas en dos tiempos distantes pero que están unidas no solo por la sangre sino por el alma, dos destinos marcados por el destino y su capricho.

Alonza era una joven del siglo XVI que vivía en una Venecia azotada por la peste, tras perder a toda su familia pasa a ser tutelada por un buen amigo de su padre que contaba ya con tres hijos, Marco y Caterina, dos malo bichos y Lanzo, un joven inteligente quien le entregó su corazón con solo verla. Su amor parece prohibido a los ojos de todos, hecho que les llevará a una trágica relación convulsa que se forjará a fuego en sus corazones aunque sus cuerpos ya no les pertenezcan, dado que cada uno buscará su libertad.

Alessia es una joven de nuestros días que en su herencia ha recibido un diario escrito por Alonza, una meretrice veneciana que esconde un tesoro entre sus páginas, frente a una vida gris y apagada, decide ir en busca del tesoro a la vez que se encamina en la búsqueda de su propio pasado y futuro.

Alessia encontrará en Luca un ayudante fiel, un compañero de viaje sincero que sabe más de lo que dice y que despierta en ella sentimientos que no creía poder volver a sentir, es como si junto a él pudiera volver a respirar.

El pasado de Alonza regresará para ponerles las cosas difíciles a Alessia y Luca, aunque la venganza que se cierne sobre ellos tiene una magnitud inesperada por su cercanía y que será revelada el momento preciso.

Con una prosa fluida, rica en detalles tanto en una época como en la otra, cosa que remarca una gran investigación que se esconde tras un trabajo minucioso sobre la Venecia del siglo XVI y el papel de la mujer en él. Con unos personajes tan bien construidos, la autora nos invita a sentir no solo empatía por nuestras fuertes protagonistas, sino a odiar a otros y a sentir y vibrar con un amor puro entre dos almas.

Seguiremos junto a ellos dos vidas distintas, una ayudará a forjar la de la siguiente guiándola con sus acertijos y encriptaciones a descubrir el verdadero tesoro de sus vida.

Decir que Ediciones Martínez Roca nos presenta una lectura adictiva, inteligente, profunda, irónica, psicológica y muy bien hilvanada es quedarse corta, la autora mantiene el nivel de su prosa de las novelas anteriores, aunque me atrevería a decir que consigue más profundidad en sus personajes, sobre todo en aquellos secundarios que dan solidez a la trama.

Espero no haber revelado nada sustancial, he medido mis palabras pero mi mente iba en otra dirección, así que lo mejor será que os deje sus primeras páginas aunque si sois débiles de voluntad, esperad a leer la novela en vuestras manos, ya que no podréis dejarla ir.

Yo la he terminado y creo que el espíritu combativo de Alonza y la inteligencia de Alessia me acompañaran bajo la piel.




          تنزيل - تنزيل كتاب الاسلام السياسي و الحداثة.pdf ابراهيم ا... pdf   
*تنزيل تحميل كتاب الاسلام السياسي و الحداثة.pdf ابراهيم ا… pdf* صورة: https://www.1000lela.com/images/download-2.png (https://www.1000lela.com/ra.php?aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuYmxvZ2dlci5jb20v=) * الاسلام السياسي و الحداثة.pdf ابراهيم اعرابصورة:...
          L'importance d'adapter le secteur forestier aux changements climatiques   
Un sommaire de ce rapport est disponible. Le présent rapport trace un bilan des connaissances acquises en matière de changements climatiques récents dans les forêts du Canada et présente des prévisions de changements au cours du siècle selon les scénarios d’émissions mondiales de gaz à effet de serre élaborés par le Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat. Même si l’on réduit de façon durable les émissions de gaz à l’échelle mondiale, on prévoit un climat très différent et auquel il sera essentiel de s’adapter. On observe déjà les effets sur les forêts, et ils seront de plus en plus considérables. On s’attend d’ailleurs à ce que la tendance actuelle à la hausse de la superficie brûlée chaque année se poursuive. En raison des changements climatiques, les forêts seront soumises à des périodes de stress d’envergure, ce qui augmentera à court et à moyen terme la probabilité d’invasions de ravageurs. Les invasions de plusieurs ravageurs ont dépassé en envergure toutes les épidémies antérieures et sont associées au franchissement du seuil climatique. L’invasion de la forêt boréale par le dendroctone du pin ponderosa (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) semble probable, même si l’effet de l’élargissement cette aire de répartition serait probablement moindre que celui observé récemment en Colombie-Britannique. On prévoit en outre que les épidémies causées par la tordeuse des bourgeons de l’épinette (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens) dureront plus longtemps et s’aggraveront. En raison des changements climatiques, on s’attend à ce que la croissance des forêts soit variable, soit un ralentissement de la croissance due à la sécheresse dans les forêts situées dans certaines parties de l’Ouest du Canada, ce qui serait probablement le scénario le plus impressionnant à court et à moyen terme. En revanche, on anticipe une légère croissance des forêts situées dans l’Est. De tels impacts entraînent des répercussions sur le coût et l’approvisionnement du bois d’oeuvre, et l’évolution du climat influera aussi sur les opérations forestières, les possibilités de loisirs, la biodiversité et la séquestration de carbone. La planification qui se basait sur le passé doit être réévaluée. Il se peut que les objectifs actuels concernant l’aménagement durable des forêts ne puissent pas être atteints dans le futur, même s’il existait de nouvelles opportunités. Il se peut que les changements climatiques aient des conséquences sur la sécurité publique, provoquent une importante rupture économique et sociale pour des communautés tributaires de la forêt comme celles des Autochtones, et qu’ils aient une incidence sur la compétitivité des entreprises ainsi que sur les mesures et politiques de tous les ordres de gouvernement. On peut réduire ces effets en cernant et en mettant en oeuvre le plus tôt possible des mesures afin de réduire les vulnérabilités ou de tirer profit de nouvelles possibilités. Les éléments clés de l’adaptation du secteur forestier comprennent la sensibilisation et les débats, l’amélioration des connaissances et de l’information, des évaluations de la vulnérabilité, des cadres et des outils de planification ainsi qu’un renforcement de la coordination et coopération entre les gouvernements et avec les autres intervenants du secteur forestier. Il faudra un effort continu pendant de nombreuses années pour relever le défi de l’adaptation.
          12th Annual Governor's Photo Contest Deadline for Submitting Entries Drawing Near    
By ND Commerce Tourism Division
There is still time to submit photos for the 2015 Governor’s Photo Contest. All North Dakotans are encouraged to submit photos that capture the unique things to see and do in the state. The deadline for entry is August 31.

Photographers can submit photos to one or more of the following categories: Adventure, Attractions, Events, People, Scenery and Wildlife. One winner will be selected in each contest category and a $200 cash prize will be awarded to the photographer of each selected photo. Additional honorable mentions may be selected in each category, with photographers receiving $50 and North Dakota Legendary merchandise. A Best of Show photo will be selected from the winning photographs and the photographer will receive an additional $300 cash prize and a free, one-year basic membership to AAA.   

In addition to the prize money:
  • Winning photographs will be used in North Dakota Tourism’s 2016 materials and on the website.
  • Winning photographs will be eligible for display in AAA North Dakota branch offices and may be printed in AAA regional publications.
  • Winners also will be published in North Dakota Tourism’s newsletter and likely in future promotional publications and marketing efforts.
  • Winning photographs will be featured in a public display at the North Dakota Capitol building during the fourth quarter of 2015, through a partnership with the North Dakota Council on the Arts.
All photos must be submitted electronically via Flickr or postmarked by the contest deadline, August 31, 2015.  Only North Dakota residents are eligible to enter. There is no limit to the number of entries allowed. Go to http://www.ndtourism.com/sites/default/master/files/pdf/2015Govphotocontestrules.pdf for complete contest rules. For more information, contact the Tourism Division at 701-328-2525 or 800-435-5663.

 

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          Another Major Defense Company Interested in ND Drone Park   
By The Washington Times
The nation's first unmanned aircraft business park currently under construction in North Dakota has a second major defense contractor interested in setting up shop.
 
Linden P. Blue, the CEO of General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., plans to visit in July to look into Grand Sky, a 1.2 million-square-foot park located on Grand Forks Air Force Base property. The base recently switched its operations from air refueling tankers to unmanned aircraft.
 
U.S. Rep. Kevin Cramer said the General Atomics affiliate is looking not only to test aircraft, but train pilots. "They're the kind of prospect that has more than a casual interest, for sure," Cramer said.
 
Among the unmanned aerial systems General Atomics produces are drones for military combat missions. The MQ-1 Predator drones are being flown by the North Dakota Air National Guard and MQ-9 Reaper planes are being used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Several graduates of the University of North Dakota aviation school are among the more than 6,000 employees for the San Diego-based company.
 
Already, defense technology company Northrop Grumman last month signed a lease to become the park's lead tenant, finalizing a plan that had been in the works for years. Northrop Grumman makes the RQ-4 Global Hawk drone, which is considered particularly valuable because it can conduct long-range missions, fly at 60,000 feet and roam in a particular area for 24 hours or more.
 
"I always have been a big believer in momentum, and someone like Northrop Grumman signing that lease, that's momentum," Cramer said.
 
The momentum continued this past week at an international trade show in Atlanta, where Grand Sky Development President Tom Swoyer said he received inquiries from seven companies. A handful of other businesses also have publicly expressed their interest, he said.
 
"The questions I heard were, 'What do I have to do to get space, what's the process, how fast can I get it, and what does it cost?'" Swoyer said.
 
In addition to the fledgling tech park, North Dakota is one six sites around the country testing unmanned aircraft and the only one to receive approval from the Federal Aviation Administration to fly in expanded airspace. Airspace, Swoyer said, was the No. 1 topic at the Atlanta convention.

Another Major Defense Company Interested in ND Drone Park - The Washington Times 


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          The FBI Kept A List Of Dungeons & Dragons Players As They Hunted The Unabomber   

(Image Link)

I used to think religious zealots and talk show hosts trying to make a name for themselves were the only people who thought Dungeons & Dragons was a threat to America, but back in 1983 the FBI believed D&D was bad news too.

But their reason didn't involve Satan or the corruption of souls- it involved cocaine trafficking, and they even had the game's creator Gary Gygax on their list as a possible suspect:

The first, dated 1983, has to do with “significant cocaine traffickers in the Lake Geneva, Wisconsin area.” The birthplace of D&D was, and still is, a sleepy lakeside town just over the Illinois border. An FBI agent rooting around there for drug traffickers seems pretty far fetched, but the report appears to be genuine.

D&D co-creator Gary Gygax is named in the document, but whatever the FBI’s interest in him was has been redacted. It ended with a note that the FBI would proceed to “review corporate records for TSR, Inc. in effort to identify corporate officers and attorney of record.” A second document, dated March 1984, seems to show the FBI doing its due diligence to make sure that TSR was a publishing company and not a front for cocaine trafficking.

Twelve years later TSR, the makers of D&D, were the focus of another FBI investigation, but this time Dungeons & Dragons players were investigated in connection with The Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski:

The document also mentions an FBI visit with a gaming group in Fresno, California. Members of the group were shown pictures of one of the Unabomber’s explosive devices and asked if they recognized an individual from a “composite drawing.” This is likely the iconic image of the man in a hood circulated for more than a decade prior to Kaczynski’s arrest.

The final document, the most heavily redacted of the bunch, is dated April 1995. It seems to focus on an interview with a single individual at TSR, and centers around that person’s relationship with another individual in their gaming group.

“Many of the members of the group became paranoid,” the agent writes, “and began pointing fingers at one another. [The interview subject] indicated that he believes this is based on the suspicious nature of the individuals that were in the gaming group [and] indicated that he is quite sure that some of the members of the group fantasized about the possibility that maybe one of their members was responsible for the bombings.”

Read The FBI Kept A List Of D&D Players As Part Of Its Hunt For The Unabomber at Polygon


          R-Star and the Yellen rules   

R-Star and the Yellen rules

Henrike Michaelis, Volker Wieland 03 February 2017

With the new Republican majority in both Houses of the US Congress, the Fed Oversight Reform and Modernization (FORM) Act that was passed by the House of Representatives in November 2015 is receiving renewed attention. Section 2 requires that the Fed:

  1. “describe the strategy or rule of the Federal Open Market Committee for the systematic quantitative adjustment” of its policy instruments; and
  2. compare its strategy or rule with a reference rule.1

Janet Yellen, Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, is to be complimented for using such comparisons with reference rules in her communication about Fed policy. Just recently, in a speech at Stanford on 19 January, she discussed how current Fed policy compares to several simple policy rules.2

For example, Yellen uses the well-known Taylor rule as a reference point. Additionally, she considers two other rules, which she calls the ‘balanced-approach rule’ and the ‘change rule’. Looking forward, she contrasts the implications of the rules with the FOMC members’ projections for the federal funds rate. She states that such benchmark rules “can be helpful in providing broad guidance about how the federal funds rate should be adjusted over time in response to movements in real activity and inflation.” Yet, as Yellen notes, “the Taylor rule prescribes a much higher path for the federal funds rate than the median of (FOMC) participants’ assessments of appropriate policy”.

Yellen goes on to make the important argument that “if the neutral rate were to remain quite low over the medium term, .., then the appropriate setting for R-Star in the Taylor rule would arguably be zero, yielding a yet lower path for the federal funds rate.” To support her argument, she refers to estimates of this R-Star by Holston et al. (2017).

However, as we show below, if one uses an estimate of potential real activity that is consistent with this R-Star estimate, the argument is turned on its head. Since the consistent estimate of potential real activity is lower than the one considered by Yellen, it implies federal funds rate prescriptions that have been above Fed policy for quite some time. Thus, a consistent use of these estimates indicates that Fed policy has been rather loose relative to such a reference rule.

This is shown in Figure 1. The blue line is the actual federal funds rate. The orange line indicates the prescriptions from the (standard) Taylor rule. The dark green line (labelled the “Yellen Taylor Rule”) uses the lower neutral rate/R-Star estimate suggested by Yellen (2016). Its prescriptions for the funds rate are quite a bit lower. However, once the consistent estimate of potential real activity is used along with the R-Star estimate, the interest rate prescriptions move back up as shown by the light-green line in Figure 1 (labelled the “consistent Yellen Taylor rule”).

Figure 1 Federal funds rate and Taylor rules

R-Star and other ingredients in the reference rules

Let’s take a closer look why this is so. The Taylor rule prescribes a value for the federal funds rate that deviates from its long-run equilibrium whenever inflation deviates from a target of 2% and output deviates from potential (Taylor 1993). Here’s the formula:

Fed Funds Rate = R-Star + Target + 1.5 (Inflation – Target) + 0.5 (Output Gap)

The equilibrium funds rate is simply the sum of the long-term equilibrium real rate, the ‘infamous’ R-Star, and the target rate for inflation. Taylor (1993) puts both at 2%. For inflation, the 2% value actually coincides with the Fed’s longer-run goal made public in 2012 and measured with the PCE (Personal Consumption Expenditures) Index. For R-Star, Taylor (1993) used trend GDP growth, which stood at 2.2% between 1984 and 1992. Incidentally, the same estimate of R-Star stands even a bit higher between 1984 and 2016.

The standard Taylor rule shown in Figure 1 uses a 2% R-Star, core PCE inflation (green line in Figure 2), and the output gap proposed by Yellen (2016). This output gap (blue line in Figure 2) is based on the unemployment rate using Okun’s law with an estimate of the long-run NAIRU. This output gap measure declines following the outbreak of the financial crisis reaching a trough of -8% in 2010, and it has just been closed in 2016.

Figure 2 Output gap estimates and PCE-inflation (core)

Medium-run equilibrium rates

The Yellen Taylor rule instead uses estimates of the equilibrium real rate based on a methodology as appears in Laubach and Williams (2003) and Holston et al. (2017). (For the calculation, see Beyer and Wieland 2014 and GCEE 2015, 2016.) This is best characterised as a medium-run equilibrium rate. It is estimated within a three-equation model consisting of an aggregate demand curve, an inflation Phillips curve, and a definition linking potential growth and the equilibrium interest rate/R-Star. This setup contains a number of temporary and permament shocks. The estimate of the medium-run equilibrium rate can change substantially within short periods of time. As shown by the orange line in Figure 3, it declined sharply with the recession in 2008/2009 and has hovered near zero since then.

Figure 3 Medium run equilibrium interest rates

Using the estimate of the medium-run equilibrium rate in place of the long-run equilibrium R-Star, the Yellen Taylor rule (green line in Figure 1) results in much lower federal funds rate prescriptions than the standard Taylor rule.

However, the estimates of potential real activity and the output gap obtained with the methodology as in Laubach and Williams (2003) are quite different from those in the Yellen Taylor rule, which are derived from a long-run NAIRU. The medium-run output gap (orange line in Figure 2) declines much less in the 2008/09 recession. The trough occurs at about -2%. The output gap estimate is back in positive territory by 2011. A deeper trough and longer-lasting negative output gap would have implied substantial deflation according to the estimated Phillips curve. Absent deflation, potential is revised down and the output gap is revised upwards. Along with the lower potential and trend growth, the equilibrium rate estimate declines. Consequently, using the consistent medium run estimates of R-Star and the output gap, the federal funds rate prescriptions from the consistent Yellen Taylor rule turns out to be quite a bit higher than when the long-run NAIRU-based output gap is used.

The balanced-approach rule, also considered by Yellen, doubles the coefficient on the output gap to unity. Thus, the interest rate prescriptions from the balanced-approach rule would be even higher. Finally, the change rule uses first-differences, thereby removing R-Star considerations from the formula.

R-Star, reference rules, and Fed independence

In conclusion, with the use of simple reference rules one can illustrate quite clearly the impact of changes in R-Star and potential real activity on the path for monetary policy. In this sense, the comparative approach that would be required under Section 2 of the FORM Act proves quite useful. It also helps pointing out that insisting on consistency in the gap and equilibrium measures has important implications for how to interpret current policy. Specifically, the decline in R-Star estimates does not justify the current policy stance. Rather, consistent application suggests that policy should be tightened. Whether these medium-run estimates, following Laubach and Williams (2003), should really be given so much attention is another question. For one thing, they are extremely imprecise as indicated by the wide confidence bands in Figure 3. They are very sensitive to technical assumptions (Beyer and Wieland 2015, GCEE 2015), as Laubach and Williams (2003) have stressed. Others have pointed to a number of reasons why these estimates may suffer from omitted variable bias (Taylor and Wieland 2016, Cukierman 2016). Thus, it would be better not to use them as key determinant of the policy stance.

Importantly, however, these comparisons of Fed policy to simple reference rules show how such legislation would serve to bolster the Federal Reserve’s independence. Just imagine, if ever a president would try to exert pressure on the Fed to keep interest rates too low for too long in order to boost activity during his or her term and improve chances of reelection. This has a name – it’s a political business cycle. Clearly, by referring to such legislation and appropriate reference rules, the Fed would be able to better stand up to such pressure and more effectively communicate its reasons to the public.

References

Beyer, R C M and V Wieland (2015) “Schätzung des mittelfristigen Gleichgewichtszinses in den Vereinigten Staaten, Deutschland und dem Euro-Raum mit der Laubach-Williams-Methode”, GCEE Working Paper 03/2015, Wiesbaden, November.

Cukierman, A (2016) “Reflections on the natural rate of interest, its measurement, monetary policy and the zero bound”, CEPR Discussion paper 11467.

GCEE (2016) “Time for reforms”. Annual economic report, German Council of Economic Experts, 2 November.

GCEE (2015), “Focus on future viability”, Annual economic report, German Council of Economic Experts, 11 November.

Laubach, T and J C Williams (2003) “Measuring the natural rate of interest”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(4): 1063-1070.

Holston, K, T Laubach and J C Williams (2017) “Measuring the natural rate of interest: International trends and determinants”, Journal of International Economics, in press.

Taylor, J B and V Wieland (2016) “Finding the equilibrium real interest rate in a fog of policy deviations”, Business Economics, 51(3): 147-154.

Yellen, J (2016) “The economic outlook and the conduct of monetary policy”, Remarks at Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, Stanford University, 19 January.

Yellen, J (2015) “Normalizing monetary policy: Prospects and perspectives”, Remarks at the conference on New Normal Monetary Policy, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

Endnotes

[1] For more information on the legislation and why the Requirements for Policy Rules of the Federal Open Market Committee are supported by leading scholars of monetary economics see here.

[2] This can be found in the third section of the speech under the heading “Evaluating the appropriate stance of monetary policy” (Yellen 2016).

Topics:  Macroeconomic policy Monetary policy

Tags:  Fed, US Federal Reserve System, Janet Yellen, R-Star, Federal Open Market Committee, Taylor rule


          The ECB and the Fed: A comparative narrative   

The ECB and the Fed: A comparative narrative

Dae Woong Kang, Nick Ligthart, Ashoka Mody 19 January 2016

Although the Great Recession was viewed – especially in Europe – as mainly a US problem, the Eurozone has been implicated from the start and felt virtually the same impact in the early stages (Figure 1). The US economy, however recovered much faster. US stock prices and GDP regained their pre-crisis levels by late-2011; the Eurozone barely reached that stage in 2015.

Figure 1. Stock and GDP price movements

The US policy response was much more proactive (de Grauwe 2010). Fiscal stimulus was greater than in the Eurozone in 2008-9; the US also returned to fiscal austerity later, in 2011 rather than in 2010 as the Eurozone did (Mody 2015). More important was the US authorities’ active resolution of banking stress; Eurozone banking problems were allowed to fester. And throughout, US monetary policy was much more aggressive. In a recent paper, we used a narrative approach to identify the role of monetary policy during the Great Recession (Kang et al. 2015).

The US Federal Reserve lowered its policy interest rate (the Fed Funds rate) from 5.25% in September 2007 to 0-0.25% in December 2008 (Figure 2).1 At that point, the Fed also initiated quantitative easing and began ‘forward guidance’, making public its intention to keep interest rates low ‘for some time’. The ECB’s first reaction to the Great Recession was in July 2008, and it was to raise the policy rate (the main refinancing rate).2 After the Lehman bankruptcy in September 2008, the ECB joined an internationally coordinated rate reduction on 8 October. But then the ECB’s slow pace of rate cuts was interrupted by two more hikes—in April and July 2011. The policy rate was brought to near-zero only in November 2013; modest quantitative easing began in September 2014 and was expanded in January 2015.

Figure 2. Policy rates: The US Federal Reserve and the ECB

Our narrative tracks the stated policy intent, the stock market response following the announcement, and the immediate market commentary. To examine the stock market’s response to the announcement of interest rate cuts, we used an event-study methodology similar to that of Ait-Sahalia et al. (2012). First, the ‘abnormal difference’ was computed for each day following the announcement. This is measured as the change in the stock price minus the average daily change over the 20 days before the announcement (the presumption is that absent the announcement, stock prices would have continued to change at the same pace over the next five days). Adding up the daily abnormal differences, the cumulative abnormal difference shows the post-announcement divergence in the stock price movement from the trend in the preceding 20 days. The results are summarised in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Stock market reactions to the reduction of interest rates

Note: In computing the average ‘abnormal’ reaction between 2007 and 2009, we do not include the market reaction on 8 October 2008 because of high volatility in the days following. The results remain unchanged.

The stock market responded positively to the Fed’s rate cuts. In contrast, the market’s reaction to the slower-moving ECB was, on average, negative between 2007 and 2009 and also between 2011 and 2014. Consistent with our findings around the announcements, US stock indices moved ahead of those in the Eurozone, as seen in Figure 1. Moreover, as Figure 1 also shows, stock prices tracked relative differences in GDP performance, in line with Akerlof and Shiller’s (2009) view that improved investor sentiment helps stem the fall and begin the recovery.

Active stimulus

The anticipation of the announcements was not the primary influence on stock prices. In the US, the one unexpected announcement did trigger a strong response; but even the anticipated rate cuts were viewed favourably, especially if they were 50 basis points (0.5%) or larger. Researchers at the Chicago Fed find that anticipated policy actions have positive stimulative effects if they signal deviation from historical policy (D’Amico and King 2015, pp. 2-3). Thus, while formal ‘forward guidance’ came only on 16 December 2008, the actions up until then established a presumption that the Fed was pursuing a risk management approach and creating a safety net.3 Specifically, the larger rate cuts and accompanying statements signalled that the Fed was trying to ‘forestall’ financial turmoil from spiralling out of control.

In contrast, even the ECB’s larger rate cuts were seen as ‘too little, too late’. The ECB was reacting to news—building its shelter amidst a raging storm. ECB statements also mused endlessly about rising inflation and hence almost never promised more forthcoming action. The Bank of England was also late, but made up with quicker and much larger rate cuts, followed by quantitative easing.

It is true that the Fed has a clear dual mandate to support employment and maintain price stability. However, the central banks’ differing mandates were not the reason why they acted differently in the Great Recession. The ECB—despite its primary focus on price stability—had previously responded as if it had a dual mandate. Indeed, as Lars Svensson has pointed out, the ECB’s goal of medium-term price stability (over a two-year horizon) implied that it would not seek to bring inflation down instantly since attempting to do so would cause an unreasonable drop in output (Svensson 1999, pp. 83, 96, and 107). The result, Svensson argues, is that the ECB’s stated objective is indistinguishable from that of central banks with dual mandates, as studies have confirmed (Taylor 2010 and Nechio 2011).

Rather, as Alan Blinder pithily states, the Fed operated during the Great Recession on the ‘dark’ view that a huge loss of wealth could tip the economy into a free fall (Blinder 2013, p. 94). The priority was to prevent or manage that risk. Between 2007 and 2009, the Fed made the judgement that inflation risk was low and the main task was to prevent a downward output spiral. Later, the Fed used the same risk management approach to fend off the risk of price deflation.

By contrast, the ECB concluded that a temporary scare had caused banks to hoard cash and restrict lending to other banks (Blinder 2013, p. 94, Stark 2008). Thus, the ECB provided ample liquidity to banks, although no more so than the Fed. As the Fed understood, such passive provision of funds to banks was insufficient to induce banks to lend more and stimulate economic growth (Hetzel 2012). The loss of confidence and severe demand contraction required active monetary stimulus. The ECB insisted that foreign demand would ‘support ongoing growth’ in the Eurozone (e.g. Trichet and Papademos 2008).

The essential difference between the Fed and the ECB, therefore, boiled down to how each institution viewed the evolution of the economy. Even though inflation rates in the US and the Eurozone were nearly identical (Figure 4), the ECB overemphasised the risk of a commodity price-wage spiral and underestimated the financial and economic risks (Hetzel 2014). Market commentary repeatedly sent this message, as we document in our paper.

Figure 4. Headline inflation and core inflation for the US and Eurozone

Note: 12-month moving average of year-on-year inflation.

Forestalling deflation

The Fed transitioned to worrying about deflation risk as early as June 2010, even though inflation was rising in tandem with the European inflation rate (Figure 4) (Federal Reserve System 2010). The Fed’s main tools now were quantitative easing and forward guidance. As is well known, in this inglorious interlude, the ECB twice raised interest rates. But even past that point, the ECB continued to reject a risk-management approach and followed rather than anticipated the deceleration in inflation. Because it had delayed stimulus during 2007-9, the ECB needed more aggressive action rather than a continued wait-and-see approach. At a November 2013 press conference, a journalist described the ECB as a “pea-shooter dealing with an approaching deflationary tank”. ECB President Mario Draghi responded that the ECB was waiting for more data, and would do more “if needed” (Draghi 2013). Thus, the ECB acted asymmetrically: rising commodity prices were expected to feed persistent inflation, but falling commodity prices were expected to reverse course. Once again, markets and analysts reacted impatiently. Interest rate cuts were not enough. The question was why more aggressive ‘non-standard’ actions were not being taken.

Policy credibility

We conclude also that the Fed gained credibility even though it appeared to temporarily suspend its commitment to price stability. Bordo and Kydland (1995) have argued that setting aside a policy rule to deal with extraordinary contingency is consistent with a commitment to long-term goals. The Fed made clear its objective of preventing a meltdown and, as Blinder (2012) has emphasised, credibility principally requires that words be matched with deeds.

In the Eurozone, words were often a substitute for deeds. Markets and investors reacted to the tight monetary policy, which added to the economic drag and deflationary tendencies due to fiscal austerity and lingering banking problems. By mid-2009, Eurozone output had fallen behind that of the US, and it never caught up. Delays in stimulating economic recovery have permanent consequences, as recent analysis reaffirms (Fatas and Summers 2015). For all its rear-guard action, the ECB misread the Crisis and will be associated with the legacy of a weak recovery and more entrenched deflationary tendencies. If, as is entirely possible, the Eurozone’s core inflation rate remains below 1% a year, the ECB’s credibility will be twice hurt. Not only would it have failed to provide stimulus when needed, but it would have allowed the EZ to slip into a low inflation trap, well below its stated target of 2% a year.

References

Aït-Sahalia, Y, J Andritzky, A Jobst, S Nowak, and N Tamirisa (2012), “Market Response to Policy Initiatives during the Global Financial Crisis,” Journal of International Economics 87(1): 162-177.

Akerlof, G and R Shiller (2009), Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blinder, A (2012), “Central Bank Independence and Credibility During and After a Crisis,” Griswold Center for Economic Policy Studies Working Paper No. 229, September.

Blinder, A (2013), After the Music Stopped: the Financial Crisis, the Response, and the Work Ahead, New York: Penguin Press.

Bordo, M and F Kydland (1995), “The Gold Standard as a Rule: an Essay in Exploration,” 32: 423-64.

D’Amico, S and T King (2015), “What Does Anticipated Monetary Policy Do?” Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Working Paper 2015-10, November.

De Grauwe, P (2010), “Fighting the wrong enemy,” VoxEU.org, 19 May.

Draghi, M (2013), “Introductory statement with Q&A,” European Central Bank, November 7.

Fatas, A and L Summers (2015), “The Permanent Effects of Fiscal Consolidations,” CEPR No. 10902, October 2015.

Federal Reserve System (2010), “Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee,” June 22-23.

Hetzel, R (2012), The Great Recession: Market Failure or Policy Failure, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hetzel, R (2014), “Contractionary Monetary Policy Caused the Great Recession in the Eurozone: A New Keynesian Perspective” The Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Working Paper Series, August 22.

Kang, D W, N Ligthart, and A Mody (2015), “The European Central Bank: Building a Shelter in a Storm,” Griswold Center for Economic Policy Studies Working Paper No. 248, Princeton University, December.

Mody, A (2015), “Living dangerously without a Fiscal Union,” Bruegel Working Paper 2015/03.  

Nechio, F (2011), “Monetary Policy When One Size Does Not Fit All,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Economic Letter, June 13.

Svensson, L (1999), “Monetary Policy Issues for the Eurosystem,” Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 51: 79-136.

Taylor, J (2010), “Globalization and Monetary Policy: Mission Impossible,” In International Dimensions of Monetary Policy, University of Chicago Press: 609-624.

Trichet, J-C and L Papademos (2008), “Introductory statement with Q&A,” European Central Bank, February 7.

Woodford, M (2012), “Methods of Policy Accommodation at the Interest-Rate Lower Bound,” September 16.

Footnotes

1 The US Federal Funds rate determines the rate at which banks lend to each other.

2 The Eurozone’s main refinancing rate is the interest rate banks pay to borrow from the ECB. Normally, this rate also determines the euro overnight index average (EONIA), the rate at which banks lend to each other in the ‘unsecured’ market. But banks relied principally on the ECB for their funding through much of the Crisis; the limited lending in the banks’ unsecured market was a substitute to depositing money at the ECB (ECB 2010 and 2015b).

3 See Woodford (2012) on the distinction between policy response to news and a change in the policy.

Topics:  Global crisis

Tags:  Great Recession, Fed, eurozone, Eurozone crisis, EZ reforms


          Evidence that low real rates will persist   

Will interest rates be permanently lower?

John Williams 26 November 2015

Following the Global Crisis, central banks around the world brought their policy rates close to zero, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. And now a few – including the ECB, the Swedish Riksbank, and the Swiss National Bank – have crossed the zero-rate threshold and instituted negative interest rates. A period of nearly seven years of extremely low interest rates has spurred a debate over whether interest rates will return to more normal levels. Will they rebound once the effects of the global financial crisis are finally behind us? Or are low rates a permanent feature of the economic landscape? The resolution to this debate has important implications for the economy and monetary policy (Summers 2014).

Figure 1. Near-zero interest rates following the Global Financial Crisis

Source: OECD, Federal Reserve Board.

Figure 2. Negative short-term interest rates become more common

Source: OECD.

Economists have a laundry list of developments that, in theory, could cause the trend in real (inflation-adjusted) interest rates to change over time. These include persistent shifts in the rate of productivity growth, demographics, risk aversion, fiscal policy, and international factors (Congressional Budget Office 2015, IMF 2014, Council of Economic Advisers 2015, Hamilton et al 2015). However, it has proven more challenging to gauge their quantitative impact on trend interest rates.

Unfortunately, standard statistical techniques are poorly suited to distinguish whether a permanent shift in interest rates will emerge from the current situation – an extended period of low rates instituted in response to an unusually deep recession and sluggish recovery. As discussed in Laubach and Williams (2015), the fact that rates have been very low for close to seven years implies that standard statistical methods indicate that the fall in real rates is entirely due to a downward shift in trend. In particular, these methods indicate that the current trend short-term rate in the US is about –1.5. A similar conclusion is drawn for global interest rates (Hamilton et al 2015).

One way around this problem is to use a macroeconomic model that explicitly takes into account the combined behaviours of inflation, output, and interest rates in estimating the trend in real interest rates. In the Laubach-Williams (LW) model, the trend, or ‘natural,’ real interest rate is implicitly defined as that which occurs when the economy is operating at its full potential and there are no inflationary pressures in either direction. This model assumes that the trend real interest rate depends on the estimated trend growth rate of real GDP and other unspecified influences.

The model is estimated using the Kalman filter. The Kalman filter operates on the principle that one should partially adjust one’s estimate of the unobserved variables –the trend natural rate of interest, the level of potential output, and its trend growth rate – based on the discrepancies between the model’s predictions for real GDP and inflation, and the actual data.  In particular, if real GDP is lower than the model predicts, the estimate of the natural rate of interest is reduced by a small fraction of the forecast error. The output gap estimate, in turn, is based on a Phillips curve relationship between inflation, the output gap, and other variables. If, for example, inflation turns out lower than predicted, the level of potential output is revised up (that is, for a given level of real GDP, the output gap is revised down) by a small fraction, as is the estimate of the trend growth rate of potential output.

The LW estimates of the natural rate of interest display a moderate secular decline over the two decades preceding the Great Recession and a second, more substantial decline during the Great Recession (Williams 2015). Figure 3 shows the estimates of the natural rate of interest from 1980 to 2015.  The estimate of the natural rate was about 3.5% for 1990, gradually declining to about 2% in 2007, on the cusp of the Great Recession. In the recession years of 2008 and 2009, the estimated natural rate plummets to about zero, where it has remained ever since. This is an unprecedented decline and historical low for the natural rate.

Figure 3. Laubach-Williams estimates of trend short-term real interest

Note: Grey bands denote NBER recessions.

What accounts for the decline in natural rates? According to the LW model, a falling trend rate of potential output growth accounts for about half of the decline.  The final two rows of Table 1 show the contributions from changes in trend growth and the catch-all ‘other factors’ to the decline in the estimated natural rate for the periods 1990–2007 and 2007–2015.  Figure 4 shows the LW model estimates of the trend growth rate of potential output over 1980–2015. Estimated trend potential output growth was about 3.5% in 1990, declining to 3% in 2007, then falling sharply to about 2%. Note that the model does not attribute these movements in trend potential output growth to specific sources; rather they are treated as exogenous shifts.

Table 1. Alternative measures of trend real short-term interest rates

Figure 4. Laubach-Williams estimates of the trend growth rate of GDP

Note: Grey bands denote NBER recessions.

There is robust evidence of a persistent decline in the trend real interest rates using alternative approaches to estimate trend real interest rates. Laubach and Williams (2015) explore alternative versions of the LW model and in each case the current estimate of trend real rates is very low. In addition, a number of other studies have examined whether trend real interest rates are permanently lower. Although individual estimates differ, it is striking that a wide variety of approaches point to historically low levels of future real interest rates (Hamilton et al 2015, Johannsen and Mertens 2015, Kiley 2015, Lubik and Matthes 2015).

Economic forecasters and financial market participants appear to have embraced this perspective, as seen in economists’ surveys and yields on Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS). The first row of Table 1 reports natural rate estimates implied by the long-run forecasts from the Blue Chip survey of forecasters. The second row reports real interest rates five to ten years in the future based on TIPS yields (note that TIPS did not exist in 1990). The third row reports the LW estimates. The pattern of declining trend interest rates is consistent across the three measures, although the movements in the LW estimates are noticeably larger than the other two.

What are the implications of the sizeable decline in the trend real rate of interest? First, if sustained, it implies that longer-term interest rates will also be correspondingly lower on average. Second, a lower average real interest rate implies that episodes of monetary policy being constrained at the zero lower bound are likely to be more frequent and longer (Reifschneider and Williams 2000). Third, it is a powerful reminder that one should not treat the natural rate of interest as fixed, as is often done in discussions of monetary policy rules such as the Taylor rule. Finally, estimates of trend or natural rates are subject to a great deal of uncertainty (Orphanides and Williams 2002, Laubach and Williams 2003). The various measures of trend interest rates differ by as much as 1.5 percentage points, an unusually large deviation in estimates compared to the period before the Great Recession.

So, will interest rates be permanently lower? While an unequivocal answer is not possible with the information at hand, the evidence suggests a significant decline in the trend in real interest rates. And there is little, if any, sign of a return to a more normal trend.  Taken together, this evidence suggests that it is likely that the trend in real short-term interest rates is lower than it was in previous decades, with the possibility that it may even have fallen below 1%.

Author’s note: The views presented in this article are the author’s alone, and do not necessarily reflect those of other members of the Federal Reserve System.

References

Congressional Budget Office (2015) The 2015 Long-Term Budget Outlook, June 16.

Council of Economic Advisers (2015) “Long-term interest rates: A survey”, July.

Hamilton, J D, E S Harris, J Hatzius and K D West (2015) “The equilibrium real funds rate: Past, present, and future”, Hutchins Center on Fiscal & Monetary Policy at Brookings, Working Paper 16, October 30.

International Monetary Fund (2014) World Economic Outlook: April 2014.

Johannsen, B K and E Mertens (2015) “The shadow rate of interest, macroeconomic trends, and time-varying uncertainty”, Unpublished manuscript.

Kiley, M T (2015) “What can the data tell us about the equilibrium real interest rate?” Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-077, Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, August.

Laubach, T and J C Williams (2003) “Measuring the natural rate of interest”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(4): 1,063–1,070. Updated estimates here.

Laubach, T and J C Williams (2015) “Measuring the natural rate of interest redux”, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Working Paper 2015-16, October.

Lubik, T A and C Matthes (2015) “Calculating the natural rate of interest: A comparison of two alternative approaches”, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, Economic Brief 15-10, October.

Orphanides, A and J C Williams (2002) “Robust monetary policy rules with unknown natural rates”, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2002(2): 63–145.

Reifschneider, D and J C Williams (2000) “Three lessons for monetary policy in a low-inflation era”, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 32(4/ 2): 936–966.

Summers, L H (2014) “US economic prospects: Secular stagnation, hysteresis, and the zero lower bound”, Business Economics, 49(2): 65–73.

Williams, J C (2003) “The natural rate of interest”, FRBSF Economic Letter, 2003-32, October 31.

Williams, J C (2015) “The decline in the natural rate of interest”, Business Economics, 50(2): 57–60.

Topics:  Global crisis Macroeconomic policy

Tags:  Fed, interest rates, zero lower bound, central bank, Central Banks, global crisis


          Short-sighted monetary policy and fear of liftoff   

Short-sighted monetary policy and fear of liftoff

Athanasios Orphanides 11 November 2015

Monetary policy operates in an uncertain environment with long and variable lags. Different macroeconomists and policy advisers can reasonably have different views about what would be the most appropriate monetary policy strategy at any moment in time and differ on their views on the appropriate policy setting. This is often cited to justify different views about the stance of monetary policy. There is little disagreement, however, that monetary policy works best when it is systematic and avoids short-sighted, seat-of-the-pants discretionary decision making that places undue importance on perceived short-term gains and ignores larger long-term costs.

The Federal Reserve, like other central banks, has been granted operational independence to protect against political pressures that constitute one source of unsystematic short-sighted policy. The risks are well understood. However, Federal Reserve policymakers retain immense discretionary power and, as the history of the Federal Reserve suggests, Federal Reserve policymakers have often used that power inappropriately, adopting policies that placed excessive emphasis on perceived short-term gains.

The Great Inflation serves as an important example. For over a decade, the Federal Reserve pursued inappropriately-expansionary monetary policy focusing on short-term gains on employment and growth. The excessive focus on employment gains resulted in greater economic instability, higher inflation and lower growth. For a generation following the Great Inflation, under the leadership of Paul Volcker and Alan Greenspan, the Federal Reserve followed a more systematic policy approach based on the premise that the best way the Federal Reserve could contribute to long-term sustainable employment and growth was by protecting price stability over the long- term. The Great Moderation, a period of low inflation and greater economic stability reflected in large part the systematic nature of monetary policy.

Post Crisis

Following the crisis, the Federal Reserve has followed a different approach. In the past few years, the Federal Reserve has once again started placing undue emphasis on short-term employment. The sustained reduction in the rate of unemployment appears to have become the guiding principle of monetary policy. Long after the end of the recession, reducing unemployment served as the justification for QE3, a policy that expanded the Fed’s balance sheet by 1.5 trillion dollars over a period of two years. And this year, six years after the end of the recession, and despite larger declines in the unemployment rate than projected by the policymakers themselves, the Fed has been unable to even begin the process of policy normalisation.

A short-termist mentality is the antithesis of systematic monetary policy. The fear of liftoff exhibited in Fed decisions suggests a return to the unsystematic, short-term oriented policy approach pursued before the Great moderation. This should be a cause of great concern.

Current policy

So what’s wrong with current policy? Let’s first reflect on inflation, the one and only thing that the Fed can control in the long run. Since the start of the crisis in 2008, core measures of inflation have been moving roughly sideways. Core inflation has not fallen as much as many feared at the beginning of the crisis and is only slightly below the Fed’s target. This can justify the maintenance of somewhat accommodative monetary conditions. The issue is whether this can be used to justify the continuation of the unprecedented accommodation the Fed has engineered not only during the recession, but since then. The short-term real interest rate has remained significantly negative for many years, much longer than in any recession in the past several decades. In addition, the expansion of the balance sheet has added to this accommodation what may be the equivalent of a few hundred basis points of additional easing.

What about the real economy? The Fed was correct in responding aggressively to the downturn in 2008. In my view, the Fed deserves credit for that policy easing. The problem at present is that the Fed has been unable, unwilling or reluctant to begin the process of normalisation.

The economy recovered from the Great Recession long ago and labour markets are not far from normal. For those who measure slack in terms of deviations of the unemployment rate from measures of the natural rate of unemployment, the economy is very close and perhaps beyond full employment, depending on the estimates. The unemployment rate is at 5.1, within the central tendency of FOMC members, according to the latest Survey of Economic Projections. (The latest survey reports the central tendency as 4.9-5.2 – see Federal Reserve Board 2015.)

There is disappointment that real GDP growth has been subdued, that productivity is lower than what was hoped. However, given the rapid improvement in employment markets, this appears to reflect lower trend productivity and lower potential output growth. We may all wish for better trend productivity and should lobby for better fiscal and structural policies to encourage higher long-term productivity and growth but higher trend productivity is not something the Fed can deliver. The best way the Fed can contribute to long-term growth is by following a systematic policy that defends price stability over the medium and long term.

With the economy close to full employment, the currently massive degree of policy accommodation cannot be justified. The process of policy normalisation should have started long ago. Liftoff is not the end of accommodative conditions. Liftoff was needed to prevent an overheating in labour markets that would threaten longer term stability.

Why would systematic policy need to begin the process of normalisation before inflation concerns become immediate? Is tighter policy justified, given that core inflation measures are somewhat below the Fed’s target?

The Fed should retain a somewhat accommodative stance given that inflation is somewhat below its target.  However, this cannot be used as an excuse to retain the massive accommodation that was engineered to fight the recession years ago.

Monetary policy operates with long and variable lags. According to some Fed models, the maximum effect is around two years after a policy action. The Fed has been adding accommodation with quantitative easing up until less than a year ago, which will continue to stimulate the economy and push inflation upward well into 2016.  Policy needs to be pre-emptive. The degree of policy accommodation should be reduced to avoid an overheated economy which would surely destabilise inflation and make a recession more likely (for a more detailed exposition, see Orphanides 2015).

Concluding remarks

The costs of further delay in normalising policy will not be felt in the next year or two. The success of the Fed under Paul Volcker and Alan Greenspan in anchoring inflation expectations serves as a shield. Given the long lags in the monetary policy process, even major mistakes at present are unlikely to have large destabilising effects on price stability in the next year or two. Short-sighted policies always shift costs into the future.

The need for a somewhat accommodative policy cannot be used to defend the current non-systematic policy and excessive emphasis on short-term employment gains. First and foremost, the Fed should take a long view and return to a systematic policy approach that preserves and defends price stability. As Paul Volcker and Alan Greenspan kept reminding us over a generation while cleaning up the mess that short-sighted policies created before their chairmanships, this is best way monetary policy can contribute to enhancing growth and employment in the long run.

References

Federal Reserve Board (2015) Economic Projections of Federal Reserve Board Members and Federal Reserve Bank Presidents, September 2015.

Orphanides, A (2015) “Fear of liftoff: Uncertainty, rules, and discretion in monetary policy normalization”, Federal Reserve of St Louis Review, 97(3): 173-96. 

Topics:  Macroeconomic policy Monetary policy

Tags:  Federal Reserve, Fed, central bank, central banking, unemployment, liftoff, monetary policy, macroeconomics, Great Recession, inflation, policy normalisation


          Ediscovery, Data Privacy and Social Media Weekly Updates   
Cedric Burton ‏@EUDataPrivacy4h RT @buchtan: Another one on *possible* delay of #EUdataP package http://euobserver.com/justice/121892  (more nuanced than @EurActiv report) #privacy EUDataObservatory ‏@DataObservatory4h Our initial analysis of EU Parliament (LIBE) compromise amendments to #EUdataP Regulation http://www.wsgr.com/publications/PDFSearch/wsgralert-compromise-amendments.pdf … #privacy cc @wilsonsonsini B-M Brussels ‏@BMBrussels3h Member States want #EUdataP adoption by 2015 rather than before EP elections http://bur.sn/qadmD  Jules Polonetsky ‏@JulesPolonetsky2h 10 yrs now of conflicting cookie […]
          Trio per 2 Violini e Basso   
Source: 
The source is a 375 pages ms available at Conservatorio di musica S. Pietro a Majella, Napoli with Id no. Ms. DM02032101093. It includes several compositions by J. C. Bach and a “Concerto per Cembalo”. The sonata is in three separate parts. Caption title is: “Trio / A' Due Violini, é / Basso / Del Sig:r / Giovanni Cristiano Bach”.
Sample: 
Date: 
Saturday, April 5, 2008
Release notes: 
Version 1.0

          Quartetto Op. 18 per 2 Flauti traversi, Violino e Violoncello   
Source: 
Source of “Quartetto” Op. 18 is a ms. of separate parts online available at Giedde’s Collection, ms. IV,37 mu 6212.1645, The Royal Library, Copenhagen. It is a transcription of a quartet published posthumous as Op. 19 by Preston, London, 1783 and later published in Frankfurt as Op. 18.
Sample: 
Date: 
Wednesday, September 10, 2008
Release notes: 
Version 1.0

          Capital Share Markets Ltd - capitalsharemarkets.com   

You can check here the document about his partnership with Philippines government
https://capitalsharemarkets.com/NHA final.pdf


          El pibe que arruinaba las fotos   
Todo por su autor: Hernán Casciari



Esta mañana (sept. 2009) salió a la venta en España y Argentina una novela que no recuerdo haber escrito nunca. Claro que la escribí yo, palabra por palabra, pero el asunto es que no me di cuenta, hasta hace unos meses, de que aquel montón de historias podían ser una sola. Lo que sí hice, cuando lo supe, fue darles continuidad y ritmo. En eso estuve estos meses de ausencia en Orsai: editando y corrigiendo recuerdos propios. Lo que quedó es, hasta ahora, lo más lindo que escribí en la vida. Y fue sin querer.

Ayer hablé por teléfono con mi hermana, que ya tiene un ejemplar. Me dijo que había llorado y se había reído sin parar, y que era un libro hermoso. Suspiré aliviado, porque me lo decía alguien que protagoniza varios capítulos de la historia, con su nombre y su apellido, y yo nunca le avisé que eso iba a pasar; lo supo con el libro ya en la mano. (No sé por qué me arriesgo tanto a perder la amistad de mi familia.)

La historia de este libro es casual: yo tengo un contrato con Mondadori, por suerte muy flexible, y en abril me tocaba entregar un libro de cuentos. El libro ya estaba terminado y tenía nombre. Pero una tarde me puse a rastrear un correo viejo en el buscador de Gmail, y se me aparecieron varios chats con mi padre. Seguramente yo sabía que ahí estaban todas mis conversaciones con Roberto de los últimos cinco años, pero nunca se me había ocurrido revisarlas después de su muerte.

Esas lecturas me conmocionaron. En casi todas las charlas (generalmente muy nocturnas para mí, y para él antes de cenar) hablábamos de fútbol o de Orsai. Me llamó mucho la atención ese detalle: él me comentaba los cuentos de Orsai, sobre todo las historias en las que aparecía.

Esa noche, después de leer chats antiguos durante horas, y con el corazón un poco desbocado de nostalgia, puse el nombre de mi padre en el buscador de Orsai y aparecieron casi treinta cuentos donde lo nombro. Me los puse a leer, desde el más antiguo al más actual, y lo que leí tenía el tono y el ritmo de una novela involuntaria. Me quedé pasmado. La historia empezaba con él llevándome a rugby hace treinta años, para que yo no fuera puto, y acababa con su muerte sorpresiva y anacrónica.

¿Qué hacía yo, entonces, enviando a imprenta un libro de cuentos dispersos, si tenía frente a mis ojos un material que me hacía saltar las lágrimas cada cuatro líneas?

“El pibe que arruinaba las fotos” nació esa noche en mi cabeza. Descubrí que había escrito una novela de a ratos, sin intención, y que ahora que Roberto ya no estaba esa historia había acabado para siempre. Al día siguiente hablé con Schavelzon, que es mi agente literario, y le pedí que convenciera a la editorial para que me diera más tiempo, porque quería entregar una novela y no un libro de relatos. No le costó mucho que accedieran.

A mí, en cambio, sí me costó editar esas historias. Bastante más de lo que pensaba. No tanto por el trabajo de unir con nuevas letras los huecos entre una historia y la otra, sino porque todos los relatos en los que aparece Roberto estaban narrados en presente. Por ejemplo, en la frase “mi padre es amigo de toda la gente que transpira por placer”, yo tenía que cambiar una sola palabra, nada más que una: en lugar de es amigo, tenía que poner era. Era amigo. Nunca antes los tiempos verbales me habían causado tanto impacto.

Más allá de esos inconvenientes, más emotivos que gramaticales, las historias caían en el papel llenas de enlaces internos, con eslabones propios que las iban atando unas a otras de un modo que, por lo menos a mí, me empezaba a parecer milagroso. El libro crecía conmigo en los bordes, conmigo de espectador, como si un puzzle que tiraras en la mesa se fuera uniendo solo, sin la ayuda de las manos ni el esfuerzo.

Y ahora estoy contento, porque desde esta mañana el libro está en la calle y me gusta que haya surgido de ese modo.

La mayoría de las cosas que están escritas en él (como va siendo costumbre) ustedes las han conocido primero acá, en este blog, porque las escribí en directo y sin filtros literarios. Están las historias que más me gustan de Orsai, ésas en las que aparecen el Chiri, Chichita, Roberto, mi hermana, el Negro Sánchez, Cristina y la Nina. Es decir, están las peores verdades y las mejores mentiras que escribí durante los últimos tres años.

Releyendo lo escrito hasta aquí, me da un poco de resquemor que ustedes puedan sospechar que éste es un texto publicitario. Que digo todo esto para que compren el libro. Me voy a quitar ahora mismo la sensación con un regalo que (también es costumbre) les hago siempre el mismo día que un libro mío aparece en góndola:

Descargar “El pibe que arruinaba las fotos” (.pdf)
 
Fuente: http://orsai.bitacoras.com/2009/09/el_pibe_que_arruinaba_las_fotos_1.php
          Violencia mediática, violencia de género: ¿quién le pone un freno a Tinelli?   
La nota es de fines del año pasado, de todas maneras no de deja de tener vigencia puesto que Tinelli siempre ofreció el mismo nefasto producto, con el lamentable aplauso de irresponsables que incluso le hacen reverencias... En el 2011 irá por más y el freno o el aplauso a la mediocridad que daña y destruye depende de nosotrxs, nuestros valores y compromisos. Lenny Cáceres.

“Show Match” , el programa televisivo que conduce Marcelo Tinelli en canal 13, está bajo la lupa de quienes pugnamos por una comunicación no sexista desde hace varios años. Sin duda, los contenidos reproducidos en el segmento predominante “Bailando por un sueño” son la versión exacerbada de la estereotipación del rol que nos asignan como mujeres en esta sociedad: de subordinación ante el varón y objeto sexual de deseo masculino. Y como objeto sexual, las mujeres son las que aportan el mayor valor a la mercancía que vende Tinelli.

Pero el mensaje perverso emitido en “Show Match” no se termina en los minutos de aire que tiene dentro del canal. Los contenidos, sea cual sea su tenor, alimentan a una cantidad significativa de programas de TV que se emiten durante la tarde en aire o cable, de emisiones radiales y de productos digitales. No sólo Tinelli lucra con su “Bailando por un sueño”, muchos otros alimentan sus bolsillos reproduciendo los fragmentos que califican como “mas picantes”. Y un dato esencial que se agrega al desalentador panorama es que es la emisión de mayor raiting de nuestro país.

En los últimos días volvieron a circular por Internet algunas iniciativas ciudadanas, entre ellas un mail que cuestiona el concurso que proponía que “jóvenes bonitas de hasta 40 años” se candidatearan para ser la pareja de Ricardo Fort a cambio de promesas de dinero, auto, tarjeta de crédito. En ese mail se afirma que Tinelli puede ser denunciado por “lenocinio”. (delito doloso -conocimiento que se está prostituyendo a una persona y voluntad de hacerlo- cuyo elemento subjetivo es el ánimo de lucro o de satisfacer deseos ajenos).

La polémica siguió alimentándose y agravandose. El lunes 25 de octubre una coreografía bailada por Silvina Escudero de alto contenido erótico renovó las críticas. No vale mencionar de que se trataba la escena que ha sido reproducida a mansalva por diestra y siniestra, pero fue una suerte de gota que rebalsó el vaso. La violencia mediática ejercida en “Show Match” parece no tener freno.

“El cuadro de baile protagonizado por Silvina Escudero y su partenaire, al parecer sobrepasó los límites razonables de lo que debe ser un espectáculo público y de semejante masividad”, señaló la Autoridad Federal de Servicios Audiovisuales (AFSCA) en un comunicado en el que indica que se encuentra evaluando posible sanciones. Pero al mismo tiempo le da una suerte de salvaguarda al asegurar que “funciona como atenuante” que la escena se haya dado en el marco del “horario de protección al menor”. Si aclara que para quienes lo hayan reproducido fuera de este horario cabría una sanción “estipulada dentro de lo que el artículo 107º inciso d) de la Ley de Servicios de Comunicación Audiovisual considera directamente como falta grave: “Las representaciones explícitas de actos sexuales que no sean con fines educativos. La desnudez y el lenguaje adulto fuera de contexto”.

Frente a esto me pregunto ¿quién le pone un freno a Tinelli? ¿la sanción cabe solo para quienes reprodujeron la coreografía fuera del horario de protección? ¿con qué otras herramientas contamos? ¿existe multa económica que pueda equipararse con el lucro que hace Ideas del Sur con este programa?.

Vale mencionar también que la nueva Ley de Servicios de Comunicación Audiovisual establece en el apartado ‘m’ del artículo Tercero como objetivo de los mensajes “promover la protección y salvaguarda de la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres, y el tratamiento plural, igualitario y no estereotipado, evitando toda discriminación por género u orientación sexual”. El comunicado de AFSCA obvía mencionar este apartado.

No está de mas recordar que durante el gobierno de Néstor Kirchner nuestro país adhirió al Protocolo Facultativo de la Convención para Todas las Formas de Discriminación contra la Mujer (CEDAW por su sigla en inglés). Dicho protocolo insta en el apartado ‘a’ del artículo 5 a “modificar los patrones socioculturales de conducta de hombres y mujeres, con miras a alcanzar la eliminación de los prejuicios y las prácticas consuetudinarias y de cualquier otra índole que estén basados en la idea de la inferioridad o superioridad de cualquiera de los sexos o en funciones estereotipadas de hombres y mujeres”.

Un herramienta contundente para erradicar los mensajes sexistas emitidos en el programa de Tinelli es la “Ley de protección integral para prevenir, sancionar y erradicar la violencia contra las mujeres”, disposición sancionada en 2006 y reglamentada recientemente. Esta ley define la “violencia mediática” como una modalidad en la que se manifiestan las diferentes formas de violencia contra la mujer y dice al respecto que es “aquella publicación o difusión de mensajes e imágenes estereotipados a través de cualquier medio masivo de comunicación, que de manera directa o indirecta promueva la explotación de mujeres o sus imágenes, injurie, difame, discrimine, deshonre, humille o atente contra la dignidad de las mujeres, como así también la utilización de mujeres, adolescentes y niñas en mensajes e imágenes pornográficas, legitimando la desigualdad de trato o construya patrones socioculturales reproductores de la desigualdad o generadores de violencia contra las mujeres”.

No fue mi intención con esta reflexión abarrotarlas/los de elementos jurídicos, sino visualizar que sobran herramientas para sancionar y erradicar estas conductas. Quizá lo que falte sea decisión política para que tantas leyes no caigan en letra muerta.

Belén Spinetta
Colega, compañera integrante de la Red PAR
http://www.redpar.com.ar
          Поправки в закон о территориях традиционного природопользования могут навредить коренным   
Свой материал?: 
Нет
Русский
Фото : 

Гринпис России выступил с критикой поправок в Федеральный закон о территориях традиционного природопользования, которые могут лишить коренные малочисленные народы возможности вести традиционный образ жизни на этих землях.

Федеральное агентство по делам национальностей предложило внести поправки в Федеральный закон о территориях традиционного природопользования (ТТП) коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока РФ.

По мнению ряда экспертов, которые направили свои отзывы во время общественного обсуждения, законопроект противоречит законодательству, защищающему права коренных малочисленных народов, и не может быть принят в предложенном виде.  

Вот лишь некоторые предложенные изменения, которые подверглись критике:

ТТП лишаются статуса «особо охраняемых территорий», что ставит под вопрос сохранность этих земель и возможность для коренных малочисленных народов поддерживать традиционный образ жизни;

Авторы законопроекта предлагают заменить понятие «правовой режим территорий» на «условия использования». Эти «условия» будут определяться с учётом выданных лицензий на пользование недрами. Представители коренных малочисленных народов будут вынуждены заключать соглашения с компаниями, получившими лицензию на какую-либо хозяйственную деятельность на этих землях.

Законопроект не ограничивает деятельность компании в том случае, если коренные жители откажутся заключать соглашение. Они всё равно смогут добывать нефть и строить линейные сооружения, нанося урон тем землям, которые нужны коренным жителям для оленеводства, ловли рыбы и сбора ягод.

Гринпис России не раз становился свидетелем социальных конфликтов, которые происходят из-за того, что представители промышленных компаний, работающих на ТТП, нарушали права коренных жителей.

Например, в Сургутском районе Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа компания «Ноябрьскнефтегаз», которая собирается добывать нефть и газ в родовых угодьях 16 семей народа ханты, в том числе семьи Сопочиных, без согласования с оленеводами строит дорогу прямо в том месте, где весной телятся их олени.

Родовые угодья оленеводов расположены на водоразделе, поэтому от загрязнения нефтью пострадают ручьи и реки, воду из которых пьют множество людей и животных далеко за пределами этих угодий. Опасна не только добыча нефти, но и разведочные работы, потому что компания в любом случае построит свою инфраструктуру и родовые угодья будут перерезаны дорогами.

К сожалению, эта ситуация — не исключение. Напротив, она типична. Официальной информации о том, сколько конфликтов происходит между коренными жителями и российскими нефтяными компаниями, нет. Однако система их отношений устроена так, что конфликты неизбежны, и от них страдают и люди, и природа.

Существующее региональное законодательство по защите прав коренных малочисленных народов, принятое в Ханты-Мансийском автономном округе, пока носит лишь декларативный характер и не решает существующих проблем из-за отсутствия подзаконных актов.

Однако вместо того чтобы исправить это, сейчас может быть окончательно закреплено главенство закона о недрах над законами, защищающими права коренных малочисленных народов.

По мнению экспертов Гринпис России, которые направили отзыв на законопроект во время общественного обсуждения, предложенные поправки противоречат Конституции России, концепции устойчивого развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока РФ и ещё ряду законодательных актов.

Предложенный законопроект вызвал резкие критические отзывы экспертов и представителей коренных народов из самых разных регионов: экспертного совета КМНС при Комитете Ил Тумэн парламента Республики Саха (Якутия) по вопросам коренных малочисленных народов Севера и делам АрктикиАссоциации КМНС Камчатского краяАбориген-форума (неформального объединения коренных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока).

 

Резонансный контент
Россия
Нет

          Traubenkernöl & Co   

Dem "Geheimnis der Weintherapie" auf den Grund gegangen sind die Seifenmacherin Su Rihs und der Caterer Stefan Stecher. Keine Sorge, hier geht es nicht um die leider von allzu vielen versuchte Selbsttherapie durch übermäßigen Alkoholkonsum. Die heilsame Wirkung der Weintrauben ist nämlich vor allem in den Kernen zu finden. Dort findet sich unter anderem OPC, eines der stärksten Antioxidantien gegen freie Radikale.

Das beste daran: dieses Anti-Aging-Produkt aus der Natur wirkt sowohl von außen (in Form von Naturkosmetika) als auch von innen, also in Form von leckeren Speisen, die - wie die Rezepte auf der Website zeigen - absolut nichts mit asketischer Diätküche zu tun haben.

Weitere Informationen, Rezepte und Leseproben finden Sie auf der Website www.traubenkerncreationen.com.


          Arriva Believing Day, l'evento di formazione outdoor di Believing   















Venerdì 18 Aprile arriva “Believing day - training in action”,
un evento straordinario di formazione outdoor all’interno del nuovissimo parco acrobatico “Adrenalin Zone” di Noicattaro (Bari).
Coordinerà il tutto la bravissima Alessandra Strafile, docente, formatrice aziendale, esperta di motivazione, leadership e team-building e nostra collega al Believing.
Una giornata da dedicare a sè stessi e una iniziativa da condividere con il proprio team, per migliorarne lo spirito di gruppo, ma anche per divertirsi.
Ps: L'invito è aperto a tutti!
;-)

i dettagli dell'evento
il modulo di iscrizione
          European Venture Contest, i Venture Capitalist cercano aziende da premiare   
L'European Venture Contest è la competizione a livello europeo rivolta a imprese technology based ad alto potenziale di sviluppo alla ricerca di investitori e/o partner industriali.
Inaugurata lo scorso anno, EVC è ora nuovamente in cerca di giovani e promettenti imprese tecnologiche
L’evento si terrà a Torino il 18 e 19 ottobre 2007 presso la nuova sede di I3P nella Cittadella Politecnica .
A questo indirizzo maggiori informazioni
http://www.iban.it/ftp/eventi/evc_2007_torinowireless.pdf
          ¡ NO TE BEBAS LA LECHE ! No te pierdas este impresionante información, avalada exclusivamente por datos científicos.   
La leche de arroz: http://www.elgranenganyo.com/lechedearroz.pdf En este vídeo encontrarás una impresionante y profunda información que jamás te contarán en las noticias y que hará que nunca más las puedas percibir del mismo modo.
          Growing Vegetables?   
Starting a vegetable garden?  The following Extension publications will help: http://ag.udel.edu/extension/horticulture/pdf/VegetableGardenBasics.pdf http://ag.udel.edu/extension/horticulture/pdf/ConsiderVegetableGarden.pdf http://ag.udel.edu/extension/horticulture/pdf/Planning%20a%20Vegetable%20Garden.pdf
          Raquel Bluvstein, 3 poemas 3 (+1)   

Fotografía de Elizabeth Gadd



EN EL EXTRANJERO

Así me sentaré... así: encogida y temblando.
Aquí el sol es frío en este cielo extraño.
Se oirá una callada orden, nostalgia por la patria.
¡Levántate y marcha!, ¿qué haces en tierra extranjera?.

Así me levantaré...así: por milésima vez.
Así me iré, sin fuerzas.
Así vagaré por los caminos, al solano y con lluvia.
Así amaré... así: sin sentido.


בַּנֵּכָר

כָּכָה אֵשֵׁב...  כָּכָה:  שַׁחָה וְרוֹעֶדֶת.
שֶׁמֶשׁ קָרָה פֹּה בַּשַּׁחַק הַזָּר.
צַו חֲרִישִׁי יִשָּׁמַע – גַּעְגּוּעֵי הַמּוֹלֶדֶת –
קוּמִי וּלְכִי!  מַה לָּךְ בְּאֶרֶץ נֵכָר!

כָּכָה אָקוּם...  כָּכָה:  בַּפַּעַם הָאֶלֶף.
כָּכָה אֵלֵךְ לִי בְּאֶפֶס אוֹנִים.
כָּךְ אֲשׁוֹטֵט בַּדְּרָכִים, בַּשָּׁרָב וּבָדֶּלֶף;
כָּכָה אֹהַב... כָּכָה:  לְלֹא פִּתְרוֹנִים.

תל-אביב, תרפ"ו



Fotografía de Elizabeth Gadd





ESPERANZA

Clavar en la oscuridad unos ojos suplicantes,
tender hacia el vacío unas manos ansiosas,
abrir el oído al susurro de las hojas,
esperar un milagro, aguardar un prodigio.

Mil veces desesperarse y mil veces creer
en el consuelo de los misterios, en la recompensa cercana, pronta,
sumergirse en el olvido y, de repente, despertar
y maldecir el veredicto aunque se acepte.

Buscar refugio en las figuras del pasado,
en su piadoso contacto, en su puro trato,
temblar al contener el llanto y, hasta que el día luzca,
embriagarse con la amargura del dolor y su extraña dulzura.




Fotografía de Elizabeth Gadd



TUS MANOS

Tus manos son tiernas como el regazo de una tierra patria,
como el de ésta, es agradable su contacto, es olvido y calma.
Aferrarse a ellas y saber:
¡aquí no temeré!.

Una mujer, sólo soy una mujer, sarmiento
que sube trepando y que al llegar a la copa,
ya sin apoyo, afligida y pálida
hacia la tierra me torno.




B O N U S  T R A C K


Fotografía de Elizabeth Gadd


TRANSFORMACIÓN

Este débil cuerpo,
este corazón apenado,
se convertirán en miles de granos de polvo fecundo,
en bienes de la tierra que esperan la primera lluvia
e irrumpen joviales hacia lo alto.

Con la bendición de la primera lluvia me derramaré hacia la libertad
por entre las grietas de mi ataúd,
por entre los regados terrones de tierra,
y para los ojos cansados por el solano haré germinar
en mis ojos...hierba






Raquel Bluvstein
(Vyatka, Rusia, 1890 - Tel Aviv, 1931)
en Poemas de Raquel Bluvstein, Editorial Riopiedras, 1985
Introducción, traducción y notas por Ana María Bejarano
para leer más en: MARASANATI A LAS TRES

          The Future of English in the World of Communication   
English – History

Britain’s colonial expansion established the pre-conditions for the global use of English, taking the language from its island birthplace to settlements around the world. The English language has grown up in contact with many others, making it a hybrid language which can rapidly evolve to meet new cultural and communicative needs.

English in the 20th century

The story of English has been closely linked to the rise of the US as a superpower that has spread the English language alongside its economic, technological and cultural influence. In the same period, the international importance of other European languages, especially French, has declined.

Who speaks English?

There are three kinds of English speaker:

- Those who speak it as a first language

- Those for whom it is a second or additional language

- Those who learn it as a foreign language.


English is remarkable for its diversity, its propensity to change and be changed. This has resulted in both a variety of forms of English, but also a diversity of cultural contexts within which English is used in daily life.

The main areas of development in the use and form of English will undoubtedly come from non-native speakers.

Major International domains of English

  1. Working language of international organizations and conferences
  2. Scientific publications
  3. International banking, economic affairs and trade
  4. Advertising for global brands
  5. Audio-visual cultural products (e.g. film, TV, popular music)
  6. International tourism
  7. Tertiary education
  8. International safety (e.g. ‘airspeak’, ‘seaspeak’)
  9. International law
  10. As a ‘ready language’ in interpretation and translation
  11. Technology transfer
  12. International communication.

English is the most widespread language on the earth, and it is second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has five official languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian, and Chinese.

In the era of communication, English is gaining a strong position.

English -The most widespread language on the earth - How?


- When an Indonesian businessman meets a customer from Finland, they converse in English.

- Airline pilots flying international routes communicate with their controllers in English.

- 76% of the content of the Internet is in English. (The runners-up are, in order: Japanese, French, German, and Chinese.)

- Out of 193 countries of the world, 43 are English speaking [http://www.aneki.com/english.html]

- English is the second most spoken language in the world

- There are 57 million blogs on the Internet. English and Japanese remain the two most popular languages in the blogosphere. [http://technorati.com/weblog/2006/11/161.html]

- Most people use English language to communicate using SMS.

ENGLISH – COMPUTER LANGUAGES

English and computers have seemed, for decades to go together. Computers and the programs which make them useful were largely the invention of English speaking countries. The hardware and software reflect the needs of English language.

English will continue to be spread via software products and digitized intellectual property.

ENGLISH – THE WORLD

  • English and the International Economy


The shifting patterns of trade and new working practices are affecting the use of English language in complex ways. At present there is a considerable increase in the numbers of people learning and using English.

  • English and global culture

As the number of people using English grows, so second-language speakers are drawn towards the ‘inner circle’ of first-language speakers to the ‘outer circle’ of second-language speakers.

  • English as a leading-edge phenomenon

English is closely associated with the leading edge of global scientific, technological, economic and cultural developments, where it has been unrivalled in its influence in the late 20th century.

In four key sectors, the present dominance of English can be expected to give way to a wider mix of languages:

- The global audio-visual market, especially satellite TV

- The Internet and computer-based communication including language-related and document handling software

- Technology transfer and associated processes in economic globalization

- Foreign-language learning, especially in developing countries where growing regional trade may make other languages of increasing economic importance.

  • A bilingual future

There is a growing belief among language professionals that the further will be a bilingual one, in which an increasing proportion of the world’s population will be fluent speakers of more than one language.

  • Social value shifts

The spread of English has been made more rapid in recent years as a consequence of decisions and actions taken by governments, institutions and individuals.

The economic argument for English also may be challenged as developing countries make more careful evaluations of the costs and benefits of mass educational programmes in the English language.

Language shift

In many parts of the world there are ongoing shifts in the status of English.

In the countries listed below, the use of English for International communication is largely increasing:

- Argentina

- Belgium

- Costa Rica

- Denmark

- Ethiopia

- Honduras

- Lebanon

- Burma

- Nepal

- The Netherlands

- Nicaragua

- Norway

- Panama

- Somalia

- Sudan

- Surinam

- Sweden

- Switzerland

- United Arab Emirates.


DISCLAIMER: I have taken some information and print screens from an eBook at http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-elt-future.pdf.

          CMS Releases 2016 ACA Marketplace Reinsurance And Risk Adjustment Data   

On June 30, 2017, CMS released the results for the third year (2016) of the reinsurance and risk adjustment programs, two of the Affordable Care Act’s “three R” premium stabilization programs. The 2016 results from the risk corridor program, the “third R” will be announced later this year.

ACA’s “Three R” Progams Are Modeled After Medicare Part D, But Are Weaker And More Controversial Than Their Part D Counterparts

The ACA’s three R programs were modeled after similar premium stabilization programs that have operated for about a decade for Medicare Part D prescription drug plans. The Part D program also has a risk adjustment program (which adjusts premiums prospectively rather than insurer income retrospectively), a reinsurance program (which is much more generous than the ACA program and permanent rather than temporary), and a risk corridor program (also permanent, and initially more generous than the ACA program.). The part D premium stabilization programs played an important role in attracting insurers to the prescription drug program initially and have helped to keep premiums stable and premium increases low since the program was launched in 2006. They have undoubtedly been an important factor in maintaining the popularity and bipartisan support for Part D.

The ACA premium stabilization programs have proven far more controversial than the Medicare Part D programs. The risk corridor program has been criticized as an Insurer “bail-out” and was seriously undermined by appropriations riders enacted by Congress limiting program payouts to the amount collected from insurers. For 2014, the Department of Health and Human Services was only able to pay out 12.6 percent of the amounts owed insurers under the statutory formula because of this constraint, while it has been unable to make any payments for 2015 as it had to set off 2015 collections against 2014 obligations.  This no doubt contributed to the insolvency of a number of insurers and has resulted in a number of lawsuits in the Federal Court of Claims, as insurers attempt to collect the full amount they claim they are due under the statute.

The reinsurance program was supposed to collect $25 billion over its three- year life and pay $5 billion of that amount to the Treasury, apparently to reimburse it for funds spent on the Early Retiree Reinsurance program from 2010 to 2013.  Collections fell short in the first two years, and the Obama administration took the position that this reimbursement to the Treasury would only be paid after all reinsurance obligations were first met.  It paid nothing to the Treasury in 2015 and less than a half a billion dollars for 2016.  This position has been condemned by ACA critics and legislation was introduced in 2016 to force HHS to make the repayment.  The Trump administration has apparently not bowed to this pressure and is paying the full $4 billion due to insurers under the program for 2016.

The formula used by the risk adjustment program has also come in for criticism. CMS made a number of changes in its risk adjustment methodology for 2017, including factoring in preventive services and better accounting for drug cost increases.  It will incorporate even greater changes for 2018, including adjustment for partial-year enrollees and prescription drug use and setting up a separate risk adjustment pool for very high costs cases.

A Widespread Recognition Of The Importance Of Reinsurance

Despite criticism, the reinsurance program has in fact made a substantial contribution to constraining marketplace premiums. During 2014, the reinsurance program reduced net claim costs an estimated 10 to 14 percent, during 2015, 6 to 11 percent, and during 2016, 4 to 6 percent.  The end of the reinsurance program after 2016 has been a major driver of premium increases for 2017 and 2018.  Recognizing this, there is a consensus in Congress that further reinsurance funding is needed.  The House’s American Health Care Act, the Senate’s Better Care Reconciliation Act, and health reform legislation introduced by Democrats all include reinsurance funds for the individual market.

The federal risk adjustment program for 2016 covered non-grandfathered insurers in the individual and small group markets in every state except Massachusetts, which operated its own risk adjustment program. Transfers happened within each state.  The reinsurance program covered non-grandfathered insurers in the individual market in every state.

Participating insurers were required to set up EDGE servers through which they could transfer to CMS the data necessary to calculate reinsurance programs and risk adjustment information while retaining control of sensitive enrollee information. Nationally, 496 insurers were eligible for reinsurance payments.  Of these 445 will receive reinsurance payments.  CMS estimates that 52.9 percent of claims between $90 and $250,000 will be payable for the year, with 83 percent of that money currently available through the $3.3 billion already collected for the reinsurance program.

A total of 751 insurers participated in the risk adjustment program, which covered the individual and small group markets. Default risk adjustment charges were assessed against 42 insurers, 41 that did not submit EDGE server data and one that did but did not provide HHS with access to the required data. Of the 709 insurers that participated in transfers, 469 issued individual market non-catastrophic plans, 247 issued individual market catastrophic plans, 552 issued small group market plans, and two issued merged market plans.

The CMS report states that reinsurance and risk adjustment transfers correlate strongly with paid claims, showing that the programs are working as intended.  Insurers in the lowest quartile of claims costs were assessed on average a risk adjustment charge of 18 percent of total collected premiums, while insurers in the highest quartile of claims received risk adjust payments of 27 percent of total premiums.  Risk adjustment transfers averaged 11 percent of premiums in the individual market, up from 10 percent in 2015, while small group transfers remained steady at 6 percent of premiums.  CMS reports that there was a significant improvement in the quantity and quality of data provided by insurers for 2016, and thus a higher correlation between interim risk scores released in the spring and the final scores released on June 30.

Surprisingly, CMS reports that risk scores remained stable in the individual market and decreased in the small group market.  It was expected that as individuals had been enrolled longer in the program and insurers became more experienced in reporting the diagnoses on which the risk scores were based, the risk scores would go up, but they did not.  The data also would seem to refute the commonly held belief that the marketplace population is becoming sicker.  Risk adjustment transfers (calculated using the absolute value of net transfers for each issuer in the risk pool) amounted to 11 percent of enrollment-weighted monthly premiums in the individual market, 6 percent in the small group market, and 18 percent in the catastrophic market, for a national average of 8 percent.

Big Winners And Losers

The size of some of the transfers is remarkable.  Blue Cross of California will receive an estimated $210 million in reinsurance payments, $49 million in risk adjustment in the individual market, and $217 million in risk adjustment in the small group market.  Blue Shield of California is slated to receive $201 million in reinsurance, $265 million in risk adjustment in the individual market, and $106 million in risk adjustment in the small group market. The California Kaiser Foundation Health Plan will receive $99 million in reinsurance, but must pay in $183 million in risk adjustment in the individual market and $255 million in risk adjustment in the small group market.

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida is slated to receive $127 million in reinsurance and  $464 million in risk adjustment payments in the individual market, while Molina Healthcare of Florida must pay in $253 million, Celtic Insurance Company of Florida $161 million, and Coventry Health Care of Florida $112 million.  Molina Healthcare of Texas must pay in $126 million in individual market risk adjustment.  Other insurers receiving nine-figure risk adjustment or reinsurance payments include Humana Employers Health Plan of Georgia, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Minnesota, Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina, and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas.


          150 Things to Know on Canada’s 150th Birthday   
On the occasion of Canada’s 150th birthday here are 150 things to know...

1. Today, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau is one of the world’s most popular political leaders.
2. Justin Trudeau emerged out of the shadows and into the political spotlight when delivering the eulogy at his father’s funeral, the late Pierre Elliot Trudeau in September 2000.
3. The four pallbearers at the funeral were Justin Trudeau, the Aga Khan, former President Jimmy Carter and…the late Cuban autocrat Fidel Castro.
4. Justin Trudeau’s brother, Alexandre Trudeau, is a fearless filmmaker, who was Embedded in Baghdad before, during and after the U.S. invasion in 2003.
5. While Justin is a social media star, his father was the true showman, who once famously pirouetted behind Queen Elizabeth’s back.
6. In fact, this was just one of many colorful moments. To this day in Canada to give the ‘Pierre Trudeau salute’ means something, very interesting…
7. And who can forget the moment featuring the Rolling Stones, the paparazzi and the Prime Minister.
8. However, the elder Trudeau also did some amazing things for Canada. For starters, until 1982 when he brought it back to Canada, the constitution was effectively governed by the Queen of England.
9. That same year he pushed through the Canadian Charter of Rights & Freedoms.
10. This protection of Canadian rights and diversity did not emerge overnight. Back in 1971, the elder Trudeau declared the new Canadian multiculturalism policy.
11. Four years earlier, in 1967, Pierre Trudeau uttered these famous words: “There's no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation,” when he decriminalized homosexuality in sweeping changes to the criminal code.
12. It took Canada until 2005 to legalize same-sex marriage, being the first nation outside of Europe and fourth in the world to do so.
13. However, while things were eventful under Pierre Trudeau they were also turbulent. He suspended civil liberties during the ‘October Crisis’ in 1970, when he invoked the ‘War Measures Act’ after a provincial cabinet minister was kidnapped by separatist militants.
14. He also enacted the National Energy Program in the 1980s which effectively federalized revenues from energy resources in Alberta, creating long-term hostility towards the federal Liberal Party in the years to come in Western Canada.
15. Trudeau was also an antagonist to separatist ambitions in Quebec, delivering two fiery speeches, one in 1980, and another in 1995 to thwart referendums for independence.
16. All in all, the elder Trudeau served for 15 years but he wasn’t the longest serving Prime Minister. That would be William Lyon Mackenzie King, who served for 21 years.
17. In second place was the founding Prime Minister, John A. Macdonald, who served for 18 years – and who also had a bit of a drinking problem.
18. When Canada was founded in 1867, there were only four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
19. In fact it was not until 1949 that the last province, Newfoundland joined Canada, and that was only after a barely won referendum.
20. Canada also has three Territories: the Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavat, the latter being formed in 1999.
21. The country is extremely ‘big’, the second largest in the world with over 2 million lakes, among other things.
22. But, 75% of Canadians actually live within 100 miles of the U.S.-Canada border.
23. This may be one of the reasons why the U.S.-Canada economic relationship is the largest in the world, estimated to total US$630 billion in 2016 alone.
24. Close to 30,000 trucks cross the border every single day between the two countries.
25. While things are rosy today, it wasn’t always so. During the War of 1812, the Canadas, as the British colonies were known then, went to battle with the U.S., ultimately burning down the White House on August 24, 1814.
26. War was quite frequent back then due to competing French, British, and American ambitions. After fierce fighting, the 1763 Treaty of Paris essentially gave the British control over much of French Canadian land.
27. In addition, one cannot forget that much of Canadian land belonged to the First Nations, who have been marginalized, ostracizied, occupied and colonized throughout much of Canadian history.
28. During Canada’s first years, a group of people called the Metis who were ethnically mixed between First nations and European descent, rose up in rebellion, ultimately establishing a short-lived provisional government in 1870.
29. The leader of that rebellion Louis Riel was ultimately ranked as the 11th Greatest Canadian.
30. That battle was only one of many for the acknowledgement of the rights of First Nations. One of the worst stains on Canadian history was the residential school system that at one point put a third of all First Nations children under the care of the state.
31. Thousands of students died, and many more were subject to emotional, physical, and sexual abuse.
32. While today, people acknowledge some of these aspects of history, the fight is not over. One of the scandals that was a campaign issue for Justin Trudeau, was the plight of up to 4,000 missing or murdered aboriginal women.
33. Canada’s history has not always been one of inclusivity. The Chinese Exclusion or Immigration Act of 1923 effectively banned immigrants of Chinese origin.
34. This was a culmination of violence and protests against immigrants from East and South Asia, including riots in 1907 in Vancouver, British Columbia.
35. Today, whites are expected to become a minority in Vancouver by 2031 (although I suspect this has already happened).
36. 20.6% of Canadians are foreign-born today and 19.1% identify themselves as visible minorities. 3% of the population identifies as Muslim.
37. There are more Sikhs in the Canadian Cabinet than there are in India’s government (4 versus 2).
38. It was not until the 1940s, however, that Sikhs truly received voting rights.
39. Canadian women achieved the right to vote around the same time as women in the U.S. in the late 1910s.
40. Canada also became home to a number of Black Canadians due to the Underground Railroad, although racism has reared its ugly head in Canada as well.
41. While ethnic and racial struggles have been real, so have class struggles. A lot of this culminated in gained labor rights and ultimately universal healthcare.
42. The ‘grandfather’ of universal healthcare was actually New Democratic Party leader Tommy Douglas, who was named the Greatest Canadian in that (in-)famous poll.
43. Tommy Douglas is also the grandfather of prominent Canadian actor Kiefer Sutherland.
44. Kiefer Sutherland’s father is Donald Sutherland, who married Tommy Douglas daughter, prominent public figure, Shirley Douglas.
45. While living in the U.S. Donald Sutherland retained only Canadian citizenship but lost the right to vote due to the Conservative Party’s new laws in 2015.
46. This also led to a rallying cry by then candidate Justin Trudeau, that “A Canadian is a Canadian is a Canadian.”
47. There are almost 3 million Canadians living abroad but many retain a vibrant Canadian identity.
48. For example, the Terry Fox Run, a hallmark of Canada, has been held in over 60 countries by countless millions over the years.
49. Through these runs over $650 million has been raised for cancer research.
50. And it is all inspired by Terry Fox, who ran the Marathon of Hope in 1980 after losing one leg to cancer.
51. He ended his run after reaching 5,373 kilometres over 143 days.
52. Inspired by Terry’s courage, a fellow West Coaster, Rick Hansen embarked on a Man in Motion World Tour for two years in 1985.
53. He criss-crossed 34 countries raising $26 million along the way.
54. It also inspired the song St. Elmo’s Fire, which reached #1 on the Billboard Charts.
55. The best-selling Canadian artist of all time remains Celine Dion, who has sold over 200 million albums worldwide.
56. It appears though that fellow Canadian Justin Bieber may soon beat her on the charts.
57. There are a lot of Canadian singers, that are quite prominent, but they often live abroad, like Bryan Adams.
58. In fact, Bryan Adams and Beverley Hills 90210 star Jason Priestly went to the same high school, Argyle Secondary School in Vancouver.
59. And while Bryan Adams is known for his singing, he once mixed up the lyrics of the Canadian national anthem.
60. The Canadian national anthem, ‘O Canada’, was itself composed in 1880.
61. However, the lyrics of the anthem were originally French and were then translated into English.
62. The final English version emerged two decades later, which remains with us today.
Tread Magazine – July-August 2017 appeared first on Download Free Ebook Magazine Magbook.


          Xbox: The Official Magazine UK – August 2017   

Xbox: The Official Magazine UK – August 2017English | 116 pages | True PDF | 39 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/ub6gdejz8o3c/Xbox_The_Official_Magazine_UK_-_Issue_153_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/7121d52aef6fe7dbf8f29d6b89cd5680/Xbox_The_Official_Magazine_UK_-_Issue_153_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/8D63FC722B74AD3/Xbox_The_Official_Magazine_UK_-_Issue_153_-_August_2017.pdf

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          HomeStyle – August 2017   

HomeStyle – August 2017English | 132 pages | True PDF | 57 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/71zmdyjy3jwg/HomeStyle_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/856c96bdd2a3d6f02372e940b5c21c4b/HomeStyle_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/F8127A7405C4E8D/HomeStyle_-_August_2017.pdf

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          Retro Ford – August 2017   

Retro Ford – August 2017English | 116 pages | True PDF | 43 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/a1q2y17je974/Retro_Ford_-_Issue_137_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/bd9e2104d0af77d53782e77cc9b56006/Retro_Ford_-_Issue_137_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/5A696D0803A3DCF/Retro_Ford_-_Issue_137_-_August_2017.pdf

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          5280 Magazine – July 2017   

5280 Magazine – July 2017English | 244 pages | True PDF | 56 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/i2nwyps2tekt/5280_Magazine_-_July_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/b0f0249f310ab3673caa93012d0fd984/5280_Magazine_-_July_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/FFBFDBAAA1ED0BF/5280_Magazine_-_July_2017.pdf

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          New Scientist – July 1, 2017   

New Scientist – July 1, 2017English | 60 pages | True PDF | 11 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/a4ry4q2t7qmk/New_Scientist_-_July_1_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/9ae1303e9c384a1ef7807da03cf0db9e/New_Scientist_-_July_1_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/8A7E61D8FE11F7E/New_Scientist_-_July_1_2017.pdf

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          Red UK – August 2017   

Red UK – August 2017English | 196 pages | True PDF | 45 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/h88n6w5ogp5f/Red_UK_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/8996e2b8f3ee698c30abd52141cca2b2/Red_UK_-_August_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/178108EFF0CF0EA/Red_UK_-_August_2017.pdf

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          delicious UK – July 2017   

delicious UK – July 2017English | 132 pages | True PDF | 39 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/zu5af8vzvnro/delicious_UK_-_July_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/c1902cfffdc84c23b9585a28e5aa8d5b/delicious_UK_-_July_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/0344B426F2793E4/delicious_UK_-_July_2017.pdf

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          Healthy Food Guide UK – July 2017   

Healthy Food Guide UK – July 2017English | 100 pages | True PDF | 18 MB Download https://www.filenext.com/o51h7wskxlxi/Healthy_Food_Guide_UK_-_July_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://rapidgator.net/file/e30f78b160b5da4a91c32aac40520078/Healthy_Food_Guide_UK_-_July_2017.pdf.htmlorhttp://nitroflare.com/view/182CD701882A834/Healthy_Food_Guide_UK_-_July_2017.pdf

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          Comunicato motivi N° 47CGF (I Sez.) del 03/11/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 047 I SEZ - TESTO DELLA DECISIONE RIUNIONE DEL 1 08 2014 C U 012CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 47CGF (I Sez.) del 03/11/2014 (2)   
12.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 46CGF (I Sez.) del 09/10/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 046 I SEZ - TESTO DELLA DECISIONE RIUNIONE DEL 27 06 2014 C U 338CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 46CGF (I Sez.) del 09/10/2014 (2)   
COM UFF 338 I SEZ DEL 27 06 2014.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 45CGF (I Sez.) del 09/10/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 045 I SEZ - TESTI DELLE DECISIONI RIUNIONE DEL 30 5 2014 C U 311CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 45CGF (I Sez.) del 09/10/2014 (2)   
COM UFF 311 I SEZ DEL 30 5 2014.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 44CGF (I Sez.) del 06/10/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 044 I SEZ - TESTI DELLE DECISIONI RIUNIONE DEL 19 06 2014 C U 334CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 44CGF (I Sez.) del 06/10/2014 (2)   
334.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 43CGF (V Sez.) del 29/09/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 043 V SEZ - TESTO DELLA DECISIONE RIUNIONE DEL 21 7 2014 C U 010CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 43CGF (V Sez.) del 29/09/2014 (2)   
COM UFF 10 V SEZ DEL 21 7 2014.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 42CGF (I Sez.) del 29/09/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 042 I SEZ - TESTI DELLE DECISIONI RIUNIONE DEL 06 06 2014 C U 316CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 42CGF (I Sez.) del 29/09/2014 (2)   
316.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 41CGF (I Sez.) del 26/09/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 041 I SEZ - TESTI DELLE DECISIONI RIUNIONE DEL 16 5 2014 C U 299CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 41CGF (I Sez.) del 26/09/2014 (2)   
299.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 40CGF (I Sez.) del 12/09/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 040 I SEZ - TESTI DELLE DECISIONI RIUNIONE DEL 9 5 2014 C U 282CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 40CGF (I Sez.) del 12/09/2014 (2)   
COM UFF 282 I SEZ DEL 9 5 2014.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 39CGF (I Sez.) del 12/09/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 039 I SEZ - TESTI DELLE DECISIONI RIUNIONE DEL 16 5 2014 C U 299CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 39CGF (I Sez.) del 12/09/2014 (2)   
299.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 38CGF (I Sez.) del 11/09/2014 (1)   
COM UFF 038 I SEZ - TESTI DELLE DECISIONI RIUNIONE DEL 23 5 2014 C U 306CGF.pdf
          Comunicato motivi N° 38CGF (I Sez.) del 11/09/2014 (2)   
COM UFF 306 I SEZ DEL 23 5 2014.pdf
          How to Parse the Kicad Netlist   

Hello,
for those of you who need to import the kicad netlist into another tool (for example boundary scan, ICT; FPT) please find a proposal here: http://www.blunk-electronic.de/pdf/how_to_parse_the_kicad_netlist.pdf
Your feedback is appreciated !


          Your opinion wanted: 74AUC1G74   

Given the recent move to IEC resistor symbols, displacing the more common IEEE (zigzag) resistor symbols, perhaps logic symbols should also be based on the IEC symbols. Datasheets often give the IEC symbol along with the more common non-standard symbol.

74AUP1G74 datasheet

The IEEE logic symbols are also compatible with the IEC symbols.

IEEE Symbols

According to these written standards pins such as PRE and CLR are on the left with the rest of the inputs.


          US Stream Sports posted a status   
US Stream Sports posted a status

          US Stream Sports posted blog posts   
US Stream Sports posted blog posts

          Trump’s Voter Fraud Endgame   

Donald Trump’s attempt at voter suppression through his “election integrity” commission is a voting rights nightmare that is being enacted so clumsily it just might backfire.

Both before and after the election, Trump made wild and unsubstantiated claims about voter fraud and the system being “rigged.” Before the election, many of the claims were about voters voting five, 10, or 15 times by impersonating other voters. The ridiculous and unproven charges of voter suppression had a racial tinge, with suggestions the fraud would happen in majority minority communities. According to the New York Times, he told an audience in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, a few weeks before Election Day: “I just hear such reports about Philadelphia. … I hear these horror shows, and we have to make sure that this election is not stolen from us and is not taken away from us.” He added for emphasis: “Everybody knows what I’m talking about.”

After the election, he shifted his unsubstantiated fraud talk from rumormongering about voter impersonation to claims of massive noncitizen voting. Trump said repeatedly that 3 to 5 million illegal voters had cast ballots, a claim so outlandish it is hard to know where to start to refute it. (We could start with a Brennan Center report which, so far, has found a total of 30 cases nationwide of possible noncitizen voting. That’s 30, not 300, 3,000, 30,000, 300,000, or 3 million.) He claimed that “none” of the supposed fraudulent votes went to him.

In hindsight, the focus on noncitizen voting makes sense, and the endgame is about passing federal legislation to make it harder for people to register and vote. The noncitizen focus fits in with Trump’s anti-immigrant rhetoric as well as the rhetoric of Kris Kobach, the Kansas secretary of state who has been advising Trump on voter fraud issues. Kobach has repeatedly lost in lawsuits against the American Civil Liberties Union on account of his actions to make it harder for people to register and vote. Just last week, a federal magistrate judge fined him $1,000 for misleading the court by attempting to shield a document regarding his advice to Trump on how to make voter registration harder.

Trump has put Kobach in charge of a commission that is supposed to examine problems with voter fraud and report back to the president. (Vice President Mike Pence is the formal head, but it is clear Kobach is the one calling the shots.) Back in January, when Trump announced he would launch an investigation into voter fraud, I laid down some markers here at Slate for what a fair commission would look like. It would have bipartisan elder statesmen heads (like earlier voting commissions); it would have professional staff and rely on people with experience in running and analyzing elections; it would look for areas of bipartisan consensus.

Trump’s commission is none of these things. There is no professional staff, a B-list of token Democrats to give the commission a bipartisan veneer, and the work is being done out of the Executive Office of the President. (Given that Trump is an announced candidate for the next presidential election, he’s hardly a person who can be counted on for a fair and impartial review.)

Most importantly, the commission includes a rogue’s gallery of the country’s worst voter suppressors. Not just Kobach, but former Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell, who was notorious for rejecting Ohio voter registration forms because they were not printed on heavy enough paper. And on Thursday, Trump added Hans von Spakovsky, one of the original leaders of what I termed the Fraudulent Fraud Squad.

Von Spakovsky has a history of making false and unsupported claims of voter fraud, and using them to argue for voting laws that make it harder to register and vote. In one notorious incident, chronicled in an excellent 2012 New Yorker profile by Jane Mayer, von Spakovsky claimed impersonation fraud was a major problem, pointing to a 1982 New York grand jury report. At the time von Spakovsky made the claims, I had been researching the topic of impersonation fraud for my book, The Voting Wars. I couldn’t find a single election anywhere in the United States since the 1980s where impersonation fraud was used to swing an election. (That’s because it is an exceptionally dumb way to try to steal an election: Pay people to go to the polls claiming to be someone else, not know how they voted, hope they don’t get caught by poll workers who may know the people being impersonated, and do it in large enough numbers to swing your candidate from defeat to victory.)

Despite my repeated requests, von Spakovsky would not turn over the grand jury report. When Mayer asked von Spakovsky why he’d refused to give me the document, he told her he was not my “research assistant.” We were finally able to track it down, and it unsurprisingly did not support his case in the slightest.

Kobach, Blackwell, von Spakovsky—this is a list meant to send a message to those who care about voting reform on both sides of the aisle that this is not a serious effort to propose bipartisan solutions. (Indeed, if you want bipartisan solutions, just turn to the 2014 report of the Presidential Commission on Election Administration, which was headed by Mitt Romney’s lawyer Ben Ginsberg and Obama’s lawyer Bob Bauer. But don’t look at the government website which used to host the report—Trump took it down.)

Here’s the likely endgame. Kobach has requested that every state send detailed voter information to the commission. Never mind the privacy concerns or the fact that this intrudes on what the right always refers to as states’ rights to run elections as they see fit. If a left-wing Obama appointee requested this information, it would prompt a federal investigation and be at the top of every Fox News segment for months.

Kobach’s likely going to use this information to try to “match” voters and show there is bloat on the voter rolls, such as dead voters and people who have moved but have not been removed from the rolls. He’ll also likely find a small number of noncitizens who are registered to vote. Doing this kind of matching well is tough business: It is easy to claim that two people with the same name are the same person, or that someone is a felon because he has the same name as a felon. But Kobach will not be relying on election administration professionals to do that work; he’s going to use the president’s staff.

The report will likely conclude that even if there is no evidence of actual voter fraud, the potential for voter fraud and noncitizen voting is there because of inaccurate rolls. Accordingly, they will argue it is necessary to roll back the 1993 National Voter Registration Act (or “motor voter” law)—a law which folks like Kobach hate because among other things it requires states to offer voter registration at public service agencies. They’ll want federal law to do what federal courts have so far forbidden Kobach to do: Require people to produce documentary proof of citizenship before registering to vote. In other words, show us your papers or you can’t register.

Repealing the enfranchising parts of the motor voter law would be a terrible thing, but the good news is that the “electoral integrity” commission’s efforts are already so outlandish and lacking in credibility that it will do nothing to help get the law repealed. Serious Democrats and Republicans know this effort is a sham. This is a faux commission that is not following sound social science or bipartisan principles.

That’s not to say there won’t be an attempt to kill the motor voter law. Indeed, the move toward voter suppression is proceeding apace. Just this week, a House committee voted to defund the United States Election Assistance Commission, a federal agency which is charged with certifying the security of voting machines and coming up with best practices for election administration. And the U.S. Department of Justice is looking to make states enforce the voter purge provisions of the 1993 motor voter law.

But the Trump commission process has been so poorly handled that whatever it concludes will be likely ignored by serious people, even while the president latches onto it to make it harder for people to register and vote. He’s overplayed his hand, and we should be thankful for that.


          RE: [PATCH v2 00/52] irqchip: KVM: Add support for GICv4   
"Shanker Donthineni" writes: (Summary) [1] https://static.docs.arm.com/ihi0069/c/IHI0069C_gic_architecture_specificatio n.pdf [2] http://www.spinics.net/lists/kvm/msg151463.html [3] http://www.spinics.net/lists/kvm/msg151823.html Marc Zyngier (52): genirq: Let irq_set_vcpu_affinity() iterate over hierarchy irqchip/gic-v3: Add redistributor iterator irqchip/gic-v3: Add VLPI/DirectLPI discovery irqchip/gic-v3-its: Move LPI definitions around irqchip/gic-v3-its: Add probing for VLPI properties irqchip/gic-v3-its: Macro-ize its_send_single_command irqchip/gic-v3-its: Implement irq_set_irqchip_state for pending state irqchip/gic-v3-its: Split out property table allocation irqchip/gic-v3-its: Allow use of indirect VCPU tables irqchip/gic-v3-its: Split out pending table allocation irqchip/gic-v3-its: Rework LPI freeing
          New File: "Event Invitations - Amol Chawathe.pdf"   


          The Running of the Bulls Is an Abhorrent, Cruel Practice That Must Stop Now   
It's hard to believe that bulls are still being stabbed to death for entertainment in 2017.

I love an adventure. I've climbed cliffs on Kauai and stripped down to my skivvies to swim in a Mexican cenote. But the challenges that I pursue are a danger only to me. Those who participate in the annual Running of the Bulls can't say the same. Most tourists who travel to Pamplona for the July event suffer from nothing more than a hangover, but the bulls they run with lose their lives.

Few tourists know that at the end of every day's run, the bulls they used to cross an item off their bucket list will be killed in the bullfighting arena.

After slipping and sliding along the cobbled streets as hordes of people brandishing rolled-up newspapers scream at them, the exhausted, confused bulls must fight to the death. Men on horses circle them while repeatedly piercing them with sharp sticks called banderillas until they are dizzy, weakened from blood loss and in agonizing pain. The horses, who are blindfolded, can also sustain serious injuries if they can't avoid a charging bull.

When the bleeding bull is spent and losing the will and strength to charge, the matador (Spanish for "killer") makes his entrance to administer the death blow. In a sickening twist to an already sadistic spectacle, the crowds often cheer as the animal's ears are cut off as "trophies."

But condemnation of this bloody pastime is growing worldwide, and those few people still clinging to it are finding themselves in increasingly empty arenas. In 2007, some 3,651 bullfights were held in Spain, according to figures from its Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. In 2015, that number had declined to 1,736. An online poll by Ipsos MORI last year found that