AGPAHI YAENDESHA KAMPENI YA UPIMAJI VVU KWA WATOTO NA VIJANA HALMASHAURI YA MSALALA NA MANISPAA YA SHINYANGA   

Shirika la Ariel Glaser Pediatric Aids Healthcare Initiative (AGPAHI) linalojihusisha na mapambano dhidi ya Virusi vya Ukimwi (VVU) na Ukimwi nchini Tanzania limeendesha Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na Manispaa ya Shinyanga katika mkoa wa Shinyanga.

Zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana limefanyika Juni 30,2017 na Julai 1,2017 katika zanahati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buluma kata ya Jana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na zanahati ya kijiji cha Galamba katika kata ya Kolandoto katika manispaa ya Shinyanga.

Zaidi ya watoto na vijana 760 walipata fursa ya kupima afya zao.

Akizungumza wakati wa zoezi hilo la upimaji,Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon, alisema kampeni ya Upimaji VVU kwa vijana na watoto yenye kauli mbiu ya “Ijue Afya ya Mwanao” inalenga kuwafikia vijana na watoto wengi zaidi ili kujua afya zao.

“Hili ni zoezi endelevu,AGPAHI kwa kushirikiana na serikali tumekuwa tukipima afya za watoto na vijana na pale inapobainika wamepata maambukizi ya VVU huwa tunawaanzishia huduma ya tiba na matunzo”,alieleza Simon.

“Kupitia kampeni hii tunashirikiana na viongozi wa serikali za mitaa, vijiji na tumekuwa tukiwahamasisha wazazi kuwaleta watoto na vijana ili wapimwe na zoezi hili limekuwa na manufaa makubwa kwani watoto wengi wameletwa na wazazi wao kupima afya zao”,aliongeza.

Naye Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba alisema wameamua kuanzisha kampeni hiyo ili kuwarahisishia wananchi kupata huduma ya kupima VVU kwa hiari katika maeneo ya karibu yao ili waweze kujua afya zao.

“Tunaushukuru mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) kwa kuwezesha kampeni hii",alieleza Dk. Kashumba.

"Tumeanza zoezi hili katika halmashauri hizi mbili na tutaendelea na kampeni katika maeneo mengine kwani lengo la AGPAHI ni kuwafikia watoto na vijana zaidi”,aliongeza Dk. Kashumba.

Kwa Upande wake Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba alisema serikali itaendelea kushirikiana na shirika la AGPAHI katika mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi.

Shirika la AGPAHI linatekeleza shughuli zake katika mikoa ya Shinyanga,Simiyu,Mwanza,Tanga,Geita na Mara kwa ufadhili wa Watu wa Marekani kupitia shirika la Centres for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC),mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) na Shirika la Development Aid From People to People (ADPP - Mozambique).

ANGALIA PICHA ZA MATUKIO WAKATI WA ZOEZI LA UPIMAJI WATOTO NA VIJANA KATIKA KIJIJI CHA BULUMA NA GALAMBA 
Ijumaa Juni 30,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buluma kata ya Jana halmashauri ya wilaya ya Msalala mkoa wa Shinyanga .
Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon akiwaeleza wazazi na walezi walioleta watoto na vijana katika zahanati ya Buluma kuhusu lengo la Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa Watoto na Vijana.
Wazazi,vijana na watoto wakimsikiliza Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simonwakati akitolea ufafanuzi juu ya kampeni ya Upimaji VVU.
Mwenyekiti wa kijiji cha Buluma, Budila Teremka akisisitiza jambo kabla ya zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana halijaanza.
Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba akizungumza kabla ya zoezi la upimaji VVU halijaanza ambapo alilishukuru shirika la AGPAHI katika harakati zake za mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi na kwamba serikali itaendelea kushirikiana nalo katika mapambano hayo.
Mtoa huduma za afya akimtoa damu mtoto ili kumpima kama ana maambukizi ya VVU au la!
Kulia ni mzazi aliyeambatana na watoto wake katika zahanati ya Buluma kwa ajili ya kupima VVU.
Kushoto ni mama aliyekuwa ameambatana na watoto akishuhudia zoezi la upimaji VVU kwa watoto.
Zoezi la upimaji VVU likiendelea.
Mbali na kupima VVU, kulifanyika michezo ya watoto na vijana kama vile kukimbia na yai.Pichani kulia ni Charles Simon akitoa maelekezo kwa washiriki wa shindano la kukimbia na mayai.
Vijana wakikimbia na mayai yaliyowekwa kwenye vijiko.
Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.
Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama,Peter Shimba akiipongeza moja ya familia iliyojitokeza kupima VVU na kubainika kuwa hawana maambukizi ya VVU. Katika zahanati ya Buluma kati ya watoto na vijana 525 waliopimwa VVU,watano pekee walibainika kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.
Jumamosi Julai 1,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Kijiji cha Galamba iliyopo katika kata ya Kolandoto manispaa ya Shinyanga ambapo pia Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana imefanyika.
Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akizungumza wakati wa zoezi la kupima VVU kwa vijana na watoto katika kijiji cha Galamba.
Dk. Kashumba akizungumza na wazazi,vijana na watoto katika zahanati ya Galamba.
Mtoa huduma za afya akimchukua damu mmoja wa vijana kutoka kijiji cha Galamba waliofika kupima VVU.
Vijana na watoto wakisubiri kupima VVU.
Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Rehema Kivuyo akizungumza katika zahanati ya Galamba ambapo vijana na watoto 238 VVU na hakuna aliyepatikana kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.
Michezo nayo ilikuwepo: Pichani ni Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akiongoza vijana katika mchezo wa kukaa kwenye viti.
Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.
Rehema Kivuyo akiwapa zawadi ya mayai vijana walioshinda mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai.
Vijana na watoto wakicheza mchezo wa kukimbiza kuku.

Picha zote na Kadama Malunde-Malunde1 blog

          Tricontinental Conference Fourth Anniversary - Rostgaard 1970   
This simple and playful image by Alfredo Rostgaard uses the revolutionary fighter in three colours to represent the armed struggle for freedom among the three geographic areas represented by OSPAAAL (A, A, A = Asia, Africa and Latin America). The conference was designed to further the aims of a number of communist and socialist countries including Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam and was an annual event in Havana. ospaaal poster mozambique 1969
          Solidarity with the People of Mozambique - Forjans 1969   
Here is a typically vibrant and interesting design from Jesus Forjans using an African doll like figure to represent the traditional, historical nature of Mozambique and the superimposed weapon to symbolise the armed revolution that was going on in 1969. During the 60s and early 70s the country saw an uprising against the Portuguese colonial government by the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front, backed by communist and left leaning counties including Cuba.
Typical of Cuban designs this poster is simple and colourful, using a national symbol to identify the country in terms of its local history in defiance of the ideology of the Portugese-led government of the time. Forjans has used an unusual cartoon-style method for seperating the purple and blue colours using psychedelic floral motifs (detail below), something that is often seen on Cuban silkscreen posters of the time.
ospaaal poster mozambique 1969ospaaal poster mozambique 1969
          AGPAHI YAENDESHA KAMPENI YA UPIMAJI MAAMBUKIZI YA VVU MSALALA NA MANISPAA YA SHINYANGA   

Shirika la Ariel Glaser Pediatric Aids Healthcare Initiative (AGPAHI) linalojihusisha na mapambano dhidi ya Virusi vya Ukimwi (VVU) na Ukimwi nchini Tanzania limeendesha Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na Manispaa ya Shinyanga katika mkoa wa Shinyanga. 

Zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana limefanyika Juni 30,2017 na Julai 1,2017 katika zanahati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buuma kata ya Jana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na zanahati ya kijiji cha Galamba katika kata ya Kolandoto katika manispaa ya Shinyanga.

Zaidi ya watoto na vijana 760 walipata fursa ya kupima afya zao.

Akizungumza wakati wa zoezi hilo la upimaji,Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon, alisema kampeni ya Upimaji VVU kwa vijana na watoto yenye kauli mbiu ya “Ijue Afya ya Mwanao” inalenga kuwafikia vijana na watoto wengi zaidi ili kujua afya zao.

“Hili ni zoezi endelevu,AGPAHI kwa kushirikiana na serikali tumekuwa tukipima afya za watoto na vijana na pale inapobainika wamepata maambukizi ya VVU huwa tunawaanzishia huduma ya tiba na matunzo”,alieleza Simon.

“Kupitia kampeni hii tunashirikiana na viongozi wa serikali za mitaa, vijiji na tumekuwa tukiwahamasisha wazazi kuwaleta watoto na vijana ili wapimwe na zoezi hili limekuwa na manufaa makubwa kwani watoto wengi wameletwa na wazazi wao kupima afya zao”,aliongeza.

Naye Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba alisema wameamua kuanzisha kampeni hiyo ili kuwarahisishia wananchi kupata huduma ya kupima VVU kwa hiari katika maeneo ya karibu yao ili waweze kujua afya zao.

“Tunaushukuru mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) kwa kuwezesha kampeni hii",alieleza Dk. Kashumba.

"Tumeanza zoezi hili katika halmashauri hizi mbili na tutaendelea na kampeni katika maeneo mengine kwani lengo la AGPAHI ni kuwafikia watoto na vijana zaidi”,aliongeza Dk. Kashumba.

Kwa Upande wake Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba alisema serikali itaendelea kushirikiana na shirika la AGPAHI katika mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi.

Shirika la AGPAHI linatekeleza shughuli zake katika mikoa ya Shinyanga,Simiyu,Mwanza,Tanga,Geita na Mara kwa ufadhili wa Watu wa Marekani kupitia shirika la Centres for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC),mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) na Shirika la Development Aid From People to People (ADPP - Mozambique).
Ijumaa Juni 30,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buluma kata ya Jana halmashauri ya wilaya ya Msalala mkoa wa Shinyanga .

Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon akiwaeleza wazazi na walezi walioleta watoto na vijana katika zahanati ya Buluma kuhusu lengo la Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa Watoto na Vijana.

Wazazi,vijana na watoto wakimsikiliza Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simonwakati akitolea ufafanuzi juu ya kampeni ya Upimaji VVU.

Mwenyekiti wa kijiji cha Buluma, Budila Teremka akisisitiza jambo kabla ya zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana halijaanza.

Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba akizungumza kabla ya zoezi la upimaji VVU halijaanza ambapo alilishukuru shirika la AGPAHI katika harakati zake za mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi na kwamba serikali itaendelea kushirikiana nalo katika mapambano hayo.

Mtoa huduma za afya akimtoa damu mtoto ili kumpima kama ana maambukizi ya VVU au la!

Kulia ni mzazi aliyeambatana na watoto wake katika zahanati ya Buluma kwa ajili ya kupima VVU.

Kushoto ni mama aliyekuwa ameambatana na watoto akishuhudia zoezi la upimaji VVU kwa watoto.

Zoezi la upimaji VVU likiendelea.

Mbali na kupima VVU, kulifanyika michezo ya watoto na vijana kama vile kukimbia na yai.Pichani kulia ni Charles Simon akitoa maelekezo kwa washiriki wa shindano la kukimbia na mayai.

Vijana wakikimbia na mayai yaliyowekwa kwenye vijiko.

Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.

Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama,Peter Shimba akiipongeza moja ya familia iliyojitokeza kupima VVU  na kubainika kuwa hawana maambukizi ya VVU. Katika zahanati ya Buluma  kati ya watoto na vijana 525 waliopimwa VVU,watano pekee walibainika kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.

Jumamosi Julai 1,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Kijiji cha Galamba iliyopo katika kata ya Kolandoto manispaa ya Shinyanga ambapo pia Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana imefanyika.

Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akizungumza wakati wa zoezi la kupima VVU kwa vijana na watoto katika kijiji cha Galamba.

Dk. Kashumba akizungumza na wazazi,vijana na watoto katika zahanati ya Galamba.



Mtoa huduma za afya akimchukua damu mmoja wa vijana kutoka kijiji cha Galamba waliofika kupima VVU.

Vijana na watoto wakisubiri kupima VVU.
Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Rehema Kivuyo akizungumza katika zahanati ya Galamba ambapo vijana na watoto 238 VVU na hakuna aliyepatikana kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.

Michezo nayo ilikuwepo: Pichani ni Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akiongoza vijana katika mchezo wa kukaa kwenye viti.

Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.

Rehema Kivuyo akiwapa zawadi ya mayai vijana walioshinda mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai.
Vijana na watoto wakicheza mchezo wa kukimbiza kuku.

Picha zote na Kadama Malunde-Malunde1 blog

           Mozambique audit unlikely to cause ripples    
In the past four years the country has been a hot pot of civil unrest and natural disasters
          Comment on I won’t quit, says Tsvangirai by mama   
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          Re: Maputo Mozambique   
I will be visiting Mozambique soon,possibly in a month's time or 2months. How about more detailed direction of the places where the guys hang around and who to contact to show me around. You can also reach me on:moskhumalo@gmail.com.
          Ilha de Mozambique: un incanto in rovina…   
I Viaggi di Repubblica son stati a Ilha De Mozambique, piccola isola di tre km che fino a fine '800 era capitale del Mozambico, ricca di vestigia architettoniche e spiagge bellissime.Consigliano,...
          Business and Private Diplomacy: A Potential Catalyst for Sustainable Peace   

30 Jun 2017

By Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov for Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP)

The UN has frequently acknowledged that the private sector can function as a powerful agent of change. However, the world body’s preferred partners to resolve conflicts and build peace remain civil society and armed actors. Additionally, the leaders of UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business communities or use their influence to build peace. Well, these practices have to change, argues Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov, both at the multinational and micro-national levels.

This article was originally published by the Geneva Centre for Security Policy in June 2017.

Introduction

A general overview of what the term “private sector” entails will help define the scope of this paper. The private sector can be defined as the part of the economy that is not run by a state, but by individuals and companies for profit. It comprises a large diversity of organisations such as publicly or privately owned companies, including multinational companies (MNCs); organisations owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit such as cooperatives; or organisations that raise funds to operate and are financed by government or intergovernmental organisations or through hybrid business models, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), but excluding non-profit organisations (NPOs).1 When referring to the private sector, this paper will include publicly or privately owned companies, including MNCs, but exclude private military companies. All private sector organisations’ main driving forces can be summed up as a quest for profits, security and reputation.

Because it is multidimensional, the private sector can be classified in many ways. In addition to a classification by sector, businesses can be ranked by size, number of employees, geographical presence, if they are a local business or the subsidiary of an MNC, or are tailored to serve domestic needs or export markets (or both). In a violence-or conflict-affected context each category of business will evolve differently, reinvent itself or disappear.

Key Points

Small businesses/micro-companies serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process because they often constitute the only form of economic activity in a conflict zone.MNCs have a range of options to respond to conflict, but cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding initiatives, and rarely become involved officially. Track Two diplomacy is their more likely area of involvement.The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, the UN still engages only two players in conflict resolution and peacebuilding: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or use its influence to build peace.Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would produce a more formidable force for peace. World affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into a new UN system of governance; new routes are possible for a truly inclusive approach, recognising the business sector’s positive contribution to sustainable peace through informal mediation and collaborative engagement.

A converging definition and shared approach

Size is the most convenient and easily available criterion of classification for private sector companies. In emerging market economies affected by violence or conflict there would be five main categories of private businesses: formal businesses (big companies that are registered with local authorities and pay taxes); semi-formal medium-sized companies (which pay taxes, but are not systematically registered with authorities); small companies (which represent the vast majority of businesses, operate in a dedicated area or office, and are registered with local authorities); micro-companies (which operate from a variety of places such as markets or in the street and pay some form of tax on the temporary location from which they conduct business, such as a market place or handcart); and home workshops (which are mainly to be found in larger cities). Small companies operating from a dedicated or informal area provide more than half of the world’s formal jobs. They are key drivers of economic growth and development, as well as the backbone of a local economy. Among the medium-sized or small private companies mentioned above, government employees might run such small businesses in some countries in order to diversify sources of income or risk, and allow close or even remote family members to make a living.

As violence increases or conflict breaks out, micro-companies and MNCs will be impacted, but never in the same ways or at the same pace. Generally, the private sector will shift from traded to non-traded goods (i.e. goods provided by donors), cut investment, and shift its capital to foreign currency assets and away from its production tools. Commerce and tourism will be the first sectors to contract, followed by manufacturing and construction. This shift will create conditions for an informal economy (which employs 80% of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo/DRC2) as households’ incomes deteriorate and inflation affects official and parallel markets alike. Falls in employment will create falls in domestic savings and greater reliance on external aid. In such environments, agriculture and public administration will often remain the only source of official employment and income. Violence and conflict also change the prosperity equilibrium as individual roles evolve. When men die in conflict, women become responsible for ensuring the community’s survival by starting informal businesses or taking up farming.3

Small players, such as micro-companies, become important: in chaotic times grassroots, local entrepreneurs provide the only goods, services and jobs available in a given conflict zone. They can also make an important contribution to conflict transformation because they maintain their economic influence and local political contacts during the conflict, and thus serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process. So do business associations, because they often also have close links to governments and represent all sides of the conflict.

The Guatemalan experience illustrates the role of business associations. The 36-year civil war in that country was caused by interlinked social, economic and political factors, “specifically ideological differences embedded in the global political struggle of the Cold War”.Initially, the Guatemalan private sector was not a fervent supporter of the peace negotiations. The overall intensity of the war was low and geographically contained in mountainous areas, and the sectors that were most affected by the conflict were limited to tourism and the coffee industry. Negotiations with all stakeholders, including business, started on a very positive note. However, because of tensions between factions within the association representing the private sector, Comité Coordinador de Asociaciones Agricolas, Comerciales, Industriales y Financieras (CACIF), it refused to meet rebel groups, demanding instead an immediate ceasefire. Interestingly, the coffee industry did not embrace peace talks, because the peace process was associated with economic reform, while the tourism sector, too weak to lobby, was absent from the process. This tends to support the idea that different groups within the business sector are more or less willing or able to support mediation or a peace process.

At the other end of the size spectrum lie MNCs. They account for two-thirds of world trade and can be defined as large corporations incorporated in one country, implementing a consistent multinational response among their various subsidiaries. Their global number is estimated at 80,000, with 840,000 subsidiaries across the world, representing 75,000,000 employees. During the 1950s and 1960s host governments rarely intervened in the affairs of MNCs. Nowadays, these large companies are more flexible and more responsive to their host governments’ demands. But not all MNCs follow the same strategy, and some will sacrifice market participation to preserve strategic autonomy. “There can be no growth in an environment where there is no peace”, says Unilever boss Paul Polman, insisting that business “can and must be a force for good5”. The “corporate coalition” backing Peace One Day – including Skype, McKinsey, Ocado, Innocent, Coca-Cola and Burger King – is a start, but certainly not what corporations do best.6 Instead, they could engage in discussions on good governance and obstacles to peace.

An MNC subsidiary faces complex governance challenges in the wake of violence or conflict. It is controlled by its parent company, which is often based outside the region or country; this company bears the ultimate responsibility for the group’s worldwide strategic direction. The affiliate or subsidiary is expected to support the overall objectives of its group, contributing to its brand and matters of corporate priority such as Western-led concepts like corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is a first possible gap between the subsidiary of a MNC and its host country. Understanding often diminishes and misunderstandings widen as violence increases in the country hosting the subsidiary, due to the distance between the centre of power (company headquarters) and the local affiliate.

Going Beyond CSR; or, the limitations of policies

Recent literature7 has explored how MNCs are expected to contribute to peace and security in the absence of public or government capacity to fulfil this role. Most of those who participated in this research (through individual phone interviews or plenary sessions) were communications directors, CSR managers, and line and business managers from MNCs’ subsidiaries. Many respondents seemed to ignore the role their employer could or did play in peace and security. This might be because CSR involves voluntary self-commitments focusing mainly on the environment, health care, education or security. The role of business in conflict is rarely addressed in this context, either because the CSR agenda needs to be broadened or because businesses are indeed active in issues related to the conflict, but it is not considered part of CSR. This constitutes a second gap in the corporate governance of MNCs: local CSR is part of a more global CSR strategy and is often managed as an extension of local public affairs, public relations or marketing efforts. In order to offer any sense of how MNCs’ subsidiaries can have an impact on peace and security, further research is needed from the business point of view involving risk managers, chief financial officers, and members of the executive board in charge of audit and control committees.

Research by swisspeace focused on Swiss MNCs and how they engage in peace efforts.8 The paper in question is based on interviews with CSR managers from the MNCs’ head offices and focuses on their knowledge of their companies’ contribution to peacebuilding. The data covers eight to ten Swiss companies from various sectors. Most CSR managers appear to be unaware of the ways in which they could engage in peace processes or what role they could play. As the authors suggest, this might be because peacemaking or conflict transformation “is not linked to the business case”.9 Other explanations also come to mind. Firstly, involvement in a political process can only result from an informal individual initiative, not as part of a formal representation of the company, and strictly on a confidential basis, which means no public relations communications – in fact, no communication whatsoever. Secondly, the lack of institutional trust between civil society or advocacy NGOs and the private sector is so heightened that such high-level strategic information will be considered only on a need-to-know basis. The CSR manager will deal with philanthropic initiatives to improve the environment or help local communities, as well as manage advocacy NGOs or research foundations. CSR or security managers might not be involved in all formal or informal contacts between a local business manager and strategic stakeholders.

The review of existing grey research covering CSR managers in MNC subsidiaries and MNC headquarters demonstrates that there is an obvious need for more research in the area of violence and conflict resolution in terms of risk management. As a result, the issue of the relationship between business and peace might be more one of board policy or operational strategy, and therefore falls beyond CSR.

Take a positive peace perspective

When an MNC considers suspending its activities due to violence or conflict, the result is an important depletion of local knowledge – and an increase in risk for the local population and local business alike, because of outsourced goods and services. The immediate consequence of an MNC’s withdrawal or shutdown is undesirable from a local employment perspective: selling a subsidiary to a competitor might appear more desirable, but not if the new owner recognises fewer rights for employees and local communities (human rights, labour rights, development rights, social and economic rights).

Acting truly locally is a strategic challenge for global MNCs. Some are able to act like local businesses.10They employ local people, thus contributing to social mixing, and support those who wish to start their own businesses. This strategy maintains a certain level of economic normality in times of violence or conflict – and prepares for future peace. This can also be achieved by an MNC subsidiary maintaining local infrastructure such as transport, or temporarily covering basic health and social services. In all these examples the private sector can compensate for temporary state shortcomings or the total collapse of state-supplied services.

But in the absence of a mandate to participate in peace settlements, the private sector might resolve to consider its bottom line rather than its humanitarian impact, and shut down or sell its operations, despite adverse local consequences. In Nepal, for instance, the economic stagnation that marked the period following the end of civil war in 2006 was caused by the withdrawal of Indian MNCs that supported the Nepalese economy, and clearly hindered political and social stability.

It might be of interest to consider what strategies the private sector – MNCs and local businesses alike – can chose in a context of violence or conflict. Firstly, it can decide to take advantage of the economics of war and grow its business. Secondly, it can conduct business as usual, under local regulation or the absence of it, either because it cannot withdraw (e.g. a local business), or because violence is not affecting its operations. Thirdly, it can withdraw from the conflict zone and disengage. Fourthly, it can decide to engage proactively and contribute to public security.

From a positive peace perspective, business can foster economic development, support an emerging or existing legal system, and nourish a sense of community. It does not, however, consider the provision of assistance to local communities as a political act, but as tangible ways of reducing its operational costs. In matters of general strategy or corporate policy, CSR is considered as part of operations, while supporting peace or conflict resolution is the exclusive prerogative of the local or international political domain. In practice, the difference between CSR and working for peace and stability follows a very fine line, and is more of a corporate philosophy than an entrenched position. Businesses are committed to avoiding conflict as best they can. But as outsiders in a host country they must remain neutral: actively negotiating between warring parties cannot be part of their licence to operate. Business therefore cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding activities.

Because of the reputational and security risks involved in participating in peace mediation processes, companies rarely become involved officially, and if they do, it is with the utmost confidentiality and discretion. If the private sector contributes to conflict transformation efforts – for instance, through good offices or by supporting higher national interests – it is often on condition that its non-core contribution remains secret. If its contribution is publicised, its licence to operate and the safety of its staff, operations or infrastructure on the ground might be at risk. This need for discretion – for security or competitive advantage – is certainly one of the reasons why business’s engagement in peacebuilding or conflict mediation as a facilitator or information intermediary is rarely properly investigated or publicised. Short-term political ambitions only contribute to business’s caution when publicising any involvement in conflict prevention or resolution.

In terms of ‘economic’ peacebuilding, the private sector is encouraged to use its direct economic influence to promote peace. In terms of so-called ‘political’ peacebuilding, the private sector participates in initiatives such as ‘policy dialogues’ with local stakeholders. According to International Alert,11 this more political form of engagement includes participating in truth and reconciliation commissions; supporting weapons hand-ins; providing capacity-building support for local government, including judicial and police forces; supporting initiatives to attract foreign investment; and helping the local private sector build capacity and governance systems.

In a number of cases the private sector has decided to act as an agent of prevention in order to mitigate violence. One example is the campaign led by the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and its 100,000 members following the 2008 electoral violence in that country. This violence caused major disruptions to the Kenyan tourism, tea and flower industries: exports fell by up to 40% in some areas of the country, while tourist inflows decreased by more than a third and job losses increased dramatically. The private sector decided to embark on a five-year corporate campaign to prevent possible violence ahead of the 2013 elections. Many initiatives were conducted, including a communication and training campaign in cooperation with civil society organisations, interfaith groups, developmental partners and the media. KEPSA is also reported to have supported legislative advocacy to tackle the causes of poverty in Kenyan society, lobbied key politicians to commit to peaceful elections, and pressured members of the media to avoid inflammatory content in their publications. Mobile operators also took steps to prevent their networks from being used to disseminate political hate speech. This local perspective on conflict transformation remains an important avenue for further research.

Business’s motivations to remain in violence- or conflict-affected zones

Assuming it has the possibility to leave a violent or conflict area, a company might still decide to remain in an unstable environment for four main reasons. Firstly, it might still be able to make a profit: costs related to the conflict do not outweigh the income the business can generate. While ensuring income for both the company and its local staff, the company thus contributes to preserving some kind of economic normality for local communities. Heineken, the Dutch brewer founded in 1864, imported its first beer into Africa in 1900. It is now present in 23 African countries. The current CEO, Jean-François van Boxmeer, worked in Rwanda in the early 1990s. He then moved to the DRC, where he helped to deal with the refugee crisis that followed the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

Among the refugees were many of Heineken’s Rwandan employees and their families. As general manager of Bralima, Heineken’s DRC subsidiary, Van Boxmeer decided the company would help his former Rwandan employees, offering shelter and basic income. This meant that the company’s resources would go to humanitarian aid rather than running the company. But it was the only possible decision, Van Boxmeer says: “The larger the company, the larger the stakes. But you have a social contract. It’s one of the crucial elements for a leader to remember and live by.”12

Secondly, if the company represents the interests of a foreign state, it might need to balance the evolution of the relationship between its home country and its host government with regard to the conflict; this relationship will have an impact on its dealings with local authorities and its host government. It might not be in a position to balance the risk/opportunity equation, but the company will remain in the country for the purposes of its home government’s national interest. Total is one of the major world oil companies, and the French government has a 15% stake in it (down from 34% in 1992). Active in Burma/Myanmar since 1992, the company’s investments in the country are guaranteed by the French government through Coface (Compagnie française d’assurance pour le commerce extérieur). Over time, Total expanded its direct investments to become the largest foreign investor in Burma after all the major MNCs left the country following boycotts. In 2002 a case was filed against Total in Brussels by four Myanmar refugees for alleged complicity in violations of human rights in the course of the construction and operation of the Yadana Gas Pipeline. Belgian authorities dropped the case in 2008.13

Thirdly, the business might simply ‘hold the market’ and secure future resources or interests, as part of a long-term business strategy in the sector or region, and as mandated by its shareholders. And, finally, the company might decide to keep its operation active in a conflict zone to gain critical learning experience and ultimately improve the way in which it operates. When he sent the French army into Mali in 2013 to deal with an insurrection in the north of the country, President Hollande recommended that French citizens should leave the country, but hardly any left. In 2010, 60 French-owned subsidiaries and companies were in Mali, mainly in Bamako. These companies were active in mining (Vinci and Bouygues via subsidiaries), banks (BNP Paribas), telecoms (Alcatel-Lucent), transport (Air France), etc. Most of them considered that if security measures were put in place early, it was possible to continue working in near-normality; for instance, to limit travel and risk, employees could move into and live in the work site. Security procedures were submitted to the local French embassy for its future evacuation plans.

Some businesses are considered better peacebuilders than others, partly because of their exit options or the amount of capital invested. Extractive industries have few options in conflict-affected areas and require high investments over decades, but they also have powerful incentives to contribute to peace. Despite this economic stimulus, the extractive industry is often criticised for continuing to work in conflict-affected areas, while industries like tourism or telecoms are regarded as better suited to peacebuilding activities.

Engaging Business in Private Diplomacy

Would world affairs benefit from integrating the private sector into a clear UN mandate or as part of a new system of governance engaging traditional and new parties to multilateral diplomacy? First and foremost, business needs to recognise that conflicts provoke many emotions, “which in turn play a crucial role in the evolution of conflict”.14 If greed and grievance are the main sources of conflict, then government and business might very well share responsibility for a conflict. Poverty, social inequality, unemployment or divided identity politics fuel conflict, particularly when accompanied by illegal behaviour on the part of governments – through corruption or illegitimate private wealth accumulation, or when divisive political leaders plant the seeds of ethnic conflict. But this can also be the case when companies indulge in illegal or irresponsible behaviour.

Governments’ interests have always gone beyond their national borders, leading to foreign conquests and in many cases causing massacres and atrocities. These conquests were mostly conducted through either direct or indirect engagement. The private sector also contributed to these conquests, with the blessing of states, for better or worse, working with governments to export alleged liberalisation and democratisation. An example of direct military engagement is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A more recent example of indirect engagement is when Nasdaq-listed companies were sent as emissaries to Iran in 201315.

Because of the perceived shortcomings of governments and their political agendas, as well as business’s considered failure to act responsibly, new actors have entered conflict-resolution or mediation efforts: the Crisis Management Initiative, the Carter Center’s Conflict Resolution Programme, the United States Institute of Peace and the Geneva-based Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. These private organisations actively participate on behalf of governments in Track Two diplomacy (as part of unofficial government diplomacy), but also increasingly in Track One (official government) diplomacy initiatives, exploring new channels or contacts when the official lines of communication and negotiation have broken down. Their lack of a political mandate is recognised by all parties to mediation processes and is a welcome development in a peace market that has suffered from the presence of actors who promote peace, democracy and human rights, but do not strictly abide by the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence. Mediators themselves mention the relevance of business actors in the two diplomacy tracks and the increasing importance of business actors as economic actors and facilitators in fragile states: “local business actors may have more leverage within track 2 processes than as part of a large internationally peace mediation process.”16 From the mediator’s point of view, “it is of little relevance whether (the business) becomes engaged in a peace process for personal business interests or for more altruistic interests in peace”.17

The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, in real life the UN still considers two actors to be relevant in conflict resolution and peacebuilding processes: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. Peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or to help regulate their impact on peace, including in countries where the UN Security Council (UNSC) has imposed trade sanctions. This (voluntary?) decision by the UN and UNSC not to work with pro-peace businesses indicates a wider institutional pattern: “It is irresponsible of UN practice to ... overlook the way in which these actors might help – or hinder – near and long-term conflict transformation.”18 Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would probably produce a more formidable force for peace.

The only reference to business being consulted can be found in the December 2005 founding mandate of the UN Peace Building Commission (PBC); since then, neither the PBC annual session reports nor working papers for 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 mention encouraging the possibility of engaging with business in any peace process – with the exception of local business, which is merely reminded of its duty to pay taxes ...! One might consider that this is because business is publicity shy on topics it considers to be of political relevance. Or it might be because business has simply not wished to be actively involved in any PBC activities. The truth lies certainly somewhere between the PBC not knowing how to engage business and business not wishing to be seen as active in what it perceives to be part of the political arena. However, since perceptions effectively constitute reality, the PBC seems to be missing out on the engagement of an important stakeholder, while business is guilty of not supporting the peace efforts of intergovernmental organisations.

The feeling is that economic transformation might exclusively be the responsibility of policymakers. The absence of the private sector in the so-called inclusive approach to peacebuilding and the absence of engagement with businesses to generate improvements represent at best an omission and at worse ignorance on what important stakeholders can potentially contribute to building peace. As things stand today, except in communication and fund-raising events, the private sector is not considered as a sound partner in peace processes. There is hardly any formal record either in UNSC mandates or UN peace operations (MONUSCO, UNOCI, UNMISS, etc.) of consulting with commercial entities such as trade professionals, purchasers, suppliers or commercial agents. UN entities only address regulatory issues through civil society monitoring. The UNSC engages states to take the necessary measures to deal with natural resources-related conflicts and invites international financial institutions to contribute to establishing regulatory governance: it does not consult on, engage with or regulate this process, and does not deal with the issue directly.

Should the UNSC adopt a wider mandate, no doubt responsible companies active in natural resources would support conflict transformation efforts in post-conflict areas, but without an “exceptional transitional business regulatory role”.19 Business could also proactively initiate networks and engage actors or trade associations in the post-conflict business sector to adopt responsible peace-related business self-regulation.

Responsible leadership

A case can be made for a new kind of responsible leadership to support integrated and comprehensive peace processes through mediation. Through a collective, cooperative approach, the underlying causes of conflict could be addressed; such an approach would include companies, NGOs, labour organisations, and local and national governments. This approach might take time to set up and implement, but it would bring hope to and positive developments for all parties involved:

It will be argued that the factors affecting the issue are not within the control of companies – it is a matter for government. Or it will be claimed that the issue is not as widespread as suggested and that things are not really so bad. Or that it would require industry-wide effort to have an impact. Companies, like NGOs, are human organisations and they suffer from the natural conservatism of all human organisations – they like to carry on doing what they have been doing successfully for years and tend to resist any change to a smoothly running system.20

Understanding possible informal engagements among political actors, mediators and business, as well as the role of each industry within the economy, must be explored in order to influence the overall process. One of the most successful ways in which business can support peace has been through trade associations, including businesspeople from both sides of the conflict. Mediators praise their direct or indirect, pragmatic, economics-focused, bridge-builder approach21 and consider that it is relevant to include business actors, depending on the context or the stage of the mediation process: early in the process as part of formal Track One initiatives or on their own initiative in a Track Two or Track Three process; during the negotiation phase, using their knowledge of economic development, trade or employment; and/or during the implementation phase, for instance by providing suitable jobs to former combatants, thus providing them with gainful options other than armed violence, or hiring people from all sides of the conflict, thus contributing to breaking down stereotypes and biases.22

Facilitating informal, off-the-record talks between mediators and businesses is also a route that needs to be systematically explored. The inspiration for these informal/briefing talks between business and mediators is as much about rebuilding trust as building knowledge and understanding on both sides. For instance, the private sector was successfully involved at the Track One level in the recent successful negotiation process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), playing an important informal role throughout these negotiations. Some businesspeople were even members of the negotiation team. The government, the FARC and the business sector themselves welcomed the private sector’s engagement: “Business leaders held off-the-record meetings of multi-sectorial groups in order to generate space for developing personal relationships.”23 Members of the business sector sponsored and were involved in public demonstrations and activities to protest against the conflict and lobbied on numerous public occasions for a peaceful settlement. Business representatives also established contact with an imprisoned leader of the other main Colombian armed opposition group, the National Liberation Army, “leading to the signing of a goodwill accord pledging the parties to seek a solution to the Colombian crisis”.24

The first major work on business-based conflict transformation is less than 20 years old.25 The World Bank has found that the first thing that must be dealt with after the restoration of peace and the examination of various fundamental social issues is the question of establishing a framework for restoring business.26 The past decade has seen an increase in initiatives to address a possible multi-stakeholder approach to conflict transformation, including MNCs and local businesses.27 On the basis of these principles, further initiatives have been launched such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles on MNCs and the International Bill of Human Rights of the International Finance Corporation, which is the World Bank’s lending arm.

But the debate is still largely dominated by policy built on examples of businesses sustaining and fuelling violent conflict – largely reported by civil society and raised as banners to condemn all businesses indiscriminately. Corporate-bashing (or brand-bashing) - as NGO-bashing - are probably not the most promising strategies to achieve inclusive dialogue. A new type of engagement is needed to avoid the institutionalisation of business models such as Greenpeace’s28, which replicate bipolar models of good versus evil. The misinterpretation of how companies perceive a peace process has, for instance, led to the publication of some negatively oriented guidance for corporate engagement in conflict transformation, i.e. “good corporate practice is about negative peace and what companies should not do”.29 There is nevertheless a growing interest in constructive ways of including companies in conflict management and peace support, recognising what business has achieved as well as understanding business’s perspectives on the potential and limits of corporate engagement.

In “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Process”,30 swisspeace identifies 14 case studies where private sector efforts complemented those of the public and civil society sectors. These were in Colombia, Cyprus, the DRC, El Salvador, Guatemala, Aceh/Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, Northern Ireland, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Sudan. There is an obvious need for more research from the business perspective, and particularly on the governance of MNCs and the role that MNCs’ local subsidiaries can play in violence prevention and conflict resolution.

Conclusion

This paper has focused on cases where the private sector supported private and/or multilateral diplomacy. Such cases indicate that building trust and engaging both traditional and new parties to peace talks might allow a better understanding of a conflict resolution and peacebuilding process and improve cooperation. The paper also explored ways in which world affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into peacebuilding and suggested routes for a truly inclusive approach to advance peace processes.

A successful peace agreement often brings peace dividends. Liberia’s economy grew at an annual rate of 11% after peace was achieved, South Africa is still one of Africa’s most advanced economies, Aceh has become a source of economic and political innovation for its region, Mozambique has experienced an average growth of 7% (except for 2013 and 2014), and Northern Ireland experienced economic growth of 3.2% in 2005, almost twice as much as the United Kingdom as a whole. But the international community has also engaged in a number of unsuccessful attempts to build sustainable peace in war-stricken areas/ countries such as Bougainville (2001), Liberia (2003), and Sudan and South Sudan (2005). Despite comprehensive peace agreements and going through the same path of security building, governance building and transitional justice as successful peacemaking efforts, all these areas/ countries experienced outbreaks of instability and violence, in particular during elections.

Less than half of the peace agreements referred to above included an economic dimension in their settlement:31 there was no mention of reinvigorating post-war economies, no ways of supporting the reconstruction of a local private sector, no plans to revive a war-torn society, and no reference to economic reforms. If state‐building must rightly remain an internally driven process, economic recovery remains a turning point between success and failure in peacebuilding, because failure retards development and holds back foreign investment. Surely it is time for comprehensive peace agreements to become truly comprehensive and include the private sector as one of the most important sources of the widespread economic empowerment that is needed to mitigate the effects of conflict and violence?

Notes

1 An NGO, also known as a civil society organisation, is a non-governmental organisation even though its funding might be provided by a government. An NPO uses its extra funds for the purposes of the organisation, rather than dividing it among the shareholders and owners of the organisation. Examples of NPOs are universities, trade unions or charitable organisations. However, an NPO might operate in conjunction with a government.  

2 TDRP (Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program), “5 Democratic Republic of Congo”, in Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal Economies, December 2011, p.31, http://www.tdrp.net/ PDFs/Informal_Economies_Dec2011-5.pdf

3 C. Samba-Panza, interim president of the Central African Republic, “The Central African Republic: ‘Land of Wealth and Opportunity’”, transcript of her speech during the handover ceremony to President-elect Faustin-Archange Touadéra, 30 March 2016, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/ speech/2016/03/30/the-central-african-republic-is-a-land-of-wealth-and-opportunity

4 E. Jonas, “The Role of the Private Business Sector in Peace Negotiations: Lessons from Guatemala”, Sicherheit und Frieden/ Security and Peace, Vol.4, 2007.  

5 O. Balch, “Businesses have a role promoting peace in conflict zones”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www. theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/sep/22/businesses-role-promoting-peace-conflict-zones-drc-palestine  

6 J. Hatcher, “Goma Peace Concert Criticised for Overshadowing DR Congo’s Grim Reality”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/sep/23/goma-peace-concert-dr-congo-jude-law  

7 See D. Jamali, R, Mirshak, “Business-Conflict Linkages: Revisiting MNCs, CSR, and Conflict”, Journal of Business Ethics (2010) 93:443–464; A. Graf & A. Iff, “Conflict-Sensitive Business; Review of Instruments and Guidelines”, swisspeace, January 2013  

8 A. Iff, R. Alluri and S. Hellmüller, “The Positive Contributions of Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace”, swisspeace Working Paper 2/2012, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/ user_upload/Media/Publications/WP2_2012.pdf

9 Ibid., p.15, quoting L. Zandvliet, “Conflict Transformation and the Corporate Agenda – Opportunities for Synergy”, in B. Austin, M. Fischer and H.J. Giessmann (eds), Advancing Conflict Transformation. The Berghof Handbook II, Opladen/Framington Hills, Barbara Budrich, p.360.  

10 What managers can do strategically depends on where they are located. National influences limit corporate behaviour in important ways.  

11 J. Banfield, C. Gündüz and N. Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace: The Peacebuilding Potential of the Domestic Private Sector, London, International Alert, 2006.

12 P. Vanham, “How Heineken’s CEO Went from Congo to the Company’s Top Spot”, LinkedIn, 22 July 2015, https://www. linkedin.com/pulse/how-did-heinekens-ceo-go-from-congo-global-peter-vanham

13 Business and Human Rights Resource Center, “Total Lawsuit in Belgium (re Myanmar)”, 2014, https://business-humanrights. org/en/total-lawsuit-in-belgium-re-myanmar  

14 G. Carbonnier, Humanitarian Economics: War, Disaster and the Global Aid Market, London, Hirst, pp.30-32.

15 General Motors traveled to Iran on this occasion, drafting contracts for the resumption of GM’s activities In Iran. To ensure US success, President Obama signed the Executive Order Act 13645 on 3 June. This presidential decree sanctioned any foreign entity that sold or supplied parts or services to the Iranian automobile sector but did not prohibit the supply of vehicles. Renault being the main foreign operator with 90,000 cars produced in 2012, the US decree clearly targeted France. Furthermore, United Against Nuclear Iran summoned Carlos Ghosn, the boss of Renault, to withdraw from Iran under penalty of American sanctions (G. Malbrunot, “En Iran, l’offensive discrète des entreprises américaines”, Le Figaro, 4 October 2013)  

16 A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.24, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/ Media/Publications/WP2_2010.pdf

17 swisspeace/CS ETH Zurich, “Peace Mediation Essentials: Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, December 2010, p. 2, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Topics/ Mediation/Resources/Peace_Mediation_Essentials_Business_ Actors.pdf  

18 J. Ford, Regulating Business for Peace: The United Nations, the Private Sector, and Post-conflict Recovery, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015.  

20 M. Moody-Stuart, Responsible Leadership: Lessons from the Front Line of Sustainability and Ethics, Oxford, Greenleaf, 2014, p.36.

21 swisspeace/CS ETH, Peace Mediation Essentials, p.8.

22 Ibid., p.12.  

23 A. Rettberg, “Local Business’ Role in Formal Peace Negotiations”, in Banfield, Gündüz and Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace, p.51.

24 A. Rettberg, 2007, p. 486 in A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.16, http://www. swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Publications/ WP2_2010.pdf

25 J. Nelson, The Business of Peace: The Private Sector as a Partner in Conflict Prevention and Resolution, London, Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, International Alert and Council on Economic Priorities, 2000.

26 J.-D. Wolfensohn, Statement during a special session on the role of business in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, UN Security Council, 15 April 2004, http://siteresources.worldbank. org/INTCPR/214578-1112884026494/20482671/Role+of+WB+in+Conflict+and+Development.pdf

27 J. Ruggie and T. Nelson, Human Rights and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: Normative Innovations and Implementation Challenges, Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, Working Paper No. 66, May 2015, p.5. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/ index.php/content/download/76202/1711396/version/1/file/ workingpaper66.pdf

28 See the Greenpeace campaign against Timberland in J. Swartz, “Standing up to 65,000 Angry Activists”, Harvard Business Review, September 2010; and W.M. Hoffman, R.E. Frederick and M. Schwartz (eds), Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in Corporate Morality, Chichester, John Wiley, 2014).

29 A. Iff, “What Guides Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace?” in A. Pigrau and M. Prandi (eds), Companies in Conflict Situations, Barcelona, International Catalan Institute for Peace, pp.153-78.

30 Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers?”, pp.16-19.  

31 UN Development Programme and Crisis Management Initiative, “Peace Processes and Statebuilding”, in J.-K. Westendorf (ed.), Why Peace Processes Fail: Negotiating Insecurity after Civil War, Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 2015, p.17.  

About the Author

Misha Nagelmackers-Voïnov is a member of Woodz Public Affairs and an Executive-Fellow-in-Residence with Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP


          "He walked into the hospital grounds surrounded by bodyguards. He consulted a doctor for about two hours and then left, presumably for the flight back to Mozambique." - Robyn Baard   
"He walked into the hospital grounds surrounded by bodyguards. He consulted a doctor for about two hours and then left, presumably for the flight back to Mozambique." - Robyn Baard
          CAF Ligue des Champions : L’Etoile du Sahel à un point de la qualif’   

L’Etoile Sportive du Sahel disputera cet après-midi au Mozambique son match pour le compte de la cinquième journée de la phase des poules de la CAF Ligue des Champions. Les […]

Lire l'article CAF Ligue des Champions : L’Etoile du Sahel à un point de la qualif’ sur Africa Top Sports.


          EVOLUTION OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS:    

1912 ANC founded. 1949 Program of Action, including nonviolent civil disobedience, starts. 1953 Civil disobedience. Discontinued when South African government passed law providing stiff penalties for those who break even minor laws. 1959 All-black Pan-African Congress (PAC) forms in protest of ANC's multiracial membership. March 1960: Nationwide passive resistance demonstrations. 69 killed at Sharpeville. South Africa declares state of emergency. April 8, 1960: ANC, declared illegal, goes underground. Dec. 1961: ANC leader Nelson Mandela forms military wing of the ANC. The group begins its sabotage campaign. 1963 South African police find underground ANC headquarters in Johannesburg suburb of Rivonia. 1964 Mandela convicted at Rivonia trial and is given a life sentence. 1976 African riot in Soweto against forced use of Afrikaans language in school curriculum. Thousands of school-age children flee South Africa; many link up with ANC forces outside the country. June 1980: Bombing of Sasol, South Africa's oil-from-coal refinery. August 1981: Rocket attack on Voortrekkerhoogte, Pretoria, center of country's military establishment. Dec. 9, 1982: South Africa, in retaliation for alleged ANC sabotage staged from bases in Lesotho, attacks ANC residences in Lesotho capital of Maseru. 40 killed. Dec. 18, 1982: Bombing of South Africa's only nuclear power station at Koeberg, outside Cape Town. May 20, 1983: Car bomb explodes outside Air Force Headquarters, Pretoria. 17 killed, more than 200 injured in worst sabotage incident in South African history. May 23, 1983: South Africa retaliates with air strike against suspected ANC targets in Mozambique's capital. 6 killed, more than 20 wounded. June 9, 1983: Three ANC members charged with attacking police stations hanged.

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          Tour Guide - AMANDLA FAMILY EXPRESS TOURS - Marble Hall, North West 0458   
please be able to travel the following countries if you apply for this job,Namibia,zimbabwe,mozambique,botswana,zambia,south africa,kenya,malawi and tanzania R20 000 a month
From Indeed - Thu, 29 Jun 2017 10:23:46 GMT - View all Marble Hall, North West 0458 jobs
          Comment on Govt, banks row over 99-year leases by nelson moyo   
rukudzo - Mozambique is a "basket case" of a country altogether. It has virtually no commercial agriculture - farming is largely subsistence only. Try and learn the difference between that and commercial farming. Sadly without proper title to an asset banks will not lend to someone who has no assets. Mozambique is insolvent itself by the way. This is the first rule of capitalism - the only person who gave something away without work was Jesus with the fishes - so the story goes !
          The Man from Beijing by Henning Mankell   

January 2006. In the Swedish hamlet of Hesjövallen, nineteen people have been massacred. The only clue is a red ribbon found at the scene. Judge Birgitta Roslin has particular reason to be shocked: Her grandparents, the Andréns, are among the victims, and Birgitta soon learns that an Andrén family in Nevada has also been murdered. She then discovers the nineteenth-century diary of an Andrén ancestor—a gang master on the American transcontinental railway—that describes brutal treatment of Chinese slave workers. The police insist that only a lunatic could have committed the Hesjövallen murders, but Birgitta is determined to uncover what she now suspects is a more complicated truth. The investigation leads to the highest echelons of power in present-day Beijing, and to Zimbabwe and Mozambique. But the narrative also takes us back 150 years into the depths of the slave trade between China and the United States—a history that will ensnare Birgitta as she draws ever closer to solving the Hesjövallen murders. Download EPUB     Mirror

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          TGIH   
Thank God I'm Home.

There was a terrible chapa (mini-bus) accident in Gaza province yesterday that injured three volunteers and killed two others.  One of the volunteers that died was going to fill my position teaching biology in the Chimundo secondary school.

It's so tragic, I can hardly believe it.  It's just sickening that in Mozambique, car accidents kill more people than AIDS and malaria combined.  I am grateful to have made it home safely, and almost feel guilty that this happened to the young woman that was going to replace me, that she was robbed of that experience and the innumerable others that happen throughout a lifetime.  I ask that you keep these volunteers and their families in your thoughts and/or prayers.

Much love, and happy holidays.

          Isn't It Pretty to Think So?   
At last, here we are; Erica and I are in Maputo, on our way up and out. Our National Science Fair was a success, my beach vacation with my brother and sister-in-law was delightful, and my last trimester disappeared in a haze of grades and goodbyes. Everything is unraveling and wrapping up, and it’s all a bit overwhelming. As it should be—I am leaving behind two years of teaching, bucket baths, latrines, Portuguese, malaria prophylaxis, unbearable heat, and unforgettable events, taking with me my memories, my souvenirs, my remembrances, my extensive capulana collection, and my… favorite clothing. (After all, I wasn’t planning on coming all the way to Mozambique and looking like a die-hard hiker/camper/REI model for two years.)


To respond to the yet-unasked question that I’m certain to hear, I can’t say that this experience has necessarily changed me, but instead, it’s made certain beliefs and characteristics stronger, like the single frown line inherited from my father that has been etched deeper by the African sun. I can probably say that I’ve become more myself, as we are all wont to do with time, and yet looking at the experiences that tie together all humanity, African, American, Asian, or Australian, I imagine I’ve also become more like everyone else. Which is just fine with me; for the most part, I’d say I’m in good company.


          The End Has No End   
The final trimester has begun! Summer is coming around again and Mozambique is slowly warming up. I'm making packing lists and getting things ready for the next volunteer. Everything in our lives is leading up to our homecoming in another two months. We will be leaving Mozambique in the third week of October and I should hopefully be home just before my 26th birthday. Words can't express how happy I will be to be home for my birthday; the prospect of spending three birthdays in Mozambique was dreary at best. After spending a weekend with family, I'm flying back to NYC to spend a week with Erica, where we'll pamper ourselves, get haircuts and buy new clothes that aren't threadbare from handwashing. These efforts will be preemptive actions to prevent hearing, "You were in the Peace Corps? I could see that."
We have a few more events to squeeze in before saying our goodbyes. I finally made it back to Namaacha to visit my host family this weekend, which was nice. Our first ever National Science Fair will take place in Beira in another week, and things are finally coming together. It will be nice to have an opportunity to make it up to central Mozambique, because with our teaching schedules, we haven't done as much traveling in Mozambique as we'd hoped (this country is huge, and I haven't made it past the southern region since training). My brother and sister-in-law will come to Mozambique in September, and I am thrilled to have one last beach vacation before heading home, especially since Erica and I were sick and didn't get to do any traveling during our week-long trimester break. Hopefully we'll get together with our nearby PCVs for one last get-together in Xai-Xai, and then we'll be packing up our things and our animals, homeward bound!
Thankfully, I think I can say that I'll be leaving Mozambique with few regrets; I wish I would have taken more pictures of my colleagues and students during the first year, I regret not eating more mangoes during the last mango season (neighborhood kids stole all of ours), I wish I would've practiced violin more often, I regret not writing letters this year (postage prices tripled), and I would have liked to spend more time with some PCV friends, particularly those that are already stateside. But, c'est la vie, assím é a vida. So it goes. On the flip side, I learned how to play guitar, did some drawing and painting, baked a cake every Wednesday, read 57 books (and counting), made several pieces of clothing by hand, and formed rewarding relationships with colleagues, neighbors, and students. After two years here, I think that's a respectable assessment.

Things I am looking forward to at home (in no particular order):
  • hot showers and baths
  • cheese and milk
  • ice cream!
  • not feeling like I've narrowly escaped disaster every time I step out of a motor vehicle
  • white Christmas
  • celebrating holidays with friends and family
  • Target
  • coffee
  • public radio
  • fun restaurants
  • snack food, granola bars, and breakfast cereal
  • not having a trail of children asking me for candy and money when I leave the house
  • not having a group of children hollering for candy and crayons when I'm in the house
  • punctuality and accountability
  • playing piano (and on occasion, the accordion)
  • having more than two friends nearby
  • leaving the house past 6 PM
  • having things to do past 6 PM
  • not needing to do sweeping cockroach extermination on a regular basis
  • watching media on something other than a 10-inch laptop screen
Little things I'll miss:
  • the occasional lost chicken that waltzes into the house and sets the dogs into a frenzy
  • walking through the beautiful, underdeveloped matu for 40 minutes every day on my way to and from school
  • the vibrant colors--rust sand, sky blue, verdant fruit trees
  • having ample free time
  • feeling comfortable with silence and utter inactivity
  • fresh papaya, mango, passionfruit, pineapple, tangerines, oranges, coconuts, and... all of the other yummy fruits that don't even have names in English
  • brushing my teeth under the stars every night
    And here's a brief look back, a few pictures from the last few months that fill in some of the gaps:  my boyfriend serenading Erica and the dogs on her birthday (he doesn't actually play the guitar); my students tearing it up with a cultural dance; a woman in the market selling papayas the size of basketballs; Erica cooking by headlamp on a night with no electricity (my headlamp bit the dust--I unfortunately dropped it in the latrine); my Geração Biz students performing their theater piece; three of my students who dropped by for a visit.



              My Extraterrestrial Mozambique   
    Suddenly, I have just three months left in Mozambique, and I once again have to borrow from Kurt Vonnegut, once again from Slaughterhouse-Five, to best describe the feeling. This passage comes from the extraterrestrials’ description of their reading experiences, and aside from the context, it relates pretty well to how I feel while looking back at my time here.

    … There isn’t any particular relationship between all the messages, except that the author has chosen them carefully, so that, when seen all at once, they produce an image of life that is beautiful and surprising and deep. There is no beginning, no middle, no end, no suspense, no moral, no causes, no effects. What we love in our books are the depths of many marvelous moments seen all at one time.
     
    I’ve been feeling nostalgic for the last two weeks, caught in a wash of moments and memories. I am typically awakened from my reverie either by an inquisitive cockroach edging towards my glass or by a small neighbor child hollering for candy or crayons in a shrill voice at our door. So while I am seeing my time in Mozambique slip away, day by day, part of me is also racing towards my imminent return home. I’ve learned and enjoyed many things here, but I’m looking forward to going home and feeling like a whole person again, a fully-functioning member of society, back in the comfort of my familiar cultural context, back in the company of family and friends.

    Things are going just fine here. The second trimester is wrapping up—the exams have been given, the averages have been calculated, and we’ll have our conselhos in another two weeks. We’ll have our provincial science fair this weekend and start planning for the national fair, coming up on its heels in August. My Geração Biz students have been presenting at school events and will do their theater pieces and lectures during their biology lessons next week. When we’re not doing something with our projects or schoolwork, we’re typically just trying to keep warm—this winter has been downright chilly! Fifty degrees Fahrenheit feels much colder when it’s damp and windy and there’s no insulation or heating. I’m going to be in for a brutal shock when I face the first Midwestern winter in 3 years. Good thing I’ll be too busy soaking up everything America to notice.

              Glimpses of the Glittering First World   
    With just four months to go, there is a light at the end of this “dark continent” proverbial tunnel.  (I must say, I think that’s a terrible nickname for Africa, and only appropriate in reference to the widespread lack of electricity and light pollution.)  This light is the beacon of reliable electricity, heralding my return to the developed world.  Throughout these two years, there have been days that Erica and I have thought this experience would never end, and that we’d be suffering with our cockroach infestation in Mozambique forever.  There have been other days, eating tropical fruits and basking in the sun’s rays on one idyllic beach or another, that I’ve wished the days to lengthen and multiply.  But although I’ve toyed with the idea, I’ve never considered extending my service another year; I started my Peace Corps application 47 months ago now, and it’s time for something new.
    So as we lesson-plan, grade tests, organize Science Fair events, visit our up-and-running cultural center, and try to keep the cockroach population under control, we make plans for the future, and the focal point of our plans is entrance into graduate school.  We are in South Africa right now for Erica to take the GRE and both of us are reveling in the luxury of fast, reliable internet and delighting in the ease of obtaining graduate school information that is otherwise a headache to access in Mozambique.  I will be applying to Master’s of Public Health programs, getting my degree in the environmental sciences and global health departments.  In the future, I’d like to work with issues of water supply and sanitation in developing countries.  I am pretty darn excited.  Water quality and availability have interested me since my junior semester abroad in Asia, and my experiences in Mozambique have turned that passing interest into a passion, after spending days without water where I forego a much-needed evening bath, turn a blind eye to a basin full of dirty dishes, and plan a dinner that would involve frying instead of boiling or steaming to conserve water.  As far as I’m concerned, running water is the best thing since sliced bread (so to speak).  And potable running water—well, that’s just too much for words.  So, I’m narrowing down my school choices, working on my Statement of Purpose, and trying to figure out how to best execute the application process when I am always in Chimundo, the Chibuto suburb where you can’t even buy bread, let alone get online.  It’s a work in progress (my applications and Chimundo).

              The Overbos do Barra   
    In the dead of the second trimester, Erica and I had a little shining ray of light in the form of visitors from home. Four of my cousins came to visit with a friend of theirs, and we made plans to meet them in Maputo and then spend a few days at the beach. Naturally, things never go quite as smoothly as they could or should. First of all, my cousins had reserved rooms via the internet, and the receptionist had no record of this and no room for all of us, and evidently no need to be courteous or helpful (to be expected in Mozambique). So when my first cousin arrived early, we switched hotels. The next day, I spent an hour at the airport waiting for them, worrying they were being interrogated or were left stranded in South Africa. Someone mentioned that there was a group in the room for international arrivals, but it was a group of Chinese men—definitely not my cousins. As it turned out, the four of them had taken an earlier flight and had checked into the original hotel, and they’d already arranged a taxi for the next morning, so after tracking them down at that hotel, I was wildly relieved to find that my family had safely made it. Unfortunately, we all felt a little stress the next AM, when we arrived at the hostel where the bus would pick us up and did not see the last four members of our group. I tried to ask another traveler if I could quickly use the hostel computer he was using to look up the phone number for their hotel, but he looked at me as if I were absolutely crazy and after a brief pause, gave me a resolute “no.” OK. Thankfully, there was a phone book lying out, so I called the hotel and asked if my cousins were still there. The receptionist said the taxi had left almost an hour earlier and had taken them to the junta. I think I have omitted descriptions of the junta from earlier posts, so let me quickly explain what the junta is and why those ominous words struck fear into my heart. The junta is the Maputo bus stop where you can get onto a mini-bus that will take you almost anywhere in the country. At any given moment, this lot is filled with 20 or more buses and scores of people milling about, trying to sell you things or get you onto their taxi. It is crowded, smelly, and a little dangerous, particularly for foreigners, and is probably one of the last places on earth you want to be at 5:00 in the morning. I was horrified. Our bus arrived shortly thereafter, and I explained the situation to our driver, asking if he could call a driver at the junta. I told him I was looking for a group of four white people, two men and two women. He punched in a number, said a few words, and handed me the phone. I heard my cousin Renee’s voice on the other end of the line; of course, in Mozambique, you can quickly identify a group of lost-looking foreigners with minimal effort. It’s a rapid process of elimination. Our bus dropped by the junta to pick up my family and a few other passengers to pack the bus to capacity (or past, depending on who you ask). So our collective nightmare ended, and seven hours later we arrived at our resort, cramped, exhausted, and excited. I think this is best summed up in pictures, so here it is.





    It was awesome, and my cousin Joshua uploaded a bunch of gorgeous photos on Facebook that do more justice to the experience.  We also went on an ocean safari and weaved between jellyfish to keep up with whale sharks. They were beautiful, and large. One sort of snuck up behind me and gave me a small heart-attack; they are harmless to humans, but their mouths are still a good two-and-a-half feet wide, so I easily imagined myself getting stuck in there and did double-time to try to maintain the recommended three-meter distance between myself and the inquisitive shark.  Plus, that shark dorsal fin is just plain scary, even on a vegetarian fish.  Aside from our animal encounters, we did some shopping, were beach bums for several hours, and went on a sunset catamaran ride on our last evening. It was delightful.
    We rented a chapa to take us back to Maputo so people could have more space, and it dropped us off at the door to our hotel, where I’d reserved two large rooms for us. Unfortunately, they didn’t actually reserve them for us and gave them to other guests, and I spent the better part of an hour frantically calling ten or more hotels, looking for accommodation for seven people at 4:00 on a Saturday night. It was unpleasant and unsuccessful, and I longingly dreamed of home, the land where the customer is always right. A guest at our hotel saw our troubles, took pity on us, and gave us a number to a hotel where she’d stayed. Miracle of miracles, it was the only hotel that cost less than $400 a night that had room for all of us. We dropped off our things and went out for our last dinner together. It was sad to feel our vacation ending, but after some of our Maputo misadventures, I don’t know how much more vacation we could actually handle. Erica and I had breakfast with our group the next morning, said our goodbyes (mine a little tearful, I have to admit), and hopped on a chapa back to Chibuto. Now we’re back in school, working on our projects, and counting down until our next break. Every trip, we learn something from a new crisis, so if anybody else is still planning on visiting (you know who you are), maybe by then we’ll have perfected the formula and will have a karma payback with a smooth, trouble-free trip. Maybe. If not, well, it will be an adventure.  One can always count on that here.

              March´s Pocket Full of Mumbles   
    Erica and me with students at a ceremony to commemorate Mozambique´s first president, Samora Machel.


    Kids helping us with the messy task of de-feathering chickens.

    Our new sitemate!

    January drag-g-ged along, and I somehow suddenly found myself in the middle of March. February came and went, and was a transient month in general: we went to Maputo for several days to have our mid-service medical check-ups (clean bill of health, no parasites that I know of) and our friend from Cape Town came to visit us for a few days. This visit coincided with a two chickens leaving their lives, ones we had purchased, butchered, and de-feathered with the help of our empregada for a tasty little dinner festa. My fan went out, a victim of certain dogs who like to chew on electrical wires. And my internet phone left my life, lifted on a chapa in Maputo. It’s almost as if with just 28 days, February is an unanswered question, lacking those last few days to punctuate the month and let it form any solid conclusions (aside from the obvious conclusion that any electronics I own in Mozambique will inevitably be stolen or broken). Mozambique is an excellent study in time and its passing. Too bad I don’t have any Proust lying around.

    In the theme of comings-and-goings, I suppose I could say that March came in like a lamb, since it was ever-so-slightly-cooler for a few evenings, but those happy dreams of an early winter died as the mercury rose, and March is going out like a lion, devouring us in an unfortunate heat wave. We fled to Xai-xai for a day trip one weekend with our sitemate Vivienne and her visiting boyfriend; we cooled off in the water, bought souvenirs on the beach, and ate oysters. It was a nice day. One of our Mozambican friends just bought a car, so we’re hoping to hitch a ride with him to the beach sometime again in the near future, because it sure beats hopping aboard an overstuffed, overheated chapa, and Chibuto is an insufferable oven in this infernal heat.

    School is going well. Since I’m teaching the same material as last year, I have minimal lesson-planning to do, and I have a much better grasp on how to use my classroom time. That is to say, I have realized that my students absorb precious little from the two 45-minute lessons we have each week and study less, so I teach fewer concepts and pack more practice problems into their short lessons. Classroom management has also drastically improved, thanks in part to the classes’ daily behavior grade, which I dramatically erase and re-write based on my whims and their noise levels. It’s still exhausting, with larger classes of 60-70 students this year and an inconvenient schedule that leaves me little time to run into Chibuto for internet and errands, but I’m enjoying it more. Also, we have a new director, and having new leadership is motivating other teachers to shape up a little and actually show up for class, thereby minimizing the chaos of hundreds of students running around school in the mid-afternoon. That’s always a plus.

    Science Fair is starting, and since Erica and I are coordinating the project on the national level (Erica as President, me as Financial Coordinator), we are taking the backseat for our local and provincial fairs and having our colleagues plan and facilitate the meetings and fair events. Erica’s school has had volunteers and Science Fairs for the past several years, so there’s no good reason for us to get suckered into doing it when other people actually have more experience with it and would rather just sit back and watch us work. This frees up more time for me to work with Geração Biz, a Mozambican peer-education health program. A few of my more charismatic, energetic students have started coming, which has contributed to a good group dynamic, and we’ve settled on a regular schedule. They are studying the reproductive system and have learned Duck, Duck, Goose, among other things, and I’m overall very pleased with them. We’ll have a training for them in April, and hopefully afterwards they can begin planning presentations and skits to present to their peers. With Science Fair and the ongoing development of our local Cultural Center (slowly, slowly taking shape), Geração Biz is by far my favorite project and what I will be most proud of accomplishing outside of the classroom when I leave.

    Now that we’re well into 2011, Erica and I are beginning to think about the end of our time in Mozambique. We are planning when we will go home (early-mid November, hopefully?), how we will get there (renting a personal chapa to Maputo for us and our homeward bound animals), what we will do when we get there (crash in the Big Apple for a few days), and what we will do in the long run (be impoverished grad students). I’ve become interested in public health for the last few years, in water sanitation and availability in particular, and am looking into different programs and thinking about where I would like to be and where I’d like to study. It’s bizarre, because with the never-ending application process, the unexpected year delay, and the idle transition months, applying for and finally joining the Peace Corps has been the saga of almost the last four years of my life, and all of a sudden, the end is in sight. “The end” is still seven and a half months away, but in the context of the last 45 months, it’s definitely approaching. I’m really ready for the next chapter in my life, but if I’ve learned anything in these last few years, it’s been to enjoy where I’m at and not wish away my time. After all, that’s the stuff life’s made of.


              Vacay, Part Deux   
    With another two weeks ahead of me before classes would start, of course I couldn’t just go back to Chibuto after my family left. What a colossal waste of a perfectly good travel opportunity that would be! So I booked a spot on an overnight bus to Joburg and a cheap airplane ticket to Cape Town, where I would meet Erica and her dad. I met a kind young couple along the way who recommended a neat hostel in Cape Town and, after swapping contact info, pointed me in the right direction. I had a day to get acquainted with our snazzy hostel and most importantly, its pool, as the day I arrived was Cape Town’s hottest summer day yet. Once the hottest part of the afternoon had passed, I wandered in and out of shops on Cape Town’s bustling Long Street, window-shopping, buying things I hadn’t intended to buy, spending money I hadn’t intended to spend, and generally having a good time. I even found a funky hipster restaurant to have a gourmet veggie burger—imagine that! Oh, the delights of the sparkly, shiny developed world. Back at the hostel, I met fellow travelers and was reunited with Erica and her dad later that evening.
    The next day, we took off for the Cape of Good Hope with a new friend from the hostel. Along the way, we stopped to see penguins at the aptly named Penguin Beach and drove past baboons in the road (no namesake beach). It was a gorgeous drive, taking us past bluffs, the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, ostriches, and yet more baboons. Since Erica’s dad was suffering from back pain, we three youngsters went out the next morning to hike up Table Mountain. For being a tourist attraction, I have to say, it was a pretty strenuous hike; although being from the Great Plains, I suppose I have a natural tendency toward laziness when it comes to hills and mountains and various slopes. Erica and I forgot to stretch out and felt that hike for days to come, but it was well worth it, and we even rewarded ourselves with slushies at the end of it all. We spent the afternoon recuperating by the pool, eating tropical fruits: mangos, bananas, grapes, papaya, grenadilla, and prickly pear. Later that evening, we went out to eat at a restaurant where the three meat-eaters of our party of four tried ostrich steak, crocodile, and warthog ribs (delicious). Day 2 in Cape Town, summed up: broke a sweat, ate like a king, slept like a log. I love vacation, and oh, do I love the developed world.
    Since we had to eventually drive the rental car back to Joburg, we were crunched for time, so the next day, we left Cape Town to spend a day in the surrounding Winelands. We tasted wine at three vineyards and had a gourmet picnic by the river. We arrived at the last vineyard too late for Erica and I to take its rowboats onto the nearby pond, but considering the low alcohol tolerance we exhibited, it was probably for the best. Skipping stones was much less risky activity. That evening, we barbecued at the hostel, enjoyed the wine we’d bought, passed around the hostel guitar, and shared stories. And I tried my very best not to think of the imminent end of our time in South Africa and the upcoming school year, ever-looming closer. I was more-or-less successful.
    We said goodbye to our friend the next day and began our two-day road trip back to Joburg. In Joburg, we took advantage of the last luxuries the developed world could offer us: fun restaurants, shopping malls, movie theaters, coffee, laundry, television, and internet. Sigh. We said goodbye to Erica’s dad, and later that evening, said goodbye to South Africa. So many goodbyes, but what naturally follows every goodbye is a hello—Hello Mozambique!
    Now we’re back home, starting the new school year. Of course, the schedules for my school weren’t ready on time, so I’ll start teaching next week. As much as I’ve been dreading going back to work, part of me is excited to start a fresh school year. I start this year knowing more about the culture of my school, knowing my colleagues and students better, knowing more about how to be an effective teacher, and knowing more Portuguese. While I now lack the excitement of the unknown that I experienced at this time last year, it will be a pleasure to work feeling more confident about how things work and how I fit into that system.  I may be a cog in the system, but I'm an American cog, and it's good to know maybe not exactly what that entails, but what I can do with it.

              An Old Long Since, and One Year to Go   
    Should old acquaintance be forgot,
    and never brought to mind?
    Should old acquaintance be forgot,
    and auld lang syne?

    For auld lang syne, my dear,
    for auld lang syne,
    we'll take a cup of kindness yet,
    for auld lang syne.

    Over the last few weeks, I got to enjoy the company of some of my oldest acquaintances:  family.  Erica, her sister, and I went to Johannesburg to meet their dad and my mother and sister so we could enjoy our sub-Saharan holidays together.  Unfortunately, their dad's flight had a stop in London and was cancelled due to the "storm" that swept through Europe (note the North Dakotan scorn over the application of that word to two inches of snow), but we met up with their dad just a few days later, in time to drive through the beautiful Blyde River Canyon and to move on to Kruger National Park.
    During our two days in Kruger, we successfully spotted the "big five" from the safety and comfort of our rental van:  lion, leopard, elephant, rhinocerous, and the unexpected fifth, the buffalo.  Other notable viewings included vultures, giraffes, dung beetles, hornbills (the Lion King bird), warthogs, baboons, and approximately 644 impalas (yes, I counted).  Once we'd had our fill of wildlife adventures, we drove to Komatipoort, where our families enjoyed a relaxing Christmas at a small B&B.
    On the 26th, Mom, Anna, and I said goodbye to Erica's family and left for Mozambique.  Our bus incidentally left for Mozambique without picking us up, but one frantic phone call and one overpriced private ride later, we were ushered across the nearby border and onto our idling bus.  In my opinion, adventure-filled Africa wouldn't be the same if everything worked out just as it should.  The three of us spent a day shopping in Maputo and then took the 4 AM bus to Tofo, where we enjoyed two days of blue skies, white sand, and warm ocean water.  Our Ocean Safari was definitely action-packed; we swam with schools of brightly colored fish, we spotted dolphins, and Anna suffered a small head wound.  Here's the quick sum-up:  the story involves getting a "small" cut that later turned out to be not-so-small, getting a hurried ride to the soon-to-close-clinic in the neighboring city from an artist friend of mine, nearly running over pedestrians who "are afraid of rain, but not cars," banging on the clinic door when it closed one minute early, and getting excellent care from the gracious staff who stayed half an hour past closing to give Anna stitches.  This was how we spent our last evening in Tofo--again, I think life would be awfully drab without these unexpected adventures.
    Up to this point, we had traveled by rental car in South Africa and had taken a nice charter bus from Maputo to Tofo. Unfortunately, these nice charter buses have limited routes, so to get back to Chibuto, Anna and Mom got to experience the delightful chapa, the minibus that is crammed to capacity and then half again. Chapas generally are filled with warm bodies, crying children, and oftentimes, chickens. We arrived back in Chibuto feeling slightly cramped but without incident and took a quick walk to my school with the dogs, meeting various friends and neighbors.
    Since Chibuto is essentially a baking sandy oven without a beach, we took a day trip to Xai-xai the following morning. Aside from a brief wedding procession (a common occurrence on Xai-xai beach), the beach was quiet and largely unoccupied all morning. Although Xai-xai doesn’t have the fine, white sand of Tofo, it’s still a lovely beach, and the water is a bit cooler and more refreshing. We enjoyed lunch on the beach and went into town to buy capulanas and have a beer with a friend of mine, a colleague from school.
    We returned to Chibuto for New Year’s Eve, and after having their fill of bucket baths, latrines, and unfortunately, cockroaches (their trip coincided with a sudden infestation during our absence), we took our last chapa to Maputo on New Year’s Day and stayed with Anna’s friend Erica and her family for a few days. We did a little more shopping, a little more wandering, and after a whirlwind trip, Mom and Anna were off again, this time not by chapa, but by plane, back home to the states. After making tracks around sub-Saharan Africa, it was time to head halfway across the world, homeward bound, as I will do in just 10 months’ time.

              No Proselytizing in Pão, Please   
    Classes are done! Maybe that does not accurately convey my immense excitement and enthusiasm—classes are OVER! Fim! Finito! Done-zo! And that makes me so-oo happy. After classes ended, we had a week to prepare students’ grades, copy them onto the various official documents, and decide who would and would not pass. Within the last two trimesters, the national stipulations for passing students changed not just once, but two times, so within one school year, we have had three different systems for passing students into the next grade. Need I say that this week of grades was more than a little confusing and messy? Well, it was. Because students fail many disciplines, but instead of making their classes easier to pass, most teachers assign grades, balk at the number of failing students, and tweak grades after writing them in ink in all of the grade sheets. This is tedious, stressful, and fraudulent work, and when the national passing criteria changed for the second time after the week of doing grades, most teachers did more artful erasing and re-inking in the official documents to help students pass. But what is to be done? The education system here is broken, in my honest opinion, with regulations that change on a whim and don’t really match up. For example, with the newest stipulations, students don’t pass into the next grade if they fail design, agriculture, and physical education. Yet officially, they can pass with failing grades in math, the sciences, and the humanities. So without talking to other teachers, I would have had only four students in my class of 40 pass into ninth grade. In the end, 15 students passed—a whopping 37.5% of my class. And as a result, because my school is fairly new and repeatedly fails its eighth graders, it has almost 1000 eighth graders, while only 500 students have trickled into ninth grade, and 300 have squeaked by into tenth grade. It almost makes me want to be a teacher in the United States for a year or two, just to be able to compare the education systems. Almost... but after this, I think I will be a little burned out on teaching for a while.

    The work in school is not yet done, however. Currently, the tenth graders are taking national exams. These exams are taken very seriously, with all students in Mozambique taking the same tests on the same day at the same time. The tests arrive in sealed packets, which are opened in every classroom at the exact moment when the bell rings. Yet these elaborate anti-cheating measures are nullified when teachers responsible for controlling the exams and responding to questions simply give out answers. All I can say is, ridiculous. Again, this system is broken, and I don’t see anything changing anytime soon without major, major reform. I’m trying not to lay it on too thick, but this is the reality.

    On a lighter note, Erica and I are fleeing Mozambique and these wretched exams to go to Lesotho tomorrow for a three-day pony trek. It could not be better timing for us, as we are both sick to death of school. There will be a second round of national exams in a few weeks, but this trip will give our bodies a break from the heat and give us the boost we need to keep going and not be viciously bitter towards our poor colleagues in the weeks to come. Once December hits, we’re in the clear; we’ll have family coming and will do some traveling around Mozambique and South Africa, hitting the beaches and visiting Kruger National Park to see lions and tigers and bears, oh my! (Although I’m not so sure South Africa has bears, but you get the picture.)

    Meanwhile, in Chibuto and outside of school, things are good. We’re having a small fence built for the dogs so they won’t chase and eat our neighbors’ chickens while unsupervised during our vacation. We just gave our house an interior makeover, throwing out tons of junk left by previous PCVs and even fashioning a couch out of my old mattress. With the temperature rising daily, there is the purchase of a fan in my near future. It’s been a long but good year, and we’re trying to exercise some control over a few small things in our life to close this year on a positive note and carry us into the next year. With that, I leave you with these pictures: me and Erica on my birthday (note the lovely mural left by a previous PCV) and a sandwich menu that features the most delightfully terrible English translation I’ve encountered in Mozambique. When things get rough, we toast simple.

              Winter that Refuses to Fall Gently into Summer   
    August and September have been topsy-turvy months. August brought the start of the final trimester and a string of canine-related incidents, while September brought the regional Science Fair and the dreaded arrival of summer heat. I’m holding out for October, which brings the end of classes, Halloween, and most importantly, my birthday. But first, here’s a rundown of August and this half of September.
    One Saturday afternoon, Erica and I were walking to a nearby shop and suddenly heard a dog yelping as we passed an empty lot. We looked over and saw a group of young boys beating a stray puppy that was hanging upside down from a tree, tied from its back two legs. We immediately began furiously scolding the children, and set out to find a knife to cut down the unfortunate creature. Within a minute of reaching the safe ground, it died. Erica wisely tried using the incident as a teaching moment to tell these boys that even if the puppy was causing problems and stealing food, there are better ways to cull animals. The boys laughed amongst themselves as we walked away. When peoples’ lives are so difficult here, why worry about a dog?
    That same day, our own puppy Shingove became listless and lost interest in food. He soon stopped eating altogether and was quickly reduced to a shaking frame of skin and bones. Erica’s family called several times with different tips and information, so with this guidance, we nursed our sick li’l pup back to health, giving him human medicine and food with a dropper and keeping him hydrated. Come Sunday, he was back to our romping, mischievous Shingove that attacks us as we do exercises; Monday morning, a neighbor girl came to our kitchen window to say that a car had hit our dog. Not just hit, completely ran over our dog with a velocity that should be illegal in a small neighborhood. The bizarre mix of foreshadowing and irony was almost too much, and it was certainly too much for a Monday morning.
    On top of the dog drama, someone stole our shampoo, face wash, sponge, and razors out of our bathroom. And one slightly-off man started coming to the school to jabber English gibberish at me, while another slightly-off man started coming to the house to jabber Portuguese gibberish at us. Evidently, we are magnets not only for canine disaster, but also for theft and mentally instable individuals. Cool.
    Yet just as I was beginning to slide into a jaded, pessimistic funk, a friend gave us a replacement puppy, and although it didn’t leave much time for the death of Shingove to stop smarting, our new puppy, Havu (Shangana for “monkey”), is adorable and oh-so-affectionate. One would think I’d learn to stop being so attached to cute puppies, but what’s the use? Why fight it?
    Science Fair should have happened during the last weekend of August, but due to a few days of unrest for rising fuel and food prices in Maputo and other larger cities, we were forced to push it back a week. (Thankfully, there were no notable demonstrations in Chibuto, so aside from a brief travel ban and fluctuation in bread prices, we were unaffected.) In the date change, we lost the opportunity to have a sound system and one of our guest speakers, but everything else went pretty smoothly. Projects ranged from making electronic doorbells and motorized cars to making coconut oil to making juice… from a package. While that last one was a bit of a stretch, we were happy to have so many participants—50 or so students from around 15 schools in Maputo and Gaza Provinces. This is nothing by American standards, but in Mozambique, nothing is as easy as it seems it should be, and nearly everything that could go wrong often does, so it was a small miracle we pulled it off. Although we were absolutely exhausted afterwards, it was worth it.
    As September slides downhill into October, I’m trying to get a few students mobilized to do some health presentations at school, and Erica has projects of her own at her school. We’re planning our final lessons; I’m in the midst of the reproductive system, and it is just amazing to me how students never tire of saying “vagina,” which by the way is Portuguese for (you guessed it) “vagina.” Even after classes end, we’ll have several weeks of grading national exams and the odious task of writing thousands of grades by hand that will extend into December. But since we have family coming in December and a possible venture into Lesotho in November, and since we are volunteers after all, Erica and I will be able to get out of some of it. Because volunteers without volition make for unhappy PCVs.
    I hope those of you back home are enjoying the fall colors and brisk air for me. Once it gets hotter here and cooler there, I’ll see what I can do about sending some of our heat your way. There’s more than enough around here.


              Sun and Honey Time   
    Looking back at the second trimester and trying to enjoy the last free moments of my break before the inevitable lesson planning, this seems like a good time to type up a new blog post and consequently aid my procrastination.
    Good news—though there is still no trace of anything lost in my robbery, a violin has come back into my life!  By crazy coincidence, a nearby volunteer had brought a violin in intending to learn how to play it, but since she’s been busy lately, she kindly lent it to me.  With so many aspects of my life being different here in Mozambique, I can’t even describe how nice it is to practice and feel a continuity with something that’s been a major presence throughout most of my life.  All I can say is, it’s nice.
    Our modest science fair was a success.  We had our doubts when we arrived and didn’t see another soul for another hour, but that’s just the way things go in Mozambique; eventually, the participants and other facilitators showed up, and everything ran according to schedule (adding an hour, of course).  Only one student actually conducted an experiment—the others did demonstrations that involved fire, chemicals, and melting plastic bottles—but we were just glad they participated and didn’t start the school on fire.  We’re working on organizing the regional fair, and thankfully have the help of an acquaintance working in the Ministry of Science and Technology.  He is very enthusiastic about the project and has been an invaluable help.  It works out well, because although science fair began as a Peace Corps initiative a few years ago, now that we have involvement of an individual in the government, hopefully in the future we can pass it off and it will remain a sustainable, autonomous program.
    My trimester wrapped up a little early because I spent a week in Maputo at a Peace Corps conference to help plan learning objectives and sessions for next year’s trainees.  Afterwards, I was back in Chibuto for a few days to prepare my turma’s grades for conselhos, but [oh, darn!] had to miss the actual conselhos for another Peace Corps conference in Inhambane Province.  Erica and I were pretty thrilled about that timing.  We spent three days in sessions discussing project planning with local counterparts, which hopefully will have productive results; my counterpart and I discussed a model agriculture training for teenage orphans in the community and we may actually implement it.  We’ll see…!
    When the conference ended last Sunday, Erica and I were ideally located in beautiful, coastal Inhambane for our week-long break from school, so we trekked over to nearby Barra with a few other friends.  We had intended to stay for a night or two and then move on to Tofo and then meander home, but after landing on the beach and later meeting up with a group of fun, hospitable South Africans, we ended up staying for five nights.  We had a great vacation—swimming, buying colorful capulana clothing on the beach (capulanas are the colorful, multi-purpose lengths of cloth that women use as skirts or to tie babies to their backs, etc.), body-surfing (which I am terrible at), and good eating, thanks to the generosity and cooking prowess of our new acquaintances.  But every vacation has to end sometime, so we finally came home on Friday to be reunited with our pets and start preparing for classes this week.  With memories of sea and sand behind and prospects of lesson planning and grades ahead, it’s tough to get back into the swing of things, but if nothing else, it’s nice to come back to a house of happy animals who are glad you’re home.

              The Amber of June   
    Now that electricity is a fairly constant aspect of my daily life, I occasionally find myself looking at photos on my computer of my past life, and although I am happy, healthy, and doing well here, I sometimes am grasped by the sudden feeling of what-the-hell-am-I-doing-here?  I have now completed 9 months in Mozambique, which is encouraging and feels good, but it is inevitably followed by the requisite recognition and mathematics of the 18 remaining months, which seems daunting and impossibly long.  But when I feel trapped in the amber of this moment and there is no why (Vonnegut—I cannot take credit for that pretty turn-of-phrase), I think about the few things in my life right now with forward momentum.  In case you were wondering where the momentum of life is blowing me at present, here are some of the details.
    My sitemate and I are putting together a Science Fair at her school, which is rapidly approaching.  Her school has had volunteers and Science Fairs in the past, so this year, I just invited students from my school to participate in a joint fair at her school.  I’d had my doubts about the project, but seeing my handful of favorite students get excited about their lung models and physics demonstrations is a winning experience.  There won’t be any earth-shaking scientific discoveries coming from my 8th graders this year at the fair, but what’s wrong with reinventing the wheel?  The wheel is still lookin’ good.
    In other news, as of last weekend, the Chimundo PCV household has increased by one, consisting now of two American women, two Mozambican kitties, one chicken, and (new addition) one adorable puppy.  Puppy’s name is Shingove, Shangana for “cat.”  We think it’s an ironic little joke, but for people around here, it’s just more evidence that we’re not quite right, that we're weird Americans who talk to animals and what’s more, feed and bathe them.  Shingove is a tubby little squirt, waddling around and trying to initiate play with Bea and suspicious Rocksteady (Erica’s kitty, who is not terribly receptive to these antics as of yet).  We heart Shingove.  The cats are reserving judgment.
    Speaking of our domesticated animals, Clucka has finally settled in, roosted, and started producing eggs.  After wandering through the house and trying out the spare bed, our beds, and our clothing-filled shelves, she decided to roost inside of the bag of charcoal on the porch.  Maybe this would be a good time for me to explain that Erica and I do not have a TV; most of our entertainment comes from our pets.  But I have to say, it’s pretty funny to be on the receiving end of a death stare from a maternal chicken guarding eggs in a sack of coal.  (Come to Mozambique if you want to give it a try!)
    School is going just fine; at my school, we’re already getting ready for our final exams (“final” meaning 4 weeks before the actual end of the trimester to give teachers time to grade and students a few weeks to slack off).  In July, I should have a week off, which should be a welcome opportunity for a bit of travel and a change of scenery.  In the meantime, I’m keeping myself occupied by going to my homeroom’s soccer games.  While they can be little stinkers who skip out on biology on Tuesdays when it’s their last class of the day, I have to admit, they are soccer superstars.  Maybe because they are, on average, one to two years older and 6 to 8 inches taller than the other players, but they do me proud regardless.
    Oh, and no news on the robbery.  I have no hopes or expectations of recovering any of my lost items at this point.  But I do have my new passport, which is complete with a badass-looking stamp saying “THIS PASSPORT IS A REPLACEMENT FOR A STOLEN PASSPORT.”  Don’t you know it.
    Erica's family was here for a week in May, which was a lot of fun.  It was nice to see Chibuto through fresh eyes and be reminded that while America may feel like another world away, family and friends are only a few plane rides away, continuing their lives until we next meet again.

              Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something [Acid-Washed] Blue   
    After months without pizza, shopping, movie theaters, and coffee shops, Maputo seems like heaven on earth.  I've been in Maputo since Sunday to apply for a new passport and was slated to back to Chimundo today, but since the consulate was too busy yesterday to sign my application, I'll have to go home tomorrow [oh, darn] .  Looks like another evening of hanging out with fellow the PCVs who happen to be in Maputo and eating at fun restaurants--we all have to make sacrifices sometimes, don't we?
    Aside from the fact that I bought acid-washed jeans today (something I never thought I would or could do, particularly in Mozambique), that's really all the news there is to report from the last week; I mostly wanted to put up a new post because:  A. I can, with the free and reliable internet at the Maputo Peace Corps office, and B. I never got a chance to upload my April post, which threw off my nice average of one post per month.  I haven't heard any news yet about recovering my stolen belongings, but two things have come back into my life:  our chicken ("Clucka") and a replacement internet phone.  Things are on the up-and-up.

              Boa tarde, Senhora Professora!   
    As I write this blog post, it’s hard to believe that I’ve been teaching for a month already. Whereas I have given and corrected my first biology test, I’m still working on the names of my students. That could have something to do with the fact that teaching 11 classes of eighth graders with 55 students each, I have about 600 students. But I have learned my favorite students’ names, which is a start. (It doesn’t help that I’m not terribly familiar with Portuguese names like Boaventura, Moisés, and Calado). The students only have biology twice a week, so I end up teaching the same two lessons 11 times each during the week. It’s nice that I don’t have to do much lesson-planning, but I start to feel a little crazy after teaching the osseo-muscular system for the eleventh time. And repeating myself over and over, I’ll be darned if I remember any biology vocabulary in English by the end of these two years.
    Yet all in all, things are beginning to gel. I’m getting to know my colleagues a little better and getting to know the ropes. The living situation is challenging at times, being the odd person out in terms of culture and language (the roomies typically speak in Shangana to each other), but improving. I have begun doing my share of the cooking, and although black pepper is too spicy and vegetable skins are widely distrusted, French toast was a hit (syrup, however, is too sweet). You win some, you lose some.
    My cat Bea is in good health and keeping me sane; I identify with him a lot, as we both share language and cultural barriers with our housemates. And although he has the habit of lying in the grass and ambushing my ankles while I’m walking back from the latrine or carting water (on my head, I might add), he’s a good cat.
    My PCV sitemate is also a great help in maintaining my sanity. We are thinking of going to the beach this weekend for the first time since Christmas, and I think it will be a well-deserved break from school, Portuguese, awkward living situations, and… oh, so many more things that I don’t have the time or space to write about in this blog—things like marriage proposals, the surprising difficulty of procuring bread, days with precious little water—things to ask me about in two years. Or when you come visit me in Mozambique.
    Então, ate já—passa bem, nada mão, e beijinhos!

              P.S. Merry Christmas!   
    I keep on forgetting that Christmas is coming in 4 days.  It might have something to do with the 90 degree heat and lack of snow.  And since I have no electricity, when I want to listen to Christmas music, my best options are to sing or whistle it.  I think I will spend Christmas on Xai-xai beach, which, although is as antithetical to my typical midwestern Christmas as possible, will certainly be festive and memorable. 
    I´ve had requests for my new mailing address and care package ideas.  The best mailing address will still be the Maputo address; mail sent there will eventually reach me, and as inefficient as that may sound, I believe it is the best option. 
    Alycia Overbo
    c/o Corpo da Paz
    Av. do Zimbabwe No. 345
    Maputo, Mozambique
    As for care package ideas, I would be thrilled to receive anything, but I´d be especially happy to receive wasabi soy almonds (found at your local Kmart or Target), black licorice, instant pudding mix, stickers for students, ground coffee, granola bars, books, magazines, or maybe a new t-shirt or tanktop, as excessive sweating and handwashing are together killing my clothing.
    Lots of love to you all, and best wishes for your holiday season!

              Chapter V: And Then I Smuggled a Cat into Gaza   
    Life in Mozambique thus far has been fairly eventful (to say the least), but the last two weeks have been particularly noteworthy. On Tuesday Dec. 8, we trainees went to Maputo to be officially sworn in as Peace Corps Volunteers and on Wednesday, we packed up and left Namaacha. It was sad to say goodbye to my PCV friends and host family, but after 10 weeks of Portuguese classes, medical sessions, and culture lectures, it was time for a change.
    And what a change it is; after a short conference in Xai-xai to meet our supervisors, I traveled to Chimundo, Gaza province, which will be my site and my home for the next 2 years. I arrived that Friday morning with my supervisor, my bags and, much to the surprise of my supervisor, my kitten Bea, whom I successfully concealed throughout the entire trip from Namaacha. Bea and I were dropped off at the school and made a short trek to our new home, which is on school grounds. My first impressions of the house were very positive; it is quaint, with a grass bathhouse, outdoor latrine, two bedrooms, and sizeable main room. My second impressions were a little overwhelming; I quickly saw that the only furniture in the house was my bed, a small plastic shelf, and two plastic chairs. Also, the house has no electricity. However, my house has a kerosene lamp, a gas burner, dishes, and notably, a Mozambican roommate, Amelia, who is a fellow teacher at my school. Amelia has been very patient and helpful in the last week, showing me where to get rides to the nearby city of Chibuto, cooking for us, and introducing me to her family in Chibuto. Bea and I have a standing invitation there to wash clothes and take advantage of their electricity, and I fully intend to take them up on that, especially since Amelia and my other colleagues are leaving Chimundo for the holidays. Thankfully, there is another volunteer who lives in Chimundo, so I can easily visit her and her electricity oasis. Meanwhile, since school doesn’t start for another month, Bea and I will start working on furniture acquisition and try our hand at Mozambican foods. We should have plenty to keep ourselves occupied.

              Beyond belief: HeroRats    
    HeroRats: "If people step on landmines, they will get hurt, but the HeroRats are too small to press the button that explodes the bomb. Then people can dig up the landmine without it exploding and no one gets hurt." (PDF document). The associated Twitter account: @HeroRATs. They tweet at celebrities for the LOLs and to raise awareness, as well as interacting with fellow Tweeters. More about 'giant pouched rats,' or Gambian rats, and how training the rats to detect landmines is done. (The rats also can be trained to detect tuberculosis; how it's done.) apopo website; three selections from the FAQ:
    "Question: What does APOPO mean?" Answer: "APOPO is an acronym from Dutch which stands for Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling, or in English, Anti-Personnel Landmines Detection Product Development." Question: "How may rats to do you have?" Answer: "In October 2014 we had 81 rats in various stages of training for landmine detection and 5 in training to become TB detection rats. The TB-lab in Morogoro had 36 HeroRATs at work. At our headquarters in Morogoro, 29 rats were involved in the breeding program. In Angola, we had 20 HeroRATs operational and 76 rats were working in landmine detection operations in Mozambique. In the TB lab in Maputo, there were 9 rats working.​" Question: "Who came up with the idea?" ​Answer: "​It was Bart Weetjens, our founder, who came up with the idea. Bart kept pet rats as a child. During his studies, he was carrying out an analysis of the landmine problem in Sub Saharan Africa and realized that landmine clearance was dangerous and costly. He had recently come across an article about gerbils and their ability to detect explosives in lab conditions, and when he thought back to the sense of smell of his pet rats, and their trainability, he put two and two together et voilà. He consulted with Professor Ron Verhagen, a rodent expert at the University of Antwerp, who recommended the giant African pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) because of its long lifespan and adaptation to the harsh conditions in Africa.​"​
    See the website for more of the FAQ​.​ ​ Foundation Beyond Belief website Previously: Hero Rats, We Called 'Em. / HeroRATs Clear Landmines
              Mozambique: Troops Have Withdrawn From Gorongosa Positions   
    [AIM] Maputo -Mozambican Defence Minister Salvador M'tumuke has denied claims by Afonso Dhlakama, leader of the Renamo rebels, that Mozambican forces disobeyed the instructions given by President Filipe Nyusi to withdraw from positions near the Gorongosa mountain range, in the central province of Sofala.
              Mozambique: Tete Farmers Denounce Tobacco Company   
    [AIM] Maputo -Farmers in Macanga district, in the western Mozambican province of Tete, on Friday accused the company Mozambique Leaf Tobacco (MLT) of committing abuses which damage the farmers' interests.
              Mozambique: Fight Against Child Marriages Starts in the Family - President   
    [AIM] Maputo -Mozambican President Filipe Nyusi on Friday declared that the fight against child marriages must start inside the family, where the children are living.
              Zimbabwe on target to meet cleaner fuel deadline   
    HARARE, – Zimbabwe is on course to meet a June 2017 deadline to stop the use of high sulphur diesel and migrate to a more cleaner fuel, a government official has said. In 2007 the country moved from Diesel 5000 to diesel 500. Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, which use the Beira port for....
              FICSUR en la Alianza Francesa   
    Del lunes 3 al viernes 7 de Julio en la Alianza Francesa de Buenos Aires, Av. Córdoba 946 (Auditorio, 1º piso) Gratuito/Cupo limitado + info: 4322-0068 // www.alianzafrancesa.org.ar PROGRAMA COMPLETO Lunes 3 de Julio  18hs: VIRGEM MARGARIDA de Licinio Azevedo Drama, Comedia – 87 min– Francia, Portugués – 2012 Mozambique, 1975. El gobierno revolucionario quiere eliminar todas las marcas del  colonialismo lo
              AGPAHI YAENDESHA KAMPENI YA UPIMAJI MAAMBUKIZI YA VVU MSALALA NA MANISPAA YA SHINYANGA   
    Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba akizungumza kabla ya zoezi la upimaji VVU halijaanza ambapo alilishukuru shirika la AGPAHI katika harakati zake za mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi na kwamba serikali itaendelea kushirikiana nalo katika mapambano hayo.
    Mtoa huduma za afya akimtoa damu mtoto ili kumpima kama ana maambukizi ya VVU au la!
    Kulia ni mzazi aliyeambatana na watoto wake katika zahanati ya Buluma kwa ajili ya kupima VVU.
    Kushoto ni mama aliyekuwa ameambatana na watoto akishuhudia zoezi la upimaji VVU kwa watoto.
    Zoezi la upimaji VVU likiendelea.
    Shirika la Ariel Glaser Pediatric Aids Healthcare Initiative (AGPAHI) linalojihusisha na mapambano dhidi ya Virusi vya Ukimwi (VVU) na Ukimwi nchini Tanzania limeendesha Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na Manispaa ya Shinyanga katika mkoa wa Shinyanga.

    Zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana limefanyika Juni 30,2017 na Julai 1,2017 katika zanahati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buluma kata ya Jana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na zanahati ya kijiji cha Galamba katika kata ya Kolandoto katika manispaa ya Shinyanga.

    Zaidi ya watoto na vijana 760 walipata fursa ya kupima afya zao.

    Akizungumza wakati wa zoezi hilo la upimaji,Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon, alisema kampeni ya Upimaji VVU kwa vijana na watoto yenye kauli mbiu ya “Ijue Afya ya Mwanao” inalenga kuwafikia vijana na watoto wengi zaidi ili kujua afya zao.

    “Hili ni zoezi endelevu,AGPAHI kwa kushirikiana na serikali tumekuwa tukipima afya za watoto na vijana na pale inapobainika wamepata maambukizi ya VVU huwa tunawaanzishia huduma ya tiba na matunzo”,alieleza Simon.

    “Kupitia kampeni hii tunashirikiana na viongozi wa serikali za mitaa, vijiji na tumekuwa tukiwahamasisha wazazi kuwaleta watoto na vijana ili wapimwe na zoezi hili limekuwa na manufaa makubwa kwani watoto wengi wameletwa na wazazi wao kupima afya zao”,aliongeza.

    Naye Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba alisema wameamua kuanzisha kampeni hiyo ili kuwarahisishia wananchi kupata huduma ya kupima VVU kwa hiari katika maeneo ya karibu yao ili waweze kujua afya zao.

    “Tunaushukuru mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) kwa kuwezesha kampeni hii",alieleza Dk. Kashumba.

    "Tumeanza zoezi hili katika halmashauri hizi mbili na tutaendelea na kampeni katika maeneo mengine kwani lengo la AGPAHI ni kuwafikia watoto na vijana zaidi”,aliongeza Dk. Kashumba.

    Kwa Upande wake Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba alisema serikali itaendelea kushirikiana na shirika la AGPAHI katika mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi.

    Shirika la AGPAHI linatekeleza shughuli zake katika mikoa ya Shinyanga,Simiyu,Mwanza,Tanga,Geita na Mara kwa ufadhili wa Watu wa Marekani kupitia shirika la Centres for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC),mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) na Shirika la Development Aid From People to People (ADPP - Mozambique).

    Picha zote na Kadama Malunde-Malunde1 blog

                 
    Mbeki Consults President Mugabe
     KUDA BWITITI
    Zimbabwe Sunday Mail

    Ex-South African President Dr Thabo Mbeki will soon meet President Mugabe over strategies to counter Western regime change-linked attacks on ex-liberation movements.

    This comes as Cde Gwede Mantashe, Secretary-General of South Africa’s ruling ANC, last Friday hit out at Western powers for angling for regime change in that country. At the Presidential Youth Interface Rally in Masvingo last Friday, President Mugabe revealed that Dr Mbeki was concerned about the relentless onslaught on former liberation movements.

    The President said Dr Mbeki had singled out Zanu-PF among the few remaining movements with strong ideological and liberation leanings. “VaMbeki vaiti kwangosara marevolutionary movements mashomani, and we are one of those, in his own reckoning. Saka, he wants to come and discuss with me kuti way forward ingave yei; yekuti maparty edu aive revolutionary kare, vadzorerwe mugwara.

    “Haachaona zvakanaka iwewe, zvakatwasanuka. Kumwe it’s because of changes that have happened … kunaana Tanzania, kunaana Angola. Saka, tinoda kuramba takabatana.”

    President Mugabe said liberation parties in Southern Africa risked denting their rich legacies if they were not inspired by their founding values. “Vashomanini nyika idzodzi idzi … that will help to maintain at least the legacy of our revolutions and enable, perhaps, the future generation; our youth movements to carry on the revolution as it has been maintained in the past.

    “Nekuti uyu ane unhappiness nezviri kuitika kuSouth Africa. Kumaneighbours eduwo kunoramba kuine maquarrels … kunaana Mozambique, kunaana DRC, and we don’t think Chama Cha Mapinduzi will remain what it was during the time of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere. So, the roots of the party; this is what we want it to be. We have been the roots, vakuru, with you.”

    The President implored youths to be wary of the West’s regime change agenda. “Maintain that position that we had in the past vis-a-vis imperialism and the onslaught on us to have regime change. Europe is not accepting anyone who is not their choice, kana. They would want to choose or get into a position of influence (through) their own people in our political systems.

    “And Europe is now dried up in terms of natural resources. Hakusisina manatural resources epasi…gold, you don’t talk of any gold in Europe and various minerals as well. Saka, hakuna maminerals. Manatural resources havasisina; masango. Havasisina wildlife, nzou neshumba.

    “Saka vachiti regai kuuraya mhuka dzenyu imi; regai kutengesa mirewo yenzou, kutya kuti Africa patinoenda tichiwona mhuka dzese idzi, varivo vasarirwa nadzo, zvikaenda tozozviwana kupi?

    “Tozonokwasha kupi kwatinga pfuure mhuka? Saka hurombo…kuAfrica vatori nani, asi Europe haisisina chose. Isu tinahwo hwupfumi ihwohwo. Let us be preservants of our own species.”

    On the sidelines of the ANC’s Policy Conference in Johannesburg, Cde Mantashe told journalists that the interface had focused on threats posed by regime change.

    “We angled our debate on the characterisation of regime change, as characterised by developing countries, namely China and Russia. And I want to quote the increasingly widespread Western practice of overthrowing legitimate political authority by provoking internal instability and conflict against governments that are considered inconvenient and insubordinate to their interests, and replacing them with blind-puppet regimes that pander to their interests. That is a reality in South Africa. It’s a reality in the world.”

              Coca-Cola’s “Project Last Mile” Expands to Liberia and Swaziland Strengthening Health Systems across Africa    
    Today at the European Development Days, The Coca-Cola Company and its Foundations, in partnership with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, announced the latest expansion of “Project Last Mile” with innovative programs to strengthen local health systems in Liberia and Swaziland. Launched in 2010 to transform the delivery of medical supplies in Tanzania, Project Last Mile has since worked with Ministries of Health in Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria and South Africa to improve the availability of essential medicines.
              Wereld voor reizigers weer iets gevaarlijker geworden   

    De wereld is voor reizigers de afgelopen twee jaar weer iets gevaarlijker geworden. Dat blijkt uit een vergelijking die de NOS heeft gemaakt tussen de reisadviezen van het ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken die nu op de site staan en die van 2015. Vooral landen in Noord- en Midden-Afrika en West-Azië zijn onveilig.

    De ontvoering van Derk Bolt en zijn cameraman Eugenio Follender in Colombia illustreerde vorig week nog hoe riskant het in sommige gebieden kan zijn. Zij bevonden zich in 'rood' gebied, een deel van een land waar Buitenlandse Zaken een bezoek sterk afraadt. Een ander voorbeeld is de recente aanval van moslimstrijders op een hotel in Mali, waar ook zes Nederlanders zaten.

    Dertien landen zijn volgens Buitenlandse Zaken gevaarlijker dan twee jaar geleden. Daarvan wordt Turkije het vaakst door Nederlanders bezocht. Voor heel Turkije geldt een verhoogd risico op terroristische aanslagen. Bovendien zijn er sinds de mislukte coup van vorig jaar politieke spanningen en verstoorde relaties met Nederland en andere EU-landen.

    Thailand en de Filipijnen

    Ook een ander populair land voor Nederlandse vakantiegangers, Thailand, is onveiliger geworden. Politieke demonstraties kunnen er tot geweld leiden en door de rouw voor de overleden koning zijn feestelijke activiteiten beperkt. Ook in de Filipijnen kunnen demonstraties tot geweld leiden.

    Egypte is onveiliger geworden door geweld, terroristische aanslagen en politieke spanningen. Vakantiegangers zorgen dat ze alert zijn en bereikbaar in crisissituaties. In Egypte, de Filipijnen en Turkije zijn bovendien 'rode gebieden', waar alle reizen sterk afgeraden worden.

    Zuid-Amerika en Afrika

    Honduras, Colombia en Venezuela zijn onveiliger geworden door gewelddadige criminaliteit, zoals berovingen, overvallen en ontvoeringen. In Venezuela is bovendien de politieke situatie gespannen.

    Mozambique en Gabon hebben door politieke onrust een negatiever reisadvies gekregen. Dat geldt ook voor Macedonië, het enige Europese land waar het onveiliger is geworden. Door de politieke crisis zijn er in de hoofdstad Skopje en andere delen van het land dagelijks protesten.

    Voor meer landen wordt nu aangeraden om er alleen in noodzakelijke gevallen naartoe te reizen. Dat aantal steeg van 22 in 2015 naar 26 nu. Dit geldt bijvoorbeeld voor het grootste deel van Eritrea, Venezuela, Mali en Pakistan.

    Het goede nieuws is dat minder landen zo onveilig zijn dat Buitenlandse Zaken adviseert om er helemaal niet naartoe te gaan. In 2015 gold dit advies nog voor 13 landen; nu nog voor tien landen, waaronder Jemen, Syrië en Afghanistan.

    De daling heeft vooral te maken met de ebola-uitbraak in West-Afrika die nu onder controle is. Daardoor vervallen de negatieve reisadviezen voor Sierra Leone, Liberia en Guinee. Nepal werd in 2015 ontraden in verband met de zware aardbeving. Het land is nu weer een stuk veiliger.

    De site van het ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken wordt gemiddeld 210.000 keer per maand geraadpleegd. Het callcenter van het ministerie krijgt daarnaast zo'n 3000 telefoontjes per dag van Nederlanders met vragen. Steeds vaker zijn het telefoontjes over familieleden die vermist lijken. In het overgrote deel van de gevallen blijkt al snel dat van vermissing geen sprake is, maar is iemand door slechte internetverbindingen een tijdje onbereikbaar.

    In ongeveer zeventig gevallen per jaar blijkt er echt iemand verdwenen. Maar ook dat komt bijna altijd weer goed. In totaal moet de consulaire dienst zo'n 1000 keer per jaar echt in actie komen. Het gaat dan om Nederlanders die bijvoorbeeld zijn overvallen, overleden, vermoord, gearresteerd, vermist of in een ziekenhuis zijn opgenomen.


              AGPAHI YAENDESHA KAMPENI YA UPIMAJI MAAMBUKIZI YA VVU MSALALA NA MANISPAA YA SHINYANGA   

    Shirika la Ariel Glaser Pediatric Aids Healthcare Initiative (AGPAHI) linalojihusisha na mapambano dhidi ya Virusi vya Ukimwi (VVU) na Ukimwi nchini Tanzania limeendesha Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na Manispaa ya Shinyanga katika mkoa wa Shinyanga. 

    Zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana limefanyika Juni 30,2017 na Julai 1,2017 katika zanahati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buuma kata ya Jana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na zanahati ya kijiji cha Galamba katika kata ya Kolandoto katika manispaa ya Shinyanga.

    Zaidi ya watoto na vijana 760 walipata fursa ya kupima afya zao.

    Akizungumza wakati wa zoezi hilo la upimaji,Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon, alisema kampeni ya Upimaji VVU kwa vijana na watoto yenye kauli mbiu ya “Ijue Afya ya Mwanao” inalenga kuwafikia vijana na watoto wengi zaidi ili kujua afya zao.

    “Hili ni zoezi endelevu,AGPAHI kwa kushirikiana na serikali tumekuwa tukipima afya za watoto na vijana na pale inapobainika wamepata maambukizi ya VVU huwa tunawaanzishia huduma ya tiba na matunzo”,alieleza Simon.

    “Kupitia kampeni hii tunashirikiana na viongozi wa serikali za mitaa, vijiji na tumekuwa tukiwahamasisha wazazi kuwaleta watoto na vijana ili wapimwe na zoezi hili limekuwa na manufaa makubwa kwani watoto wengi wameletwa na wazazi wao kupima afya zao”,aliongeza.

    Naye Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba alisema wameamua kuanzisha kampeni hiyo ili kuwarahisishia wananchi kupata huduma ya kupima VVU kwa hiari katika maeneo ya karibu yao ili waweze kujua afya zao.

    “Tunaushukuru mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) kwa kuwezesha kampeni hii",alieleza Dk. Kashumba.

    "Tumeanza zoezi hili katika halmashauri hizi mbili na tutaendelea na kampeni katika maeneo mengine kwani lengo la AGPAHI ni kuwafikia watoto na vijana zaidi”,aliongeza Dk. Kashumba.

    Kwa Upande wake Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba alisema serikali itaendelea kushirikiana na shirika la AGPAHI katika mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi.

    Shirika la AGPAHI linatekeleza shughuli zake katika mikoa ya Shinyanga,Simiyu,Mwanza,Tanga,Geita na Mara kwa ufadhili wa Watu wa Marekani kupitia shirika la Centres for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC),mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) na Shirika la Development Aid From People to People (ADPP - Mozambique).
    Ijumaa Juni 30,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buluma kata ya Jana halmashauri ya wilaya ya Msalala mkoa wa Shinyanga .

    Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon akiwaeleza wazazi na walezi walioleta watoto na vijana katika zahanati ya Buluma kuhusu lengo la Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa Watoto na Vijana.

    Wazazi,vijana na watoto wakimsikiliza Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simonwakati akitolea ufafanuzi juu ya kampeni ya Upimaji VVU.

    Mwenyekiti wa kijiji cha Buluma, Budila Teremka akisisitiza jambo kabla ya zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana halijaanza.

    Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba akizungumza kabla ya zoezi la upimaji VVU halijaanza ambapo alilishukuru shirika la AGPAHI katika harakati zake za mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi na kwamba serikali itaendelea kushirikiana nalo katika mapambano hayo.

    Mtoa huduma za afya akimtoa damu mtoto ili kumpima kama ana maambukizi ya VVU au la!

    Kulia ni mzazi aliyeambatana na watoto wake katika zahanati ya Buluma kwa ajili ya kupima VVU.

    Kushoto ni mama aliyekuwa ameambatana na watoto akishuhudia zoezi la upimaji VVU kwa watoto.

    Zoezi la upimaji VVU likiendelea.

    Mbali na kupima VVU, kulifanyika michezo ya watoto na vijana kama vile kukimbia na yai.Pichani kulia ni Charles Simon akitoa maelekezo kwa washiriki wa shindano la kukimbia na mayai.

    Vijana wakikimbia na mayai yaliyowekwa kwenye vijiko.

    Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.

    Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama,Peter Shimba akiipongeza moja ya familia iliyojitokeza kupima VVU na kubainika kuwa hawana maambukizi ya VVU. Katika zahanati ya Buluma kati ya watoto na vijana 525 waliopimwa VVU,watano pekee walibainika kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.

    Jumamosi Julai 1,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Kijiji cha Galamba iliyopo katika kata ya Kolandoto manispaa ya Shinyanga ambapo pia Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana imefanyika.

    Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akizungumza wakati wa zoezi la kupima VVU kwa vijana na watoto katika kijiji cha Galamba.

    Dk. Kashumba akizungumza na wazazi,vijana na watoto katika zahanati ya Galamba.



    Mtoa huduma za afya akimchukua damu mmoja wa vijana kutoka kijiji cha Galamba waliofika kupima VVU.

    Vijana na watoto wakisubiri kupima VVU.
    Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Rehema Kivuyo akizungumza katika zahanati ya Galamba ambapo vijana na watoto 238 VVU na hakuna aliyepatikana kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.

    Michezo nayo ilikuwepo: Pichani ni Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akiongoza vijana katika mchezo wa kukaa kwenye viti.

    Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.

    Rehema Kivuyo akiwapa zawadi ya mayai vijana walioshinda mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai.
    Vijana na watoto wakicheza mchezo wa kukimbiza kuku.

    Picha zote na Kadama Malunde-Malunde1 blog

              The stench from a fishy business in Mozambique   
    Many questions about the debt scandal are still to be answered
              Make It Liquid, Please   

    By Chris at www.CapitalistExploits.at

    Most of you know the story of Africa's great jewel.

    Zimbabwe, presided over by the charming, charismatic, democratically elected leader Robert Mugabe.

    So great is the country that under his leadership it has reached dizzying heights. The highest inflation in Africa, the highest unemployment in Africa, and, of course, the highest rates of poverty, which on the dark continent is really quite something.

    Think about it, your neighbouring nations are themselves doing such a sterling job of raping and pillaging the populace and destroying wealth even before its past incubation point that in order to beat them you'd be forced to work so hard you'd probably have to quit drinking on the job.

    It was under this backdrop that in late 2009 I, together with a bunch of mining engineers from South Africa and some ex-military gents, sensed opportunity.

    You see, Zim had been running a government program which released its white citizens of the cumbersome obligations of ownership of all sorts of assets - things like farms, factories, land, and mines. And THIS was what we were interested in - gold mines to be precise. Many, but not all, of these assets had landed up in the hands of Mugabe's henchmen. Many "whities" with a strongly held desire to keep their heads attached to their shoulders while simultaneously being mad as hell realising that all they'd worked for was to go to some illiterate thug with a panga and an IQ of 70 essentially had two options.

    A small number actually took to a scorched earth policy. They sold what they could and destroyed everything they'd worked for as they were unwilling to see it go to thieves.

    Others went the legal route of transferring land titles to blacks. In doing so, they got to choose the new land owners and so typically handed the assets over to longtime loyal employees, farm managers, mine managers, and so forth. The assets, now in the hands of black Zimbabweans, were that much safer from roaming thugs targeting white owned assets. The previous owners (those who could) fled to wherever they could. Amazingly, even previously war torn Mozambique received an influx of white talent though many went to Europe or South Africa. Pretty much anywhere looked better. Some had no options (no foreign passports) and either died or still eek out a living in the country today.

    What's the Liquidity on an Asset No Sane Person Would Want?

    That's the question we asked ourselves... figuring it to be near zero.

    As a white non-Zimbabwean citizen (actually white Zim citizens were and are in the same boat) you really didn't want to "own" these assets. You wanted to control them but you sure as hell didn't want to own them.

    The black guys who ended up with the assets couldn't quite figure this out, the mindset being that they now had gone from having few assets to owning massive operations which were only a few years prior worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars. So they just wanted to cash in and sell them.

    It's worth mentioning that most of these poor guys had no financial acumen at all, and when we explained to them that we placed the assets in the liability column on the balance sheet (they needed to be maintained, which costs money) we drew blank stares. A balance sheet wasn't something they knew too much about but when it sunk in that we believed the assets to be worthless unless we could go through an extraction of product, they realised that they'd have to go back to work (producing on a revenue share) they weren't overjoyed. Visions of big houses, Land Cruisers, and holidays in Europe seemed further out of reach.

    Those assets in Zimbabwe can't be easily bought or sold due to Mugabe and his minions creating all sorts of headaches requiring copious bottles of Klipdrift (a South African brandy) and a certain amount of hard currency changing hands with "officials". That's if they don't just simply take what they want outright. The impact on liquidity of assets is typically like that of a safe being dropped on your guts. Oofff!

    Now, this is where it gets interesting.

    Liquidity should have been zero. After all, what white guy would want to buy something that could and probably would be stolen from under him within a few years, if not months, and could quite easily involve the removal of his head from his shoulders?

    But It Wasn't...

    Enter some other gents going by the names of Ivan, Anatoly, and Vsevolod.

    These guys descended on Zimbabwe in waves. Perhaps there was a flyer in Moscow. Our own "soldier of fortune" explained to us where these guys came from and even some of their history, which was fascinating to me since he knew so much from just watching them across a table at a restaurant.

    Any dope could see they were well dressed thugs who could snap you in two without taking their attention off their lunch but it turns out that tattoos reveal a lot. Apparently when you leave the employ of the KGB or Spetznaz your employment options are somewhat limited. Mercenary work in 3rd world hell holes looks and pays a lot better than licking stamps at the post office and smiling at Babushkas.

    Anyway, the Russkies, after enjoying the collapse of the Soviet Union had a template on how to deal with such opportunities. You roll into town, use overwhelming muscle, and secure assets, then strip them and sell them. Hey, it worked in the ex-USSR, so why not Zim?

    Indeed, why not?

    Ivan and his mates were working for whatever "brains" had employed them, and they actually just went in and paid cash for all sorts of stuff. No need for any limbs to get snapped. This, as it turns out, was an excellent example of a truly terrible idea, and Ivan and most of his buddies have since departed, their tails between their legs. A few still hold onto assets (because nobody will buy them) which they paid waaaay too much for and to which their particular "skillsets" are not well suited.

    It became patently clear that these guys firstly had money to burn (presumably "acquired" by conducting other "business")and didn't seem to have a plan as to what to do once they'd bought the new assets. Clearly they wanted to just sell them on, and in the beginning, many "Ivans" approached our group with this in mind. Perhaps not giving thought to why on earth we, for our part, would pay a premium price on an asset which would could just as easily have bought (and indeed passed on) ourselves.

    The point here is that even though liquidity of the assets should have been rock bottom it wasn't... yet.

    There is a solution here to all of this which we found, though it still had liquidity issues. How do you go about creating value in such a setup? The ultimate answer I think lies in code. Yup, computer code.

    Now, keep that story in mind because later this week, I'll explain to you another weird thing that happened in Mugabe's paradise. Both of these are important due to an entirely new technology that you've probably heard about but perhaps haven't given much thought to.

    - Chris

    "Focus on the movement of liquidity… most people in the market are looking for earnings and conventional measures. It’s liquidity that moves markets." — Stanley Druckenmiller

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              Re: scotland to south africa   

    There was a Mr W.A.Walker departed London on 18 April 1928, going to Beira, Mozambique. He was aged 17, a farmer from Castle Craigs, Inverurie. The ship was the GLOUCESTER CASTLE.
    ---------------------------------------------------------
    On 5 Jun 1931, he appears to have made a return journey. William Walker, aged 20, a Storeman, arrived Southampton from Lourenco-Marques, Mozambique. He was on the WANGONI, and it says he was going to Cuttle Craigs, Aberdeen. I am guessing that they mean Castle Craigs,
    as on the voyage above.
    -----------------------------------------------------------
    An Alex Walker, born abt 1891, was aged 43, arriving 25 Oct 1934 at Southampton from Lourenco Marques, Mozambique, and I wondered if this was his father. His wife was with him...Anne Walker aged 42, and daughter Anita, aged 11. They were on the WATUSI, going to Kirkeville, Kirn, Argyllshire, and it says they had been in N Rhodesia.

    I am not sure if any of these are the correct person...what do you think yourself?
    Brian
              Maragra   
    Localização Maragra (Mozambique, Mozambique)

              Maragra   
    Localização Maragra (Mozambique, Mozambique)

              Maragra   
    Localização Maragra (Mozambique, Mozambique)

              Embuscade au Mozambique : le bourbier de l'attrape-nigaud [par izard]   
    La chambre des Liens::[Vidéo] Embuscade au Mozambique : le bourbier de l'attrape-nigaud
    Pour les simples voyageurs, les routes du Mozambique, où règne la loi ...
              Mozambique: Fight Against Child Marriages Starts in the Family - President   

    Mozambican President Filipe Nyusi on Friday declared that the fight against child marriages must start inside the family, where the children are living. Speaking at a rally in the Chidzolomondo administrative post, in the western province of Tete, Nyusi said that families and communities must take responsibility for stopping child marriages.


              AGPAHI YAENDESHA KAMPENI YA UPIMAJI MAAMBUKIZI YA VVU MSALALA NA MANISPAA YA SHINYANGA   
    Shirika la Ariel Glaser Pediatric Aids Healthcare Initiative (AGPAHI) linalojihusisha na mapambano dhidi ya Virusi vya Ukimwi (VVU) na Ukimwi nchini Tanzania limeendesha Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na Manispaa ya Shinyanga katika mkoa wa Shinyanga.  
    Zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana limefanyika Juni 30,2017 na Julai 1,2017 katika zanahati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buluma kata ya Jana katika halmashauri ya Msalala na zanahati ya kijiji cha Galamba katika kata ya Kolandoto katika manispaa ya Shinyanga.
    Zaidi ya watoto na vijana 760 walipata fursa ya kupima afya zao.
    Akizungumza wakati wa zoezi hilo la upimaji,Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon, alisema kampeni ya Upimaji VVU kwa vijana na watoto yenye kauli mbiu ya “Ijue Afya ya Mwanao” inalenga kuwafikia vijana na watoto wengi zaidi ili kujua afya zao.
    “Hili ni zoezi endelevu,AGPAHI kwa kushirikiana na serikali tumekuwa tukipima afya za watoto na vijana na pale inapobainika wamepata maambukizi ya VVU huwa tunawaanzishia huduma ya tiba na matunzo”,alieleza Simon.
    “Kupitia kampeni hii tunashirikiana na viongozi wa serikali za mitaa, vijiji na tumekuwa tukiwahamasisha wazazi kuwaleta watoto na vijana ili wapimwe na zoezi hili limekuwa na manufaa makubwa kwani watoto wengi wameletwa na wazazi wao kupima afya zao”,aliongeza.
    Naye Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba alisema wameamua kuanzisha kampeni hiyo ili kuwarahisishia wananchi kupata huduma ya kupima VVU kwa hiari katika maeneo ya karibu yao ili waweze kujua afya zao.
    “Tunaushukuru mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) kwa kuwezesha kampeni hii",alieleza Dk. Kashumba.
    "Tumeanza zoezi hili katika halmashauri hizi mbili na tutaendelea na kampeni katika maeneo mengine kwani lengo la AGPAHI ni kuwafikia watoto na vijana zaidi”,aliongeza Dk. Kashumba.
    Kwa Upande wake Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba alisema serikali itaendelea kushirikiana na shirika la AGPAHI katika mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi.
    Shirika la AGPAHI linatekeleza shughuli zake katika mikoa ya Shinyanga,Simiyu,Mwanza,Tanga,Geita na Mara kwa ufadhili wa Watu wa Marekani kupitia shirika la Centres for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC),mfuko wa kusaidia Watoto wenye VVU Kwa hisani ya watu wa Uingereza (CIFF) na Shirika la Development Aid From People to People (ADPP - Mozambique).
    ANGALIA PICHA ZA MATUKIO WAKATI WA ZOEZI LA UPIMAJI WATOTO NA VIJANA KATIKA KIJIJI CHA BULUMA NA GALAMBA 
    Ijumaa Juni 30,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Buluma iliyopo katika kijiji cha Buluma kata ya Jana halmashauri ya wilaya ya Msalala mkoa wa Shinyanga .
    Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simon akiwaeleza wazazi na walezi walioleta watoto na vijana katika zahanati ya Buluma kuhusu lengo la Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa Watoto na Vijana.
    Wazazi,vijana na watoto wakimsikiliza Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Charles Simonwakati akitolea ufafanuzi juu ya kampeni ya Upimaji VVU.
    Mwenyekiti wa kijiji cha Buluma, Budila Teremka akisisitiza jambo kabla ya zoezi la kupima watoto na vijana halijaanza.
    Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama, Peter Shimba akizungumza kabla ya zoezi la upimaji VVU halijaanza ambapo alilishukuru shirika la AGPAHI katika harakati zake za mapambano dhidi ya VVU na Ukimwi na kwamba serikali itaendelea kushirikiana nalo katika mapambano hayo.
    Mtoa huduma za afya akimtoa damu mtoto ili kumpima kama ana maambukizi ya VVU au la!
    Kulia ni mzazi aliyeambatana na watoto wake katika zahanati ya Buluma kwa ajili ya kupima VVU.
    Kushoto ni mama aliyekuwa ameambatana na watoto akishuhudia zoezi la upimaji VVU kwa watoto.
    Zoezi la upimaji VVU likiendelea.
    Mbali na kupima VVU, kulifanyika michezo ya watoto na vijana kama vile kukimbia na yai.Pichani kulia ni Charles Simon akitoa maelekezo kwa washiriki wa shindano la kukimbia na mayai.
    Vijana wakikimbia na mayai yaliyowekwa kwenye vijiko.
    Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.
    Mratibu wa Wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya Jamii na Upimaji VVU wilaya ya Kahama,Peter Shimba akiipongeza moja ya familia iliyojitokeza kupima VVU na kubainika kuwa hawana maambukizi ya VVU. Katika zahanati ya Buluma kati ya watoto na vijana 525 waliopimwa VVU,watano pekee walibainika kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.
    Jumamosi Julai 1,2017: Hapa ni katika Zahanati ya Kijiji cha Galamba iliyopo katika kata ya Kolandoto manispaa ya Shinyanga ambapo pia Kampeni ya Upimaji wa Maambukizi ya Virusi Vya Ukimwi kwa watoto na vijana imefanyika.
    Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akizungumza wakati wa zoezi la kupima VVU kwa vijana na watoto katika kijiji cha Galamba.
    Dk. Kashumba akizungumza na wazazi,vijana na watoto katika zahanati ya Galamba.
    Mtoa huduma za afya akimchukua damu mmoja wa vijana kutoka kijiji cha Galamba waliofika kupima VVU.
    Vijana na watoto wakisubiri kupima VVU.
    Afisa Mradi, Huduma Unganishi kwa Jamii AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga, Rehema Kivuyo akizungumza katika zahanati ya Galamba ambapo vijana na watoto 238 VVU na hakuna aliyepatikana kuwa na maambukizi ya VVU.
    Michezo nayo ilikuwepo: Pichani ni Mratibu wa Masuala ya Watoto AGPAHI mkoa wa Shinyanga,Dk. Jane Kashumba akiongoza vijana katika mchezo wa kukaa kwenye viti.
    Mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai ukiendelea.
    Rehema Kivuyo akiwapa zawadi ya mayai vijana walioshinda mchezo wa kukimbia na mayai.
    Vijana na watoto wakicheza mchezo wa kukimbiza kuku.


              Tour Guide - AMANDLA FAMILY EXPRESS TOURS - Marble Hall, North West 0458   
    please be able to travel the following countries if you apply for this job,Namibia,zimbabwe,mozambique,botswana,zambia,south africa,kenya,malawi and tanzania R20 000 a month
    From Indeed - Thu, 29 Jun 2017 10:23:46 GMT - View all Marble Hall, North West 0458 jobs
              TechnipFMC remporte un contrat FLNG au Mozambique   

    TechnipFMC avec ses partenaires JGC Corporation et Samsung Heavy Industries, tous membres du consortium TJS dont TechnipFMC est le leader, a remporté un contrat majeur auprès de CORAL FLNG SA*. Ce contrat couvre l'ingénierie, la fourniture des équipements, la construction, l'installation, la mise en service et le démarrage de l’unité Coral South FLNG. Il comprend également l’ensemble des risers et flowlines sous-marins ainsi que l'installation des ombilicaux et des équipements sous-marins.


              Zimbabwe: Financial Indiscipline to Blame for Cash Shortages   
    ZIM Bond Notes are international...

    ---

    ‘Financial indiscipline to blame for cash shortages’

    July 3, 2017
    Noel Munjanja



    Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe

    Business Reporter
    ENDEMIC financial indiscipline in Zimbabwe has resulted in money being treated as a commodity instead of a medium of exchange and is one of three major reasons the country is currently battling chronic cash shortages.

    Newly appointed Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Deputy Governor Dr Jesimen Tarisai Chipika said bond notes were no longer an internal medium of exchange with hordes of the surrogate currency being stashed in homes or shipped to border posts and regional countries.

    She said this last Friday while addressing Professional Women, Women Executives and Business Women’s Forum, which advances the interests of women and seeks to help them participate in the mainstream economy through starting their own enterprises.

    “There is financial indiscipline in Zimbabwe and I think part of it was picked from the era of ‘burning’ (arbitrage in currency trading). Money is now being treated as a commodity, instead of a medium of exchange. Basic economics say that money is a medium of exchange. If we have an economy driven by the parallel market for currency, we are destroying ourselves. We have a problem, because we are drifting back to the era of burning currency, where we also did not bank, but stashed money at home.

    “We have been told that the money which we are saying is in shortage, be it bond notes or otherwise, is all stashed up at the country’s border posts. We have been told by our financial intelligence that the bond notes are now hard currency within the Sadc region.

    “The currency is now accepted as legal tender in countries such as Zambia, Mozambique and South Africa. When we introduced it, we only meant it as an internal currency to help us in transacting and as incentives for exporters,” she said.

    “As such, a lot of dynamics are happening in our country and we have since invoked the Bank Use and Promotion Act, which many people had forgotten about, to say as business people you must take all your daily cash receipts to the bank,” she added.

    Dr Chipika said all daily proceeds of business and idle cash should, as per requirements of the law, should be banked in order for the money to circulate in the economy since Zimbabwe was not printing money and used foreign currencies to transact.

    She also pointed out that expenditure by Government, of financial resources not yet available was one of major causes of the prevailing cash shortage.

    “One of the major problems causing the cash shortage in Zimbabwe is deficit financing. Deficit financing in an economy can be in the form of expenditure patterns of Government, in our companies or by us as individuals.

    “Deficit financing, if its Government, it pays civil servants based on money which is not there and so, it approaches the Reserve Bank for overdrafts or it issues Treasury Bills. It’s not only Government guilty of such, even companies, they obtain overdrafts of money that is not available and use it to pay salaries,” Dr Chipika said.

    Such a scenario, the central bank’s second in command said, puts pressure on banks to meet huge demands for cash when the financial institutions do not have the funds.

    Source: The Herald

              Garnet and Sterling Silver Modern Statement Beaded Bracelet, Statement Semi-Precious Stone Bracelet, for Her Under 425 by cooljewelrydesign   

    419.00 USD

    This one of a kind garnet and sterling silver beaded bracelet is perfect for the holidays or any time of year. Garnet mined in Mozambique, AA kite shaped, 6-7mm faceted briolette stones, are joined by a geometric sterling silver and garnet box clasp. The contrast between the two types/shapes of garnet is extremely complimentary. The color is a medium currant red and you will be amazed by the the faceting. You *want* this on your wrist. For her under 425.

    The bracelet currently measures 7 inches ... and will best fit a wrist of 6.25 - 6.5 inches. Unlike stretch beaded bracelets, clasp bracelets present a whole other dimension for fit. So please measure wrist 3x with fabric tape measure or string, and leave in Notes to Seller. ((please note I will be away Nov 21 - 30, so factor that in, should you need me to adjust to a smaller length only, as it will take a few days extra))

    Arrives gift wrapped and insured to domestic US.

    You can see more of my creations here at cooljewelrydesign.etsy.com ...

    Thanks for visiting and please contact me with any questions.

    Warm regards,

    Pam


              Job: Human Rights and business Evaluation Experts (NORAD short-term mission)   
    Organization: Bureau for Institutional Reform and DemocracyCountry: Mozambique, Norway, United Republic of TanzaniaClosing date: 14 Jul 2017Reference: EVALUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND BUSINESS IN...

    .
              Make It Liquid, Please   

    By Chris at www.CapitalistExploits.at

    Most of you know the story of Africa's great jewel.

    Zimbabwe, presided over by the charming, charismatic, democratically elected leader Robert Mugabe.

    So great is the country that under his leadership it has reached dizzying heights. The highest inflation in Africa, the highest unemployment in Africa, and, of course, the highest rates of poverty, which on the dark continent is really quite something.

    Think about it, your neighbouring nations are themselves doing such a sterling job of raping and pillaging the populace and destroying wealth even before its past incubation point that in order to beat them you'd be forced to work so hard you'd probably have to quit drinking on the job.

    It was under this backdrop that in late 2009 I, together with a bunch of mining engineers from South Africa and some ex-military gents, sensed opportunity.

    You see, Zim had been running a government program which released its white citizens of the cumbersome obligations of ownership of all sorts of assets - things like farms, factories, land, and mines. And THIS was what we were interested in - gold mines to be precise. Many, but not all, of these assets had landed up in the hands of Mugabe's henchmen. Many "whities" with a strongly held desire to keep their heads attached to their shoulders while simultaneously being mad as hell realising that all they'd worked for was to go to some illiterate thug with a panga and an IQ of 70 essentially had two options.

    A small number actually took to a scorched earth policy. They sold what they could and destroyed everything they'd worked for as they were unwilling to see it go to thieves.

    Others went the legal route of transferring land titles to blacks. In doing so, they got to choose the new land owners and so typically handed the assets over to longtime loyal employees, farm managers, mine managers, and so forth. The assets, now in the hands of black Zimbabweans, were that much safer from roaming thugs targeting white owned assets. The previous owners (those who could) fled to wherever they could. Amazingly, even previously war torn Mozambique received an influx of white talent though many went to Europe or South Africa. Pretty much anywhere looked better. Some had no options (no foreign passports) and either died or still eek out a living in the country today.

    What's the Liquidity on an Asset No Sane Person Would Want?

    That's the question we asked ourselves... figuring it to be near zero.

    As a white non-Zimbabwean citizen (actually white Zim citizens were and are in the same boat) you really didn't want to "own" these assets. You wanted to control them but you sure as hell didn't want to own them.

    The black guys who ended up with the assets couldn't quite figure this out, the mindset being that they now had gone from having few assets to owning massive operations which were only a few years prior worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars. So they just wanted to cash in and sell them.

    It's worth mentioning that most of these poor guys had no financial acumen at all, and when we explained to them that we placed the assets in the liability column on the balance sheet (they needed to be maintained, which costs money) we drew blank stares. A balance sheet wasn't something they knew too much about but when it sunk in that we believed the assets to be worthless unless we could go through an extraction of product, they realised that they'd have to go back to work (producing on a revenue share) they weren't overjoyed. Visions of big houses, Land Cruisers, and holidays in Europe seemed further out of reach.

    Those assets in Zimbabwe can't be easily bought or sold due to Mugabe and his minions creating all sorts of headaches requiring copious bottles of Klipdrift (a South African brandy) and a certain amount of hard currency changing hands with "officials". That's if they don't just simply take what they want outright. The impact on liquidity of assets is typically like that of a safe being dropped on your guts. Oofff!

    Now, this is where it gets interesting.

    Liquidity should have been zero. After all, what white guy would want to buy something that could and probably would be stolen from under him within a few years, if not months, and could quite easily involve the removal of his head from his shoulders?

    But It Wasn't...

    Enter some other gents going by the names of Ivan, Anatoly, and Vsevolod.

    These guys descended on Zimbabwe in waves. Perhaps there was a flyer in Moscow. Our own "soldier of fortune" explained to us where these guys came from and even some of their history, which was fascinating to me since he knew so much from just watching them across a table at a restaurant.

    Any dope could see they were well dressed thugs who could snap you in two without taking their attention off their lunch but it turns out that tattoos reveal a lot. Apparently when you leave the employ of the KGB or Spetznaz your employment options are somewhat limited. Mercenary work in 3rd world hell holes looks and pays a lot better than licking stamps at the post office and smiling at Babushkas.

    Anyway, the Russkies, after enjoying the collapse of the Soviet Union had a template on how to deal with such opportunities. You roll into town, use overwhelming muscle, and secure assets, then strip them and sell them. Hey, it worked in the ex-USSR, so why not Zim?

    Indeed, why not?

    Ivan and his mates were working for whatever "brains" had employed them, and they actually just went in and paid cash for all sorts of stuff. No need for any limbs to get snapped. This, as it turns out, was an excellent example of a truly terrible idea, and Ivan and most of his buddies have since departed, their tails between their legs. A few still hold onto assets (because nobody will buy them) which they paid waaaay too much for and to which their particular "skillsets" are not well suited.

    It became patently clear that these guys firstly had money to burn (presumably "acquired" by conducting other "business")and didn't seem to have a plan as to what to do once they'd bought the new assets. Clearly they wanted to just sell them on, and in the beginning, many "Ivans" approached our group with this in mind. Perhaps not giving thought to why on earth we, for our part, would pay a premium price on an asset which would could just as easily have bought (and indeed passed on) ourselves.

    The point here is that even though liquidity of the assets should have been rock bottom it wasn't... yet.

    There is a solution here to all of this which we found, though it still had liquidity issues. How do you go about creating value in such a setup? The ultimate answer I think lies in code. Yup, computer code.

    Now, keep that story in mind because later this week, I'll explain to you another weird thing that happened in Mugabe's paradise. Both of these are important due to an entirely new technology that you've probably heard about but perhaps haven't given much thought to.

    - Chris

    "Focus on the movement of liquidity… most people in the market are looking for earnings and conventional measures. It’s liquidity that moves markets." — Stanley Druckenmiller

    --------------------------------------

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              A feminist revolution demands climate justice   

    To change everything, it takes everyone, and to fight oppression, we must fight it in all forms, at all times. This article is part of 50.50's coverage of the 2017 Nobel Women's Initiative conference. 

    Women for Climate Justice contingent at the People’s Climate March. Women for Climate Justice contingent at the People’s Climate March. Credit: Emily Arasim/WECAN.“There is no thing as a single-issue struggle because we do not live single-issue lives,” said Audre Lorde. She was right, of course, and this quote still resonates today. Globally movements of movements are intersecting and coalescing and working together. And this is crucial. Because it takes everyone to change everything, and we must fight oppression in all its forms, at all times.

    On 29 April, I joined 300,000 people in Washington DC for the People’s Climate March. A march for climate, justice and jobs. It was a sweltering hot day, record-breaking for this time of year. (Though, such records are now broken each year, with temperatures continuing to rise).

    I was in DC to join the march’s ‘Women for Climate Justice’ contingent, challenging, as per our statement, “a new US administration that promotes climate skepticism, the advancement of fossil fuels, an extractive economy, environmental racism, bigotry and inequitable treatment of women and girls” – and rising up for a healthy, just and thriving world.

    In 2014, the first large-scale People’s Climate March was held in New York City. Then, as now, we were mobilising women’s rights and feminist groups to participate. Making climate change a feminist issue and centering environment in the women’s rights movement has been core to the Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) since its founding in 1992.

    While not immutable, binary nor universal, gender shapes expectations, attributes, roles, capacities and rights of women and men around the world. We see that environmental degradation and increasing climate chaos work to further entrench already existing inequalities. Women often have more limited access to resources and more restricted rights, including to land, mobility, and voice in shaping decisions and influencing policy.

    ...environmental degradation and increasing climate chaos work to further entrench inequalities.

    At the same time, gender roles generally ascribed to women such as informal, reproductive work often relate to caregiving for households and communities, caretaking of seeds and soils, maintaining traditional agricultural knowledge, and responsibility for natural resource management such as firewood and water.

    These roles create opportunity for developing more effective climate change interventions and policies at all levels, when women are equally engaged in decision-making and project implementation. As highlighted in a 2016 report, “There is a growing body of research highlighting the unique role of women in maintaining crop diversity in countries such as Nepal, and Bangladesh, often through saving and exchanging seeds and maintaining home gardens, serving as a source of household food security.”

    This is the context in which women are challenging our environmental crises – fighting always against multiple forms of injustice. It is also why it’s critical for feminist analysis to include a strong focus on environmental and climate justice.

    Of course, for women in communities around the world, indigenous women, land defenders and water protectors, the linkages in these multiple forms of oppression are not new.

    For years, from the Chipko movement in India, to the fights of the peoples of COPINH in Honduras and the Sioux Tribe of Standing Rock – grassroots movements have been articulating and documenting the intersectional nature of resistance. But in governance, financing and mainstream development arenas, a siloed system has often challenged the development of a more intersectional global feminist resistance.

    Indigenous Women’s Day at COP21. Indigenous Women’s Day at COP21, sharing stories on resistance and solutions to environmental struggles. Credit: Christine Irvine/ Survival Media Agency.Last year, for example, I attended the 2016 World Conservation Congress, entitled ‘Planet at a Crossroads’, held in Hawaii, USA and attended by over 8,000 conservation practitioners and scientists. The conference outcomes were to provide a blueprint for the next 30 years of conservation. Yet, despite having a very strong mandate for gender equality and women’s rights to be included in that agenda, and despite strong advocacy by groups like the Indigenous Women’s Biodiversity Network, not one Congress motion made mention of women or gender issues.

    From that meeting, I traveled directly to the AWID Feminist Forum in Brazil, discussing our ‘Feminist Futures’. In this progressive feminist space, real progress has been made in terms of drawing links with environmental issues, and ‘climate and environmental justice’ was one of the main umbrella themes. (This was notable as the previous edition, three years prior, had very little space for environmental issues, despite being held in parallel to Earth Day and right before the Rio+20 Earth Summit).

    There is no doubt in my mind that while this is a moment of great uncertainty, it is also a moment for great global movement-building and feminist revolution. On 13 May, I will join a group of feminist activists at the 2017 Nobel Women’s Initiative conference to discuss strategies and tactics for feminist resistance amidst the growing global backlash against women’s rights, human rights and peace. We must draw upon feminist analysis and vision to resist authoritarianism and violence – and shape our calls and work for a just, peaceful and healthy planet for all.

    Movements are becoming increasingly intersectional and this must continue. The People’s Climate March (PCM) felt transformative not because of the numbers in the street, but because of the diversity of voices. Adopting a frontlines-first approach, it was led by indigenous peoples, immigrants, grassroots organisers, people of colour, refugees, unions, and workers. Chants called for ending fossil fuels as loudly as they called for justice for black lives, indigenous rights and women’s rights. At one point, a group of anti-abortion protesters were deafened as marchers joined in unison to declare, “My body, my choice” echoed with “Her body, her choice”.

    Intersectional feminist leadership is essential to address structures, systems and values that undermine gender equality and women's rights.

    Intersectional feminist leadership is essential to address the global structures, systems and values that undermine gender equality and women’s human rights and stand in the way of transformative development justice. In a world ravaged by countless, connected crises, injustices, and inequalities, we need champions of women’s human rights and all human rights. In the past year, we have witnessed the shrinking of space for civil society, the infringement of corporate greed on the rights of people and the killings of human rights defenders.

    Feminists leading on climate and environmental justice must also be heard in spaces like the World Conservation Congress, at UN climate negotiations, summits on energy and economy, and financing mechanisms like the Green Climate Fund. Women’s full and equal participation is a basic tenant of women’s human rights, and initiatives to increase women’s leadership in politics via training and campaign skills, or in diverse sectors such as science, technology, engineering, and math should be applauded. WEDO’s own Women Delegates Fund works to improve the representation of women leaders in climate negotiations.

    Activists demanding women’s voices be heard at COP22 Activists demanding women’s voices be heard at COP22. Credit: Annabelle Avril.We must further resist the corporatisation of feminism and gender equality. After all, the crux of our climate challenge can be summed up by profit over planet and people. Whether it’s the over-consumption of the developed world in general, or inequality within countries, for a global feminist resistance to truly work and demand climate justice it must challenge a capitalist economic system and private sector initiatives which claim to be supporting women’s rights.

    For example, when UN Women chooses to partner with a corporation like Coca-Cola with the aim of women’s economic empowerment, it must equally challenge the corporation’s role in driving environmental instability, as well as impacts on health. Public-private partnerships which bolster the image of corporations while undermining political critique, and overshadowing negative environmental impacts, will not fuel the feminist revolution we need.

    Demanding climate justice means calling for systemic change.

    Demanding climate justice means we are calling for systemic change. It is not a call for individual actions to protect the environment. Protecting funding for Planned Parenthood is just as critical as ensuring the country fulfills and strengthens its commitments to the Paris Agreement, ensuring funding for developing countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change as both a legal and moral obligation. Feminist movements in developed countries must also tackle issues of overconsumption as part of organising for women’s rights.

    Feminist leaders, particularly indigenous women and grassroots organisers, have to be at the frontlines of climate change decision-making. Examples highlighted in the 2016 report Gender-Just Climate Solutions – including women-led clean-cookstove and solar installation projects in Tanzania, women-owned and operated energy cooperatives in Germany, and female entrepreneurial “energy shop” initiatives in Mozambique – women are already developing solutions to climate change which ensure rights and promote equality.

    These projects provide solutions to transitioning to low-carbon economies in a just way. Crucially, they can also contribute to rethinking the current sexual division of labour, promoting decent work, the revaluing and redistribution of care work and the promotion of locally-driven sustainable economic structures. As WEDO co-founder “battling Bella” Abzug often said: “All issues are women’s issues.”

    The Nobel Women's Initiative conference takes place in Germany 13-16 May. Follow 50.50's coverage of the event.

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              Troops have withdrawn from Gorongosa positions   

    Doa (Mozambique) (AIM) – Mozambican Defence Minister Salvador M’tumuke has denied claims by Afonso Dhlakama, leader of the Renamo rebels, that Mozambican forces disobeyed the instructions given by President Filipe Nyusi to withdraw from positions near the Gorongosa mountain range, in the central province of Sofala. Source: Troops have withdrawn from Gorongosa positions – The… Read More »

    The post Troops have withdrawn from Gorongosa positions appeared first on Zimbabwe Situation.


              WASH in Health Care Facilities Assessment Consultant - Save the Children - US Headquarters - Remote   
    Development and roll out of MCSP’s Clean Clinic Approach (CCA) in Haiti, DRC, and Mozambique is employing a systematic approach to strengthening a health system...
    From Indeed - Mon, 20 Mar 2017 18:21:02 GMT - View all Remote jobs
              Re: Maputo Mozambique   
    I will be visiting Mozambique soon,possibly in a month's time or 2months. How about more detailed direction of the places where the guys hang around and who to contact to show me around. You can also reach me on:moskhumalo@gmail.com.
              Re: Maputo Mozambique   
    I will be visiting Mozambique soon,possibly in a month's time or 2months. How about more detailed direction of the places where the guys hang around and who to contact to show me around. You can also reach me on:moskhumalo@gmail.com.
              Offer - Lost lover | love spells castings+27784115746 in SOUTH AFRICA vanderbijlpark- alberton - AUSTRALIA   
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